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Chapter 11

TIMBER

11.1 SCOPE

11.1.1 This Section relates to the use of structural timber instructures or elements of structures connected
togetherbyfasteners/fasteningtechniques.

11.1.2 Thisshallnotbeinterpretedtopreventtheuseofmaterialormethodsofdesignorconstructionnot
specificallymentionedherein;andthemethodsofdesignmaybebasedonanalyticalandengineering
principles,orreliabletestdata,orboth,thatdemonstratethesafetyandserviceabilityoftheresulting
structure.Noristheclassificationoftimberintostrengthgroupstobeinterpretedaspreventingtheuse
ofdesigndatadesiredforaparticulartimberorgradeoftimberonthebasisofreliabletests.

11.2 TERMINOLOGY

11.2.1 ThissectionprovidesanalphabeticallistofthetermsusedinthischapteroftheCode.Incaseofany
conflict or contradiction between a definition given in this section and that in Part 1, the meaning
providedinthissectionshallgovernforinterpretationoftheprovisionsofthischapter.

11.2.2 StructuralPurposeDefinitions

11.2.2.1 Beam,BuiltUpLaminated
Abeammadebyjoininglayersoftimbertogetherwithmechanicalfastenings,sothatthegrainofalllayersis
essentiallyparallel.

11.2.2.2 Beam,GluedLaminated
A beam made by bonding layers of veneers or timber with an adhesive, so that grain of all laminations is
essentiallyparallel.

11.2.2.3 Diaphragm,Structural
Astructuralelementoflargeextentplacedinabuildingasawall,orroof,andmadeuseoftoresisthorizontal
forcessuchaswindorearthquakesactingparalleltoitsownplane.

11.2.2.4 DurationofLoad
Periodduringwhichamemberoracompletestructureisstressedasaconsequenceoftheloadsapplied.

11.2.2.5 EdgeDistance
Thedistancemeasuredperpendiculartograinfromthecentreoftheconnectortotheedgeofthemember.

11.2.2.6 EndDistance
Thedistancemeasuredparalleltograinofthememberfromthecentreoftheconnectortotheclosestendof
timber.

11.2.2.7 FingerJoint
Jointproducedbyconnectingtimbermembersendtoendbycuttingprofiles(taperedprojections)intheform
of Vshaped grooves to the ends of timber planks or scantlings to be joined, gluing the interfaces and then
matingthetwoendstogetherunderpressure.

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11.2.2.8 FundamentalorUltimateStress
Thestresswhichisdeterminedonsmallclearspecimenoftimber,inaccordancewithgoodpractice;anddoes
nottakeintoaccounttheeffectofnaturallyoccurringcharacteristicsandotherfactors.

11.2.2.9 InsideLocation
Positioninbuildingsinwhichtimberremainscontinuouslydryorprotectedfromweather.

11.2.2.10 LaminatedVeneerLumber
Astructuralcompositemadebylaminatingveneers,1.5mmto4.2mmthick,withsuitableadhesiveandwith
thegrainofveneersinsuccessivelayersalignedalongthelongitudinal(length)dimensionofthecomposite.

11.2.2.11 LoadedEdgeDistance
Thedistancemeasuredfromthecentretotheedgetowardswhichtheloadinducedbytheconnectoracts,and
theunloadededgedistanceistheoneoppositetotheloadededge.

11.2.2.12 Location
Atermgenerallyreferredtoasexactplacewhereatimberisusedinbuilding.

11.2.2.13 OutsideLocation
Positioninbuildingsinwhichtimbersareoccasionallysubjectedto wettinganddryingasinthecaseofopen
shedsandoutdoorexposedstructures.

11.2.2.14 PermissibleStress
Stressobtainedbyapplyingfactorofsafetytotheultimatestress.

11.2.2.15 Sandwich,Structural
Alayeredconstructioncomprisingacombinationorrelativelyhighstrengthfacingmaterialintimatelybonded
toandactingintegrallywithalowdensitycorematerial.

11.2.2.16 SpacedColumn
Twocolumnsectionsadequatelyconnectedtogetherbyglue,bolts,screwsorotherwise.

11.2.2.17 Structure,Permanent
Structural units in timber which are constructed for a long duration and wherein adequate protection and
designmeasureshaveinitiallybeenincorporatedtorenderthestructureserviceablefortherequiredlife.

11.2.2.18 Structure,Temporary
Structureswhichareerectedforashortperiod,suchashutmentsatprojectsites,forrehabilitation,temporary
defenceconstructions,exhibitionstructures,etc.

11.2.2.19 StructuralElement
Thecomponenttimbermembersandjointswhichmakeuparesultingstructuralassembly.

11.2.2.20 StructuralGrades
Grades defining the maximum size of strength reducing natural characteristics (knots, sloping grain, etc)
deemedpermissibleinanypieceofstructuraltimberwithindesignatedstructuralgradeclassification.

11.2.2.21 StructuralTimber
Timber in which strength is related to the anticipated inservice use as a controlling factor in grading and
selectionand/orstiffness.

11.2.2.22 Termite
An insect of the order Isopteran which may burrow in the wood or wood products of a building for food or
shelter.

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11.2.2.23 WetLocation
Positioninbuildingsinwhichtimbersarealmostcontinuouslydamporwetincontactwiththeearthorwater,
suchaspilesandtimberfoundations.

11.2.3 DefinitionsofDefectsinTimber

11.2.3.1 Check
Aseparationoffibresextendingalongthegrainwhichisconfinedtoonefaceofapieceofwood.

11.2.3.2 CompressionWood
Abnormal wood which is formed on the lower sides of branches and inclined stems of coniferous trees. It is
darkerandharderthannormalwoodbutrelativelylowinstrengthforitsweight.Itcanbeusuallyidentifiedby
wideeccentricgrowthringswithabnormallyhighproportionofgrowthlatewood.

11.2.3.3 DeadKnot
Aknotinwhichthelayersofannualgrowtharenotcompletelyintergrownwiththoseoftheadjacentwood.Itis
surroundedbypitchorbark.Theencasementmaybepartialorcomplete.

11.2.3.4 DecayorRot
Disintegrationofwoodtissuecausedbyfungi(wooddestroying)orothermicroorganisms.

11.2.3.5 DecayedKnot
Aknotsofterthanthesurroundingwoodandcontainingdecay.

11.2.3.6 DiameterofKnot
Themaximumdistancebetweenthetwopointsfarthestapartontheperipheryofaroundknot,onthefaceon
whichitbecomesvisible.Inthecaseofaspikeorasplayknot,themaximumwidthoftheknotvisibleonthe
faceonwhichitappearsshallbetakenasitsdiameter.

11.2.3.7 Discoloration
Achangefromthenormalcolourofthewoodwhichdoesnotimpairthestrengthofthewood.

11.2.3.8 Knot
Abranchbaseorlimbembeddedinthetreeortimberbynaturalgrowth.

11.2.3.9 KnotHole
Aholeleftasaresultoftheremovalofaknot.

11.2.3.10 LiveKnot
A knot free from decay and other defects, in which the fibres are firmly intergrown with those of the
surroundingwood.Syn.Integrownknot;cf.DeadKnot.

11.2.3.11 LooseGrain(LoosenedGrain)
Adefectona6flatsawnsurfacecausedbytheseparationorraisingofwoodfibresalongthegrowthrings;C$
RaisedGrain.

11.2.3.12 LooseKnot
Aknotthatisnotheldfirmlyinplacebygrowthorposition,andthatcannotbereliedupontoremaininplace;
cfTightKnot.

11.2.3.13 Mould
A soft vegetative growth that forms on wood in damp, stagnant atmosphere. It is the least harmful type of
fungus,usuallyconfinedtothesurfaceofthewood.

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11.2.3.14 PitchPocket
Accumulationofresinbetweengrowthringsofconiferouswoodasseenonthecrosssection.

11.2.3.15 SapStain
Discolorationofthesapwoodmainlyduetofungi.

11.2.3.16 Sapwood
Theouterlayeroflog,whichinthegrowingtreecontainlivingcellsandfoodmaterial.Thesapwoodisusually
lighterincolourandisreadilyattackedbyinsectsandfungi.

11.2.3.17 Shake
Apartialorcompleteseparationbetweenadjoininglayersoftissuesasseeninendsurfaces.

11.2.3.18 SlopeofGrain
Theinclinationofthefibrestothelongitudinalaxisofthemember.

11.2.3.19 SoundKnot
Atightknotfreefromdecay,whichissolidacrossitsface,andatleastashardasthesurroundingwood.

11.2.3.20 Split
Acrackextendingfromonefaceofapieceofwoodtoanotherandmnsalongthegrainofthepiece.

11.2.3.21 TightKnot
Aknotsoheldbygrowthorpositionastoremainfirminpositioninthepieceofwood;C$LooseKnot.

11.2.3.22 Wane
Theoriginalroundedsurfaceofatreeremainingonapieceofconvertedtimber.

11.2.3.23 Warp
Adeviationinsawntimberfromatrueplanesurfaceordistortionduetostressescausingdeparturefromatrue
plane.

11.2.3.24 WarmHoles
Cavitiescausedbyworms.

11.3 SYMBOLS

11.3.1 ForthepurposeofthisSection,thefollowinglettersymbolsshallhavethemeaningindicatedagainst
each:
a=Projectedareaofboltinmainmember(tXd3),mm2
B=Widthofthebeam,mm
C=Concentratedload,N
D=Depthofbeam,mm
D1=Depthofbeamatthenotch,mm
D2=Depthofnotch,mm
d=Dimensionofleastsideofcolumn,mm
d1=Leastoverallwidthofboxcolumn,mm
d2=Leastoveralldimensionofcoreinboxcolumn,mm
d3=Diameterofbolt,mm
df=Boltdiameterfactor

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e=Lengthofthenotchmeasuredalongthebeamspanfromtheinneredgeofthesupporttothefarthestedge
ofthenotch,mm
E=Modulusofelasticityinbending,N/mm2
F=Loadactingonaboltatanangletograin,N
fab=Calculatedbendingstressinextremefibre,N/mm2
fac=Calculatedaverageaxialcompressivestress,N/mm2
fat=Calculatedaxialtensilestress,N/mm2
fb=Permissiblebendingstressontheextremefibre,N/mm2
fc=Permissiblestressinaxialcompression,N/mm2
fcn=Permissiblestressincompressionnormal(perpendicular)tograin,N/mm2
fcp=Permissiblestressincompressionparalleltograin,N/mm2
fc=Permissiblecompre~sivestressinthedirectionofthelineofactionoftheload,N/mm2
ft=Permissiblestressintensionparalleltograin,N/mm2
H=Horizontalshearstress,N/mm2
I=Momentofinertiaofasection,mm4
K=Coefficientindeflectiondependingupontypeandcriticalityofloadingonbeam
K1=Modificationfactorforchangeinslopeofgrain
K2=Modificationfactorforchangeindurationofloadings
K 3,

K 4,

K 5, = Formfactors
and
K 6
K7=Modificationfactorforbearingstress
E
K8=Constantequalto 0.584
f cp

UE
K9=Constantequalto
2 5qf cp

2.5 E
K10=Constantequalto 0.584
f cp
L=Spanofabeamortruss,mm
M=MaximumbendingmomentinbeamN/mm2
N=Totalnumberofboltsinthejoint
n=Shankdiameterofthenail,mm
P=Loadonboltparalleltograin,N
P1=Ratioofthethicknessofthecompressionflangetothedepthofthebeam
Q=Staticalmomentofareaaboveorbelowtheneutralaxisaboutneutralaxis,mm3
q=Constantforparticularthicknessofplank
q1=Ratioofthetotalthicknessofweborwebstotheoverallwidthofthebeam
R=Loadonboltperpendicular(normal)tograin,N
S=Unsupportedoveralllengthofcolumn,mm
t=Nominalthicknessofplanksusedinformingboxtypecolumn,mm

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t=Thicknessofmainmember,mm
U=Constantforaparticularthicknessoftheplank
V=Verticalendreactionorshearatasection,N
W=Totaluniformload,N
x=Distancefromreactiontoload,mm
=AfactordeterminingthevalueofformfactorK4
=Deflectionatmiddleofbeam,mm
=Angleofloadtograindirection
Z=Sectionmodulusofbeam,mm3
1=Percentagefactorfort/d3ratio,paralleltograin
2=Percentagefactorfort/d3ratio,perpendiculartograin

11.4 MATERIALS

11.4.1 SpeciesofTimber
ThespeciesoftimberrecommendedforstructuralpurposesaregiveninTable11.4.1.

11.4.1.1 Grouping
Speciesoftimberrecommendedforconstructionalpurposesareclassifiedinthreegroupsonthebasisoftheir
strengthproperties,namely,modulusofelasticity(E)andextremefibrestressinbendingandtension(fb).
Thecharacteristicsofthesegroupsareasgivenbelow:
GroupAEabove12.6x103N/mm2andfbabove18.0N/mm2.
Group B Eabove 9.8 x 103N/mm2 and up to 12.6 x 103 N/mm2 and fb above12.0N/mm2and up to 18.0
N/mm2.
Group C E above 5.6 x 103 N/mm2 and up to 9.8 x 103 N/mm2 and fb above 8.5 N/mm2 and up to 12.0
N/mm2.
NOTEModulusofelasticitygivenaboveisapplicableforalllocationsandextremefibrestressinbendingis
forinsidelocation.

11.4.2
ThegeneralcharacteristicslikedurabilityandtreatabilityofthespeciesarealsogiveninTable11.4.1.
Species of timber other than those recommended in Table 11.4.1 may be used, provided the basic strength
propertiesaredeterminedandfoundinaccordancewith11.5.1.
NOTE For obtaining basic stress figures of the unlisted species, reference may be made to the Forest
ResearchInstitute,DebraDun.

11.4.3
Thepermissiblelateralstrength(indoubleshear)ofmildsteelwireshallbeasgiveninTable11.4.2andTable
11.4.3fordifferentspeciesoftimber.

11.4.4
MoistureContentinTimberThepermissiblemoisturecontentoftimberforvariouspositionsinbuildingsshall
beasgiveninTable11.4.4.

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Table11.4.1SafePermissibleStressesfortheSpeciesofTimber

2
Species Average Modulusof PermissibleStressinN/mm forGradeI PreservativeCharacters

BotanicalName Trade Densityat12 Elasticityx Bendingand Shearall Compression Compression Durability Treatability Refracterinesto
Name percent 103N/mm2 TensionAlong Location ParalleltoGrain Perpendicularto Class Grade AllSeasoning
Content Grains,Extreme Grain
3
Kg/m FibreStress

outsideLocation

outsideLocation

outsideLocation
InsideLocation

InsideLocation

InsideLocation
wetLocation

wetLocation

wetLocation
AlongGrain
Horizontal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Acacianilotica Babla 797 _ _ 12.9 10.3 1.4 2.1 8.9 7.9 6.4 5.2 4.0 3.3 I b B
Aglaia odulis Aglaia 815 12.56 18.2 15.2 12.1 1.4 2.0 10.1 8.9 7.3 4.4 3.4 2.8 _ _ A
Ailantahus grandis Gokul 404 7.94 8.3 6.9 5.5 0.6 0.8 5.3 4.7 3.9 1.1 0.9 0.7 III _ C
Altingia excelsa Jutili 795 11.37 17.1 14.3 11.4 1.2 1.8 11.0 9.8 8.0 6.8 5.3 4.4 II e A

Amoora rehituka Pitraj 668 8.98 12.3 10.2 8.2 1.1 1.5 8.0 7.1 5.8 4.0 3.1 2.6 I _ B

Amoorawallichii Lali 583 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Amooraspp. Arnari 625 1.05 13.4 1.1 9.2 0.9 1.3 8.4 7.4 6.0 3.7 2.9 2.4 II d B
Anisopleraglabra Boilam 573 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III b _
Aphenamixispolystachya Pitraj 583 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III e B
Arlocarpuschaplasha Chapalish 515 9.11 13.2 11.0 8.8 0.9 1.2 8.5 7.5 6.2 3.6 2.8 2.3 III d B
Artocarpusintegrifolia Kanthal 537 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III c B
Azadirachtaindica Neem 836 8.52 14.6 12.1 9.7 1.3 1.8 10.0 8.9 7.3 5.0 3.9 3.2 _ _ _
Betula lnoides Birch 625 9.23 9.6 8.0 6.4 0.8 1.1 5.7 5.0 4.1 2.2 1.7 1.4 _ _ B
Bischofiajavanica Bhadi 769 8.84 9.6 8.2 6.5 0.8 1.1 5.9 5.3 4.3 3.6 2.8 2.3 III _ A
Bruguieraconjugata Kankra 879 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6649
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Species Average Modulusof PermissibleStressinN/mm2forGradeI PreservativeCharacters

BotanicalName Trade Densityat12 Elasticityx Bendingand Shearall Compression Compression Durability Treatability Refracterinesto
3 2
Name percent 10 N/mm TensionAlong Location ParalleltoGrain Perpendicularto Class Grade AllSeasoning
Content Grains,Extreme Grain
Kg/m3 FibreStress

outsideLocation

outsideLocation

outsideLocation
InsideLocation

InsideLocation

InsideLocation
wetLocation

wetLocation

wetLocation
AlongGrain
Horizontal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Bucklandiapopulnea Plpli 672 9.89 12.8 10.7 8.6 1.1 1.5 7.9 7.0 5.7 3.5 2.7 2.2 III e C
Canarium strictum White dhup 569 10.54 10.1 8.4 6.7 0.7 1.1 6.2 5.5 4.5 2.1 1.6 1.3 III _ C
Cassiafistula Sonalu 865 11.80 19.2 16.0 12.8 1.4 2.0 12.3 10.9 8.9 7.2 5.6 4.6 I _ A
Castanopsis hystrix Chestanut 624 9.85 10.6 8.8 7.0 0.8 1.2 6.4 5.7 4.6 2.7 2.1 1.7 II b B
Carallia lucida Maniawaga 748 12.60 18.4 15.3 12.3 1.2 1.7 11.4 10.1 8.3 5.9 4.6 3.8 _ _ _
Cassiasiamea Minjiri 695 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Chukrasiatabularis Chickrassy 666 8.35 11.8 9.8 7.9 1.1 1.5 7.1 6.3 5.2 3.9 3.1 2.5 II c B
Dalbergiasissoo Sissoo 808 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B
Dillemiaindica Dillenia 617 8.61 12.1 10.0 8.0 0.8 1.2 7.3 6.5 5.3 2.7 2.1 1.7 III a B
Dilleniapentagyne Dillenia 622 7.56 11.8 9.9 7.9 0.9 1.3 7.1 6.3 5.2 3.5 2.7 2.2 III d B
Dipterocarpusalatus Garjan 721 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III a B
Dipterocarpus rnacrocarpus Hollong 726 13.34 14.5 12.0 9.6 0.8 1.1 8.8 7.9 6.4 3.5 2.7 2.2 III a B

Duabangasonneratioides Banderhol 485 8.38 9.8 8.2 6.5 0.6 0.9 6.4 5.7 4.7 1.8 1.4 1.1 III c C
Garugapiannata Garuga 571 7.58 11.7 9.7 7.8 1.0 1.5 7.2 6.4 5.3 3.4 2.6 2.1 I e B
Geriopsroxbarghiana Goran 869 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
gGmelinearborea Garnar 501 7.02 9.8 8.2 6.6 0.8 1.4 5.7 5.0 4.1 4.2 3.2 2.7 I e B
Grewiaveslita Dhaman 758 12.00 15.4 12.6 10.3 1.4 2.0 9.1 8.1 6.6 4.1 3.2 2.6 III d B
Heritieraspp. Sundri 872 13.37 17.9 14.9 11.9 1.3 1.8 11.0 9.8 8.0 6.5 5.0 4.1 I _ A

6650 Vol.2
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Species Average Modulusof PermissibleStressinN/mm forGradeI PreservativeCharacters

BotanicalName Trade Densityat12 Elasticityx Bendingand Shearall Compression Compression Durability Treatability Refracterinesto
Name percent 103N/mm2 TensionAlong Location ParalleltoGrain Perpendicularto Class Grade AllSeasoning
Content Grains,Extreme Grain
3
Kg/m FibreStress

outsideLocation

outsideLocation

outsideLocation
InsideLocation

InsideLocation

InsideLocation
wetLocation

wetLocation

wetLocation
AlongGrain
Horizontal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Hopeaodorata Telsur 711 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III a B
Kayeafloribund Karal 813 10.88 16.8 14.0 1.1 1.1 1.6 10.1 9.0 7.3 4.4 3.4 2.8 III _ _
Lagerstrocmiaspp. Jarul 654 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III e B
Machilusmacrantha Machilus 692 10.00 12.4 10.3 8.3 1.0 1.5 8.2 7.3 6.0 3.5 2.7 2.2 III e B/C
Manglietiainsignia 449 10.37 10.9 9.1 7.3 0.7 1.4 8.0 7.1 5.8 3.4 2.6 2.1 _ _ _
Manilota polyandra Ping 903 13.20 19.1 15.9 12.7 1.3 1.8 1.2 10.0 8.5 5.7 4.4 3.6 III b A
Mesua assamica Keyea 842 12.83 17.4 14.5 11.6 1.0 1.4 11.7 10.4 8.5 5.3 4.1 3.3 II e _

Mesua ferrea Mesua 965 16.30 23.3 19.4 15.5 1.2 1.8 15.5 13.8 11.3 5.9 4.6 3.7 I _ A
Micheliachampaca Champa 644 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B
Michelia montana Champ 512 8.25 10.9 9.1 7.3 0.7 1.0 6.6 5.9 4.8 2.8 2.2 1.8 I _ B
Champ 513 10.12 9.8 8.2 6.5 0.7 1.0 6.1 5.5 4.5 1.6 1.3 1.0 II e B
Michelia excelsa

Mitragynapervifolia Dakroom 651 7.82 12.6 10.5 8.4 1.0 1.5 7.9 7.0 5.7 3.7 2.9 2.4 III b B
Palaquiumpolyanthum Tali 734 11.24 14.9 12.4 10.0 1.1 1.6 9.9 8.8 7.2 4.7 3.7 3.0 _ _ B
Phoebe hainesiana Bonsum 566 9.5 13.2 11.0 8.8 0.8 1.2 8.8 7.8 6.4 2.8 2.1 1.8 II c B
Phoebe goalperansis Bonsum 511 7.65 9.7 8.1 6.5 0.7 1.0 6.6 5.9 4.8 2.2 1.7 1.4 II c B
Plerygotaalata Narikel 593 10.95 13.4 11.8 8.9 0.8 1.2 8.2 7.3 6.0 2.7 2.1 1.7 III _ C
Prunus napeulensis Arupati 548 9.41 4.4 8.7 69.6 0.9 1.2 6.7 6.0 4.9 2.4 1.9 1.6 _ _ _
Pterespermum acerifolium Hattipaila 607 9.55 13.5 11.3 9.0 0.9 1.2 8.7 7.7 6.3 3.2 2.5 2.0 III C B

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Species Average Modulusof PermissibleStressinN/mm2forGradeI PreservativeCharacters

BotanicalName Trade Densityat12 Elasticityx Bendingand Shearall Compression Compression Durability Treatability Refracterinesto
3 2
Name percent 10 N/mm TensionAlong Location ParalleltoGrain Perpendicularto Class Grade AllSeasoning
Content Grains,Extreme Grain
Kg/m3 FibreStress

outsideLocation

outsideLocation

outsideLocation
InsideLocation

InsideLocation

InsideLocation
wetLocation

wetLocation

wetLocation
AlongGrain
Horizontal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Quercuslineate Oak 874 12.63 15.2 12.7 10.1 1.2 1.7 9.6 8.6 7.0 5.3 4.1 3.4 II c A
Quercuslamellosa Oak 87 12.44 14.5 12.1 9.7 1.2 1.7 8.7 7.8 6.4 3.8 2.9 2.4 II c A
Schima wallichii Chilauni 693 9.57 11.1 9.3 7.4 0.9 1.3 6.6 5.9 4.8 2.3 1.8 1.4 III d B
Seritierafomes Sundri 1073 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III b B
Shotea assamica Makai 548 9.27 11.1 9.2 7.4 0.9 1.3 7.1 6.3 5.2 2.9 2.2 1.8 III c B
Shorearobusta Sal 889 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III e B
Sonneralia apetale Keora 617 8.63 12.8 10.7 8.5 0.9 1.3 7.4 6.6 5.4 4.8 3.7 3.0 II _ B
Swintoniafloribunda Civit 665 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III a C
Syzygiumcumini Jamun 841 10.55 14.8 12.4 9.9 1.1 1.6 9.0 8.0 6.5 6.9 5.4 4.4 II e A
Syzygiumspp. Jam 823 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ III e A
Taxus buccata Yew 705 7.79 14.3 11.9 9.5 1.2 1.7 8.7 7.8 6.4 4.7 3.7 3.0 _ _ _
Tectonagrandis Teak 660 9.97 15.5 12.9 10.3 1.2 1.6 9.4 8.3 6.8 4.5 3.5 2.8 I e B
Toenaciliata Toon 487 6.40 8.7 7.3 5.8 0.7 1.0 5.4 4.8 3.9 2.4 1.8 1.5 II c B
Terminalia citrna 755 11.89 17.1 14.3 11.4 1.1 1.6 10.8 9.6 7.9 5.0 3.9 3.2 _ _ _
Terminalia myriocarpa Hollock 615 9.62 11.9 9.9 8.0 0.9 1.2 7.6 6.7 5.5 2.9 2.2 1.8 III a B
Xyliadolabriformis Lohakat 1007 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Xylocarpusrolloensis Passur 757 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B
Mullilam 587 10.65 14.7 12.2 9.8 0.9 1.2 9.5 8.4 6.9 3.4 2.6 2.1 I e B
Zanthoxylum budranga

6652 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

Classificationforpreservationbasedondurabilitytests,etc.
Class
IAveragelifemorethan120months;
IIAveragelife60monthsorabovebutlessthan120months;and
IIIAveragelifelessthan60months.

TreatabilityGrades
aHeartwoodeasilytreatable;
bHeartwoodtreatable,butcompletepenetrationnotalwaysobtained;incasewheretheleastdimensionismorethan60mm;
cHeartwoodonlypartiallytreatable;
dHeartwoodrefractorytotreatment;and
eHeartwoodveryrefractorytotreatment,penetrationofpreservativebeingpracticallynilevenfromtheends.

Databasedonstrengthpropertiesatthreeyearsofageoftree.

Classificationsbasedonseasoningbehavioroftimberandrefractorinessw.r.t.cracking,splittinganddryingrate.
AHighlyrefractory(slowanddifficultytoseasonfreefromsurfaceandendcracking);
BModeratelyrefractory(maybeseasonedfreefromsurfaceandendcrackingwithinreasonablyshortperiods,givenalittleprotectionagainstrapiddryingconditions);and
CNonrefractory(mayberapidlyseasonedfreefromsurfaceandendcrackingevenintheopenairandsun.Ifnotrapidlydried,theydevelopbluestainandmouldonthesurface.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6653
Table11.4.2PermissibleLateralStrengths(inDoubleShear)ofNails3.55mmDia,80mmLong

Sl SpeciesofWood ForPermanentConstruction ForTemporary


No. StrengthperNail StructuresStrength
perNail(forBoth

LengtheningJointsand
BotanicalName Tradename Lengthening NodeJoints
2
NodeJoints)Nx102
Joints Nx10
Nx102
1 2 3 4 5 6
Acacianilotica Babla 15 11 34
Aphenamixispolystachya Pitraj 19 9 19
Canarium strictum White dhup 9 8 10.5
Castanopsis hystrix Chestanut 18 10.5 23.5
Chukrasiatabularis Chickrassy 24 8 27
Dilleniapentagyne Dillenia 16.5 12 16
Dipterocarpus rnacrocarpus Hollong 17 7 20
Grewiaveslita Dhaman 13 5 24
Hopeaodorata Telsur 31.5 13 28.5
Lagerstrocmiaspp. Jarul 24.5 21.5 22.5
Maniltoa polyandra Ping 26 23.5 32
Mesua ferrea Mesua 26 8 41
Michelia excelsa Champ 13 9 20
Phoebe hainesiana Bonsum 12 6 13
Shorearobusta Sal 23 15.5 19.5
Syzygiumspp. Jam 15 12 25
Tectonagrandis Teak 14 8 13
Terminalia myriocarpa Hollock 13 10 19
Toonaciliata Toon 16 9 21
NOTES
1. Nailsof3.55mmdiameteraremostcommonlyused.Theabovevaluescanalsobeusedfor4mmdiameter100mmlong
nails.
2. ThevaluesinNareapproximateconvertedvaluesfromkgf.Forexactconversionthevalueis1kgf=9.80665N.

11.4.4.1 Tolerances
Permissibletolerancesinmeasurementsofcutsizesofstructuraltimbershallbeasfollows:
a)Forwidthandthickness:
+3
1)Uptoandincluding100mm mm
0
+6
2)Above100mm mm
3
+ 10
b)Forlength mm
0

Part6
StructuralDesign 6654
Timber Chapter11

11.4.5 GradingofStructuralTimber

11.4.5.1 Cutsizesofstructuraltimbershallbegraded,afterseasoning,intothreegradesbasedon
permissibledefectsgiveninTable11.4.8:
a) SelectGrade
b) GradeI
c) GradeII

Table11.4.3PermissibleLateralStrengths(inDoubleShear)ofNails5.00mmDia,125mmand150mmLong

SpeciesofWood ForPermanentConstruction ForTemporaryStructures


StrengthperNail StrengthperNail(for
BothLengtheningJoints
andNodeJoints)Nx102
BotanicalName Tradename Lengthening Node
Joints Joints
Nx10
2 Nx102
2 3 4 5 6
Acacianilotica Babla 27 13.5 53
Dalbergiasissoo Sissoo 17 15 43
Mesua ferrea Mesua 24 15.5 57.5
Michelia excelsa Champ 26 12.5 39
Phoebe hainesiana Bonsum 20 7.5 30
Shorearobusta Sal 19.5 17 37
Syzygiumspp. Jam 18 14.5 38.5
Tectonagrandis Teak 28 13 30
Terminalia myriocarpa Hollock 27.5 9 41

Table11.4.4PermissiblePercentageMoistureContentValues

Sl Use Zones(seeNote)
No.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
i) Structuralelements 12 14 17 20
ii) Doorsandwindows
50mmandaboveinthickness 10 12 14 16
Thinnerthan50mm 8 10 12 14
iii) Flooringstripsforgeneralpurposes 8 10 10 12
NOTEThecountryhasbeenbroadlydividedintothefollowingfourzonesbasedonthehumidityvariationsinthecountry:
ZoneIAverageannualrelativehumiditylessthan40percent.
ZoneIIAverageannualrelativehumidity40to50percent.
ZoneIIIAverageannualrelativehumidity50to67percent.
ZoneIVAverageannualrelativehumiditymorethan67percent.
Fordetailedzonalclassification,tolerances,etcreferencemaybemadetogoodpractice[63A(4)].

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6655
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.4.6 SawnTimber

11.4.6.1 Sizes
PreferredcutsizesoftimberforuseinstructuralcomponentsshallbeasgiveninTables11.4.5to11.4.7.

Table11.4.5PreferredCutSizesofStructuralTimbersforRoofTrusses(Spanfrom3mto20m)

Thickness Width
mm mm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20 40 50 60 80 100 _ _ _
25 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 180
30 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 180
35 _ _ 60 80 100 120 160 180
40 _ _ 60 80 100 120 160 180
50 _ _ 60 80 100 120 160 180
60 _ _ _ 80 100 120 160 180
80 _ _ _ _ 100 120 160 180
NOTES
1 For truss spans marginally above 20 m, preferred cut sizes of structural timber may be allowed.

2 Preferred lengths of timhec 1, 1.5,2,2.5 and 3 m.

Table11.4.6PreferredCutSizesofStructuralTimberforRoofPurlins,Rafters,FloorBeams,Etc

Thickness Width
mm mm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
50 80 100 120 140 _ _ _
60 80 100 120 140 160 _ _
80 _ 100 120 140 160 _ _
100 _ _ _ 140 160 180 200

NOTE Preferred lengths of timber: 1.5,2,2.5 and 3 m.

Table11.4.7PreferredCutSizesofStructuralTimbersforPartitionFramingandCovering,andforCentering

Thickness Width
mm mm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
10 40 50 60 80 _ _ _ _ _
15 40 50 60 80 100 _ _ _ _
20 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 200 _
25 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 200 240
30 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 200 240
40 40 _ 60 80 100 120 160 200 240
50 _ 50 _ 80 100 120 160 200 240
60 _ _ 60 80 100 120 160 200 240
80 _ _ _ 80 100 120 160 200 240

6656 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

Table11.4.8PermissibleDefectsforCutSizesofTimberforStructuralUse

Sl Defects SelectGrade Grade I Grade II


No.
1 2 3 4 5

i) Wane Shallbepermissibleatitsdeepest Shallbepermissibleatitsdeepest Shallbepermissibleatits


portionuptoalimitof1/8ofthe portionuptoalimitof1/6ofthe deepest
widthofthesurfaceonwhichit widthofthesurfaceonwhichit portionuptoalimitof1/4of
occurs occurs the
widthofthesurfaceon
whichit
occurs
ii) Wormholes Otherthanthoseduetopowder Otherthanthoseduetopowder Otherthanthosedueto
postbeetlesarepermissible postbeetlesarepermissible powderpost
beetlesarepermissible
iii) Slopeofgrain Shallnotbemorethan1in20 Shallnotbemorethan1in15 Shallnotbemorethan1in
12
iv) Live knots:
WidthofWide Permissible Maximum Size of Live Permissible Maximum Size of Permissible Maximum Size
Faces ofCut Knot on Live Knot on of Live Knot on
Sizes
of Timber
Max Narrowfaces Remaining Narrowfaces Remaining Narrow Remaining
and centralhalfof and centralhalfof facesand central
1/4ofthe thewidthofthe 1/4ofthe thewidthofthe 1Aofthe halfofthe
width widefaces width widefaces width width
facecloseto facecloseto faceclose ofthewide
edgesofcut edgesofcut to faces
size size edgesofcut
oftimber oftimber size
oftimber
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
75 10 10 19 19 29 30
100 13 13 25 25 38 39
150 19 19 38 38 57 57
200 22 25 44 50 66 75
250 25 29 50 57 66 87
300 27 38 54 75 81 114
350 29 41 57 81 87 123
400 32 44 63 87 96 132
450 33 47 66 93 99 141
500 35 50 69 100 105 150
550 36 52 72 103 108 156
600 38 53 75 106 114 159
v) Checksand
shakes:

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6657
Part6
StructuralDesign
Widthofthe PermissibleDepth PermissibleDepth PermissibleDepth
Faceof Max Max Max
theTimber
Max
1 2 3 4
75 12 25 36
100 18 35 54
150 25 50 75
200 33 65 99
250 40 81 120
300 50 100 150
350 57 115 171
400 66 131 198
450 76 150 225
500 83 165 249
550 90 181 270
600 100 200 300

11.4.6.2 Theprohibiteddefectsgivenin4.6.2.1andpermissibledefectsgivenin4.6.2.2shallapplytostructural
timber.

11.4.6.2.1 Prohibiteddefects
Loosegrains,splits,compressionwoodinconiferousspecies,heartwoodrot,saprot,crookedness,wormholes
madebypowderpostbeetlesandpitchpocketsshallnotbepermittedinallthethreegrades.

11.4.6.2.2 DefectstotheextentspecifiedinTable11.4.8shallbepermissible.
NOTE Wanes are permitted provided they are not combined with knots and the reduction in strength on
accountofthewanesisnotmorethanthereductionwithmaximumallowableknots.

11.4.6.3 LocationofDefects
Theinfluenceofdefectsintimberisdifferentfordifferentlocationsinthestructuralelement.Therefore,these
should be placed during construction in such a way so that they do not have any adverse effect on the
members.

11.4.7 Suitability

11.4.7.1 SuitabilityinRespectofDurabilityandTreatabilityforPermanentStructures
Therearetwochoicesasgivenin11.4.7.1.1and11.4.7.1.2.

11.4.7.1.1 Firstchoice
Thespeciesshallbeanyoneofthefollowing:
a) Untreatedheartwoodofhighdurability.Heartwoodifcontainingmorethan15percentsap
wood,mayneedchemicaltreatmentforprotection;
b) Treatedheartwoodofmoderateandlowdurabilityandclassaandclassbtreatability;
c) Heartwoodofmoderatedurabilityandclassctreatabilityafterpressureimpregnation,and
d) Sapwoodofallclassesofdurabilityafterthoroughtreatmentwithpreservative.

11.4.7.1.2 Secondchoice
Thespeciesoftimbershallbeheartwoodofmoderatedurabilityandclassdtreatability.

11.4.7.2 Choiceofloadbetingtemporarystructuresorsemistructuralcomponentsatconstructionsite
a) Heartwoodoflowdurabilityandclassetreatability;or

6658 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

b) Thespecieswhosedurabilityand/ortreatabilityareyettobeestablished,aslistedinTable
11.4.1.

11.4.8 Fastenings
All structural members shall be framed, anchored, tied and braced to develop the strength and rigidity
necessaryforthepurposesforwhichtheyareused.
Allowable stresses or loads on joints and fasteners shall be determined in accordance with recognized
principles.Commonmechanicalfasteningsareofbartypesuchasnailsandspikes,woodscrewsandbolts,and
timber connectors including metallic rings or wooden discdowels. Chemical fastenings include synthetic
adhesivesforstructuralapplications.

11.5 PERMISSIBLESTRESSES

11.5.1 ThepermissiblestressesforGroupsA,BandCfordifferentlocationsapplicabletoGradeIstructural
timbershallbeasgiveninTable11.5.1providedthatthefollowingconditionsaresatisfied:
a) Thetimbersshouldbeofhighormoderatedurabilityandbegiventhesuitabletreatment
wherenecessary.
b) Timberoflowdurabilityshallbeusedafterproperpreservativetreatmentand
c) Theloadsshouldbecontinuousandpermanentandnotofimpacttype.

Table11.5.1MinimumPermissibleStressLimits(N/mm2)inThreeGroupsofStructuralTimbers(forGradeI
Material)

Sl StrengthCharacter LocationofUse Group Group Group


No. A B C
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1)
i) Bendingandtensionalonggrain Inside 18.0 12.0 8.5
2)
ii) Shear Alllocations 1.05 0.64 0.49
Horizontal
Alonggrain Alllocations 15 0.91 0.70
1)
iii) Compressionpe4rpendiculartograin Inside 11.7 7.8 4.9
1)
iv) Compressionperpendiculartograin Inside 4.0 2.5 1.1
v) Modulusofelasticity(103N/mm2) Alllocationsand 12.6 9.8 5.6
grade
1) Forworkingstressesforotherlocationsofuse,thatis,outsideandwet,generallyfactorsof5/6and2/3areapplied.
2) Thevaluesofhorizontalsheartobeusedonlyforbeams.Inallothercasesshearalonggraintobeused.

11.5.2 Thepermissiblestresses(exceptingE)giveninTable11.5.1shallbemultipliedbythefollowing
factorstoobtainthepermissiblestressesforothergradesprovidedthattheconditionslaiddownin
5.2aresatisfied:
a) ForSelectGradeTimber1.16
b) ForGradeIITimber0.84
When low durability timbers are to be used [see 5.2(b)] on outside locations, the permissible stresses for all
gradesoftimber,arrivedatby5.2and5.3shallbemultipliedby0.80.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6659
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.5.3 ModificationFactorsforPermissibleStresses

11.5.3.1 DuetoChangeinSlopeofGrain
Whenthetimberhasnotbeengradedandhasmajordefectslikeslopeofgrain,knotsandchecksorshakesbut
not beyond permissible value, the permissible stress given in Table 11.4.1 shall be multiplied by modification
factorK1fordifferentslopesofgrainasgiveninTable11.5.2.

Table11.5.2ModificationsFactorK1toAllowforChangeinSlopeofGrain

slope ModificationFactorK1

StrengthofBeams, Strengthof
JoistsandTies PostsorColumns

1 2 3
1in10 0.80 0.74

1in12 0.90 0.82

1in14 0.98 0.8

1in15andfla~ 1.00 1.00

NOTEForintermediaryslopesofgrains,valuesofmodificationfactormaybeobtainedbyinterpolation.

11.5.3.2 DuetoDurationofLoad
For different durations of design load, the permissible stresses given in Table 1 shall be multiplied by the
modificationfactorK2giveninTable11.5.3.

Table11.5.3ModificationsFactorK2,forChangeinDuratiouofLoading

DurationofLoading ModificationFactorK2

1 2
Continuous(Normal) 1.0
Twomonths 1.15
Sevendays 1.25
Windandearthquake 1.33
Instantaneousorimpact 2.00
NOTEThestrengthpropertiesoftimberunderloadaretimedependent.

6660 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.5.3.2.1 The factor K2 is applicable to modulus of elasticity when used to design timber columns,
otherwisetheydonotapplythereto.

11.5.3.2.2 If there are several duration of loads (in addition to the continuous) to be considered, the
modification factorshall be basedonthe shortest durationload inthe combination, thatis, the
one yielding the largest increase in the permissible stresses, provided the designed section is
foundadequateforacombinationofotherlargerdurationloads.
[Explanation:Inanystructuraltimberdesignfordeadloads,snowloadsandwindorearthquake
forces, membersmay be designed onthe basis of total of stressesdueto dead,snowandwind
loadsusingK2=1.33,factorforthepermissiblestress(ofTable11.4.1)toaccommodatethewind
load,thatis, the shortest of duration and giving thelargest increase in the permissible stresses.
The section thus found is checked to meet the requirements based on dead loads alone with
modificationK2=1.00].

11.5.3.2.3 ModificationfactorK2shallalsobeappliedtoallowableloadsformechanicalfastenersindesign
ofjoints,whenthewoodandnotthestrengthofmetaldeterminetheloadcapacity.

11.6 DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS

11.6.1 Allstructuralmembers,assembliesorframeworkinabuilding,incombinationwiththefloors,wallsand
otherstructuralpartsofthebuildingshallbecapableofsustaining,withduestabilityandstiffnessthe
wholedeadandimposedloadingsasperPart6StructuralDesign,Section1Loads,ForcesandEffects,
withoutexceedingthelimitsofrelevantstressesspecifiedinthisSection.

11.6.2 Buildings shall be designed for all dead and imposed loads or forces assumed to come upon them
duringconstructionoruse,includingupliftsorhorizontalforcesfromwindandforcesfromearthquakes
orotherloadings.Structuralmembersandtheirconnectionsshallbeproportionedtoprovideasound
and stable structure with adequate strength and stiffness. Wooden components in construction
generallyincludepanelsforsheathinganddiaphragms,siding,beams,girder,columns,lightframings,
masonry wall and joist construction, heavyframes, glued laminated structural members, structural
sandwiches,prefabricatedpanels,lamellaarches,portalframesandotherauxiliaryconstructions.

11.6.3 NetSection

11.6.3.1 Thenetsectionisobtainedbydeductingfromthegrosssectionalareaoftimbertheprojectedareaof
allmaterialremovedbyboring,groovingorothermeansatcriticalplane.Incaseofnailing,theareaof
thepreboredholeshallnotbetakenintoaccountforthispurpose.

11.6.3.2 The net section used in calculating load carrying capacity of a member shall be at least net section
determined as above by passing a plane or a series of connected planes transversely through the
members.

11.6.3.3 Notchesshallbeinnocaseremovemorethanonequarterofthesection.

11.6.3.4 In the design of an intermediate or a long column, gross section shall be used in calculating load
carryingcapacityofthecolumn.

11.6.4 Loads

11.6.4.1 TheloadsshallconformtothosegiveninPart6StructuralDesign,Chapter2LoadsonBuildingsand
Structures.

11.6.4.2 Theworstcombinationandlocationofloadsshallbeconsideredfordesign.Windandseismicforces
shallnotbeconsideredtoactsimultaneously.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6661
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.6.5 FlexuralMembers

11.6.5.1 Suchstructuralmembersshallbeinvestigatedforthefollowing:
a) Bendingstrength,
b) Maximumhorizontalshear,
c) Stressatthebearings,and
d) Deflection.

11.6.5.2 EffectiveSpan
Theeffectivespanofbeamsandotherflexuralmembersshallbetakenasthedistancefromfaceofsupports
plusonehalfoftherequiredlengthofbearingateachendexceptthatforcontinuousbeamsandjoiststhespan
maybemeasuredfromcentreofbearingatthosesupportsoverwhichthebeamiscontinuous.

11.6.5.3 Usualformulaforflexuralstrengthshallapplyindesign:
M
f ab fb
Z
11.6.5.4 FormFactorsforFlexuralMembers
Thefollowingformfactorsshallbeappliedtothebendingstress:
a) RectangularSectionForrectangularsections,fordifferentdepthsofbeams,theformfactor
K3shallbetakenas:
D 2 + 89400
K3 = 0.81 2
D + 55000
NOTEFormfactor(K3)shallnotbeappliedforbeamshavingdepthlessthanorequalto300mm.
b) BoxBeamsandIBeamsForboxbeamsandIbeams,theformfactorKAobtainedbyusing
theformula:
D 2 + 89400 1
K 4 = 0.8 + 0.8 y
D + 55000
2

where
y = p12 + (6 8 p1 + 3 p12 )(1 q1 ) + q1
c) SolidCircularCrossSectionsForsolidcircularcrosssectionstheformfactorKSshallbetaken
as1.18.
d) SquareCrossSectionsForsquarecrosssectionswheretheloadisinthedirectionof
diagonal,theformfactorKGshallbetakenas1.414.

11.6.5.5 Width
The minimum width of the beam or any flexural member shall not be less than 50 mm or 1/50 of the span,
whicheverisgreater.

11.6.5.6 Depth
Thedepthofbeamoranyflexuralmembershallnotbetakenmorethanthreetimesofitswidthwithoutlateral
stiffening.

11.6.5.6.1 Stiffening
Allflexuralmembershavingadepthexceedingthreetimesitswidthoraspanexceeding50timesitswidthor
bothshallbe laterallyrestrainedfromtwistingorbucklingandthedistancebetweensuchrestraintsshallnot
exceed50timesitswidth.

6662 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.6.5.7 Shear

11.6.5.7.1 Thefollowingformulaeshallapply:
a) Themaximumhorizontalshear,whentheloadonabeammovesfromthesupporttowardsthe
centreofthespan,andtheloadisatadistanceofthreetofourtimesthedepthofthebeam
fromthesupport,shallbecalculatedfromthefollowinggeneralformula:
VQ
H=
Ib
b) Forrectangularbeams:
3V
H=
2bD
c) Fornotchedbeams,withtensionnotchatsupports:
3VD
H=
2bD12

D1
D

SQUARE NOTCH
(BOTTM SIDE NOTCHED)
d) Fornotchedatupper(compression)face,wheree>D:
3V
H=
2bD1
e
D2
D

D1

SPLAYED NOTCH
(UPPER SIDE NOTCHED)

e) Fornotchedatupper(compression)face,wheree<D
3V
H=
D
2b D 2 e
D

11.6.5.7.2 Forconcentratedloads:
10C ( I x)( x / D ) 2
V=

[
9 I 2 + ( x / D) 2 ]
andforuniformlydistributedloads,

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6663
Part6
StructuralDesign
W 2D
V = 1
2 I
AfterarrivingatthevalueofV,itsvaluewillbesubstitutedintheformula:
VQ
H=
Ib
11.6.5.7.3 Indeterminingtheverticalreactionfollowingdeductionsinloadsmaybemade:
a) Considerationshallbegiventothepossibledistributionofloadtoadjacentparallelbeams,if
any;
b) Alluniformlydistributedloadswithinadistanceequaltothedepthofthebeamfromtheedge
oftheearnestsupportmaybeneglectedexceptincaseofbeamhangingdownwardsfroma
particularsupport,and
c) Allconcentratedloadsinthevicinityofthesupportsmaybereducedbythereductionfactor
applicableaccordingtoTable11.6.1.

Table11.6.1ReductionFactorforConcentratedLoadsintheVicinityofSupports

DistanceofLoadfrom LSDorLess 2D 2.5D 3DorMore


theNearestSupport
1 2 3 4 5
Reductionfactor 0.6 0.4 0.2 NoReduction
NOTEForintermediatedistances,factormaybeobtainedbylinearinterpolation.

11.6.5.7.4 Unless the local stress is calculated and found to be within the permissible stress, flexural
membershallnotbecut,notchedorboredexceptasfollows:
a)Notchesmaybecutinthetoporbottomneitherdeeperthanonefifthofthedepthofthebeamnorfarther
fromtheedgeofthesupportthanonesixthofthespan;
b)Holesnotlargerindiameterthanonequarterofthedepthmaybeboredinthemiddlethirdofthedepthand
length;and
c)Ifholesornotchesoccuratadistancegreaterthanthreetimesthedepthofthememberfromtheedgeofthe
nearestsupport,thenetremainingdepthshallbeusedindeterminingthebendingstrength.
Net
Depth

NOTCHED AT MIDDLE
Fig.11.6.1NotchedBeams

11.6.5.8 Bearing

11.6.5.8.1 Theendsofflexuralmembersshallbesupportedinrecesseswhichprovideadequateventilation
to prevent dry rot and shall not be enclosed. Flexural members except roof timbers which are
supporteddirectlyonmasonryorconcreteshallhavealengthofbearingofnotlessthan75mm.
Memberssupportedoncorbels,offsetsandrooftimbersonawallshallbearimmediatelyonand
befixedtowallplatenotlessthan75mmx40mm.

11.6.5.8.2 Timberjoistsor floorplanks shallnot be supported on thetop flange ofsteel beamsunlessthe


bearingstress,calculatedonthenetbearingasshapedtofitthebeam,islessthanthepermissible
compressivestressperpendiculartothegrain.

6664 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.6.5.8.3 Bearingstress
Lengthandpositionofbearing
a) Atanybearingonthesidegrainoftimber,thepermissiblestressincompressionperpendicular
tothegrain,fcn,isdependentonthelengthandpositionofthebearing.
b) ThepermissiblestressesgiveninTable11.4.1forcompressionperpendiculartothegrainare
alsothepermissiblestressesforanylengthattheendsofamemberandforbearings150mm
ormoreinlengthatanyotherposition.
c) Forbearingslessthan150mminlengthlocated75mmormorefromtheendofamemberas
showninFig.11.6.2,thepermissiblestressmaybemultipliedbythemodificationfactorK7
giveninTable11.6.2.
d) Noallowanceneedbemadeforthedifferenceinintensityofthebearingstressduetobending
ofabeam.
e) Thebearingareashouldbecalculatedasthenetareaafterallowancefortheamountofwane.
f) Forbearingsstressunderawasherorasmallplate,thesamecoefficientspecifiedinTable
11.6.2maybetakenforabearingwithalengthequaltothediameterofthewasherorthe
widthofthesmallplate.
g) Whenthedirectionofstressisatangletothedirectionofthegraininanystructuralmember,
thenthepermissiblebearingstressinthatmembershallbecalculatedbythefollowing
formula:
f cp f cn
f c =
f cp sin + f cn cos 2
2

Table11.6.2:ModificationfactorK7forbearingstresses

Lengthofbearinginmm 15 25 40 50 75 100 150ormore

ModificationfactorK7 1.67 1.40 1.25 1.20 1.13 1.10 1.00

75mm 150 mm max


min Bearing


Fig.11.6.2PositionOfEndBearings

11.6.5.9 Deflection
Thedeflectioninthecaseofallflexuralmemberssupportingbrittlematerialslikegypsumceilings,slates,tiles
andasbestossheetsshallnotexceed1/360ofthespan.Thedeflectioninthecaseofotherflexuralmembers
shallnotexceed1/240ofthespanand1/150ofthefreelyhanginglengthinthecaseofcantilevers.

11.6.5.9.1
Usualformulafordeflectionshallapply:
KWL3
=
EI (ignoringdeflectionduetoshearstrain)

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6665
Part6
StructuralDesign
Kvalues= 1/3forcantileverswithloadatfreeend,
1/8forcantileverswithuniformlydistributedload,
1/48forbeamssupportedatbothendswithpointloadatcentre,and
5/384forbeamssupportedatbothendswithuniformlydistributedload.

11.6.5.9.2 InordertoallowtheeffectoflongdurationloadingonE,forcheckingdeflectionincaseofbeams
andjoiststheeffectiveloadsshallbetwicethedeadloadiftimberisinitiallydry.

11.6.5.9.3 Selfweightofbeamshallbeconsideredindesign.

11.6.6 Columns
NOTETheformulaegivenareforcolumnswithpinendconditionsandthelengthshallbemodifiedsuitably
withotherendconditions.

11.6.6.1 SolidColumns
Solid columns shallbeclassified intoshort,intermediateand longcolumns dependingupontheir slenderness
ratio(S/d)asfollows:

a) ShortcolumnswhereS/ddoesnotexceed11.
b) IntermediatecolumnswhereS/disbetween11andKg,and
c) LongcolumnswhereS/disgreaterthanKg.

11.6.6.1.1 Forshortcolumns,thepermissiblecompressivestressshallbecalculatedasfollows:
f c = f cp

11.6.6.1.2 Forintermediatecolumns,thepermissiblecompressivestressiscalculatedbyusingthefollowing
formula:
1 S 4
f c = f cp 1
3 K g d

11.6.6.1.3 For long columns, the permissible compressive stress shall be calculated by using the following
formula:
0.329 E
fc =
(S / d )2

11.6.6.1.4 Incaseofsolidcolumnsoftimber,S/dratioshallnotexceed50.

11.6.6.1.5 The permissible loadon a column of circularcrosssection shallnot exceed that permitted for a
squarecolumnofanequivalentcrosssectionalarea.

11.6.6.1.6 FordeterminingS/dratioofataperedcolumn,itsleastdimensionshallbetakenasthesumofthe
corresponding least dimensions at the small end of the column and onethird of the difference
betweenthisleastdimensionatthesmallendandthecorrespondingleastdimensionatthelarge
end,butinnocaseshalltheleastdimensionforthecolumnbetakenasmorethanoneandahalf
times the least dimension at the small end. The induced stress at the small end of the tapered
columnshallnotexceedthepermissiblecompressivestressinthedirectionofgrain.

11.6.6.2 BuiltupColumns

11.6.6.2.1 Boxcolumn
Boxcolumnsshallbeclassifiedintoshort,intermediateandlongcolumnsasfollows:

6666 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

S
a) Shortcolumnswhere islessthan8;
d + d 22
1
2

S
b) Intermediatecolumnswhere isbetween8andK9;and
d + d 22
1
2

S
c) Longcolumnswhere isgreaterthanK9.
d12 + d 22

11.6.6.2.2 Forshortcolumns,thepermissiblecompressivestressshallbecalculatedasfollows:
f c = qf cp

11.6.6.2.3 For intermediate columns, the permissible compressive stress shall be obtained using the
followingformula

4

1
f c = qf cp 1
S
3 d2 + d2
1 1

11.6.6.2.4 For long columns, the permissible compressive stress shall be calculated by using the following
formula:
0.329UE
fc = 2

S
d + d2
2
1 2
11.6.6.2.5 ThefollowingvaluesofUandq,dependinguponplankthickness(t)in11.6.6.2.3and11.6.6.2.4,
shallbeused:

t(mm) U q
25 0.80 1.00
30 0.60 1.00

11.6.6.3 SpacedColumns

11.6.6.3.1 The formulae for solid columns as specified in 6.6.1 are applicable to spaced columns with a
restraintfactorof2.5or3,dependingupondistancesofendconnectorsinthecolumn.
NOTEArestrainedfactorof2.5forlocationofcentroidgroupoffastenersatS/20fromendand
3forlocationatS/10toS/20fromendshallbetaken.

11.6.6.3.2 Forintermediatespacedcolumn,thepermissiblecompressivestressshallbe:
1 S 4
f c = f cp 1
3 k10d

11.6.6.3.3 Forlongspacedcolumns,theformulashallbe:

0.329 E 2.5
fc =
(S / d )2

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6667
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.6.6.3.4 Forindividualmembersofspacedcolumns,S/dratioshallnotexceed80.

11.6.6.4 Compression members shall not be notched. When it is necessary to pass services through such a
member,thisshallbeeffectedbymeansofaboredholeprovidedthatthelocalstressiscalculated
andfoundtobewithinthepermissiblestressspecified.Thedistancefromtheedgeoftheholetothe
edgeofthemembershallnotbelessthanonequarterofwidthoftheface.

11.6.7 StructuralMembersSubjecttoBendingandAxialStresses

11.6.7.1 Structural members subjected both to bending and axial compression shall be designed to comply
withthefollowingformula:
f ac f ab
+
fc fb

11.6.7.2 Structuralmemberssubjectedbothtobendingandaxialtensionshallbedesignedtocomplywiththe
followingformula:
f at f ab
+
ft fb

11.7 DESIGNOFCOMMONSTEELWIRENAILJOINTS

11.7.1 General
Nailjointedtimberconstructionissuitableforlightandmediumtimberframings(trusses,etc)upto15mspans.
With the facilities of readily available materials and simpler workmanship in monochord and split chord
constructions,thistypeoffabricationhasalargescope.

11.7.2 DimensionsofMembers

11.7.2.1 Thedimensionofartindividualpieceoftimber(thatis,anysinglemember)shallbewithintherange
givenbelow:
a) Theminimumthicknessofthemainmembersinmonochordconstructionshallbe30mm.
b) Theminimumthicknessofanindividualpieceofmembersinsplitchordconstructionshall
c) Thespacebetweentwoadjacentpiecesoftimbershallberestrictedtoamaximumof3times
thethicknessoftheindividualpieceoftimberofthechordmember.Incaseofwebmembers,
itmaybegreaterforjoiningfacilities.

11.7.3 No lengthening joint shall preferably be located at a panel point. Generally not more than two, but
preferablyone,lengtheningjointshallbepermittedbetweenthetwopanelpointsofthemembers.

11.7.4 SpecificationandDiameterofNails

11.7.4.1 ThenailsusedfortimberjointsshallconformtoPart5BuildingMaterials.Thenailsshallbediamond
pointed.

11.7.4.2 Thediameterofnailshall bewithinthelimitsof oneeleventhto onesixthof theleast thicknessof


membersbeingconnected.

11.7.4.3 Wherethenailsareexposedtobesalineconditions,commonwirenailsshallbegalvanized.

11.7.5 ArrangementofNailsintheJoints
The end distances, edge distances and spacings of nails in a nailed joint should be such as to avoid undue
splittingofthewoodandshallnotbelessthanthosegivenin11.7.5.1and11.7.5.2.

6668 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.7.5.1 LengtheningJoints
Therequirementofspacingofnailsinalengtheningjointshallbeasfollows(seealsoFig.11.7.1):

Sl. SpacingofNails TypeofStressinthe Requirement


No. Joint Min
(1) (2) (3) (4)
i) Enddistance Tension 12n

Compression 10n
ii) Indirectionofgrain Tension 10n

Compression 5n

iii) Edgedistance 5n
iv) Betweenrowofnails 5n
perpendiculartothegrain
Notes:
1. nisshankdiameterofnails
2. The5ndistancebetweentherowsofnailsperpendiculartothegrainmay
beincreasedsubjecttotheavailabilityofwidthofthememberkeeping
edgedistanceconstant.

11.7.5.2 NodeJoints
TherequirementforspacingofnailsinnodejointsshallbeasspecifiedinFig.11.7.2wherethemembersareat
rightangleandasinFig.11.7.3wherethemembersareinclinedtooneanotheratanglesotherthan90and
subjectedtoeitherpurecompressionorpuretension.

11.7.6 PenetrationofNails

11.7.6.1 For a lap joint when the nails are driven from the side of the thinner member, the length of
penetrationofnailsinthethickermembershallbeoneandahalftimesthethicknessofthethinner
membersubjecttomaximumofthethicknessofthethickermember.

11.7.6.2 Forbuttjointsthenailsshallbedriventhroughtheentirethicknessofthejoint.

11.7.7 DesignConsiderations

11.7.7.1 Whereanumberofnailsareusedinajoint,theallowableloadinlateralresistanceshallbethesumof
theallowableloadsfortheindividualnails,providedthatthecentroidofthegroupofthesenailslies
ontheaxisofthememberandthespacingsconformto7.5.Wherealargenumberofnailsaretobe
providedatajoint,theyshouldbesoarrangedthattherearemoreofrowsratherthanmorenumber
ofnailsinarow.

11.7.7.2 Nailsshall,asfaraspracticable,bearrangedsothatthelineofforceinamemberpassesthroughthe
centroid of the group of nails. Where this is not practicable, allowance shall be made for any
eccentricity in computing the maximum load on the fixing nails as well as the loads and bending
momentinthemember.

11.7.7.3 Adjacentnailsshallpreferablybedrivenfromoppositefaces,thatis,thenailsaredrivenalternatively
fromeitherfaceofjoint.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6669
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.7.7.4 Forarigidjoint,aminimumof2nailsfornodaljointsand4nailsforlengtheningjointshallbedriven.

11.7.7.5 Twonailsinahorizontalrowarebetterthanusingthesamenumberofnailsinaverticalrow.

11.7.8 SpecialConsiderationinNailJointedTrussConstruction

11.7.8.1 The initial upward camber provided at the centre of the lower chord of nailjointed timber trusses
shall be not less than 1/200 of the effective span for timber structures using seasoned wood and
1/100forunseasonedorpartiallyseasonedwood.

11.7.8.2 Thetotalcombinedthicknessofthegussetorspliceplatesoneithersideofthejointinamonochord
type construction shall not be less than one and a half times the thickness of the main members
subjecttoaminimumthicknessof25mmofindividualgussetplate.

5n 10n 5n

Effective end
Distance, 10n min 10n

5n
5n
5n
5n

2A MONOCHORD TYPE BUTT JOINT SUBJECT TO COMPRESSION

10n 12n 10n

12n min 12n min

5n min
5n min
5n min

Effective end
Distance, 5n min

n = SHANK DIAMETER OF NAIL

2B MONOCHORD TYPE BUTT JOINT SUBJECT TO TENSION

Fig.11.7.1SpacingofNailsInALenghtheningJointContinued

6670 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

5n 10n 5n

Effective end
Distance, 10n min 10n min

5n min
5n min
5n min
5n min
5n min

Effective end
Distance, 5n min

2C SPLIT - CHORD TYPE BUTT JOINT SUBJECT TO COMPRESSION

10n min 12n min 10n min

12n min Effective end


Distance, 12n min

5n min
5n min
5n min
5n min

Effective end
n = SHANK DIAMETER OF NAIL Distance, 5n min

2C SPLIT - CHORD TYPE BUTT JOINT SUBJECT TO TENSION


Fig.11.7.1SpacingofNailsInALenghtheningJoint

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6671
Part6
StructuralDesign

5n min 5n min
Unloaded Loaded
Edge Edge

5n
5n 10n

5n 5n
5n
10n
5n
5n

3A 3B

5n min

10n

5n
5n

10n

n = SHANK DIAMETER OF NAIL


*5n MAY BE INCREASED TO 10n, IF THE DESIGNED WIDTH OF
CORD MEMBER PERMITS. OTHERWISE THE END OF THE LOADED
WEB MEMBER MAY BE EXTENDED BY 5n min

3C
Fig.11.7.2SpacingOfNailsWhereMembersAreAtRightAnglesToOneAnother

6672 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

5n 5n

Unloaded Loaded
Edge Edge

5n
10n
5n
5n 5n

10n 5n
5n *
5n
Loaded Uploaded
4A Edge 4B
Edge

Timber fish
Plate

Bottom
Chord

Web
Members

5n
5n

10n

10n 5n
5n
5n
10n
10n

10n

5n

10n

5n 5n 5n 5n

4C
*5n MAY BE INCREASED TO 10n, IF THE DESIGNED WIDTH OF CHORD MEMBER PERMITS.
OTHERWISE THE END OF THE LOADED WEB MEMBER MAY BE EXTENDED BY 5n min
n = SHANK DIAMETER OF NAIL
Fig.11.7.3SpacingOfNailsAtNodeWhereMembersAreInclinedToOneAnother

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6673
Part6
StructuralDesign
11.7.8.3 Thetotalcombinedthicknessofallspacerblocksorplatesorbothincludingouterspliceplates,atany
jointinasplitchordtypeconstructionshallnotbelessthanoneandahalftimesthetotalthicknessof
allthemainmembersatthatjoint.

11.8 DESIGNOFNAILLAMINATEDTIMBERBEAMS

11.8.1 MethodofArrangement

11.8.1.1 Thebeamismadeupof20mmto30mmthickplanksplacedverticallywithjointsstaggeredinthe
adjoiningplankswithaminimumdistanceof300mm.Theplanksarelaminatedwiththehelpofwire
nails at regular intervals to take up horizontal shear developed in the beam besides keeping the
planksinposition(seeFig.11.8.1).

11.8.1.2 The advantage in laminations lies in dimensional stability, dispersal of defects and better structural
performance.

11.8.2 SizesofPlanksandBeams

11.8.2.1 Theplankthicknessforfabricationofnailedlaminatedbeamsrecommendedare20,25and30mm.

11.8.2.2 Incaseofnailedlaminatedtimberbeamthemaximumdepthandlengthofplanksshallbelimitedto
250mmand2000mm,respectively.

11.8.2.3 Inordertoobtaintheoverallwidthofthebeam,thenumberandthicknessofplankstoformvertical
nailedlaminatedbeams,andalsotypeandsizeofwirenailshallbeasmentionedinTable10.8.1.The
protrudingportionofthenailshallbecutofforclenchedacrossthegrains.

11.8.3 DesignConsiderations

11.8.3.1 Naillaminatedbeamsshallbedesignedinaccordancewith11.6.

Table10.8.1:Numberandsizeofplanksandnailsfornailedlaminatedbeams

Sl. OverallWidth No.of Thicknessof No.andSizeof


No. ofBeam Planks eachPlank Nailtobeused
(mm) (mm) (mm)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
i) 50 2 25 80long3.55dia
ii) 60 3 20 do
iii) 70 3 (2x25) do
(1x20)
iv) 80 4 20 100long4.0dia
v) 90 3 30 do
vi) 100 4 25 125long5.0dia
vii) 110 4 (3x30) do
(1x20)
viii) 120 4 30 do
ix) 150 5 30 150long5.0dia
Notes:Anumberofcombinationsofdifferentthicknessofplanksmaybe
adoptedaslongastheminimumandmaximumthicknessoftheplanksare
adheredto.

6674 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.8.3.1.1 The deflection in the case of nailed laminated timber beams, joists, purlins, battens and other
flexuralmemberssupportingbrittlematerialslikegypsum,ceilingslates,tilesandasbestossheets
shall not exceed 1/480 of the span. The deflection in case of other flexural members shall not
exceed1/360ofthespaninthecaseofbeamsandjoists,and1/225ofthefreelyhanginglengthin
caseofcantilevers.

11.8.3.2 PermissiblelateralstrengthofmildsteelwirenailsshallbeasgiveninTable11.4.2andTable11.4.3
forIndianSpeciesoftimber,whichshallapplytonailsthathavetheirpointscutflushwiththefaces.
Fornailsclenchedacrossthegrainsthestrengthmaybeincreasedby20percentoverthevaluesfor
nailswithpointscutflush.

11.8.3.3 ArrangementofNails

11.8.3.3.1 Aminimumnumberoffournailsinaverticalrowatregularintervalnotexceeding75mmtotake
uphorizontalshearaswellastokeeptheplanksinpositionshallbeused.Nearthejointsofthe
planksthisdistancemay,however,belimitedto5cminsteadof75mm.

11.8.3.3.2 Shearshallbecalculatedatvariouspointsofthebeamand[henumberofnailsrequiredshallbe
accommodatedwithinthedistanceequaltothedepthofthebeam,withaminimumof4nailsina
rowatastandardspacingasshowninFig.11.8.2.

11.8.3.3.3 Ifthedepthofthebeamismore,thentheverticalintermediatespacingofnailsmaybeincreased
proportionately.

11.8.3.3.4 If the nails required at a point are more than that can be accommodated in a row, then these
shallheprovidedlengthwiseofthebeamwithinthedistanceequaltothedepthofthebeamat
standardlengthwisespacing.

11.8.3.3.5 Fornailedlaminatedbeamminimumdepthof100mmfor3.55mmand4mmdiameternails,and
125mmfor5mmdiameternailsshallbeprovided.

11.9 DESIGNOFBOLTEDCONSTRUCTIONJOINTS

11.9.1 General
Boltedjointssuittherequirementsofprefabricationinsmallandmediumspantimberstructuresforspeedand
economy in construction. Bolt jointed construction units offer better facilities as regards to workshop ease,
massproductionofcomponents,transportconvenienceandreassemblyatsiteofworkparticularlyindefence
sectorforhighaltitudesandfaroffsituations.
Designingismainlyinfluencedbythespecies,sizeofbolts,moistureconditionsandtheinclinationofloadingsto
thegrains.Inprincipleboltedjointsfollowthepatternofrivettedjointsinsteelstructures.

11.9.2 DesignConsiderations

11.9.2.1 Boltedtimberconstructionshallbedesignedinaccordancewith6.Theconceptofcriticalsection,that
is, the net section obtained by deducting the projected area of boltholes from the crosssectional
areaofmemberisveryimportantforthesuccessfuldesignandeconomyintimber.

11.9.2.2 BoltBearingStrengthofWood
Theallowableloadforaboltinajointconsistingoftwomembers(singleshear)shallbetakenasonehalfthe
allowableloadscalculatedforathreememberjoint(doubleshear)forthesamet/d3ratio.Thepercentageof
safeworkingcompressive stressoftimber onbolted joints fordifferent t/d3 ratios shall be as given in Table
11.9.1.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2011 6675
Part6
StructuralDesign

4000
1600 1600 800

1200 1600 1200


800 1600 1600
400 1600 1600 400
100

25mm THICK TIMBER PLANKS


4 @ 75mm = 300mm

25

175

25 50
25 CAMBER

All dimensions in millimetres.

Fig.11.8.1PlanAndElevationOfATypicalNailedLaminatedTimberBeam

6676 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

20 20 20 20 20
100
50 75 75

6A FOR 3.55 mm AND 4 mm DIAMETER NAILS

25
25
125

25
25
25

50 75 75

6B FOR 5 mm DIAMETER NAILS

All dimensions in millimetres.


FIG.11.8.2StandardLengthwiseSpacingInNailedLaminatedBeam

11.9.2.2.1
Whereanumberofboltsareusedinajoint,theallowableloadsshallbethesumoftheallowableloadsforthe
individualbolts.

11.9.2.2.2
he factors for different bolt diameter used in calculating safe bearing stress perpendicular to grain in the joint
shallbeasgiveninTable11.9.2.

11.9.2.3 DimensionsofMembers
a) Theminimumthicknessofthemainmemberinmonochordconstructionshallbe40mm.
b) Theminimumthicknessofsidemembersshallbe20mmandshallbehalfthethicknessofmain
members.
c) Theminimumindividualthicknessofspacedmemberinsplitchordconstructionshallbe20mm
and25mmforwebsandchordmembersrespectively.

11.9.2.4 BoltsandBolting
a) Thediameterofboltinthemainmembershallbesochosentogivelargerslenderness(t/d3)
ratioofbolt.
b) Thereshallbemorenumberofsmalldiameterboltsratherthansmallnumberoflargediameter
boltsinajoint.
c) Aminimumoftwoboltsfornodaljointsandfourboltsforlengtheningjointsshallbeprovided.
d) Thereshallbemorenumberofrowsratherthanmoreboltsinarow.
e) Theboltholesshallbeofsuchdiameterthattheboltcanbedriveneasily.
f) Washersshallbeusedbetweentheheadofboltandwoodsurfaceasalsobetweenthenutand
wood.

11.9.3 ArrangementofBolts

11.9.3.1 Thefollowingspacinginboltedjointsshallbefollowed(seeFig.11.9.1):

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6677
Part6
StructuralDesign

a) SpacingofBoltsinaRowForparallelandperpendiculartograinloading=4d3

b) SpacingBetweenRowsofBolts

Table11.9.1:Percentageofsafeworkingcompressivestressoftimberforboltedjointsindoubleshear

t//d3ratio StressPercentage
Parallelto Perpendicularto
Grain Grain
1 2
(1) (2) (3)
1.0 100 100
1.5 100 96
2.0 100 88
2.5 100 80
3.0 100 72
3.5 100 66
4.0 96 60
4.5 90 56
5.0 80 52
5.5 72 49
6.0 65 46
6.5 58 43
7.0 52 40
7.5 46 39
8.0 40 38
8.5 36 36
9.0 34 34
9.5 32 33
10.0 30 31
10.5 31
11.0 30
11.5 30
12.0 28

1) Forperpendiculartograinloading2.5d3,to5d3(2.5d3,fort/d3,ratioof2and5d3fort/d3ratioof6or
more.Forratiosbetween2to6thespacingshallbeobtainedbyinterpolation.

2) For parallel to grain loading At least (N 4) d3, with a minimumof 2.5 d3. Also governed by net areaat
criticalsectionwhichshouldbe80percentofthetotalareainbearingunderallbolts.

c) EndDistance7d3forsoftwoodsintension,5d3forhardwoodsintensionand4d3forall
speciesincompression.

d) EdgeDistance
1) Forparalleltograinloading1.5d3orhalfthedistancebetweenrowsofbolts,whicheverisgreater.
2) Forperpendiculartograinloading,(loadededgedistance)shallbeatleast4d3.

11.9.3.2 Forinclinedmembers,thespacinggivenaboveforperpendicularandparalleltograinofwoodmaybe
usedasaguideandboltsarrangedatthejointwithrespecttoloadingdirection.

6678 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.9.3.3 Theboltsshallbearrangedinsuchamannersoastopassthecentreofresistanceofboltsthroughthe
intersectionofthegravityaxisofthemembers.

11.9.3.4 Staggering of bolts shall be avoided as far as possible in case of members loaded parallel to grain of
wood.Forloadsactingperpendiculartograinofwood,staggeringispreferabletoavoidsplittingdueto
weathereffects.

Table11.9.2:Boltdiameterfactor

Sl.No. DiameterofBolt DiameterFactor


(mm) (dr)

(1) (2) (3)


i) 6 5.70
ii) 10 3.60
iii) 12 3.35
iv) 16 3.15
v) 20 3.05
vi) 22 3.00
vii) 25 2.90

11.9.3.5 Bolting
Theboltholesshallbeboredordrilledperpendiculartothesurfaceinvolved.Forcibledrivingoftheboltsshallbe
avoidedwhichmaycausecrackingorsplittingofmembers.Aboltholeof1.0mmoversizemaybeusedasaguide
forpreboring.

11.9.3.5.1 Boltsshallbetightenedafteroneyearofcompletionofstructureandsubsequentlyatanintervalof
twotothreeyears.

11.9.4 OutlineforDesignofBoltedJoints
Allowable load on one bolt (unit bearing stress) in a joint with wooden splice plates shall not be greater than
valueofP,R,Fasdeterminedbyoneofthefollowingequations:
a) ForLoadsParalleltoGrain
P = f cp a1

b) ForLoadsPerpendiculartoGrain
R = f cp a2 d f

c) ForLoadsatanAngletoGrain
PR
F=
P sin + R cos 2
2

11.10 DESIGNOFTIMBERCONNECTORJOINTS

11.10.1
Inlargespanstructures,themembershavetotransmitveryheavystressesrequiringstrongerjointingtechniques
with metallic rings or wooden discdowels. Improvised metallic ring connector is a split circular band of steel
madefrommildsteelpipes.Thisisplacedinthegroovescutintothecontactfacesofthetimbermemberstobe
joined,theassemblybeingheldtogetherbymeansofaconnectingbolt.

11.10.1.1 Dimensions of Members Variation of thickness of central (main) and side members affect the load
carryingcapacityofthejoint.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6679
Part6
StructuralDesign

HEAD
HEXAGONAL

t d3

LENGTH OF BOLT
WASHER
4d 3

B
NUT
A

4d 3

UNLOADED
EDGE

2d 3min.

4d 3

4d
3

LOADED
7d 4d 7d
3 3 3 EDGE

B 1.5d 3 min 1.5d3 min

2.5 d3 for t/d3 RATIO 2


A
5 d3 for t/d3 RATIO 6
B
LOADED
EDGE

7A SPACING OF BOLTS IN LENTHENING JOINTS


4d 3
(JOINTS LOADED PARALLEL TO GRAIN)
4d 3

2d 3 min.

UNLOADED
EDGE

1.5d3 min 1.5d3 min

2.5 d3 for t/d3 ratio 2


5 d3 for t/d3 ratio 6

7B SPACING OF BOLTS AT NODE JOINTS


Fig.11.9.1TypicalSpacingOfBoltsInStructuralJoints

Thethicknessofmainmembershallbeatleast57mmandthatofsidemember38mmwithlengthand
widthfmembersgovernedbyplacementofconnectoratjoint.

Themetallicconnectorshallbesoplacedthattheloadededgedistanceisnotlessthanthediameterof
theconnectorandtheenddistancenotlessthan1.75timesthediameterontheloadedside.

6680 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.10.1.2 DesignConsiderations
Figure 11.10.1 illustrates the primary stresses in a split ring connector joint under tension. The shaded areas
representthepartofwoodinshear,compressionandtension.RelatedformulaeforthesameareindicatedinFig.
11.10.1.
For fabrication of structural members, a hole of the required size of the bolt is drilled into the member and a
grooveismadeonthecontactfacesofthejoint.

SPLIT RING CONNECTOR

t1 e t2

d1
d2 d2
b W

a/2 t 1- a a/2 t2

Fig.11.10.1StressDistributionInASplitRingConnector

11.10.2 WoodenDiscDowel

11.10.2.1 It is a circular hardwood disc general] y tapered each way from the middle so as to form a double
conicalfrustum.Suchadiscismadetofitintopreformedholes(recesses),halfinonememberandthe
otherhalfinanother,theassemblybeingheldbyonemildsteelboltthroughthecentreofthediscto
actasacouplingforkeepingthejointedwoodenmembersfromspreadingapart.

11.10.2.2 DimensionsofMembers
Thethicknessofdowelmayvaryfrom25mmto35mmantidiameterfrom50mmto150mm.Thediameterof
dowelshallbe3.25to3.50timesthethickness.
Theedgeclearanceshallrangefrom12mmto20mmasperthesizeofthedowel.Theendclearanceshallbeat
least equal to the diameter of dowel for joints subjected to tension and threefourth the diameter for
compressionjoints.Discdowelshallbeturnedfromquartersawnplanksofseasonedmaterial.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6681
Part6
StructuralDesign

11.10.2.3 ChoiceofSpecies
Woodusedformakingdowelsshallbefairlystraightgrained,freefromexcessiveliabilitytoshrinkandwarp,and
retainshapewellafterseasoningspeciesrecommendedinclude:
Babul
Sissoo
Pyinkado
Yon
NOTE Data on the above species as per Table 11.4.1 except for the species Pyinkado, which is not an
indigenousspecies.

11.10.2.4 DesignConsiderations
Figure11.10.2illustratestheforcesondowelinalapjointandbuttjoint.Dowelissubjectedtoshearingatthe
midsection, and compression along the grain at the bearing surfaces. For equal strength in both the forces,
formulaequationsaregiveninFig.11.10.2todeterminethesizeofdowel.
Themakingofwoodendiscsmaypresentsomeproblemsinthefield,buttheymaybemadeinsmallworkshopto
thespecificationsofthedesigner.Thisisalsoeconomicallyimportant.Oncethewoodfittingsareshoptailored
andmade,theconstructionprocessinthefieldisgreatlysimplified.
Theoreticalsafeloadsindesignshallbeconfirmedthroughsampletests.

11.11 GLUEDLAMINATEDCONSTRUCTIONANDFINGERJOINTS

11.11.1 Developments in the field of synthetic adhesive have brought glueing techniques within the range of
engineeringpractice.Timbermembersoflargercrosssectionsandlonglengthscanbefabricatedfrom
smallsizedplanksbytheprocessofgluelam.Thetermgluedlaminatedtimberconstructionasappliedto
structuralmembersreferstovariouslaminationsgluedtogether,eitherinstraightorcurvedform,having
grainofalllaminationsessentiallyparalleltothelengthsofthemember.

11.11.1.1 ChoiceofGlue
Theadhesiveusedforgluedlaminatedassemblyaregapfillingtype.Afillerinpowderformisintroducedinthe
adhesive. Structural adhesives are supplied either in powder form to which water is added or in resin form to
which a hardener or catalyst is added. However, it is important that only boiling water proof (BWP) grade
adhesivesshallbeusedforfabricationofgluelamintropical,highhumidclimateslikeIndia.

11.11.1.2 ManufacturingSchedule
In absence of a systematic flowline in a factory, provisions of intermediate technology shall be created for
manufacturingstructuralelements.Thescheduleinvolvessteps:
a) Dryingofplanks;
b) Planning;
c) Endjointingbyscarfsorfingers;
d) Machiningoflaminations;
e) Settingupdryassemblyofstructuralunit;
f) Applicationofglue;
g) Assemblyandpressingthelaminations;
h) Curingthegluelines,asspecified;and
i) Finishing,protectionandstorage.

11.11.2
Fingerjointsaregluedjointsconnectingtimbermembersendtoend(Fig.11.11.1).Suchjointsshallbeproduced
bycuttingprofiles(taperedprojections)intheformofVshapedgroovestotheendsoftimberplanksorscantling
tobejoined,glueingtheinterfacesandthenmeetingthetwoendstogetherunderpressure.Fingerjointsprovide
long lengths of timber, ideal for upgrading timber by permitting removal of defects, minimizing warping and
reducingwastagebyavoidingshortoffcuts.

6682 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

DOWEL

LAP JOINT

BUTT JOINT
LapJoint:Boltinsimpletensionduetoclockwiseturningmomentondowel:
ButtJoint:Notiltingmomentindowelduetobalancingeffect[dowelsareinshear(nobending,shearing
andtensilestressonbolts)]
Sizeofdowelforequalstrengthinbothshearingandbearing.
d 2 t
S = d c
4 2
Where
d=Middiameterofthedowel
t=Thicknessofdowel
s=Safeworkingstressinshearalonggrain,and
c=Safecompressivestressalonggrain.
NOTESymbolsareexclusiveinthisfigure.
Fig.11.10.2DistributionOfForcesInDoewlJoint

11.11.2.1 Infingerjointsthegluedsurfacesareonthesidegrainratherthanontheendgrainandthegluelineis
stressedinshearratherintension.

11.11.2.1.1 The figures can be cut from edgetoedge or from facetoface. The difference is mainly in
appearance, although bending strength increases if several fingers share the load. Thus a joist is
slightly stronger with edgetoedge finger joints and a plank is stronger with facetoface finger
joint.

11.11.2.1.2 For structural finger jointed members for interior dry locations, adhesives based on melamine
formaldehyde cross linked polyvinyl acetate (PVA) are suited. For high humid and exterior
conditions, phenol formaldehyde and resorcinol formaldehyde type adhesives are recommended.
Properadhesivesshouldbeselectedinconsultationwiththedesignerandadhesivemanufacturers.

11.11.2.2 ManufacturingProcess
In the absence of sophisticated machinery, the finger joints shall be manufactured through intermediate
technologywiththefollowingsteps:

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6683
Part6
StructuralDesign

a) Dryingofwood,
b) Removalofknotsandotherdefects,
c) Squaringtheendsofthelaminatingplanks,
d) Cuttingtheprofileoffingerjointintheendgrain,
e) Applyingadhesivesonthefingerinterfaces,
f) Pressingthejointtogetheratspecifiedpressure,
g) Curingofadhesivelineatspecifiedtemperature,and
h) Planningoffingerjointedplanksforsmoothsurface.

11.11.2.3 Strength
Strengthoffingerjointsdependsuponthegeometryoftheprofileforstructuralpurpose;thisisgenerally50mm
long,12mmpitch.

11.11.2.3.1 End joints shall be scattered in adjacent laminations, which shall not be located in very highly
stressedouterlaminations.

11.11.2.4 Tipthicknesswillbeassmallaspracticallypossible.

t
p

TIP GAP L

L = FINGER LENGTH
P = PITCH
t = TIP THICKNESS
e = 6

ORIENTATION OF FINGER JOINTS


Fig.11.11.1TypicalFingerJointGeometry

6684 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.12 LAMINATEDVENEERLUMBER

11.12.1 Certain reconstituted lignocellulosic products with fibre oriented along a specific direction have been
developed and are being adopted for load bearing applications. Laminated veneer lumber is one such
productdevelopedasaresultofresearchesinplantationgrownspeciesofwood.Densityoflaminated
veneerlumberrangesfrom0.6to0.75.

11.12.1.1 Dimensions
Sizes of laminated veneer lumber composite shall be inclusive of margin for dressing and finishing unless
manufacturedtoorder.Themarginfordressingandfinishingshallnotexceed3mminthewidthandthickness
and12mminthelength.

11.12.1.2 PermissibleDefects
Jointing gaps Not more than 3 mm wide, provided they are well staggered in their spacing and position
betweenthesuccessiveplies.
SlopeofgrainNotexceeding1in10inthefacelayers.
TightknotThreenumbersupto25mmdiameterinonesquaremetreprovidedtheyarespaced300mmor
moreapart.
WarpNotexceeding1.5mmpermetrelength.

11.12.1.3 StrengthRequirements
ThestrengthrequirementsforlaminatedveneerlumbershallbeasperTable11.12.1.

Table11.12.1:Requirementsoflaminatedveneerlumber

Sl.No. Properties Requirement


(1) (2) (3)
2
i) Modulusofrupture(N/mm ),Min 50
2
ii) Modulusofelasticity(N/mm ),Min 7500
iii) Compressivestrength:
2
a) Paralleltograin(N/mm ),Min 35
2
b) Perpendiculartograin(N/mm ),Min 50
iv) Horizontalshear:
2
a) Paralleltolaminac(N/mm ),Min 6
b) Perpendiculartolaminac(N/mm2),Min 8
v) Tensilestrengthparalleltograin(N/mm2),Min 55
vi) Screwholdingpower:
a) Edge(N),Min 2300
b) Face(N),Min 2700
vii) Thicknessswellingin2hwatersoaking(percent),Max 3

11.13 DESIGNOFGLUEDLAMINATEDBEAMS

11.13.1 General
Glued laminated structural members shall be fabricated only where there are adequate facilities for accurate
sizing and surfacing of planks, uniform application of glue, prompt assembly, and application of adequate
pressure and prescribed temperature for setting and curing of the glue. Design and fabrication shall be in
accordance with established engineering principles and good practice. A glued laminated beam is a straight
membermadefromanumberoflaminationsassembledbothwayseitherhorizontallyorvertically.Whilevertical

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StructuralDesign

laminations have limitations in restricting the crosssection of a beam by width of the plank, horizontally
laminatedsectionofferswiderscopetothedesignerincreatingeventhecurvedmembers.
Simplestraightbeamsandjoistsareusedformanystructuresfromsmalldomesticraftersorridgestothelight
industrialstructures.

11.13.2 Design
Thedesignofgluelaminatedwoodelementsshallbeinaccordancewithgoodengineeringpracticeandshalltake
intoconsiderationthespeciesandgradeoftimberused,presenceofdefects,locationofendjointsinlaminations,
depthofbeamsandmoisturecontentsexpectedwhileinservice.Beamsoflargespansshallbedesignedwitha
suitable camber toassist in achieving themost cost effective section where deflectiongovernsthe design. The
strengthandstiffnessoflaminatedbeamsisoftengovernedbythequalityofouterlaminations.Gluedlaminated
beamscanbetaperedtofollowspecificroofslopesacrossabuildingand/ortocommensuratewiththevarying
bendingmoments.

11.13.3 Material
Laminatingboardsshallnotcontaindecay,knotsorotherstrengthreducingcharacteristicsinexcessofthosesizes
oramountspermittedbyspecifications.Themoisturecontentshallapproachthatexpectedinserviceandshallin
nocaseexceed15percentatthetimeofglueing.Themoisturecontentofindividuallaminationsinastructural
member shall not differ by more than 3 percent at the time of glueing. Glue shall be of type suitable for the
intendedserviceofastructuralmember.

11.13.4 Fabrication/Manufacture
Inordertoassureawellbondedandwellfinishedmemberoftrueshapeandsize,allequipments,endJointing,
glue spread, assembly, pressing, curing or any other operation in connection with the manufacture of glued
structural members shall be in accordance with the available good practices and as per glue manufacturers
instructionsasapplicable.

11.14 STRUCTURALUSEOFPLYWOOD
Unlike sawn timber, plywood is a layered panel product comprising veneers of wood bonded together with
adjacent layers usually at right angles. As wood is strongest when stressed parallel to grain, and weak
perpendicularto grain, thelay up orarrangement of veneersinthepanel determines itsproperties. When the
facegrainoftheplywoodisparalleltothedirectionofstress,veneersparalleltothefacegraincarryalmostall
theload.Someinformation/guidelinesforstructuraluseofplywoodaregivenin11.14.1to11.14.3.

11.14.1 Theplywoodhasahighstrengthtoweightratio,andisdimensionallystablematerialavailableinsheets
ofanumberofthicknessesandconstruction.Plywoodcanbesawn,drilledandnailedwithordinarywood
workingtools.Thegluesusedtobondtheseveneerstogetherarederivedfromsyntheticresinswhichare
setandcuredbyheating.Thepropertiesofadhesivescandeterminethedurabilityofplywood.

11.14.2 Ingluedplywoodconstruction,structuralplywoodisgluedtotimberresultinginhighlyefficientandlight
structuralcomponentslikewebbeams(Iandboxsections),(Fig.11.15.1andFig.11.15.2)stressedskin
panels(Fig.11.15.3)usedforflooringandwallingandprefabricatedhouses,cabins,etc.

WOODEN FLANGE
(TYPICAL)

PLYWOOD
PLYWOOD WEB PLYWOOD
WEB

I - SECTION DOUBLE - I BOX

Fig.11.15.1TypicalCrossSectionOfWebBeams

6686 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

Glueingcanbecarriedoutbynailglueingtechniqueswithspecialclamps.Highshearstrengthofplywood
incombinationwithhighflexuralstrengthandstiffnessofwoodresultinstructurescharacterizedbyhigh
stiffness for even medium spares. Plywood can act as web transmitting shear stress in web bearing or
stressedskinorsandwichconstruction.Theeffectivemomentofinertiaofwebbeamandstressedskin
constructiondependsonmodularratiothatis,EofwoodtoEofplywood.

11.14.3 Structuralplywoodisalsoveryefficientascladdingmaterialinwoodframeconstruction,suchashouses.
Thistype ofsheathing is capable of resistingrackingdue to wind and quackforces. Structuralplywood
hasbeenwidelyusedasdiaphragm(horizontal)asinroofingandflooringintimberframeconstruction.It
hasbeenestablishedthat6mmthickplywoodcanbeusedforsheathingandevenforwebandstressed
skin construction, 912 mm thick plywood is suitable for beams, flooring diaphragms, etc. Phenol
formaldehyde(PF)andPRFadhesivearesuitableforfabricationofgluedplywoodcomponents.6mm12
mm thick structural plywood can be very well used as nailed or bolded gussets in fixing members of
trussesorlatticegridersortrussedrafters.
Normally,scarfjointsareusedforfixingplywoodtorequiredlengthandtimbercanbejoinedbyusing
eitherfingerorscarfjoints.Archpanels,foldedplates,shelvesareotherpossibilitieswiththistechnique.

11.15 TRUSSEDRAFTER

11.15.1 General
Arooftrussisessentiallyaplanestructurewhichisverystiffintheplaneofthemembers,thatis,theplanein
which it is expected to carry loads, but very flexible in every other direction. Thus it can virtually be seen as a
deep, narrow girder liable to buckling and twisting under loads. In order, therefore, to reduce this effect,
eccentricity of loading and promote prefabrication for economy, lowpitched trussed rafters are designed with
boltply/nailplyjoints.Plywoodasgussets,besidesbeingsimplehaveinherentconstructionaladvantageofgrain
over solid wood for joints, and a better balance is achievable between the joint strength and the member
strength.
Trussedraftersarelightweighttrussunitsspacedatclosecentresforlimitedspanstocarrydifferenttypesofroof
loads.Theyaremadefromtimbermembersofuniformthicknessfastenedtogetherinoneplane.Theplywood
gussetsmaybenailedorgluedtothetimbertoformthejoints.Conceptuallyatrussedrafterisatriangularpin
jointedsystem,traditionallymeanttocarrythecombinedroofweight,claddingservicesandwindloads.Thereis
considerable scope for saving timber by minimizing the sections through proper design without affecting
structuralandfunctionalrequirements.
Trussedraftersrequiretobesupportedonlyattheirendssothatthereisnoneedtoprovideloadbearinginternal
walls, Purlins,etc are dispensed with and incomparison with traditionalmethods of constructiontheyuseless
timber and considerably reduces of site labour, Mass production or reliable units can be carried out under
workshopcontrols.

11.15.2 Design
Trussed rafter shall be designed to sustain the dead and imposed loads specified in Part 6 Structural Design:
Chapter2LoadsonBuildingsandStructuresandthecombinationsexpectedtooccur.Extrastresses/deflections
during handling, transportation and erection shall be taken care of. Structural analysis, use of loadslip and
moment,rotationcharacteristicsoftheindividualjointsmaybeusediffeasible.Alternativelythemaximumdirect
forceinamembermaybeassessedtobegivenbyanidealizedpinjointedframework,fullyloadedwithmaximum
deadandimposedloadinthecombinationinwhichtheymayreasonablybeexpectedtooccur.

11.15.3 Timber
Thespeciesoftimberincludingplantationgrownspecieswhichcanbeusedfortrussedrafterconstructionand
permissible stresses thereof shall be in accordance with Table 11.4.1. Moisture contents to be as per zonal
requirementsinaccordancewith11.4.4.

11.15.4 Plywood
Boilingwaterresistant(BWR)gradepreservativetreatedplywoodshallbeused.Introductionofaplywoodgusset
simplifies the jointing and in addition provides rigidity to the joint. Preservation of plywood and other panel

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6687
Part6
StructuralDesign

products shall be done in accordance with good practice prescribed by Bangladesh Forest Research Institute,
Chittagong.


STIFFNER WOODEN
FLANGE PLYWOOD

X SECTION XX
SPAN UPTO 6 - 9m
STRAIGHT

SPAN UPTO 9m

DOUBLE TAPERD

SPAN UPTO 9m

HAUNCHED
Fig.11.15.2WebBeamConfigurations

UPPER SKIN

WEBS

BLOCKING

LOWER SKIN
Fig.11.15.3StressedSkinPanelConstruction(SingleSkinOrDoubleSkin)

6688 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.16 STRUCTURALSANDWICHES

11.16.1 General
Sandwichconstructionsarecompositesofdifferentmaterialsincludingwoodbasedmaterialsformedbybonding
two thin facings of high strength material to a light weight core which provides a combination of desirable
properties that are not attainable with the individual constituent materials (Fig. 11.16.1). The thin facings are
usuallyofstrongdensematerialsincethataretheprincipalloadcarryingmembersoftheconstruction.Thecore
mustbestiffenoughtoensurethefacesremainatthecorrectdistanceapart.Thesandwichesusedasstructural
elementsinbuildingconstructionshallbeadequatelydesignedfortheirintendedservicesandshallbefabricated
onlywherethereareadequatefacilitiesforglueingorotherwisebondingcorestofacingstoensureastrongand
durableproduct.Theentireassemblyprovidesastructuralelementofhighstrengthandstiffnessinproportionto
itsmass.
Nonstructural advantages can also be derived by proper selection of facing and core material for example, an
impermeablefacingscanbeusedtoserveasamoisturebarrierforwallsandroofpanelsandcoremayalsobe
selectedtoprovidethermaland/oracousticinsulation,fireresistance,etc,besidesthedimensionalstability.

L
E R IA
M AT
RE
CO ADHESIVE

FACE SHEETS
Fig.11.16.1:Sandwitchconstructioninstructuralapplications

11.16.2 Cores
Sandwichcoresshallbeofsuchcharacteristicsastogivetotherequiredlateralsupporttothestressedfacingsto
sustainortransmittheassumedloadsorstresses.Coregenerallycarriesshearingloadsandtosupportthethin
facingsduetocompressiveloads.Coreshallmaintainthestrengthanddurabilityundertheconditionsofservice
forwhichtheiruseisrecommended.AmaterialwithlowEandsmallshearmodulusmaybesuitable.

11.16.3 Facings
Facingsshallhavesufficientstrengthandrigiditytoresiststressesthatmaycomeuponthemwhenfabricatedinto
a sandwich construction. They shall be thick enough to carry compressive and tensile stresses and to resist
punctureordentingthatmaybeexpectedinnormalusages.

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11.16.4 Designing
Structural designing may be comparable to the design of Ibeams, the facings of the sandwich represent the
flangesoftheIbeamandthesandwichcoreIbeamweb.

11.16.5 Tests
Testsshallinclude,asapplicable,oneormoreofthefollowing:
a) Flexuralstrengtldstiffness,
b) Edgewisecompressions,
c) Flatwisecompression,
d) Shearinflatwiseplane,
e) Flatwisetensions,
f) Flexuralcreep(creepbehaviourofadhesive),
g) Cantilevervibrations(dynamicproperty),and
h) Weatheringfordimensionalstability.

11.17 LAMELLAROOFING

11.17.1 General
The Lamella roofing offers an excellent architectural edifice in timber, amenable to prefabrication, light weight
structure with high central clearance. It is essentially an arched structure formed by a system of intersecting
skewedarchesbuiltupofrelativelyshorttimberplanksofuniformlengthandcrosssection.Roofisdesignedasa
two hinged arch with a depth equal to the depth of an individual lamella and width equal to the span of the
building. The curved lamellas (planks) are bevelled and bored at the ends and bolted together at an angle,
forming a network (grid) pattern of mutually braced and stiffened members (Fig. 11.17.1). The design shall be
basedonthebalancedorunbalancedassumedloaddistributionusedforroofarches.Effectofdeformationorslip
ofjointsunderloadontheinducedstressesshallbeconsideredindesign.Thrustcomponentsinbothtransverse
andlongitudinaldirectionsofthebuildingduetoskewnessofthelamellaarchshallbeadequatelyresisted.Thrust
at lamella joints shall be resisted by the moment of inertia in the continuous lamella and roof sheathening
(decking)oflamellaroofing.Theinteractionofarchesintwodirectionsaddstothestrengthandstabilityagainst
horizontal forces. For design calculations several assumption tested and observed derivations, longduration
loadingfactors,seasoningadvantagesandeffectsofdefectsaretakenintoaccount.

11.17.2 Lamellas
Planking shall be of a grade of timber that is adequate in strength and stiffness to sustain the assumed loads,
forces,thrustandbendingmomentsgeneratedinLamellaroofing.Lamellaplanksshallbeseasonedtoamoisture
content approximating that they will attain in service. Lamella joints shall be proportioned so that allowable
stresses at bearings of the noncontinuous lamellas on the continuous Iamellas or bearings under the head or
washerofboltsarenotexceeded.

11.17.3 Construction
DesignandconstructionoflamellaroofsinIndiaassumestheroofsurfacestobecylindricalwitheveryindividual
lamella an elliptic segment of an elliptical arch of constant curved length but of different curvature. Lamella
constructionisthusmoreofanartthanscienceasthereisnoanalyticalmethodavailablefortruegenerationof
schedule of cutting lengths and curvature of curved members forming the lamella grid. Dependence of an
engineeronthepracticalingenuityofmastercarpenterisalmostfinal.Allthelamellajointsshallbeaccuratelycut
andfittedtogivefullbearingwithoutexcessivedeformationorslip.Boltsatlamellasplicesshallbeadequateto
holdthe members intheir proper position andshall not be over tightened tocause bendingofthe lamellas or
mashingofwoodundertheboltheads.Connectionoflamellastotheendarchesshallbeadequatetotransmit
thethrustoranyotherforce.Sufficientfalseworkorslidingjigshallbeprovidedforthesupportoflamellaroof
duringactualconstruction/erection.

6690 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

LAMELLA GRID

WIND BLOCK
LAMELLA

NODAL JOINT

BRESSUMMER

LAMELLS GRID

MIDDLE LAMELLA

OUTER LAMELLA
r

H H
38 to 42

I r
r
V V
OUTER
BOLT
R
R

LAMELLA

LAMELLA NODAL JOINT

LOAD REACTION DIAGRAM


Fig.11.17.1:TypicalarrangementofLamellaroofing

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6691
Part6
StructuralDesign

11.18 NAILANDSCREWHOLDINGPOWEROFTIMBER

11.18.1 General
Oneof themostcommonwaysofjoiningtimberpiecestooneanotherisbymeansofcommonwirenailsand
wood screws. Timber is used for structural and nonstructural purposes inform of scantlings, rafters, joists,
boarding,cratingandpackingcases,etcneedingsuitablemethodsofjoiningthem.Neverthelessitisthetimber
whichholdsthenailsorscrewsandassuchpullingofthenails/screwsisthechieffactorwhichcomeintoplay
predominantly.Instructuralnailedjoints,nailsareessentiallyloadedlaterally,thedesigndataforwhichisalready
availableasstandardcodeofpractice.Dataonholdingpowerofnails/screwsindifferentspeciesisalsousefulfor
common commercial purposes. The resistance of mechanical fastenings is a function of the specific gravity of
wood, direction of penetration with respect to the grain direction, depth of penetration and the diameter of
fastenerassumingthatthespacingoffastenersshouldbeadequatetoprecludesplittingofwood.

11.18.2 Nails
Nailsareprobablythemostcommonandfamiliarfastener.Theyareofmanytypesandsizesinaccordancewith
theacceptedstandards[63A(16)].
Ingeneralnailsgivestrongerjointswhendrivenintothesidegrainofwoodthanintotheendgrain.Nailsperform
bestwhenloadedlaterallyascomparedtoaxialwithdrawalsothenailedjointsshouldbedesignedforlateralnail
bearinginstructuraldesign.Informationonwithdrawalresistanceofnailsisavailableandjointsmaybedesigned
forthatkindofloadingasandwhennecessary.

11.18.3 Screw
Nexttothehammerdrivennails,thewoodscrewmaybethemostcommonlyusedfastener.Woodscrewsare
seldomusedinstructuralworkbecauseoftheirprimaryadvantageisinwithdrawalresistance,forexample,for
fixing of ceiling boards to joists, purlin cleats, besides the door hinges etc. They are of considerable structural
importanceinfixturedesignandmanufacture.Woodscrewsaregenerallyfinishedinavarietyofheadshapesand
manufacturedinvariouslengthsfordifferentscrewdiametersorgauges.
Thewithdrawalresistanceofwoodscrewsisafunctionofscrewdiameter,lengthofengagementofthethreaded
portion into the member, and the specific gravity of the species of wood. Withdrawal load capacity of wood
screwsareavailableforsomespeciesandjointsmaybedesignedaccordingly.Endgrainloadonwoodscrewsare
unreliableandwoodscrewsshallnotbeusedforthatpurpose.

11.19 PROTECTIONAGAINSTTERMITEATTACKINBUILDINGS

11.19.1 Two groups of organisms which affect the mechanical and aesthetic properties of wood in houses are
fungiandinsects.Themostimportantwooddestroyinginsectsbelongtotermitesandbeetles.Ofabout
250speciesofwooddestroyingtermitesrecordedinIndia,notmorethanadozenspeciesattackbuilding
causingabout90percentofthedamagetotimberandothercellulosicmaterials.Subterraneantermites
arethemostdestructiveoftheinsectsthatinfestwoodinhousesjustifyingpreventionmeasurestobe
incorporatedinthedesignandconstructionofbuildings.

11.19.1.1 Control measures consist in isolating or sealing off the building from termites by chemical and non
chemicalconstructiontechniques.Itisrecognizedthat95percentdamageisduetointernaltravelof
the termites from ground upwards rather than external entry through entrance thus calling upon for
appropriatecontrolmeasuresinaccordancewithgoodpractices[63A(18)].

11.19.2 ChemicalMethods
Termitesliveinsoilinlargecoloniesanddamagethewoodenstructureinthebuildingsbyeatingupthewoodor
buildingnestsinthewood.Poisoningthesoilunderandaroundthebuildingisanormalrecommendedpractice.
Sprayingofchemicalsolutioninthetrenchesoffoundationsinandaroundwalls,areasunderfloorsbeforeand
afterfillingofearth,etc.Inalreadyconstructedbuildingthetreatmentcanbegivenbydiggingtrenchesallaround
thebuildingandthengivingaliberaldoseofchemicalsandthenclosingthetrenches.

6692 Vol.2
Timber Chapter11

11.19.3 WoodPreservatives
Natural resistance against organisms of quite a few wood species provides durability of timber without special
protection measure. It is a property of heartwood while sapwood is normally always susceptible to attack by
organisms.Preservativesshouldbewellappliedwithsufficientpenetrationintotimber.Forengineers,architects
andbuilders,thefollowingareprimeconsiderationsforchoiceofpreservatives:
a) Inflammabilityoftreatedtimberisnotincreasedandmechanicalpropertiesarenotdecreased;
b) Compatibilitywiththeglueinlaminatedwood,plywoodandboardmaterial;
c) Waterrepellenteffectispreferred;
d) Possiblesuitabilityforprimingcoat;
e) Possibilityofpaintingandotherfinishes;
f) Noncorrosivenaturefasteners;and
g) Influenceonplastics,incaseofmetalrubber,tilesandconcrete.

11.19.4 ConstructionalMethod
Protectionagainstpotentialproblemof termiteattackcansimplybecarriedoutbyordinarygoodconstruction
whichpreventsacolonyfromgainingaccessby:
a) periodicvisualobservationsontermitegalleriestobebrokenoff;
b) speciallyformedandproperlyinstalledmetalshieldatplinthlevel;and
c) continuousfloorslabs,apronfloorsandtermitegroovesonperipheryofbuildings.

BangladeshNationalBuildingCode2012 6693