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Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures

(ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02)


Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC)
Max L. Porter Donald G. McMican J. Gregg Borchelt Jason J. Thompson
Chairman Vice Chairman Secretary Membership Secretary

Regular Members1:
Bechara E. Abboud Howard L. Droz Eric N. Johnson Jerry M. Painter
Bijan Ahmadi Jeffrey L. Elder John C. Kariotis Keith G. Peetz
Amde M. Amde Richard C. Felice Jon P. Kiland Joseph E. Saliba
James E. Amrhein Richard Filloramo Richard E. Klingner Michael P. Schuller
Bruce Barnes Russell T. Flynn L. Donald Leinweber Richard C. Schumacher
Ronald E. Barnett Fouad H. Fouad Hugh C. MacDonald Jr. Daniel Shapiro
Christine Beall John A. Frauenhoffer John H. Matthys Michael J. Tate
Richard M. Bennett Thomas A. Gangel Robert McCluer Itzhak Tepper
Frank Berg Hans R. Ganz W. Mark McGinley Margaret Thomson
David T. Biggs David C. Gastgeb John Melander Diane Throop
Russell H. Brown Stephen H. Getz George A. Miller Robert E. VanLaningham
Jim Bryja Satyendra K. Ghosh Reg Miller Donald W. Vannoy
Mario J. Catani Edgar F. Glock Jr. Vilas Mujumdar Brian J. Walker
Robert N. Chittenden Clayford T. Grimm Colin C. Munro Scott W. Walkowicz
John Chrysler H. R. Hamilton III W. Thomas Munsell Terence A. Weigel
James Colville R. Craig Henderson Javeed A. Munshi A. Rhett Whitlock
Robert W. Crooks Kurt R. Hoigard Antonio Nanni Joseph A. Wintz III
George E. Crow III Thomas A. Holm Robert L. Nelson Thomas D. Wright
Nic Cuoco Ronald J. Hunsicker Joseph F. Neussendorfer R. Dale Yarbrough
Terry M. Curtis Rochelle C. Jaffe James L. Nicholos Daniel Zechmeister
Gerald A. Dalrymple Rashod R. Johnson Gary G. Nichols
Associate Members2:
Ghassan Al-Chaar Christopher L. Galitz Mervyn K. Kowalsky Ronald Sandy Pringle
William G. Bailey David Giambrone Norbert Krogstad Ruiz Lopez M. Rafael
Yigit Bozkurt Dennis W. Graber Peter T. Laursen Roscoe Reeves Jr.
Dean Brown Jeffrey H. Greenwald Steve Lawrence Paul G. Scott
John Bufford B. A. Haseltine Michael D. Lewis Christine A. Subasic
Kevin D. Callahan Barbara G. Heller Nicholas T. Loomis Narendra Taly
I. Kwang Chang A. W. Hendry Robert F. Mast John G. Tawresey
Charles B. Clark Jr. Thomas F. Herrell Raul Alamo Neidhart Robert Thomas
James W. Cowie Paul Hobelman Steven E. OHara Dean J. Tills
Walter L. Dickey Jason Ingham Rick Okawa Michael G. Verlaque
M. Arif Fazil Fred A. Kinateder Adrian W. Page William A. Wood

SYNOPSIS Keywords: anchors (fasteners); anchorage (structural); beams;


This Code covers the design and construction of masonry building codes; cements; clay brick; clay tile; columns; compressive
structures. It is written in such form that it may be adopted by strength; concrete block; concrete brick; construction; detailing;
reference in a legally adopted building code. empirical design flexural strength; glass units; grout; grouting;
Among the subjects covered are: definitions; contract joints; loads (forces); masonry; masonry cements; masonry
documents; quality assurance; materials; placement of embedded load-bearing walls; masonry mortars; masonry walls; modulus of
items; analysis and design; strength and serviceability; flexural and elasticity; mortars; prestressed masonry, pilasters; quality assurance;
axial loads; shear; details and development of reinforcement; walls; reinforced masonry; reinforcing steel; seismic requirements; shear
columns; pilasters; beams and lintels; seismic design requirements; strength; specifications; splicing; stresses; structural analysis;
glass unit masonry; and veneers. An empirical design method and a structural design; ties; unreinforced masonry; veneers; walls;
prescriptive method applicable to buildings meeting specific allowable stress design.
location and construction criteria are also included.
1
The quality, inspection, testing, and placement of materials Regular members fully participate in Committee activities, including
used in construction are covered by reference to ACI 530.1/ASCE responding to correspondence and voting.
6/TMS 602 Specification and other standards. 2
Associate members monitor Committee activities, but do not have voting
privileges.

Adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute (February 11, 2002), the November, 1988, the American Society of Civil Engineers in August, 1989, and The
Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers Masonry Society in July, 1992.
September 28, 2001, and The Masonry Society (February 15, 2002) to supersede
the 1999 edition in accordance with each organization's standardization procedures. SI equivalents shown in this document are calculated conversions. Equations are
The standard was originally adopted by the American Concrete Institute in based on U.S. Customary (inch-pound) Units; SI equivalents for equations are listed
at the end of the Code.
C-2 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY, pg. C-7


1.1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................... C-7
1.1.1 Minimum requirements............................................................................................................................................ C-7
1.1.2 Governing building code.......................................................................................................................................... C-7
1.1.3 Design procedures.................................................................................................................................................... C-7
1.1.4 SI equivalents .......................................................................................................................................................... C-7
1.2 Contract documents and calculations........................................................................................................................... C-7
1.2.1 .................................................................................................................................................................................. C-7
1.2.2 .................................................................................................................................................................................. C-7
1.2.3 .................................................................................................................................................................................. C-7
1.2.4 .................................................................................................................................................................................. C-7
1.2.5 ................................................................................................................................................................................. C-7
1.3 Approval of special systems of design or construction ................................................................................................ C-7
1.4 Standards cited in this Code......................................................................................................................................... C-7
1.5 Notation ....................................................................................................................................................................... C-8
1.6 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................. C-10
1.7 Loading ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.7.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.7.2 Load provisions ..................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.7.3 Lateral load resistance............................................................................................................................................ C-12
1.7.4 Other effects........................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.7.5 Lateral load distribution......................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.8 Material properties ..................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.8.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-12
1.8.2 Elastic moduli ........................................................................................................................................................ C-12
1.8.3 Thermal expansion coefficients ............................................................................................................................. C-12
1.8.4 Moisture expansion coefficient of clay masonry.................................................................................................... C-13
1.8.5 Shrinkage coefficients of concrete masonry........................................................................................................... C-13
1.8.6 Creep coefficients .................................................................................................................................................. C-13
1.8.7 Prestressing steel.................................................................................................................................................... C-13
1.9 Section properties ...................................................................................................................................................... C-13
1.9.1 Stress computations ............................................................................................................................................... C-13
1.9.2 Stiffness ................................................................................................................................................................. C-13
1.9.3 Radius of gyration.................................................................................................................................................. C-13
1.9.4 Intersecting walls ................................................................................................................................................... C-13
1.10 Deflection................................................................................................................................................................. C-13
1.10.1 Deflection of beams and lintels............................................................................................................................ C-13
1.10.2 Connection to structural frames ........................................................................................................................... C-13
1.11 Stack bond masonry................................................................................................................................................. C-13
1.12 Details of reinforcement........................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.12.1 Embedment .......................................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.12.2 Size of reinforcement ........................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.12.3 Placement of reinforcement ................................................................................................................................. C-14
1.12.4 Protection of reinforcement ................................................................................................................................. C-14
1.12.5 Standard hooks..................................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.12.6 Minimum bend diameter for reinforcing bars ...................................................................................................... C-14
1.13 Seismic design requirements.................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.13.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................... C-14
1.13.2 General................................................................................................................................................................. C-15
1.13.3 Seismic Design Category A ................................................................................................................................. C-15
1.13.4 Seismic Design Category B.................................................................................................................................. C-15
1.13.5 Seismic Design Category C.................................................................................................................................. C-16
1.13.6 Seismic Design Category D ................................................................................................................................. C-16
1.13.7 Seismic Design Categories E and F ..................................................................................................................... C-17
1.14 Quality assurance program....................................................................................................................................... C-17
1.14.1 .............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.2 .............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.3 ............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.4 ............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.5 ............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.6 ............................................................................................................................................................................. C-17
1.14.7 Acceptance relative to strength requirements ...................................................................................................... C-17
1.15 Construction ............................................................................................................................................................ C-19
1.15.1 Grouting, minimum spaces .................................................................................................................................. C-19
1.15.2 Embedded conduits, pipes, and sleeves ............................................................................................................... C-19
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-3

CHAPTER 2 ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN, pg. C-21


2.1 General....................................................................................................................................................................... C-21
2.1.1Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-21
2.1.2 Load combinations................................................................................................................................................. C-21
2.1.3 Design strength ...................................................................................................................................................... C-21
2.1.4 Anchor bolts solidly grouted in masonry ............................................................................................................... C-21
2.1.5 Multiwythe walls ................................................................................................................................................... C-22
2.1.6 Columns................................................................................................................................................................. C-23
2.1.7 Pilasters.................................................................................................................................................................. C-23
2.1.8 Load transfer at horizontal connections ................................................................................................................. C-23
2.1.9 Concentrated loads ................................................................................................................................................ C-23
2.1.10 Development of reinforcement embedded in grout ............................................................................................. C-24
2.2 Unreinforced masonry ............................................................................................................................................... C-25
2.2.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-25
2.2.2 Stresses in reinforcement ....................................................................................................................................... C-25
2.2.3 Axial compression and flexure............................................................................................................................... C-25
2.2.4 Axial tension .......................................................................................................................................................... C-26
2.2.5 Shear ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-26
2.3 Reinforced masonry .................................................................................................................................................. C-27
2.3.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-27
2.3.2 Steel reinforcement Allowable stresses............................................................................................................. C-27
2.3.3 Axial compression and flexure............................................................................................................................... C-27
2.3.4 Axial tension and flexural tension.......................................................................................................................... C-27
2.3.5 Shear ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-27

CHAPTER 3 STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY, pg. C-29


3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.2 Required strength................................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.3 Design strength ...................................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.4 Strength reduction factors ...................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.5 Deformation requirements ..................................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.6 Headed and bent-bar anchor bolts.......................................................................................................................... C-29
3.1.7 Material properties................................................................................................................................................. C-30
3.2 Reinforced masonry .................................................................................................................................................. C-32
3.2.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-32
3.2.2 Design assumptions ............................................................................................................................................... C-32
3.2.3 Reinforcement requirements and details ................................................................................................................ C-32
3.2.4 Design of beams, piers, and columns..................................................................................................................... C-33
3.2.5Wall design for out-of-plane loads.......................................................................................................................... C-35
3.2.6 Wall design for in-plane loads ............................................................................................................................... C-35
3.3 Unreinforced (plain) masonry ................................................................................................................................... C-36
3.3.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-36
3.3.2 Flexural strength of unreinforced (plain) masonry members ................................................................................. C-36
3.3.3 Nominal axial strength of unreinforced (plain) masonry members ........................................................................ C-36
3.3.4 Nominal shear strength .......................................................................................................................................... C-36

CHAPTER 4 PRESTRESSED MASONRY, pg. C-37


4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.1.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-37
4.1.3 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-37
4.2 Design methods ......................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.2.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-37
4.2.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-37
4.3 Permissible stresses in prestressing tendons ............................................................................................................. C-37
4.3.1 Jacking force .......................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.3.2 Immediately after transfer ...................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.3.3 Post-tensioned masonry members.......................................................................................................................... C-37
4.4 Effective prestress ..................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.5 Axial compression and flexure .................................................................................................................................. C-37
4.5.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-37
4.5.2 Laterally unrestrained prestressing tendons ........................................................................................................... C-37
4.5.3 Laterally restrained prestressing tendons ............................................................................................................... C-37
C-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

4.6 Axial tension ............................................................................................................................................................. C-38


4.7 Shear ......................................................................................................................................................................... C-38
4.7.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-38
4.7.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-38
4.8 Deflection .................................................................................................................................................................. C-38
4.9 Prestressing tendon anchorages, couplers, and end blocks ....................................................................................... C-38
4.9.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-38
4.9.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-38
4.9.3 ................................................................................................................................................................................ C-38
4.9.4 Bearing stresses...................................................................................................................................................... C-38
4.10 Protection of prestressing tendons and accessories ................................................................................................. C-39
4.10.1 .............................................................................................................................................................................. C-39
4.10.2 .............................................................................................................................................................................. C-39
4.10.3 .............................................................................................................................................................................. C-39
4.11 Development of bonded tendons ............................................................................................................................. C-39

CHAPTER 5 EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY, pg. C-40


5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.1.2 Limitations ............................................................................................................................................................. C-40
5.2 Height ....................................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.3 Lateral stability ......................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.3.1 Shear walls............................................................................................................................................................. C-40
5.3.2 Roofs...................................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.4 Compressive stress requirements .............................................................................................................................. C-40
5.4.1 Calculations ........................................................................................................................................................... C-40
5.4.2 Allowable compressive stresses ............................................................................................................................. C-41
5.5 Lateral support .......................................................................................................................................................... C-41
5.5.1 Intervals ................................................................................................................................................................. C-41
5.5.2 Cantilever walls ..................................................................................................................................................... C-41
5.5.3 Support elements.................................................................................................................................................... C-41
5.6 Thickness of masonry ............................................................................................................................................... C-42
5.6.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-42
5.6.2 Walls ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-42
5.6.3 Foundation walls.................................................................................................................................................... C-42
5.6.4 Foundation piers .................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.6.5 Parapet walls .......................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.7 Bond .......................................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.7.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.7.2 Bonding with masonry headers.............................................................................................................................. C-43
5.7.3 Bonding with wall ties ........................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.7.4 Natural or cast stone .............................................................................................................................................. C-43
5.8 Anchorage ................................................................................................................................................................. C-43
5.8.1 General................................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.8.2 Intersecting walls ................................................................................................................................................... C-43
5.8.3 Floor and roof anchorage ....................................................................................................................................... C-44
5.8.4 Walls adjoining structural framing......................................................................................................................... C-44
5.9 Miscellaneous requirements ...................................................................................................................................... C-44
5.9.1 Chases and recesses ............................................................................................................................................... C-44
5.9.2 Lintels .................................................................................................................................................................... C-44
5.9.3 Support on wood.................................................................................................................................................... C-44
5.9.4 Corbelling .............................................................................................................................................................. C-44

CHAPTER 6 VENEER, pg. C-45


6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.1.2 Design of anchored veneer..................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.1.3 Design of adhered veneer....................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.1.4 Dimension stone .................................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.1.5 General design requirements.................................................................................................................................. C-45
6.2 Anchored Veneer ...................................................................................................................................................... C-45
6.2.1 Alternative design of anchored masonry veneer .................................................................................................... C-45
6.2.2 Prescriptive requirements for anchored masonry veneer........................................................................................ C-45
6.3 Adhered Veneer ........................................................................................................................................................ C-48
6.3.1 Alternative design of adhered masonry veneer ...................................................................................................... C-48
6.3.2 Prescriptive requirements for adhered masonry veneer.......................................................................................... C-48
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-5

CHAPTER 7 GLASS UNIT MASONRY, pg. C-49


7.1 General....................................................................................................................................................................... C-49
7.1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... C-49
7.1.2 Units....................................................................................................................................................................... C-49
7.2 Panel Size................................................................................................................................................................... C-49
7.2.1 Exterior standard-unit panels ................................................................................................................................. C-49
7.2.2 Exterior thin-unit panels ........................................................................................................................................ C-49
7.2.3 Interior panels ........................................................................................................................................................ C-49
7.2.4 Curved panels ........................................................................................................................................................ C-49
7.3 Support ....................................................................................................................................................................... C-50
7.3.1 Isolation ................................................................................................................................................................. C-50
7.3.2 Vertical .................................................................................................................................................................. C-50
7.3.3 Lateral .................................................................................................................................................................... C-50
7.4 Expansion joints ........................................................................................................................................................ C-50
7.5 Base surface treatment .............................................................................................................................................. C-50
7.6 Mortar ....................................................................................................................................................................... C-50
7.7 Reinforcement ........................................................................................................................................................... C-50

TRANSLATION OF INCH-POUND UNITS TO SI UNITS, pg. C-51


C-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-7

CHAPTER 1
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY
1.1 Scope 1.2.3 The Contract documents shall be consistent
1.1.1 Minimum requirements with design assumptions.
This Code provides minimum requirements for the
structural design and construction of masonry elements 1.2.4 Contract documents shall specify the
consisting of masonry units bedded in mortar. minimum level of quality assurance as defined in Section
1.14, or shall include an itemized quality assurance
1.1.2 Governing building code program that exceeds the requirements of Section 1.14.
This Code supplements the legally adopted building
code and shall govern in all matters pertaining to design 1.2.5 Calculations pertinent to design shall be filed
and construction of masonry structural elements, except with the drawings when required by the building official.
where this Code is in conflict with requirements in the When automatic data processing is used, design
legally adopted legally adopted building code. In areas assumptions, program documentation and identified input
without a legally adopted building code, this Code and output data may be submitted in lieu of calculations.
defines the minimum acceptable standards of design and
construction practice. 1.3 Approval of special systems of design or
construction
1.1.3 Design procedures Sponsors of any system of design or construction
Masonry structures and their component members within the scope of this Code, the adequacy of which has
shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of been shown by successful use or by analysis or test, but
this Chapter and one of the following: that does not conform to or is not covered by this Code,
(a) Allowable Stress Design: Chapter 2. shall have the right to present the data on which their
(b) Strength Design of Masonry: Chapter 3. design is based to a board of examiners appointed by the
(c) Prestressed Masonry: Chapter 4. building official. The board shall be composed of
(d) Empirical Design of Masonry: Chapter 5. registered engineers and shall have authority to
(e) Veneer: Chapter 6. investigate the data so submitted, to require tests, and to
(f) Glass Unit Masonry: Chapter 7. formulate rules governing design and construction of
1.1.4 SI equivalents such systems to meet the intent of this Code. The rules,
SI values shown in parentheses are not part of this when approved and promulgated by the building official,
Code. shall be of the same force and effect as the provisions of
this Code.
1.2 Contract documents and calculations
1.2.1 Project drawings and project specifications 1.4 Standards cited in this Code
for masonry structures shall identify the individual Standards of the American Concrete Institute, the
responsible for their preparation. American Society of Civil Engineers, the American
Society for Testing and Materials, and the American
1.2.2 Show all Code-required drawing items on Welding Society referred to in this Code are listed below
the project drawings, including: with their serial designations, including year of adoption
(a) Name and date of issue of code and supplement to or revision, and are declared to be part of this Code as if
which the design conforms. fully set forth in this document.
(b) All loads used in the design of masonry.
(c) Specified compressive strength of masonry at stated ACI 530.1-02/ ASCE 6-02/ TMS 602-02
ages or stages of construction for which masonry is Specification for Masonry Structures
designed, except where specifically exempted by ASCE 7-93 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Code provisions. Other Structures
(d) Size and location of structural elements. ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
(e) Details of anchorage of masonry to structural Other Structures
members, frames, and other construction, including
the type, size, and location of connectors. ASTM A 416/A 416M-00 Specification for Steel
(f) Details of reinforcement, including the size, grade, Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved for
type, and location of reinforcement. Prestressed Concrete
(g) Reinforcing bars to be welded and welding ASTM A 421/A 421M-98a Specification for
requirements. Uncoated Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed
(h) Provision for dimensional changes resulting from Concrete
elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature
and moisture. ASTM A 722/A 722M-98 Specification for Uncoated
(i) Size and location of conduits, pipes, and sleeves. High-Strength Steel Bar for Prestressed Concrete
C-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

ASTM C 426-99 Test Method for Drying Shrinkage bvf = factored shear force in an anchor bolt, lb (N)
of Concrete Block bw = width of wall beam, in. (mm)
Cd = deflection amplification factor
ASTM C 476-99 Specification for Grout for Masonry
c = distance from the fiber of maximum
ASTM C 482-81(1996) Test Method for Bond compressive strain to the neutral axis, in.
Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement (mm)
D = dead load or related internal moments and
ASTM E 111-82 (1996) Test Method for Young's
forces
Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to
ASTM E 488-96 Test Methods for Strength of centroid of tension reinforcement, in. (mm)
Anchors in Concrete and Masonry Elements db = nominal diameter of reinforcement or anchor
bolt, in. (mm)
AWS D 1.4-98 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing
dv = actual depth of masonry in direction of shear
Steel
considered, in. (mm)
E = load effects of earthquake or related internal
1.5 Notation
moments and forces
Ab = cross-sectional area of an anchor bolt, in.2
Em = modulus of elasticity of masonry in
(mm2)
compression, psi (MPa)
Ag = gross cross-sectional area of masonry, in.2
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel, psi (MPa)
(mm2)
Ev = modulus of rigidity (shear modulus) of
An = net cross-sectional area of masonry, in.2
masonry, psi (MPa)
(mm2)
e = eccentricity of axial load, in. (mm)
Ap = projected area on the masonry surface of a
eb = projected leg extension of bent-bar anchor,
right circular cone for anchor bolt allowable
measured from inside edge of anchor at bend
shear and tension calculations, in.2 (mm2)
to farthest point of anchor in the plane of the
Aps = area of prestressing steel, in.2 (mm2)
hook, in. (mm)
Apt = projected area on masonry surface of a right
eu = eccentricity of Puf, in. (mm)
circular cone for calculating tensile breakout
F = lateral pressure of liquids or related internal
capacity of anchor bolts, in.2 (mm2)
moments and forces
Apv = projected area on masonry surface of one-half
Fa = allowable compressive stress due to axial load
of a right circular cone for calculating shear
only, psi (MPa)
breakout capacity of anchor bolts, in.2 (mm2)
Fb = allowable compressive stress due to flexure
As = effective cross-sectional area of
only, psi (MPa)
reinforcement, in.2 (mm2)
Fs = allowable tensile or compressive stress in
Av = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement,
reinforcement, psi (MPa)
in.2 (mm2)
Fv = allowable shear stress in masonry, psi (MPa)
A1 = bearing area, in.2 (mm2)
fa = calculated compressive stress in masonry due
A2 = effective bearing area, in.2 (mm2)
to axial load only, psi (MPa)
Ast = total area of laterally tied longitudinal
fb = calculated compressive stress in masonry due
reinforcing steel in a reinforced masonry
to flexure only, psi (MPa)
column or pilaster, in.2 (mm2)
f 'g = specified compressive strength of grout, psi
a = depth of an equivalent compression zone at
(MPa)
nominal strength, in. (mm)
f 'm = specified compressive strength of masonry,
Ba = allowable axial force on an anchor bolt, lb (N)
psi (MPa)
Ban = nominal axial strength of an anchor bolt, lb
f 'mi = specified compressive strength of masonry at
(N)
the time of prestress transfer, psi (MPa)
Bv = allowable shear force on an anchor bolt, lb
fps = stress in prestressing tendon at nominal
(N)
strength, psi (MPa)
Bvn = nominal shear strength of an anchor bolt, lb
fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing
(N)
tendon, psi (MPa)
b = width of section, in. (mm)
fpy = specified yield strength of prestressing
ba = total applied design axial force on an anchor
tendon, psi (MPa)
bolt, lb (N)
fr = modulus of rupture, psi (MPa)
baf = factored axial force in an anchor bolt, lb (N)
fs = calculated tensile or compressive stress in
bv = total applied design shear force on an anchor
reinforcement, psi (MPa)
bolt, lb (N)
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-9

fse = effective stress in prestressing tendon after all Nv = compressive force acting normal to shear
prestress losses have occurred, psi (MPa) surface, lb (N)
fv = calculated shear stress in masonry, psi (MPa) P = axial load, lb (N)
fy = specified yield strength of steel for Pa = allowable compressive force in reinforced
reinforcement and anchors, psi (MPa) masonry due to axial load, lb (N)
H = lateral pressure of soil or related internal Pe = Euler buckling load, lb (N)
moments and forces Pn = nominal axial strength, lb (N)
h = effective height of column, wall, or pilaster, Pps = prestressing tendon force at time and location
in. (mm) relevant for design, lb (N)
Icr = moment of inertia of cracked cross-sectional Pu = factored axial load, lb (N)
area of a member, in.4 (mm4) Puf = factored load from tributary floor or roof
Ieff = effective moment of inertia, in.4 (mm4) areas, lb (N)
Ig = moment of inertia of gross cross-sectional Puw = factored weight of wall area tributary to wall
area of a member, in.4 (mm4) section under consideration, lb (N)
In = moment of inertia of net cross-sectional area Q = first moment about the neutral axis of a
of a member , in.4 (mm4) section of that portion of the cross section
j = ratio of distance between centroid of flexural lying between the neutral axis and extreme
compressive forces and centroid of tensile fiber, in.3 (mm3)
forces to depth, d R = seismic response modification factor
K = the lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing r = radius of gyration, in. (mm)
between adjacent reinforcement, or 5 times Sn = section modulus of the net cross-sectional
db, in. (mm) area of a member, in.3 (mm3)
kc = coefficient of creep of masonry, per psi (MPa) s = spacing of reinforcement, in. (mm)
ke = coefficient of irreversible moisture expansion sl = total linear drying shrinkage of concrete
of clay masonry masonry units determined in accordance with
km = coefficient of shrinkage of concrete masonry ASTM C 426
kt = coefficient of thermal expansion of masonry T = forces and moments caused by restraint of
per degree Fahrenheit (degree Celsius) temperature, shrinkage, and creep strains or
L = live load or related internal moments and differential movements
forces t = nominal thickness of member, in. (mm)
l = clear span between supports, in. (mm) v = shear stress, psi (MPa)
lb = effective embedment length of plate, headed V = shear force, lb (N)
or bent anchor bolts, in. (mm) Vm = shear strength provided by masonry, lb (N)
lbe = anchor bolt edge distance, measured in the Vn = nominal shear strength, lb (N)
direction of load, from edge of masonry to Vs = shear strength provided by shear
center of the cross section of anchor bolt , in. reinforcement, lb (N)
(mm) Vu = factored shear, lb (N)
ld = embedment length or lap length of straight W = wind load or related internal moments and
reinforcement, in. (mm) forces
lde = basic development length of reinforcement, wu = out-of-plane factored uniformly distributed
in. (mm) load, lb/in. (N/mm)
le = equivalent embedment length provided by = 0.25 for fully grouted masonry or 0.15 for
standard hooks, in. (mm) other than fully grouted masonry
lp = clear span of the prestressed member in the b = ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total
direction of the prestressing tendon, in. (mm) area of tension reinforcement at a section
M = maximum moment at the section under = reinforcement size factor
consideration, in.-lb (N-mm) = calculated story drift, in. (mm)
Ma = maximum moment in member due to the a = allowable story drift, in. (mm)
applied loading for which deflection is s = horizontal deflection at midheight under
computed, in.-lb (N-mm) service loads, in. (mm)
Mcr = nominal cracking moment strength, in.-lb (N- u = deflection due to factored loads, in. (mm)
mm) mu = maximum usable compressive strain of
Mn = nominal moment strength, in.-lb (N-mm) masonry
Mser = service moment at midheight of a member,
= strength reduction factor
including P-delta effects, in.-lb (N-mm)
= reinforcement ratio
Mu = factored moment, in.-lb (N-mm)
C-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

1.6 Definitions grout, in accordance with the provisions of ACI


Anchor Metal rod, wire, or strap that secures 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
masonry to its structural support. Connector A mechanical device for securing two or
Anchor pullout Anchor failure defined by the anchor more pieces, parts, or members together, including
sliding out of the material in which it is embedded anchors, wall ties, and fasteners.
without breaking out a substantial portion of the Contract documents Documents establishing the
surrounding material. required work, and including in particular, the project
Architect/Engineer The architect, engineer, archi- drawings and project specifications.
tectural firm, engineering firm, or architectural and Depth The dimension of a member measured in the
engineering firm issuing drawings and specifications, or plane of a cross section perpendicular to the neutral axis.
administering the work under contract specifications and Design story drift The difference of deflections at
project drawings, or both. the top and bottom of the story under consideration,
Area, gross cross-sectional The area delineated by calculated by multiplying the deflections determined
the out-to-out dimensions of masonry in the plane under from an elastic analysis by the appropriate deflection
consideration. amplification factor, Cd, from ASCE 7-98.
Area, net cross-sectional The area of masonry units, Design strength The nominal strength of an element
grout, and mortar crossed by the plane under multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor.
consideration based on out-to-out dimensions. Diaphragm A roof or floor system designed to
Backing The wall or surface to which the veneer is transmit lateral forces to shear walls or other lateral load
secured. resisting elements.
Bed joint The horizontal layer of mortar on which a Dimension, nominal A nominal dimension is equal
masonry unit is laid. to a specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints
Bonded prestressing tendon Prestressing tendon that with which the units are to be laid. Nominal dimensions
is encapsulated by prestressing grout in a corrugated duct are usually stated in whole numbers. Thickness is given
that is bonded to the surrounding masonry through first, followed by height and then length.
grouting. Dimensions, specified Dimensions specified for the
Building official The officer or other designated manufacture or construction of a unit, joint, or element.
authority charged with the administration and Effective height Clear height of a braced member
enforcement of this Code, or the building official's duly between lateral supports and used for calculating the
authorized representative. slenderness ratio of a member. Effective height for
Camber A deflection that is intentionally built into a unbraced members shall be calculated.
structural element to improve appearance or to nullify the Effective prestress Stress remaining in prestressing
deflection of the element under the effects of loads, tendons after all losses have occurred.
shrinkage, and creep. Foundation pier An isolated vertical foundation
Cavity wall A multiwythe noncomposite masonry member whose horizontal dimension measured at right
wall with a continuous air space within the wall (with or angles to its thickness does not exceed 3 times its
without insulation), which is tied together with metal ties. thickness and whose height is equal to or less than 4
Collar joint Vertical longitudinal space between times its thickness.
wythes of masonry or between masonry wythe and back- Glass unit masonry Nonload-bearing masonry
up construction, which is permitted to be filled with composed of glass units bonded by mortar.
mortar or grout. Head joint Vertical mortar joint placed between
Column An isolated vertical member whose masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry
horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its units are laid.
thickness does not exceed 3 times its thickness and Header (bonder) A masonry unit that connects two
whose height is greater than 4 times its thickness. or more adjacent wythes of masonry.
Composite action Transfer of stress between Laterally restrained prestressing tendon Prestressing
components of a member designed so that in resisting tendon that is not free to move laterally within the cross
loads, the combined components act together as a single section of the member.
member. Laterally unrestrained prestressing tendon Pre-
Composite masonry Multicomponent masonry stressing tendon that is free to move laterally within the
members acting with composite action. cross section of the member.
Compressive strength of masonry Maximum Load, dead Dead weight supported by a member, as
compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional defined by the legally adopted building code.
area of masonry, determined by testing masonry prisms Load, live Live load specified by the legally adopted
or a function of individual masonry units, mortar, and building code.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-11

Load, service Load specified by the legally adopted factored loads.


building code. Shear wall A wall, bearing or nonbearing, designed
Longitudinal reinforcement Reinforcement placed to resist lateral forces acting in the plane of the wall
parallel to the axis of the member. (sometimes referred to as a vertical diaphragm).
Masonry breakout Anchor failure defined by the Shear wall, detailed plain (unreinforced) masonry A
separation of a volume of masonry, approximately masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces while
conical in shape, from the member. neglecting stresses in reinforcement although provided
Modulus of elasticity Ratio of normal stress to with minimum reinforcement and connections.
corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses Shear wall, intermediate reinforced masonry A
below proportional limit of material. masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces while
Modulus of rigidity Ratio of unit shear stress to unit considering stresses in reinforcement and to satisfy
shear strain for unit shear stress below the proportional specific minimum reinforcement and connection
limit of the material. requirements.
Nominal strength The strength of an element or Shear wall, ordinary plain (unreinforced) masonry
cross section calculated in accordance with the A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces
requirements and assumptions of the strength design while neglecting stresses in reinforcement, if present.
methods of these provisions before application of Shear wall, ordinary reinforced masonry A masonry
strength reduction factors. shear wall designed to resist lateral forces while
Pier An isolated vertical member whose horizontal considering stresses in reinforcement and satisfying
dimension measured at right angles to its thickness is not prescriptive reinforcement and connection requirements.
less than 3 times its thickness nor greater than 6 times its Shear wall, special reinforced masonry A masonry
thickness and whose height is less than 5 times its length. shear wall designed to resist lateral forces while
Plain (unreinforced) masonry Masonry in which the considering stresses in reinforcement and to satisfy
tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into special reinforcement and connection requirements.
consideration and the effects of stresses in reinforcement, Specified compressive strength of masonry, f 'm
if present, are neglected. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per
Post-tensioning Method of prestressing in which unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry
prestressing tendon is tensioned after the masonry has used in construction by the contract documents, and upon
been placed. which the project design is based. Whenever the quantity
Prestressed masonry Masonry in which internal fm is under the radical sign, the square root of numerical
stresses have been introduced to counteract stresses value only is intended and the result has units of psi
resulting from applied loads. (MPa).
Pretensioning Method of prestressing in which Stack bond For the purpose of this Code, stack bond
prestressing tendon is tensioned before the transfer of is other than running bond. Usually the placement of
stress into the masonry. units is such that the head joints in successive courses are
Prestressing grout A cementitious mixture used to vertically aligned.
encapsulate bonded prestressing tendons. Stone masonry Masonry composed of field,
Prestressing tendon Steel elements such as wire, bar, quarried, or cast stone units bonded by mortar.
or strand, used to impart prestress to masonry. Stone masonry, ashlar Stone masonry composed of
Project drawings The drawings that, along with the rectangular units having sawed, dressed, or squared bed
project specifications, complete the descriptive surfaces and bonded by mortar.
information for constructing the work required by the Stone masonry, rubble Stone masonry composed of
contract documents. irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar.
Project specifications The written documents that Strength reduction factor, The factor by which the
specify requirements for a project in accordance with the nominal strength is multiplied to obtain the design
service parameters and other specific criteria established strength.
by the owner or the owners agent. Tendon anchorage In post-tensioning, a device used
Quality assurance The administrative and to anchor the prestressing tendon to the masonry or
procedural requirements established by the contract concrete member; in pre-tensioning, a device used to
documents to assure that constructed masonry is in anchor the prestressing tendon during hardening of
compliance with the contract documents. masonry mortar, grout, prestressing grout, or concrete.
Reinforcement Nonprestressed steel reinforcement. Tendon coupler A device for connecting two tendon
Running bond The placement of masonry units such ends, thereby transferring the prestressing force from end
that head joints in successive courses are horizontally to end.
offset at least one-quarter the unit length. Tendon jacking force Temporary force exerted by a
Required strength The strength needed to resist device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons.
C-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Tie, lateral Loop of reinforcing bar or wire 1.7.4 Other effects


enclosing longitudinal reinforcement. Consideration shall be given to effects of forces and
Tie, wall Metal connector that connects wythes of deformations due to prestressing, vibrations, impact,
masonry walls together. shrinkage, expansion, temperature changes, creep,
Transfer Act of applying to the masonry member the unequal settlement of supports, and differential
force in the prestressing tendons. movement.
Transverse reinforcement Reinforcement placed
1.7.5 Lateral load distribution
perpendicular to the axis of the member.
Lateral loads shall be distributed to the structural
Unbonded prestressing tendon Prestressing tendon
system in accordance with member stiffnesses and shall
that is not bonded to masonry.
comply with the requirements of this section.
Unreinforced masonry Masonry in which the tensile
1.7.5.1 Flanges of intersecting walls designed
resistance of masonry is taken into consideration and the
in accordance with Section 1.9.4.2 shall be included in
resistance of the reinforcing steel is neglected.
stiffness determination.
Veneer, adhered Masonry veneer secured to and
1.7.5.2 Distribution of load shall be consistent
supported by the backing through adhesion.
with the forces resisted by foundations.
Veneer, anchored Masonry veneer secured to and
1.7.5.3 Distribution of load shall include the
supported laterally by the backing through anchors and
effect of horizontal torsion of the structure due to
supported vertically by the foundation or other structural
eccentricity of wind or seismic loads resulting from the
elements.
non-uniform distribution of mass.
Veneer, masonry A masonry wythe that provides the
exterior finish of a wall system and transfers out-of-plane
1.8 Material properties
load directly to a backing, but is not considered to add
1.8.1 General
load resisting capacity to the wall system.
Unless otherwise determined by test, the
Wall A vertical element with a horizontal length to
following moduli and coefficients shall be used in
thickness ratio greater than 3, used to enclose space.
determining the effects of elasticity, temperature,
Wall, loadbearing Wall carrying vertical loads
moisture expansion, shrinkage, and creep.
greater than 200 lb/lineal ft (2919 N/m) in addition to its
own weight. 1.8.2 Elastic moduli
Wall, masonry bonded hollow A multiwythe wall 1.8.2.1 Steel reinforcement
built with masonry units arranged to provide an air space
between the wythes and with the wythes bonded together Es = 29,000,000 psi (199 955 MPa)
with masonry units. 1.8.2.2 Clay and concrete masonry
Width The dimension of a member measured in the 1.8.2.2.1 The design of clay and concrete
plane of a cross section parallel to the neutral axis. masonry shall be based on the following modulus of
Wythe Each continuous vertical section of a wall, elasticity values:
one masonry unit in thickness.
Em = 700 f 'm for clay masonry;
1.7 Loading Em = 900 f 'm for concrete masonry;
1.7.1 General or the chord modulus of elasticity taken between 0.05
Masonry shall be designed to resist applicable loads. and 0.33 of the maximum compressive strength of each
1.7.2 Load provisions prism determined by test in accordance with the prism
Service loads shall be in accordance with the legally test method, Article 1.4 B.3 of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS
adopted building code of which this Code forms a part, 602, and ASTM E 111.
with such live load reductions as are permitted in the 1.8.2.2.2 Ev = 0.4Em
legally adopted building code. In the absence of service 1.8.2.3 Grout Modulus of elasticity of grout
loads in the legally adopted building code, the load shall be determined by the expression 500 f 'g .
provisions of ASCE 7-93 shall be used, except as noted 1.8.3 Thermal expansion coefficients
in this Code. 1.8.3.1 Clay masonry
1.7.3 Lateral load resistance kt = 4 x 10-6 in./in./F (7.2 x 10-6 mm/mm/C)
Buildings shall be provided with a structural system
designed to resist wind and earthquake loads and to 1.8.3.2 Concrete masonry
accommodate the effect of the resulting deformations. kt = 4.5 x 10-6 in./in./ F
(8.1 x 10-6 mm/mm/C)
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-13

1.8.4 Moisture expansion coefficient of clay (a) Design shall conform to the provisions of Section
masonry 1.9.4.2.
ke = 3 x 10-4 in./in. (3 x 10-4 mm/mm) (b) Transfer of shear between walls shall be prevented.
1.9.4.2 Design of wall intersection
1.8.5 Shrinkage coefficients of concrete masonry 1.9.4.2.1 Masonry shall be in running
1.8.5.1 Masonry made of moisture-controlled bond.
concrete masonry units: 1.9.4.2.2 Flanges shall be considered
km = 0.15 sl effective in resisting applied loads.
1.9.4.2.3 The width of flange considered
where sl is not more than 6.5 x 10-4 in./in. (6.5 x 10-4
effective on each side of the web shall be the lesser of 6
mm/mm)
times the flange thickness or the actual flange on either
1.8.5.2 Masonry made of non-moisture-
side of the web wall.
controlled concrete masonry units:
1.9.4.2.4 Design for shear, including the
km = 0.5 sl transfer of shear at interfaces, shall conform to the
1.8.6 Creep coefficients requirements of Section 2.2.5 or 2.3.5.
1.8.6.1 Clay masonry 1.9.4.2.5 The connection of intersecting
walls shall conform to one of the following requirements:
kc = 0.7 x 10-7, per psi (0.1 x 10-4, per MPa)
(a) Fifty percent of the masonry units at the interface
1.8.6.2 Concrete masonry shall interlock.
kc = 2.5 x 10-7, per psi (0.36 x 10-4, per MPa) (b) Walls shall be anchored by steel connectors grouted
into the wall and meeting the following
1.8.7 Prestressing steel requirements:
Modulus of elasticity shall be determined by tests. (1) Minimum size: 1/4 in. x 11/2 in. x 28 in. (6.4 mm
For prestressing steels not specifically listed in ASTM x 38.1 mm x 711 mm) including 2 in. (50.8 mm)
A 416, A 421, or A 722, tensile strength and relaxation long 90 degree bend at each end to form a U or
losses shall be determined by tests. Z shape.
(2) Maximum spacing: 4 ft (1.22 m).
1.9 Section properties (c) Intersecting bond beams shall be provided in
1.9.1 Stress computations intersecting walls at a maximum spacing of 4 ft
1.9.1.1 Member design shall be computed (1.22 m) on centers. Bond beams shall be
using section properties based on the minimum net cross- reinforced and the area of reinforcement shall not
sectional area of the member under consideration. be less than 0.1 in.2 per ft (211 mm2/m) of wall.
Section properties shall be based on specified Reinforcement shall be developed on each side of
dimensions. the intersection.
1.9.1.2 In members designed for composite
action, stresses shall be computed using section 1.10 Deflection
properties based on the minimum transformed net 1.10.1 Deflection of beams and lintels
cross-sectional area of the composite member. The Deflection of beams and lintels due to dead plus live
transformed area concept for elastic analysis, in which loads shall not exceed the lesser of l/600 or 0.3 in. (7.6
areas of dissimilar materials are transformed in mm) when providing vertical support to masonry
accordance with relative elastic moduli ratios, shall designed in accordance with Section 2.2 or Chapter 5.
apply. Actual stresses shall be used to verify compliance
with allowable stress requirements. 1.10.2 Connection to structural frames
Masonry walls shall not be connected to structural
1.9.2 Stiffness frames unless the connections and walls are designed to
Determination of stiffness based on uncracked resist design interconnecting forces and to accommodate
section is permissible. Use of the average net cross- calculated deflections.
sectional area of the member considered in stiffness
computations is permitted. 1.11 Stack bond masonry
1.9.3 Radius of gyration For masonry in other than running bond, the
Radius of gyration shall be computed using average minimum area of horizontal reinforcement shall be
net cross-sectional area of the member considered. 0.00028 times the gross vertical cross-sectional area of
the wall using specified dimensions. Horizontal
1.9.4 Intersecting walls reinforcement shall be placed in horizontal joints or in
1.9.4.1 Wall intersections shall meet one of the bond beams spaced not more than 48 in. (1219 mm) on
following requirements: center.
C-14 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

1.12 Details of reinforcement 1.12.4.3 Wall ties, sheet metal anchors, steel
1.12.1 Embedment plates and bars, and inserts exposed to earth or weather,
Reinforcing bars shall be embedded in grout. or exposed to a mean relative humidity exceeding 75
percent shall be stainless steel or protected from
1.12.2 Size of reinforcement
corrosion by hot-dip galvanized coating or epoxy
1.12.2.1 The maximum size of reinforcement
coating. Wall ties, anchors, and inserts shall be mill
used in masonry shall be No. 11 (M #36).
galvanized, hot-dip galvanized, or stainless steel for all
1.12.2.2 The diameter of reinforcement shall not
other cases. Anchor bolts, steel plates, and bars not
exceed one-half the least clear dimension of the cell,
exposed to earth, weather, nor exposed to a mean relative
bond beam, or collar joint in which it is placed. (See
humidity exceeding 75 percent, need not be coated.
Section 1.15.1.)
1.12.2.3 Longitudinal and cross wires of joint 1.12.5 Standard hooks
reinforcement shall have a minimum wire size of W1.1 Standard hooks shall be formed by one of the
(MW7) and a maximum wire size of one-half the joint following methods:
thickness. (a) A 180 degree turn plus extension of at least 4 bar
diameters but not less than 21/2 in. (64 mm) at free
1.12.3 Placement of reinforcement
end of bar.
1.12.3.1 The clear distance between parallel
(b) A 90 degree turn plus extension of at least 12 bar
bars shall not be less than the nominal diameter of the
diameters at free end of bar.
bars, nor less than 1 in. (25.4 mm).
(c) For stirrup and tie anchorage only, either a 90 degree
1.12.3.2 In columns and pilasters, the clear
or a 135 degree turn plus an extension of at least 6
distance between vertical bars shall not be less than one
bar diameters at the free end of the bar.
and one-half times the nominal bar diameter, nor less
than 11/2 in. (38.1 mm). 1.12.6 Minimum bend diameter for reinforcing
1.12.3.3 The clear distance limitations between bars
bars required in Sections 1.12.3.1 and 1.12.3.2 shall also The diameter of bend measured on the inside of
apply to the clear distance between a contact lap splice reinforcing bars, other than for stirrups and ties, shall not
and adjacent splices or bars. be less than values specified in Table 1.12.6.1.
1.12.3.4 Groups of parallel reinforcing bars
bundled in contact to act as a unit shall be limited to two
in any one bundle. Individual bars in a bundle cut off Table 1.12.6.1 Minimum diameters of bend
within the span of a member shall terminate at points at
least 40 bar diameters apart. Bar size and type Minimum diameter
1.12.3.5 Reinforcement embedded in grout shall
have a thickness of grout between the reinforcement and
masonry units not less than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) for fine grout No. 3 through No. 7 (M 5 bar diameters
or 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) for coarse grout. #10 through #22)
1.12.4 Protection of reinforcement Grade 40 (Grade
1.12.4.1 Reinforcing bars shall have a masonry 300)
cover not less than the following: No. 3 through No. 8 (M 6 bar diameters
(a) Masonry face exposed to earth or weather: 2 in. #10 through #25)
(50.8 mm) for bars larger than No. 5 (M #16); 11/2 Grade 50 or 60
in. (38.1 mm) for No. 5 (M #16) bars or smaller. (Grade 350 or 420)
(b) Masonry not exposed to earth or weather: 11/2 in. No. 9, No. 10, and No. 11 8 bar diameters
(38.1 mm). (M #29, #32, and
1.12.4.2 Longitudinal wires of joint #36) Grade 50 or 60
reinforcement shall be fully embedded in mortar or grout (Grade 350 or 420)
with a minimum cover of 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) when exposed
to earth or weather and 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) when not
exposed to earth or weather. Joint reinforcement shall be
stainless steel or protected from corrosion by hot-dipped
1.13 Seismic design requirements
galvanized coating or epoxy coating when used in
1.13.1 Scope
masonry exposed to earth or weather and in interior walls
The seismic design requirements of this section
exposed to a mean relative humidity exceeding 75
apply to the design and construction of masonry, except
percent. All other joint reinforcement shall be mill
glass unit masonry and masonry veneer.
galvanized, hot-dip galvanized, or stainless steel.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-15

1.13.2 General than 200 lb per lineal ft (2919 N per lineal m) of wall.
1.13.2.1 Seismic design category classification The maximum spacing between connectors shall be 4 ft
Masonry shall comply with the requirements of (1.22 m).
Sections 1.13.3 through 1.13.7 based on the structures 1.13.2.2.3 Ordinary reinforced masonry
Seismic Design Category as defined in ASCE 7-98. In shear walls Design of ordinary reinforced masonry
addition, masonry shall comply with either the shear walls shall comply with the requirements of Section
requirements of Section 1.1.3 or the requirements of 2.3 or Section 3.2, and shall comply with the
Section 2.1.3.3. requirements of Sections 1.13.2.2.2.1 and 1.13.2.2.2.2.
1.13.2.2 Lateral force-resisting system 1.13.2.2.4 Intermediate reinforced masonry
Buildings relying on masonry shear walls as part of the shear walls Design of intermediate reinforced
lateral force-resisting system shall have shear walls that masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements
comply with the requirements of Section 1.13.2.2.1, Section 2.3 or Section 3.2. Design shall also comply with
1.13.2.2.2, 1.13.2.2.3, 1.13.2.2.4, or 1.13.2.2.5. the requirements of Sections 1.13.2.2.2.1 and
Exception: Buildings assigned to Seismic Design 1.13.2.2.2.2, except that the spacing of vertical
Category A shall be permitted to have shear walls reinforcement in intermediate reinforced masonry shear
complying with Section 5.3. walls shall not exceed 48 in. (1219 mm).
1.13.2.2.1 Ordinary plain (unreinforced) 1.13.2.2.5 Special reinforced masonry
masonry shear walls Design of ordinary plain shear walls Design of special reinforced masonry
(unreinforced) masonry shear walls shall comply with the shear walls shall comply with the requirements of Section
requirements of Section 2.2, Section 3.3, or Chapter 4. 2.3 or Section 3.2. Design shall also comply with the
1.13.2.2.2 Detailed plain (unreinforced) requirements of Sections 1.13.2.2.2.1, 1.13.2.2.2.2,
masonry shear walls Design of detailed plain 1.13.6.3, and the following:
(unreinforced) masonry shear walls shall comply with the (a) The maximum spacing of vertical and horizontal
requirements of Section 2.2 or Section 3.3, and shall reinforcement shall be the smaller of; one-third the
comply with the requirements of Sections 1.13.2.2.2.1 length of the shear wall; one-third the height of the
and 1.13.2.2.2.2. shear wall; or 48 in. (1219 mm).
1.13.2.2.2.1 Minimum reinforcement (b) The minimum cross-sectional area of vertical
requirements Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.2 in.2 reinforcement shall be one-third of the required
(129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided at shear reinforcement.
corners, within 16 in. (406 mm) of each side of openings, (c) Shear reinforcement shall be anchored around
within 8 in. (203 mm) of each side of movement joints, vertical reinforcing bars with a standard hook.
within 8 in. (203 mm) of the ends of walls, and at a
1.13.3 Seismic Design Category A
maximum spacing of 10 ft (3.05 m) on center.
1.13.3.1 Structures in Seismic Design Category
Reinforcement adjacent to openings need not be
A shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 2, 3, 4,
provided for openings smaller than 16 in. (406 mm) in
or 5.
either the horizontal or vertical direction, unless the
1.13.3.2 Drift limits The calculated story
spacing of distributed reinforcement is interrupted by
drift of masonry structures due to the combination of
such openings.
design seismic forces and gravity loads shall not exceed
Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of at
0.007 times the story height.
least two wires of W1.7 (MW11) spaced not more than
1.13.3.3 Anchorage of masonry walls
16 in. (406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement shall be
Masonry walls shall be anchored to the roof and all floors
provided of at least 0.2 in.2 (129 mm2) in cross-sectional
that provide lateral support for the wall. The anchorage
area spaced not more than 10 ft (3.05 m). Horizontal
shall provide a direct connection between the walls and
reinforcement shall also be provided at the bottom and
the floor or roof construction. The connections shall be
top of wall openings and shall extend not less than 24 in.
capable of resisting the greater of a seismic lateral force
(610 mm) nor less than 40 bar diameters past the
induced by the wall or 1000 times the effective peak
opening; continuously at structurally connected roof and
velocity-related acceleration, lb per lineal ft of wall
floor levels; and within 16 in. (406 mm) of the top of
(14 590 times, N/m).
walls.
1.13.2.2.2.2 Connections 1.13.4 Seismic Design Category B
Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces between 1.13.4.1 Structures in Seismic Design Category
masonry walls and horizontal elements in accordance B shall comply with the requirements of Seismic Design
with the requirements of Section 2.1.8. Connectors shall Category A and to the additional requirements of Section
be designed to transfer horizontal design forces acting 1.13.4.
either perpendicular or parallel to the wall, but not less
C-16 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

1.13.4.2 Design of elements that are part of 1.13.5.3.1 Connections to masonry


lateral force-resisting system The lateral force- columns Connectors shall be provided to transfer
resisting system shall be designed to comply with the forces between masonry columns and horizontal elements
requirements of Chapter 2, 3, or 4. Masonry shear walls in accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.8.
shall comply with the requirements of ordinary plain Where anchor bolts are used to connect horizontal
(unreinforced) masonry shear walls, detailed plain elements to the tops of columns, anchor bolts shall be
(unreinforced) masonry shear walls, ordinary reinforced placed within lateral ties. Lateral ties shall enclose both
masonry shear walls, intermediate reinforced masonry the vertical bars in the column and the anchor bolts.
shear walls, or special reinforced masonry shear walls. There shall be a minimum of two No. 4 (M #13) lateral
ties provided in the top 5 in. (127 mm) of the column.
1.13.5 Seismic Design Category C
1.13.5.3.2 Masonry shear walls
1.13.5.1 Structures in Seismic Design Category
Masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements
C shall comply with the requirements of Seismic Design
for ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls, intermediate
Category B and to the additional requirements of Section
reinforced masonry shear walls, or special reinforced
1.13.5.
masonry shear walls.
1.13.5.2 Design of elements that are not part of
lateral force-resisting system 1.13.6 Seismic Design Category D
1.13.5.2.1 Load-bearing frames or 1.13.6.1 Structures in Seismic Design Category
columns that are not part of the lateral force-resisting D shall comply with the requirements of Seismic Design
system shall be analyzed as to their effect on the response Category C and to the additional requirements of Section
of the system. Such frames or columns shall be adequate 1.13.6.
for vertical load carrying capacity and induced moment 1.13.6.2 Design requirements Masonry
due to the design story drift. elements, other than those covered by Section 1.13.5.2.2,
1.13.5.2.2 Masonry partition walls, shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of
masonry screen walls and other masonry elements that Sections 2.1 and 2.3, Chapter 3, or Chapter 4.
are not designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other 1.13.6.3 Minimum reinforcement requirements
than those induced by their own mass, shall be isolated for masonry walls Masonry walls other than those
from the structure so that vertical and lateral forces are covered by Section 1.13.5.2.3 shall be reinforced in both
not imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and the vertical and horizontal direction. The sum of the
connectors between these elements and the structure shall cross-sectional area of horizontal and vertical
be designed to accommodate the design story drift. reinforcement shall be at least 0.002 times the gross
1.13.5.2.3 Reinforcement requirements cross-sectional area of the wall, and the minimum cross-
Masonry elements listed in Section 1.13.5.2.2 shall be sectional area in each direction shall be not less than
reinforced in either the horizontal or vertical direction in 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall,
accordance with the following: using specified dimensions. Reinforcement shall be
(a) Horizontal reinforcement Horizontal joint uniformly distributed. The maximum spacing of
reinforcement shall consist of at least two reinforcement shall be 48 in. (1219 mm) except for stack
longitudinal W1.7 (MW11) wires spaced not more bond masonry. Wythes of stack bond masonry shall be
than 16 in. (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 in. constructed of fully grouted hollow open-end units, fully
(102 mm) in width and at least one longitudinal grouted hollow units laid with full head joints or solid
W1.7 (MW11) wire spaced not more 16 in. (406 units. Maximum spacing of reinforcement for walls with
mm) for walls not exceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in stack bond masonry shall be 24 in. (610 mm).
width; or at least one No. 4 (M #13) bar spaced not 1.13.6.4 Masonry Shear Walls Masonry
more than 48 in. (1219 mm). Where two longitudinal shear walls shall comply with the requirements for
wires of joint reinforcement are used, the space special reinforced masonry shear walls.
between these wires shall be the widest that the 1.13.6.5 Minimum reinforcement for masonry
mortar joint will accommodate. Horizontal columns Lateral ties in masonry columns shall be
reinforcement shall be provided within 16 in. (406 spaced not more than 8 in. (203 mm) on center and shall
mm) of the top and bottom of these masonry walls. be at least 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter. Lateral ties shall be
(b) Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement embedded in grout.
shall consist of at least one No. 4 (M #13) bar 1.13.6.6 Material requirements Neither Type
spaced not more than 48 in. (1219 mm). Vertical N mortar nor masonry cement shall be used as part of the
reinforcement shall be located within 16 in. (406 lateral force-resisting system.
mm) of the ends of masonry walls. 1.13.6.7 Lateral tie anchorage Standard
1.13.5.3 Design of elements that are part of the hooks for lateral tie anchorage shall be either a 135
lateral force-resisting system degree standard hook or a 180 degree standard hook.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-17

1.13.7 Seismic Design Categories E and F 1.14.1 The minimum quality assurance program
1.13.7.1 Structures in Seismic Design for masonry in non-essential facilities and designed in
Categories E and F shall comply with the requirements of accordance with Chapter 5, 6, or 7 shall comply with
Seismic Design Category D and to the additional Table 1.14.1.
requirements of Section 1.13.7. 1.14.2 The minimum quality assurance program
1.13.7.2 Minimum reinforcement for stack bond for masonry in essential facilities and designed in
elements that are not part of lateral force-resisting accordance with Chapter 5, 6, or 7 shall comply with
system Stack bond masonry that is not part of the Table 1.14.2.
lateral force-resisting system shall have a horizontal 1.14.3 The minimum quality assurance program
cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 0.0015 for masonry in non-essential facilities and designed in
times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. The accordance with chapters other than Chapter 5, 6, or 7
maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall be 24 shall comply with Table 1.14.2.
in. (610 mm). These elements shall be solidly grouted 1.14.4 The minimum quality assurance program
and shall be constructed of hollow open-end units or two for masonry in essential facilities and designed in
wythes of solid units. accordance with chapters other than Chapter 5, 6, or 7
1.13.7.3 Minimum reinforcement for stack bond shall comply with Table 1.14.3.
elements that are part of the lateral force-resisting 1.14.5 The quality assurance program shall set
system Stack bond masonry that is part of the lateral forth the procedures for reporting and review. The
force-resisting system shall have a horizontal cross- quality assurance program shall also include procedures
sectional area of reinforcement of at least 0.0025 times for resolution of noncompliances.
the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. The maximum 1.14.6 The quality assurance program shall define
spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall be 16 in. (406 the qualifications for testing laboratories and for
mm). These elements shall be solidly grouted and shall inspection agencies.
be constructed of hollow open-end units or two wythes of
1.14.7 Acceptance relative to strength
solid units.
requirements
1.14.7.1 Compliance with f 'm Compressive
1.14 Quality assurance program
strength of masonry shall be considered satisfactory if the
The quality assurance program shall comply with the
compressive strength of each masonry wythe and grouted
requirements of this section, depending on the facility
collar joint equals or exceeds the value of f 'm .
function, as defined in the legally adopted building code
or ASCE 7-98. The quality assurance program shall 1.14.7.2 Determination of compressive strength
itemize the methods used to verify conformance of Compressive strength of masonry shall be determined
material composition, quality, storage, handling, in accordance with the provisions of ACI 530.1/ASCE
preparation, and placement with the requirements of ACI 6/TMS 602.
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.

Table 1.14.1 Level 1 Quality Assurance

MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION

Certificates for materials used in masonry Verify compliance with the approved
construction indicating compliance with the submittals
contract documents
C-18 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Table 1.14.2 Level 2 Quality Assurance

MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION

Certificates for materials used in masonry As masonry construction begins, verify the
construction indicating compliance with the following are in compliance:
contract documents proportions of site-prepared mortar
construction of mortar joints
Verification of f 'm prior to construction, except location of reinforcement, connectors,
where specifically exempted by this Code and prestressing tendons and
anchorages
prestressing technique

Prior to grouting, verify the following are in


compliance:
grout space
grade and size of reinforcement,
prestressing tendons, and anchorages
placement of reinforcement,
connectors, and prestressing tendons
and anchorages
proportions of site-prepared grout and
prestressing grout for bonded tendons
construction of mortar joints

Verify that the placement of grout and


prestressing grout for bonded tendons is in
compliance

Observe preparation of grout specimens,


mortar specimens, and/or prisms

Verify compliance with the required inspection


provisions of the contract documents and the
approved submittals
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-19

Table 1.14.3 Level 3 Quality Assurance

MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION

Certificates for materials used in masonry From the beginning of masonry construction
construction indicating compliance with the and continuously during construction of
contract documents. masonry, verify the following are in
compliance:
Verification of f 'm : proportions of site-mixed mortar,
prior to construction grout, and prestressing grout for
every 5000 sq. ft (464.5 m2) during bonded tendons
construction grade and size of reinforcement,
prestressing tendons and anchorages
Verification of proportions of materials in placement of masonry units and
mortar and grout as delivered to the site construction of mortar joints
placement of reinforcement,
connectors, and prestressing tendons
and anchorages
grout space prior to grouting
placement of grout and prestressing
grout for bonded tendons
Observe preparation of grout specimens,
mortar specimens, and/or prisms
Verify compliance with the required inspection
provisions of the contract documents and the
approved submittals

1.15 Construction 1.15.2.1 Design shall not consider conduits,


pipes, or sleeves as structurally replacing the displaced
1.15.1 Grouting, minimum spaces
masonry.
The minimum dimensions of spaces provided for the
1.15.2.2 Design shall consider the structural
placement of grout shall be in accordance with Table
effects resulting from the removal of masonry to allow
1.15.1. Higher grout pours, higher grout lifts, smaller
for the placement of pipes or conduits.
cavity widths, or smaller cell sizes than those shown in
1.15.2.3 Conduits, pipes, and sleeves in
Table 1.15.1 are permitted if the results of a grout
masonry shall be no closer than 3 diameters on center.
demonstration panel show that the grout spaces are filled
1.15.2.4 Maximum area of vertical conduits,
and adequately consolidated. In that case, the procedures
pipes, or sleeves placed in masonry columns or pilasters
used in constructing the grout demonstration panel shall
shall not displace more than 2 percent of the net cross
be the minimum acceptable standard for grouting, and the
section.
quality assurance program shall include inspection during
1.15.2.5 Pipes shall not be embedded in
construction to verify grout placement.
masonry when:
1.15.2 Embedded conduits, pipes, and sleeves (a) Containing liquid, gas, or vapors at temperature
Conduits, pipes, and sleeves of any material to be higher than 150 F (66 C).
embedded in masonry shall be compatible with masonry (b) Under pressure in excess of 55 psi (379 kPa).
and shall comply with the following requirements. (c) Containing water or other liquids subject to freezing.
C-20 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Table 1.15.1 Grout space requirements

Grout type1 Maximum grout Minimum width of Minimum grout space


pour height, grout space,2,3 dimensions for grouting
ft (m) in. (mm) cells of hollow units,3,4
in. x in. (mm x mm)
3
Fine 1 (0.30) /4 (19.1) 11/2 x 2 (38.1 x 50.8)
Fine 5 (1.52) 2 (50.8) 2 x 3 (50.8 x 76.2)
Fine 12 (3.66) 21/2 (63.5) 21/2 x 3 (63.5 x 76.2)
Fine 24 (7.32) 3 (76.2) 3 x 3 (76.2 x 76.2)
Coarse 1 (0.30) 11/2 (38.1) 11/2 x 3 (38.1 x 76.2)
Coarse 5 (1.52) 2 (50.8) 21/2 x 3 (63.5 x 76.2)
Coarse 12 (3.66) 21/2 (63.5) 3 x 3 (76.2 x 76.2)
Coarse 24 (7.32) 3 (76.2) 3 x 4 (76 .2x 102)
1
Fine and coarse grouts are defined in ASTM C 476.
2
For grouting between masonry wythes.
3
Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by
the diameters of the horizontal bars within the cross section of the grout space.
4
Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-21

CHAPTER 2
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
2.1 General For prestressed masonry, the response modification
2.1.1 Scope factor (R) and the deflection amplification factor (Cd ),
This chapter provides requirements for allowable indicated in ASCE 7-98 Table 9.5.2.2 for ordinary plain
stress design of masonry. Masonry design in accordance (unreinforced) masonry shear walls, shall be used in
with this chapter shall comply with the requirements of determining the base shear and design story drift.
Chapter 1, this section, and either Section 2.2 or 2.3. 2.1.3.3.2 Nominal strength The
nominal strength of masonry shall be taken as 21/2 times
2.1.2 Load combinations
the allowable stress value, except as allowed in Section
2.1.2.1 When the legally adopted building
4.5.3.3 for prestressed masonry. The allowable stress
code does not provide load combinations, structures and
values shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 2
members shall be designed to resist the most restrictive
or 4 and are permitted to be increased by one-third for
of the following combination of loads:
load combinations including earthquake.
(a) D
2.1.3.3.3 Design strength The
(b) D + L
design strength of masonry provided by a member, its
(c) D + L + (W or E)
connections to other members and its cross sections in
(d) D + W
terms of flexure, axial load, and shear shall be taken as
(e) 0.9 D + E
the nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction
(f) D + L + (H or F)
factor, , as follows:
(g) D + (H or F)
(a) Axial load and flexure except for flexural tension in
(h) D + L + T
(i) D + T unreinforced masonry .................................... = 0.8
2.1.2.2 For prestressed masonry members, the (b) Flexural tension in unreinforced masonry .... = 0.4
prestressing force shall be added to all load (c) Shear.............................................................. = 0.6
combinations. (d) Shear and tension on anchor bolts embedded in
2.1.2.3 The allowable stresses and allowable masonry ......................................................... = 0.6
loads in Chapters 2 and 4 are permitted to be increased
by one-third when considering load combination (c), (d), 2.1.4 Anchor bolts solidly grouted in masonry
or (e) of Section 2.1.2.1. 2.1.4.1 Test design requirements Except as
provided in Section 2.1.4.2, anchor bolts shall be
2.1.3 Design strength designed based on the following provisions.
2.1.3.1 Project drawings shall show the 2.1.4.1.1 Anchors shall be tested in
specified compressive strength of masonry, f 'm , for each accordance with ASTM E 488 under stresses and
part of the structure. conditions representing intended use, except that a
2.1.3.2 Each portion of the structure shall be minimum of five tests shall be performed.
designed based on the specified compressive strength of 2.1.4.1.2 Allowable loads shall not
masonry, f 'm , for that part of the work. exceed 20 percent of the average tested strength.
2.1.3.3 Strength requirements For masonry 2.1.4.2 Plate, headed, and bent bar anchor
structures designed using loading combinations for bolts The allowable loads for plate anchors, headed
strength design and not designed in accordance with anchor bolts, and bent bar anchor bolts (J or L type)
Chapter 3, the provisions of this section shall apply. The embedded in masonry shall be determined in accordance
design strength of masonry structures and masonry with the provisions of Sections 2.1.4.2.1 through
elements shall be at least equal to the required strength 2.1.4.2.4.
determined in accordance with this section, except for 2.1.4.2.1 The minimum effective
masonry structures and masonry elements in Seismic embedment length shall be 4 bolt diameters, but not less
Design Category A designed in accordance with the than 2 in. (50.8 mm).
provisions of Chapter 5. 2.1.4.2.2 The allowable load in tension
2.1.3.3.1 Required strength Required shall be the lesser of that given by Eq. (2-1) or Eq. (2-2).
strength, U, to resist seismic forces in combination with
gravity and other loads, including load factors, shall be as
B a = 0.5 A p f m (2-1)
required in the earthquake loads section of ASCE 7-98.

Ba = 0.2 Ab f y (2-2)
C-22 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

2.1.4.2.2.1 The area Ap shall be the (c) headers, unit compressive strength of header , psi
lesser of Eq. (2-3) or Eq. (2-4). Where the projected
areas of adjacent anchor bolts overlap, Ap of each bolt (MPa) (over net area of header).
shall be reduced by one-half of the overlapping area. 2.1.5.2.3 Headers of wythes bonded by
That portion of the projected area falling in an open cell headers shall meet the requirements of Section 2.1.5.2.2
or core shall be deducted from the value of Ap calculated and shall be provided as follows:
using Eq. (2-3) or (2-4). (a) Headers shall be uniformly distributed and the sum
of their cross-sectional areas shall be at least 4
A p = l b2 (2-3) percent of the wall surface area.
(b) Headers connecting adjacent wythes shall be
A p = l be2 (2-4) embedded a minimum of 3 in. (76.2 mm) in each
wythe.
2.1.4.2.2.2 The effective embedment 2.1.5.2.4 Wythes not bonded by
length of plate or headed bolts, lb, shall be the length of headers shall meet the requirements of Section 2.1.5.2.2
embedment measured perpendicular from the surface of and shall be bonded by wall ties provided as follows:
the masonry to the bearing surface of the plate or head of
the anchor bolt. Wire size Minimum number of wall ties required
2.1.4.2.2.3 The effective embedment W1.7 (MW11) one per 22/3 ft2 (0.25 m2) of wall
length of bent anchors, lb, shall be the length of W2.8 (MW18) one per 41/2 ft2 (0.42 m2) of wall
embedment measured perpendicular from the surface of
the masonry to the bearing surface of the bent end minus The maximum spacing between ties shall be 36 in.
one anchor bolt diameter. (914 mm) horizontally and 24 in. (610 mm) vertically.
2.1.4.2.3 The allowable load in shear, The use of rectangular wall ties to tie walls made
where lbe equals or exceeds 12 bolt diameters, shall be with any type of masonry units is permitted. The use of
the lesser of that given by Eq. (2-5) or Eq. (2-6). Z wall ties to tie walls made with other than hollow
masonry units is permitted. Cross wires of joint
Bv = 350 4 f m Ab (2-5)
reinforcement are permitted to be used in lieu of wall
ties.
Bv = 0.12 Ab f y (2-6) 2.1.5.3 Noncomposite action Masonry
designed for noncomposite action shall comply to the
Where lbe is less than 12 bolt diameters, the value of
following provisions:
Bv in Eq. (2-5) shall be reduced by linear interpolation to
2.1.5.3.1 Each wythe shall be designed
zero at an lbe distance of 1 in. (25.4 mm).
to resist individually the effects of loads imposed on it.
2.1.4.2.4 Combined shear and tension
Unless a more detailed analysis is performed, the
Anchors in Section 2.1.4.2 subjected to combined shear
following requirements shall be satisfied:
and tension shall be designed to satisfy Eq. (2-7).
(a) Collar joints shall not contain headers, grout, or
b a bv mortar.
+ 1 (2-7)
Ba B v (b) Gravity loads from supported horizontal members
shall be resisted by the wythe nearest to the center of
2.1.5 Multiwythe walls span of the supported member. Any resulting
2.1.5.1 Design of walls composed of more than bending moment about the weak axis of the wall
one wythe shall comply with the provisions of this shall be distributed to each wythe in proportion to its
section. relative stiffness.
2.1.5.2 Composite action (c) Loads acting parallel to the plane of a wall shall be
2.1.5.2.1 Multiwythe walls designed for carried only by the wythe on which they are applied.
composite action shall have collar joints either: Transfer of stresses from such loads between wythes
(a) crossed by connecting headers, or shall be neglected.
(b) filled with mortar or grout and connected by wall (d) Loads acting transverse to the plane of a wall shall
ties. be resisted by all wythes in proportion to their
2.1.5.2.2 Shear stresses developed in relative flexural stiffnesses.
the planes of interfaces between wythes and collar joints (e) Specified distances between wythes shall not exceed
or within headers shall not exceed the following: a width of 4.5 in. (114 mm) unless a detailed wall tie
(a) mortared collar joints, 5 psi (34.5 kPa). analysis is performed.
(b) grouted collar joints, 10 psi (69.0 kPa).
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-23

2.1.5.3.2 Wythes of walls designed for or slab in any story, and shall be spaced as provided
noncomposite action shall be connected by wall ties herein to not more than one-half a lateral tie spacing
meeting the requirements of Section 2.1.5.2.4 or by below the lowest horizontal reinforcement in beam,
adjustable ties. Where the cross wires of joint girder, slab, or drop panel above.
reinforcement are used as ties, the joint reinforcement (e) Where beams or brackets frame into a column from
shall be ladder-type or tab-type. Wall ties shall be four directions, lateral ties may be terminated not
without cavity drips. more than 3 in. (76.2 mm) below the lowest
Adjustable ties shall meet the following reinforcement in the shallowest of such beams or
requirements: brackets.
(a) One tie shall be provided for each 1.77 ft2 (0.16 m2)
2.1.7 Pilasters
of wall area.
2.1.7.1 Walls interfacing with pilasters shall
(b) Horizontal and vertical spacing shall not exceed
not be considered as flanges unless the provisions of
16 in. (406 mm).
Section 1.9.4.2 are met.
(c) Adjustable ties shall not be used when the
2.1.7.2 Where vertical reinforcement is
misalignment of bed joints from one wythe to the
provided to resist axial compressive stress, lateral ties
other exceeds 11/4 in. (31.8 mm).
shall meet all applicable requirements of Section 2.1.6.5.
(d) Maximum clearance between connecting parts of the
tie shall be 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). 2.1.8 Load transfer at horizontal connections
(e) Pintle ties shall have at least two pintle legs of wire 2.1.8.1 Walls, columns, and pilasters shall be
size W2.8 (MW18). designed to resist all loads, moments, and shears applied
at intersections with horizontal members.
2.1.6 Columns
2.1.8.2 Effect of lateral deflection and
Design of columns shall meet the general
translation of members providing lateral support shall be
requirements of this section.
considered.
2.1.6.1 Minimum side dimension shall be 8 in.
2.1.8.3 Devices used for transferring lateral
(203 mm) nominal.
support from members that intersect walls, columns, or
2.1.6.2 The ratio between the effective height
pilasters shall be designed to resist the forces involved.
and least nominal dimension shall not exceed 25.
For columns, a force of not less than 1,000 lb (4448 N)
2.1.6.3 Columns shall be designed to resist
shall be used.
applied loads. As a minimum, columns shall be designed
to resist loads with an eccentricity equal to 0.1 times each 2.1.9 Concentrated loads
side dimension. Consider each axis independently. 2.1.9.1 For computing compressive stress fa for
2.1.6.4 Vertical column reinforcement shall walls laid in running bond, concentrated loads shall not
not be less than 0.0025An nor exceed 0.04An. The be distributed over the length of supporting wall in
minimum number of bars shall be four. excess of the length of wall equal to the width of bearing
2.1.6.5 Lateral ties Lateral ties shall areas plus four times the thickness of the supporting wall,
conform to the following: but not to exceed the center-to-center distance between
(a) Longitudinal reinforcement shall be enclosed by concentrated loads.
lateral ties at least 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in diameter. 2.1.9.2 Bearing stresses shall be computed by
(b) Vertical spacing of lateral ties shall not exceed 16 distributing the bearing load over an area determined as
longitudinal bar diameters, 48 lateral tie bar or wire follows:
diameters, or least cross-sectional dimension of the (a) The direct bearing area A1, or
member. (b) A1 A2 / A1 but not more than 2A1, where A2 is the
(c) Lateral ties shall be arranged such that every corner
and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral supporting surface wider than A1 on all sides, or A2 is
support provided by the corner of a lateral tie with the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a
an included angle of not more than 135 degrees. No right pyramid or cone having A1 as upper base
bar shall be farther than 6 in. (152 mm) clear on each sloping at 45 degrees from the horizontal and wholly
side along the lateral tie from such a laterally contained within the support. For walls in other than
supported bar. Lateral ties shall be placed in either a running bond, area A2 shall terminate at head joints.
mortar joint or in grout. Where longitudinal bars are 2.1.9.3 Bearing stresses shall not exceed
located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete 0.25 f 'm .
circular lateral tie is permitted. Lap length for
circular ties shall be 48 tie diameters.
(d) Lateral ties shall be located vertically not more than
one-half lateral tie spacing above the top of footing
C-24 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

2.1.10 Development of reinforcement embedded in 2.1.10.3.1.6 Anchorage complying


grout with Section 2.1.10.2 shall be provided for tension
2.1.10.1 General The calculated tension or reinforcement in corbels, deep flexural members,
compression in the reinforcement at each section shall be variable-depth arches, members where flexural
developed on each side of the section by embedment reinforcement is not parallel with the compression face,
length, hook or mechanical device, or a combination and in other cases where the stress in flexural
thereof. Hooks shall not be used to develop bars in reinforcement does not vary linearly in proportion to the
compression. moment.
2.1.10.2 Embedment of bars and wires in 2.1.10.3.2 Development of positive
tension The embedment length of bars and wire shall moment reinforcement When a wall or other flexural
be determined by Eq. (2-8), but shall not be less than 12 member is part of a primary lateral resisting system, at
in. (305 mm) for bars and 6 in. (152 mm) for wire. least 25 percent of the positive moment reinforcement
shall extend into the support and be anchored to develop
l d = 0.0015d b Fs (2-8) a stress equal to the Fs in tension.
2.1.10.3.3 Development of negative
moment reinforcement
When epoxy-coated bars or wires are used,
2.1.10.3.3.1 Negative moment
development length determined by Eq. (2-8) shall be
reinforcement in a continuous, restrained, or cantilever
increased by 50 percent.
member shall be anchored in or through the supporting
2.1.10.3 Embedment of flexural reinforcement member in accordance with the provisions of Section
2.1.10.3.1 General 2.1.10.1.
2.1.10.3.1.1 Tension reinforcement is 2.1.10.3.3.2 At least one-third of the
permitted to be developed by bending across the neutral total reinforcement provided for moment at a support
axis of the member to be anchored or made continuous shall extend beyond the point of inflection the greater
with reinforcement on the opposite face of the member. distance of the effective depth of the member or one-
2.1.10.3.1.2 Critical sections for sixteenth of the span.
development of reinforcement in flexural members are at 2.1.10.4 Hooks
points of maximum steel stress and at points within the 2.1.10.4.1 Standard hooks in tension
span where adjacent reinforcement terminates or is bent. shall be considered to develop an equivalent embedment
2.1.10.3.1.3 Reinforcement shall length, le, equal to 11.25 db.
extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required 2.1.10.4.2 The effect of hooks for bars in
to resist flexure for a distance equal to the effective depth compression shall be neglected in design computations.
of the member or 12db, whichever is greater, except at 2.1.10.5 Development of shear reinforcement
supports of simple spans and at the free end of 2.1.10.5.1 Bar and wire reinforcement
cantilevers. 2.1.10.5.1.1 Shear reinforcement shall
2.1.10.3.1.4 Continuing reinforcement extend to a distance d from the extreme compression face
shall extend a distance ld beyond the point where bent or and shall be carried as close to the compression and
terminated tension reinforcement is no longer required to tension surfaces of the member as cover requirements
resist flexure as required by Section 2.1.10.2. and the proximity of other reinforcement permit. Shear
2.1.10.3.1.5 Flexural reinforcement reinforcement shall be anchored at both ends for its
shall not be terminated in a tension zone unless one of the calculated stress.
following conditions is satisfied: 2.1.10.5.1.2 The ends of single leg or
(a) Shear at the cutoff point does not exceed two-thirds U-stirrups shall be anchored by one of the following
of the allowable shear at the section considered. means:
(b) Stirrup area in excess of that required for shear is (a) A standard hook plus an effective embedment of 0.5
provided along each terminated bar or wire over a ld. The effective embedment of a stirrup leg shall be
distance from the termination point equal to three- taken as the distance between the middepth of the
fourths the effective depth of the member. Excess member d/2 and the start of the hook (point of
stirrup area, Av, shall not be less than 60 bw s/fy. tangency).
Spacing s shall not exceed d/(8 b). (b) For No. 5 bar (M #16) and D31 (MD200) wire and
(c) Continuous reinforcement provides double the area smaller, bending around longitudinal reinforcement
required for flexure at the cutoff point and shear through at least 135 degrees plus an embedment of
does not exceed three-fourths the allowable shear at 0.33 ld. The 0.33 ld embedment of a stirrup leg shall
the section considered. be taken as the distance between middepth of
member d/2 and start of hook (point of tangency).
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-25

2.1.10.5.1.3 Between the anchored 2.1.10.6.2 Welded splices Welded


ends, each bend in the continuous portion of a transverse splices shall have the bars butted and welded to develop
U-stirrup shall enclose a longitudinal bar. in tension at least 125 percent of the specified yield
2.1.10.5.1.4 Longitudinal bars bent to strength of the bar.
act as shear reinforcement, where extended into a region 2.1.10.6.3 Mechanical connections
of tension, shall be continuous with longitudinal Mechanical connections shall have the bars connected to
reinforcement and, where extended into a region of develop in tension or compression, as required, at least
compression, shall be developed beyond middepth of the 125 percent of the specified yield strength of the bar.
member d/2. 2.1.10.6.4 End-bearing splices
2.1.10.5.1.5 Pairs of U-stirrups or ties 2.1.10.6.4.1 In bars required for
placed to form a closed unit shall be considered properly compression only, the transmission of compressive stress
spliced when length of laps are 1.7 ld. In grout at least 18 by bearing of square cut ends held in concentric contact
in. (457 mm) deep, such splices with Av fy not more than by a suitable device is permitted.
9,000 lb (40 032 N) per leg may be considered adequate if 2.1.10.6.4.2 Bar ends shall terminate
legs extend the full available depth of grout. in flat surfaces within 11/2 degree of a right angle to the
2.1.10.5.2 Welded wire fabric axis of the bars and shall be fitted within 3 degrees of full
2.1.10.5.2.1 For each leg of welded bearing after assembly.
wire fabric forming simple U-stirrups, there shall be 2.1.10.6.4.3 End-bearing splices shall
either: be used only in members containing closed ties, closed
(a) Two longitudinal wires at a 2 in. (50.8 mm) spacing stirrups, or spirals.
along the member at the top of the U, or
(b) One longitudinal wire located not more than d/4 2.2 Unreinforced masonry
from the compression face and a second wire closer 2.2.1 Scope
to the compression face and spaced not less than 2 This section provides requirements for
in. (50.8 mm) from the first wire. The second wire unreinforced masonry as defined in Section 1.6, except as
shall be located on the stirrup leg beyond a bend, or otherwise indicated in Section 2.2.4.
on a bend with an inside diameter of bend not less
2.2.2 Stresses in reinforcement
than 8db.
The effect of stresses in reinforcement shall be
2.1.10.5.2.2 For each end of a single
neglected.
leg stirrup of welded smooth or deformed wire fabric,
there shall be two longitudinal wires spaced a minimum 2.2.3 Axial compression and flexure
of 2 in. (50.8 mm) with the inner wire placed at a 2.2.3.1 Members subjected to axial
distance at least d/4 or 2 in. (50.8 mm) from middepth of compression, flexure, or to combined axial compression
member d/2. Outer longitudinal wire at tension face shall and flexure shall be designed to satisfy Eq. (2-10) and
not be farther from the face than the portion of primary Eq. (2-11).
flexural reinforcement closest to the face. fa fb
2.1.10.6 Splices of reinforcement Lap + 1 (2-10)
splices, welded splices, or mechanical connections are Fa Fb
permitted in accordance with the provisions of this P ( 1 4 ) Pe (2-11)
section. All welding shall conform to AWS D1.4.
where:
2.1.10.6.1 Lap splices
(a) For members having an h/r ratio not greater than 99:
2.1.10.6.1.1 The minimum length of
lap for bars in tension or compression shall be h 2
determined by Eq. (2-9), but not less than 12 in. (305 Fa = ( 1
4 ) f m 1 (2-12)
mm). 140 r
(b) For members having an h/r ratio greater than 99:
l d = 0.002 d b Fs (2-9)
2
70 r
Fa = ( 1 4 ) f m (2-13)
When epoxy-coated bars are used, lap length determined h
by Eq. (2-9) shall be increased by 50 percent.
(c) Fb = ( 1 3 ) f m (2-14)
2.1.10.6.1.2 Bars spliced by
noncontact lap splices shall not be spaced transversely
3
farther apart than one-fifth the required length of lap nor 2 Em I n e
more than 8 in. (203 mm). (d) Pe = 2
1 0.577 (2-15)
h r
C-26 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

2.2.3.2 Allowable tensile stresses due to 2.2.5.2 In-plane shear stresses shall not exceed
flexure transverse to the plane of masonry member shall any of:
be in accordance with the values in Table 2.2.3.2. (a) 1.5 f m
2.2.4 Axial tension (b) 120 psi (827 kPa)
The tensile strength of masonry shall be (c) + 0.45 Nv /An
neglected in design when the masonry is subjected to where :
axial tension forces. = 37 psi (255 kPa) for masonry in
2.2.5 Shear running bond that is not grouted solid,
2.2.5.1 Shear stresses due to forces acting in or
the direction considered shall be computed in accordance = 37 psi (255 kPa) for masonry in other
with Section 1.9.1 and determined by Eq. (2-16). than running bond with open end units
that are grouted solid, or
VQ
f v= (2-16) = 60 psi (414 kPa) for masonry in
I nb running bond that is grouted solid
(d) 15 psi (103 kPa) for masonry in other than running
bond with other than open end units that are grouted
solid.

Table 2.2.3.2 Allowable flexural tension for clay and concrete masonry, psi (kPa)
Mortar types
Direction of flexural tensile
stress and masonry type Masonry cement or air
Portland cement/lime or mortar entrained portland cement/lime
cement

M or S N M or S N

Normal to bed joints


Solid units 40 (276) 30 (207) 24 (166) 15 (103)
Hollow units1
Ungrouted 25 (172) 19 (131) 15 (103) 9 (62)
Fully grouted 65 (448) 63 (434) 61 (420) 58 (400)

Parallel to bed joints in running


bond
Solid units 80 (552) 60 (414) 48 (331) 30 (207)
Hollow units
Ungrouted and partially 50 (345) 38 (262) 30 (207) 19 (131)
grouted
Fully grouted 80 (552) 60 (414) 48 (331) 30 (207))
1
For partially grouted masonry, allowable stresses shall be determined on the basis of linear interpolation between hollow
units that are fully grouted and ungrouted hollow units based on amount of grouting.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-27

2.3 Reinforced masonry 2.3.3.3.2 In masonry in other than


2.3.1 Scope running bond, with bond beams spaced more than 48 in.
This section provides requirements for the (1219 mm) center-to-center, the width of the compression
design of structures neglecting the contribution of tensile area used in stress calculations shall not exceed the
strength of masonry, except as provided in Section 2.3.5. length of the masonry unit.
2.3.3.4 Beams
2.3.2 Steel reinforcement Allowable stresses
2.3.3.4.1 Span length of members not
2.3.2.1 Tension Tensile stress in
built integrally with supports shall be taken as the clear
reinforcement shall not exceed the following:
span plus depth of member, but need not exceed the
(a) Grade 40 or Grade 50 reinforcement
distance between centers of supports.
..............................................20,000 psi (137.9 MPa)
2.3.3.4.2 In analysis of members that
(b) Grade 60 reinforcement .......24,000 psi (165.5 MPa)
are continuous over supports for determination of
(c) Wire joint reinforcement ..... 30,000 psi (206.9 Mpa)
moments, span length shall be taken as the distance
2.3.2.2 Compression between centers of supports.
2.3.2.2.1 The compressive resistance of 2.3.3.4.3 Length of bearing of beams on
steel reinforcement shall be neglected unless lateral their supports shall be a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) in
reinforcement is provided in compliance with the the direction of span.
requirements of Section 2.1.6.5. 2.3.3.4.4 The compression face of
2.3.2.2.2 Compressive stress in beams shall be laterally supported at a maximum spacing
reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of 0.4 fy or of 32 times the beam thickness.
24,000 psi (165.5 MPa). 2.3.3.4.5 Beams shall be designed to
meet the deflection requirements of Section 1.10.1.
2.3.3 Axial compression and flexure
2.3.3.1 Members subjected to axial 2.3.4 Axial tension and flexural tension
compression, flexure, or combined axial compression and Axial tension and flexural tension shall be
flexure shall be designed in compliance with Sections resisted entirely by steel reinforcement.
2.3.3.2 through 2.3.3.4.
2.3.5 Shear
2.3.3.2 Allowable forces and stresses
2.3.5.1 Members that are not subjected to
2.3.3.2.1 The compressive force in
flexural tension shall be designed in accordance with the
reinforced masonry due to axial load only shall not
requirements of Section 2.2.5 or shall be designed in
exceed that given by Eq. (2-17) or Eq. (2-18):
accordance with the following:
(a) For members having an h/r ratio not greater than 99:
2.3.5.1.1 Reinforcement shall be
h 2 provided in accordance with the requirements of Section
Pa = ( 0.25 f m A n + 0.65 A st F s ) 1 (2-17) 2.3.5.3.
140r 2.3.5.1.2 The calculated shear stress, fv,
shall not exceed Fv, where Fv is determined in
(b) For members having an h/r ratio greater than 99:
accordance with Section 2.3.5.2.3.
2 2.3.5.2 Members subjected to flexural tension
70 r
Pa = (0.25 f m An + 0.65 Ast Fs ) (2-18) shall be reinforced to resist the tension and shall be
h designed in accordance with the following:
2.3.3.2.2 The compressive stress in 2.3.5.2.1 Calculated shear stress in the
masonry due to flexure or due to flexure in combination masonry shall be determined by the relationship:
with axial load shall not exceed (1/3) f 'm provided the V
calculated compressive stress due to the axial load fv = (2-19)
component, fa , does not exceed the allowable stress, Fa, bd
in Section 2.2.3.1. 2.3.5.2.2 Where reinforcement is not
2.3.3.3 Effective compressive width per bar provided to resist all of the calculated shear, fv shall not
2.3.3.3.1 In running bond masonry, and exceed Fv, where:
masonry in other than running bond with bond beams (a) for flexural members
spaced not more than 48 in. (1219 mm) center-to-center,
Fv = f m (2-20)
the width of the compression area used in stress
calculations shall not exceed the least of: but shall not exceed 50 psi (345 kPa).
(a) Center-to-center bar spacing. (b) for shear walls,
(b) Six times the wall thickness.
(c) 72 in. (1829 mm). where, M/Vd<1,
C-28 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Fv = ( 1 3 )[4 ( M / Vd )] f m (2-21) 2.3.5.3 Minimum area of shear reinforcement


required by Section 2.3.5.1 or 2.3.5.2.3 shall be
but shall not exceed 80 45(M/Vd) psi determined by the following:
Vs
where, M/Vd 1, Av = (2-26)
Fs d
Fv = f m (2-22)
2.3.5.3.1 Shear reinforcement shall be
but shall not exceed 35 psi (241 kPa).
provided parallel to the direction of applied shear force.
2.3.5.2.3 Where shear reinforcement is Spacing of shear reinforcement shall not exceed the
provided in accordance with Section 2.3.5.3 to resist all lesser of d/2 or 48 in. (1219 mm).
of the calculated shear, fv shall not exceed Fv, where: 2.3.5.3.2 Reinforcement shall be
(a) for flexural members: provided perpendicular to the shear reinforcement and
shall be at least equal to one-third Av. The reinforcement
Fv = 3.0 f m (2-23) shall be uniformly distributed and shall not exceed a
but shall not exceed 150 psi (1034 kPa). spacing of 8 ft (2.44 m).
2.3.5.4 In composite masonry walls, shear
(b) for shear walls: stresses developed in the planes of interfaces between
where, M/Vd < 1, wythes and filled collar joints or between wythes and
headers shall meet the requirements of Section 2.1.5.2.2.
Fv = ( 1 2 )[4 ( M / Vd )] f m (2-24)
2.3.5.5 In cantilever beams, the maximum
but shall not exceed 120 45(M/Vd) psi shear shall be used. In noncantilever beams, the
maximum shear shall be used except that sections located
where M/Vd 1, within a distance d/2 from the face of support shall be
Fv = 1.5 f m (2-25) designed for the same shear as that computed at a
distance d/2 from the face of support when the following
but shall not exceed 75 psi (517 kPa).
conditions are met:
2.3.5.2.4 The ratio M/Vd shall always (a) support reaction, in direction of applied shear force,
be taken as a positive number. introduces compression into the end regions of
member, and
(b) no concentrated load occurs between face of support
and a distance d/2 from face.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-29

CHAPTER 3
STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY

3.1 General 3.1.4.4 Anchor bolts For cases where the


3.1.1 Scope nominal strength of an anchor bolt is controlled by
This Chapter provides minimum requirements for masonry breakout, shall be taken as 0.50. For cases
strength design of masonry. Masonry design by the where the nominal strength of an anchor bolt is
strength design method shall comply with the controlled by anchor bolt steel, shall be taken as 0.90.
requirements of Chapter 1, Section 3.1, and either For cases where the nominal strength of an anchor bolt is
Section 3.2 or 3.3. controlled by anchor pullout, shall be taken as 0.65.
3.1.2 Required strength 3.1.4.5 Development and splices of
Required strength shall be determined in accordance reinforcement For development and splicing of
with the strength design load combinations of the legally reinforcement, shall be taken as 0.80.
adopted building code. When the legally adopted 3.1.4.6 Bearing For cases where bearing on
building code does not provide load combinations, masonry, shall be taken as 0.60.
structures and members shall be designed to resist the 3.1.5 Deformation requirements
combination of loads specified in ASCE 7-98. Members 3.1.5.1 Drift limits Under loading
subject to compressive axial load shall be designed for combinations that include earthquake, masonry structures
the maximum design moment accompanying the axial shall be designed so the calculated story drift, , does not
load. The factored moment, Mu, shall include the moment exceed the allowable story drift, a, obtained from the
induced by relative lateral displacement. legally adopted building code. When the legally adopted
3.1.3 Design strength building code does not provide allowable story drifts,
Masonry members shall be proportioned such that structures shall be designed so the calculated story drift,
the design strength equals or exceeds the required , does not exceed the allowable story drift, a, obtained
strength. Design strength is the nominal strength from ASCE 7-98.
multiplied by the strength reduction factor, , as specified For determining drift, the calculated deflection shall
in Section 3.1.4. be multiplied by Cd as indicated in the legally adopted
The design shear strength, Vn, shall exceed the building code. When the legally adopted building code
shear corresponding to the development of 1.25 times the does not provide Cd values, the deflection amplification
nominal flexural strength, Mn, of the member, except that factors shall be taken from ASCE 7-98.
the nominal shear strength, Vn, need not exceed 2.5 times 3.1.5.2 Deflection of unreinforced (plain)
required shear strength, Vu. masonry Deflection calculations for unreinforced
3.1.3.1 Seismic design provisions At each (plain) masonry members shall be based on uncracked
story level, at least 80 percent of the lateral stiffness shall section properties.
be provided by lateral-force-resisting walls. Along each 3.1.5.3 Deflection of reinforced masonry
column line at a particular story level, at least 80 percent Deflection calculations for reinforced masonry members
of the lateral stiffness shall be provided by lateral-force- shall be based on cracked section properties. The flexural
resisting walls. and shear stiffness properties assumed for deflection
Exception: Where seismic loads are determined calculations shall not exceed one half of the gross section
based on a seismic response modification factor, R, not properties unless a cracked-section analysis is performed.
greater than 1.5, piers and columns are permitted to be 3.1.6 Headed and bent-bar anchor bolts
used to provide seismic load resistance. All embedded bolts shall be grouted in place with at
3.1.4 Strength reduction factors least in. (12.7 mm) of grout between the bolt and the
3.1.4.1 Combinations of flexure and axial load masonry, except that in. (6.4 mm) diameter bolts are
in reinforced masonry The value of shall be taken as permitted to be placed in bed joints that are at least in.
0.90 for reinforced masonry subjected to flexure, axial (12.7 mm) in thickness.
load, or combinations thereof. 3.1.6.1 Nominal axial tensile strength of
3.1.4.2 Combinations of flexure and axial load headed anchor bolts The nominal axial tensile
in unreinforced masonry The value of shall be taken strength, Ban, of headed anchor bolts embedded in
as 0.60 for unreinforced masonry subjected to flexure, masonry shall be computed by Eq. (3-1) (strength
axial load, or combinations thereof. governed by masonry breakout) and Eq. (3-2) (strength
3.1.4.3 Shear The value of shall be taken governed by steel). In computing the capacity, the
as 0.80 for masonry subjected to shear. smaller of the design strengths shall be used.
C-30 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Ban = 4 A pt f m (3-1) That portion of the projected area overlapping an open


cell, open head joint, or that is outside the wall shall be
deducted from the value of Apt calculated using Eq. (3-7).
B an = Ab f y (3-2) 3.1.6.2.2 Effective embedment length of
bent-bar anchor bolts The effective embedment for a
3.1.6.1.1 Projected area of masonry for bent-bar anchor bolt, lb, shall be the length of embedment
headed anchor bolts The projected area, Apt, in Eq. measured perpendicular from the masonry surface to the
(3-1) shall be determined by Eq. (3-3). bearing surface of the bent end, minus one anchor bolt
diameter. The minimum effective embedment length for
A pt = lb 2 (3-3) bent-bar anchor bolts resisting axial forces shall be 4 bolt
diameters or 2 in. (50.8 mm), whichever is greater.
Where the projected areas, Apt, of adjacent headed 3.1.6.3 Nominal shear strength of headed and
anchor bolts overlap, the projected area, Apt, of each bolt bent-bar anchor bolts The nominal shear strength,
shall be reduced by one-half of the overlapping area. The Bvn, shall be computed by Eq. (3-8) (strength governed
portion of the projected area overlapping an open cell, by masonry breakout) and Eq. (3-9) (strength governed
open head joint, or that is outside the wall shall be by steel). In computing the capacity, the smaller of the
deducted from the value of Apt calculated using Eq. (3-3). design strengths shall be used.
3.1.6.1.2 Effective embedment length for
headed anchor bolts The effective embedment length Bvn = 4 Apv f m (3-8)
for a headed anchor bolt, lb, shall be the length of the
embedment measured perpendicular from the masonry Bvn = 0.6 Ab f y (3-9)
surface to the bearing surface of the anchor head. The
minimum effective embedment length for headed anchor 3.1.6.3.1 Projected area of masonry The
bolts resisting axial forces shall be 4 bolt diameters or 2 area Apv in Eq. (3-8) shall be determined from Eq. (3-10).
in. (50.8 mm), whichever is greater.
3.1.6.2 Nominal axial tensile strength of bent- lbe 2 (3-10)
A pv =
bar anchor bolts The nominal axial tensile strength, 2
Ban, for bent-bar anchor bolts (J- or L-bolts) embedded in
masonry shall be computed by Eq. (3-4) (strength 3.1.6.3.2 Minimum effective embedment
governed by masonry breakout), Eq. (3-5) (strength length The minimum effective embedment length for
governed by steel), and Eq. (3-6) (strength governed by headed or bent-bar anchor bolts resisting shear forces
anchor pullout). In computing the capacity, the smaller of shall be 4 bolt diameters, or 2 in. (50.8 mm), whichever
the design strengths shall be used. is greater.
3.1.6.4 Combined axial and shear strength of
Ban = 4 A pt f m (3-4) anchor bolts Anchor bolts subjected to combined
shear and tension shall be designed to satisfy Eq. (3-11).

B an = Ab f y (3-5) b af bvf
+ 1
B an B vn (3-11)

Ban = 1.5 f m eb d b + [300 (lb + eb + d b ) d b ] (3-6)


Ban and Bvn used in Eq. (3-11) shall be the
The second term in Eq. (3-6) shall be included only governing design tensile and shear strengths,
if the specified quality assurance program includes respectively.
verification that shanks of J- and L-bolts are free of
debris, oil, and grease when installed. 3.1.7 Material properties
3.1.6.2.1 Projected area of masonry for 3.1.7.1 Compressive strength
bent-bar anchor bolts The projected area, Apt, in Eq. 3.1.7.1.1 Masonry compressive strength
(3-4) shall be determined by Eq. (3-7). The specified compressive strength of masonry, fm, shall
equal or exceed 1,500 psi (10.34 MPa). The value of fm
A pt = lb 2 (3-7) used to determine nominal strength values in this chapter
shall not exceed 4,000 psi (27.58 MPa) for concrete
Where the projected areas, Apt, of adjacent bent-bar masonry and shall not exceed 6,000 psi (41.37 MPa) for
anchor bolts overlap, the projected area, Apt, of each bolt clay masonry.
shall be reduced by one-half of the overlapping area.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-31

3.1.7.1.2 Grout compressive strength For to the bed joints shall be taken as 250 psi (1.72 MPa).
concrete masonry, the specified compressive strength of For grouted stack bond masonry, tension parallel to the
grout, f 'g, shall equal or exceed the specified compressive bed joints shall be assumed to be resisted only by the
strength of masonry, f 'm, but shall not exceed 5,000 psi continuous horizontal grout section.
(34.47 MPa). For clay masonry, the specified 3.1.7.3 Reinforcement strength Masonry
compressive strength of grout, f 'm, shall not exceed 6,000 design shall be based on a reinforcement strength equal
psi (41.37 MPa). to the specified yield strength of reinforcement, fy, which
3.1.7.2 Masonry modulus of rupture shall not exceed 60,000 psi (413.7 MPa). The actual
3.1.7.2.1 Out-of-plane bending The yield strength shall not exceed 1.3 times the specified
modulus of rupture, fr, for masonry elements subjected to yield strength. The compressive resistance of steel
out-of-plane bending shall be taken from Table 3.1.7.2.1. reinforcement shall be neglected unless lateral
3.1.7.2.2 In-plane bending For masonry reinforcement is provided in compliance with the
subjected to in-plane loads, the modulus of rupture, fr, requirements of Section 2.1.6.5.
normal to the bed joints shall be taken as 250 psi (1.72
MPa). The modulus of rupture used for masonry parallel

Table 3.1.7.2.1 Modulus of rupture (fr), psi (kPa)


Mortar types
Direction of flexural tensile
stress and masonry type Masonry cement or air
Portland cement/lime or mortar entrained portland cement/lime
cement

M or S N M or S N

Normal to bed joints in running or


stack bond
Solid units 100 (689) 75 (517) 60 (413) 38 (262)
Hollow units1
Ungrouted 63 (431) 48 (331) 38 (262) 23 (158)
Fully grouted 170 (1172) 145 (999) 103 (710) 73 (503)

Parallel to bed joints in running


bond
Solid units 200 (1379) 150 (1033) 120 (827) 75 (517)
Hollow units
Ungrouted and partially 125 (862) 95 (655) 75 (517) 48 (331)
grouted
Fully grouted 200 (1379) 150 (1033) 120 (827) 75 (517)
Parallel to bed joints in stack bond 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
1
For partially grouted masonry, modulus of rupture values shall be determined on the basis of linear interpolation between
hollow units that are fully grouted and ungrouted based on amount (percentage) of grouting.
C-32 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

3.2 Reinforced masonry 3.2.3.3 Development The required tension


3.2.1 Scope or compression reinforcement shall be developed in
The requirements of this section are in addition to accordance with the following provisions:
the requirements of Chapter 1 and Section 3.1 and govern The required development length of reinforcement
masonry design in which reinforcement is used to resist shall be determined by Eq. (3-13), but shall not be less
tensile forces. than 12 in. (305 mm).
3.2.2 Design assumptions l de
ld = (3-13)
The following assumptions apply to the design of
reinforced masonry:
(a) There is strain continuity between the reinforcement,
Where:
grout, and masonry such that all applicable loads are
resisted in a composite manner. 0.13 d b 2 f y
l de = (3-14)
(b) The nominal strength of reinforced masonry cross-
K f m
sections for combined flexure and axial load shall be
based on applicable conditions of equilibrium.
K shall not exceed the lesser of the masonry cover,
(c) The maximum usable strain, mu, at the extreme
clear spacing between adjacent reinforcement, nor 5
masonry compression fiber shall be assumed to be
times db.
0.0035 for clay masonry and 0.0025 for concrete
= 1.0 for No. 3 (M#10) through No. 5 (M#16)
masonry.
bars;
(d) Strain in reinforcement and masonry shall be
= 1.4 for No. 6 (M#19) through No. 7 (M#22)
assumed to be directly proportional to the distance
bars; and
from the neutral axis.
(e) Reinforcement stress below specified yield strength, = 1.5 for No. 8 (M#25) through No. 9 (M#29)
fy, shall be taken as Es times steel strain. For strains bars.
greater than that corresponding to fy, stress in 3.2.3.3.1 Development of shear
reinforcement shall be taken equal to fy. reinforcement Shear reinforcement shall extend the
(f) The tensile strength of masonry shall be neglected in depth of the member less cover distances.
calculating flexural strength but shall be considered 3.2.3.3.1.1 Except at wall intersections,
in calculating deflection. the end of a horizontal reinforcing bar needed to satisfy
(g) The relationship between masonry compressive shear strength requirements of Section 3.2.4.1.2 shall be
stress and masonry strain shall be assumed to be bent around the edge vertical reinforcing bar with a 180-
defined by the following: degree hook. The ends of single leg or U-stirrups shall be
anchored by one of the following means:
Masonry stress of 0.80 fm shall be assumed
(a) A standard hook plus an effective embedment of
uniformly distributed over an equivalent
ld/2. The effective embedment of a stirrup leg shall be
compression zone bounded by edges of the cross
taken as the distance between the mid-depth of the
section and a straight line located parallel to the
member, d/2, and the start of the hook (point of
neutral axis at a distance a = 0.80 c from the fiber of
tangency).
maximum compressive strain. The distance c from
(b) For No. 5 (M #16) bars and smaller, bending
the fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall
around longitudinal reinforcement through at least 135
be measured perpendicular to that axis.
degrees plus an embedment of ld/3. The ld/3 embedment
3.2.3 Reinforcement requirements and details of a stirrup leg shall be taken as the distance between
3.2.3.1 Reinforcing bar size limitations mid-depth of the member, d/2, and the start of the hook
Reinforcing bars used in masonry shall not be larger than (point of tangency).
No. 9 (M#29). The nominal bar diameter shall not (c) Between the anchored ends, each bend in the
exceed one-eighth of the nominal member thickness and continuous portion of a transverse U-stirrup shall enclose
shall not exceed one-quarter of the least clear dimension a longitudinal bar.
of the cell, course, or collar joint in which it is placed. 3.2.3.3.1.2 At wall intersections,
The area of reinforcing bars placed in a cell or in a horizontal reinforcing bars needed to satisfy shear
course of hollow unit construction shall not exceed 4 strength requirements of Section 3.2.4.1.2 shall be bent
percent of the cell area. around the edge vertical reinforcing bar with a 90-degree
3.2.3.2 Standard hooks The equivalent standard hook and shall extend horizontally into the
embedment length to develop standard hooks in tension, intersecting wall a minimum distance at least equal to the
le, shall be determined by Eq. (3-12): development length.

l e = 13 d b (3-12)
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-33

3.2.3.4 Splices Reinforcement splices shall 3.2.4 Design of beams, piers, and columns
comply with one of the following: Member design forces shall be based on an analysis
(a) The minimum length of lap for bars shall be 12 in. that considers the relative stiffness of structural members.
(305 mm) or the length determined by Eq. (3-15), The calculation of lateral stiffness shall include the
whichever is greater. contribution of all beams, piers, and columns. The effects
of cracking on member stiffness shall be considered.
l de
ld = (3-15) 3.2.4.1 Nominal strength
3.2.4.1.1 Nominal axial and flexural
strength The nominal axial strength, Pn, and the
(b) A welded splice shall have the bars butted and nominal flexural strength, Mn, of a cross section shall be
welded to develop at least 125 percent of the yield determined in accordance with the design assumptions of
strength, fy, of the bar in tension or compression, as Section 3.2.2 and the provisions of Section 3.2.4.1. Using
required. the slenderness-dependent modification factors of Eq. (3-
(c) Mechanical splices shall have the bars connected to 16) (1-(h/140r)2) and Eq. (3-17) (70r/h)2, as appropriate,
develop at least 125 percent of the yield strength, fy, the nominal axial strength shall be modified for the
of the bar in tension or compression, as required. effects of slenderness. The nominal flexural strength at
3.2.3.5 Maximum reinforcement percentages any section along a member shall not be less than one
3.2.3.5.1 For structures designed using an R fourth of the maximum nominal flexural strength at the
value greater than 1.5, the ratio of reinforcement, , shall critical section.
not exceed the lesser of the values required to satisfy the The nominal axial compressive strength shall
following two critical strain conditions: not exceed Eq. (3-16) or Eq. (3-17), as appropriate.
(a) For walls subjected to in-plane forces, for columns, (a) For members having an h/r ratio not greater than 99:
and for beams, a strain of 5 times yield in the
h 2
extreme tension reinforcement and a maximum
masonry strain defined by Section 3.2.2(c).
[ ]
Pn = 0.80 0.80 f m ( An As ) + f y As 1
140 r (3-16)

(b) For walls subjected to out-of-plane forces, a strain of
1.3 times yield in the extreme tension reinforcement (b) For members having an h/r ratio greater than 99:
and a maximum masonry strain defined by Section
2
3.2.2(c).
In calculating the maximum reinforcement ratio for [
Pn = 0.80 0.80 f m ( An As ) + f y As ]
70 r
(3-17)
h
each case, equilibrium shall include unfactored gravity
axial loads. The stress in the tension reinforcement shall 3.2.4.1.2 Nominal shear strength
be assumed to be 1.25 fy. Tension in the masonry shall be Nominal shear strength, Vn, shall be computed using Eq.
neglected. The strength of the compression zone shall be (3-18) and either Eq. (3-19) or Eq. (3-20), as appropriate.
calculated as 80 percent of f 'm times 80 percent of the
area of the compressive zone. Stress in reinforcement in V n = Vm + V s (3-18)
the compression zone shall be based on a linear strain
distribution. where Vn shall not exceed the following:
3.2.3.5.2 For structures designed using an R (a) Where M/Vdv < 0.25:
value less than or equal to 1.5, the ratio of reinforcement,
, shall not exceed the ratio as calculated using the Vn 6 An f m (3-19)
following critical strain condition:
A strain of 2 times yield in the extreme tension (b) Where M/Vdv > 1.00
reinforcement and a maximum masonry strain defined by
Section 3.2.2(c). In calculating the maximum Vn 4 An f m (3-20)
reinforcement ratio, equilibrium shall include unfactored
gravity axial loads. The stress in the tension (c) The maximum value of Vn for M/Vdv between 0.25
reinforcement shall be assumed to be 1.25 fy. Tension in and 1.0 may be interpolated.
the masonry shall be neglected. The strength of the 3.2.4.1.2.1 Nominal masonry shear
compression zone shall be calculated as 80 percent of f 'm strength Shear strength provided by the masonry, Vm,
times 80 percent of the area of the compressive zone. shall be computed using Eq. (3-21):
Stress in reinforcement in the compression zone shall be
based on a linear strain distribution. M
3.2.3.6 Bundling of reinforcing bars
Vm = 4.0 1.75 An f m + 0.25 P

(3-21)
Vd v
Reinforcing bars shall not be bundled.
M/Vdv need not be taken greater than 1.0.
C-34 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

3.2.4.1.2.2 Nominal shear strength 3.2.4.3.2 Longitudinal reinforcement A


provided by reinforcement Nominal shear strength pier subjected to in-plane stress reversals shall be
provided by reinforcement, Vs, shall be computed as reinforced symmetrically about the neutral axis of the
follows: pier. The longitudinal reinforcement of all piers shall
comply with the following:
A (a) One bar shall be provided in the end cells.
V s = 0 .5 v f y d v
s (3-22) (b) The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement
shall be 0.0007bd.
3.2.4.2 Beams (c) Longitudinal reinforcement shall be uniformly
3.2.4.2.1 Members designed primarily to distributed throughout the depth of the element.
resist flexure shall comply with the requirements of 3.2.4.3.3 Dimensional limits Dimensions
Section 3.2.4.2. The factored axial compressive force on shall be in accordance with the following:
a beam shall not exceed 0.05 An f 'm. (a) The nominal thickness of a pier shall not be less than
3.2.4.2.2 Longitudinal reinforcement 6 in. (152 mm) and shall not exceed 16 in. (406
3.2.4.2.2.1 The variation in mm).
longitudinal reinforcing bars in a beam shall not be (b) The distance between lateral supports of a pier shall
greater than one bar size. Not more than two bar sizes not exceed 25 times the nominal thickness of a pier
shall be used in a beam. except as provided for in Section 3.2.4.3.3(c).
3.2.4.2.2.2 The nominal flexural (c) When the distance between lateral supports of a pier
strength of a beam shall not be less than 1.3 times the exceeds 25 times the nominal thickness of the pier,
nominal cracking moment strength of the beam, Mcr. The design shall be based on the provisions of Section
modulus of rupture, fr, for this calculation shall be 3.2.5.
determined in accordance with Section 3.1.7.2. (d) The nominal length of a pier shall not be less than
3.2.4.2.3 Transverse reinforcement three times its nominal thickness nor greater than six
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided where Vu times its nominal thickness. The clear height of a
exceeds Vm. The factored shear, Vu, shall include the pier shall not exceed five times its nominal length.
effects of lateral load. When transverse reinforcement is Exception: When the factored axial force at the
required, the following provisions shall apply: location of maximum moment is less than 0.05 f 'm
(a) Transverse reinforcement shall be a single bar with a Ag, the length of a pier may be equal to the thickness
180-degree hook at each end. of the pier.
(b) Transverse reinforcement shall be hooked around the 3.2.4.4 Columns
longitudinal reinforcement. 3.2.4.4.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
(c) The minimum area of transverse reinforcement shall Longitudinal reinforcement shall be a minimum of four
be 0.0007bdv. bars, one in each corner of the column, and shall comply
(d) The first transverse bar shall not be located more with the following:
than one fourth of the beam depth, dv, from the end (a) Maximum reinforcement area shall be determined in
of the beam. accordance with Section 3.2.3.5, but shall not exceed
(e) The maximum spacing shall not exceed one half the 0.04 An.
depth of the beam nor 48 in. (1219 mm). (b) Minimum reinforcement area shall be 0.0025 An.
3.2.4.2.4 Construction Beams shall be (c) Longitudinal reinforcement shall be uniformly
grouted solid. distributed throughout the depth of the element.
3.2.4.2.5 Dimensional limits Dimensions 3.2.4.4.2 Lateral ties Lateral ties shall be
shall be in accordance with the following: provided in accordance with Section 2.1.6.5.
(a) The clear distance between locations of lateral 3.2.4.4.3 Construction Columns shall be
bracing of the compression side of the beam shall solid grouted.
not exceed 32 times the least width of the 3.2.4.4.4 Dimensional limits Dimensions
compression area. shall be in accordance with the following:
(b) The nominal depth of a beam shall not be less than 8 (a) The nominal width of a column shall not be less than
in. (203 mm). 8 in. (203 mm).
3.2.4.3 Piers (b) The distance between lateral supports of a column
3.2.4.3.1 The factored axial compression shall not exceed 30 times its nominal width.
force on the piers shall not exceed 0.3 An f 'm. (c) The nominal depth of a column shall not be less than
8 in. (203 mm) and not greater than three times its
nominal width.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-35

3.2.5 Wall design for out-of-plane loads 3.2.5.5 Walls with factored axial stress greater
3.2.5.1 General The requirements of than 0.05f 'm The procedures set forth in this section
Section 3.2.5 are for the design of walls for out-of-plane shall be used for the design of masonry walls when the
loads. factored axial load stress at the location of maximum
3.2.5.2 Maximum reinforcement The moment exceeds 0.05f 'm. These provisions shall not be
maximum reinforcement ratio shall be determined by applied to walls with factored axial load stress equal to or
Section 3.2.3.5. exceeding 0.2f 'm or slenderness ratios exceeding 30.
3.2.5.3 Moment and deflection calculations Such walls shall be designed in accordance with the
All moment and deflection calculations in Section 3.2.5.4 provisions of Section 3.2.5.4 and shall have a minimum
are based on simple support conditions top and bottom. nominal thickness of 6 in. (152 mm).
For other support and fixity conditions, moments and The nominal shear strength shall be determined by
deflections shall be calculated using established Section 3.2.4.1.2.
principles of mechanics. 3.2.5.6 Deflection design The horizontal
3.2.5.4 Walls with factored axial stress of 0.05 midheight deflection, s, under service lateral and service
f 'm or less The procedures set forth in this section axial loads (without load factors) shall be limited by the
shall be used when the factored axial load stress at the relation:
location of maximum moment satisfies the requirement
computed by Eq. (3-23). s 0.007 h (3-29)
Pu (3-23) P-delta effects shall be included in deflection
0.05 f m
Ag calculation. The midheight deflection shall be computed

using either Eq. (3-30) or Eq. (3-31), as applicable.
Factored moment and axial force shall be determined (a) Where Mser < Mcr
at the midheight of the wall and shall be used for design.
The factored moment, Mu, at the midheight of the wall 5M ser h 2
shall be computed using Eq. (3-24). s = (3-30)
48 Em I g
wu h 2 e
Mu = + Puf u + Pu u (3-24) (b) Where Mcr < Mser < Mn
8 2
Where: 5M cr h 2 5 (M ser M cr )h 2
s = + (3-31)
48 Em I g 48 Em I cr
Pu = Puw + Puf (3-25)

The design strength for out-of-plane wall loading The cracking moment strength of the wall shall be
shall be in accordance with Eq. (3-26). computed using Eq. (3-32):

M cr = S n f r (3-32)
Mu Mn (3-26)
The modulus of rupture, fr, shall be taken from Table
3.1.7.2.1.
Where:
3.2.6 Wall design for in-plane loads
3.2.6.1 Scope The requirements of Section
a
( )
M n = As f y + Pu d
2 (3-27) 3.2.6 are for the design of walls to resist in-plane loads.
3.2.6.2 Reinforcement Reinforcement shall
be in accordance with the following:

a=
(Pu + As f y ) (a) The amount of vertical reinforcement shall not be
less than one half the horizontal reinforcement.
(3-28)
0.80 f m b (b) The maximum reinforcement ratio shall be
The nominal shear strength shall be determined by determined in accordance with Section 3.2.3.5.
Section 3.2.4.1.2. 3.2.6.3 Flexural and axial strength The
nominal flexural and axial strength shall be determined in
accordance with Section 3.2.4.1.1.
3.2.6.4 Shear strength The nominal shear
strength shall be computed in accordance with Section
3.2.4.1.2.
C-36 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

3.3 Unreinforced (plain) masonry 3.3.3 Nominal axial strength of unreinforced


3.3.1 Scope (plain) masonry members
The requirements of Section 3.3 are in addition to Nominal axial strength, Pn, shall be computed using
the requirements of Chapter 1 and Section 3.1 and govern Eq. (3-33) or Eq. (3-34).
masonry design in which masonry is used to resist tensile
(a) For members having an h/r ratio not greater than 99:
forces.
3.3.1.1 Strength for resisting loads
Unreinforced (plain) masonry members shall be designed h 2
using the strength of masonry units, mortar, and grout in Pn = 0.80 0.80 An f m 1 (3-33)
140 r
resisting design loads.
3.3.1.2 Strength contribution from
(b) For members having an h/r ratio greater than 99:
reinforcement Stresses in reinforcement shall not be
considered effective in resisting design loads.
3.3.1.3 Design criteria Unreinforced (plain) 70 r
2
Pn = 0.80 0.80 An f m (3-34)
masonry members shall be designed to remain uncracked. h

3.3.2 Flexural strength of unreinforced (plain)
masonry members 3.3.4 Nominal shear strength Nominal shear
The following assumptions shall apply when strength, Vn, shall be the smallest of the following:
determining the flexural strength of unreinforced (plain)
masonry members: (a) 3.8 An f m
(a) Strength design of members for factored flexure and
axial load shall be in accordance with principles of (b) 300 An
engineering mechanics.
(b) Strain in masonry shall be directly proportional to (c) For running bond masonry not solidly grouted;
the distance from the neutral axis.
(c) Flexural tension in masonry shall be assumed to be 56 An + 0.45 N v
directly proportional to strain.
(d) Flexural compressive stress in combination with (d) For stack bond masonry with open end units and
axial compressive stress in masonry shall be grouted solid;
assumed directly proportional to strain. Nominal
compressive strength shall not exceed a stress 56 An + 0.45 N v
corresponding to 0.80 f 'm.
(e) The nominal flexural tensile strength of masonry (e) For running bond masonry grouted solid;
shall be determined from Section 3.1.7.2.
90 An + 0.45 N v

(f) For stack bond other than open end units grouted
solid;
23 An
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-37

CHAPTER 4
PRESTRESSED MASONRY
4.1 General 4.3.2 Immediately after transfer
4.1.1 Scope The stress in the prestressing tendons immediately
This chapter provides requirements for design of after transfer of the prestressing force to the masonry
masonry that is prestressed with bonded or unbonded shall not exceed 0.82fpy nor 0.74fpu.
prestressing tendons.
4.3.3 Post-tensioned masonry members
4.1.2 The provisions of Chapter 1 and Section At the time of application of prestress, the stress in
2.1 shall apply to prestressed masonry members, except prestressing tendons at anchorages and couplers shall not
that the following provisions shall apply to columns: exceed 0.78fpy nor 0.70fpu.
(a) The minimum eccentricity requirement of Section
2.1.6.3 shall not apply to the prestressing force. 4.4 Effective prestress
(b) Laterally restrained, bonded or unbonded tendons Computation of the effective prestress, fse, shall
are permitted to partly or completely replace the include the effects of the following:
vertical column reinforcement of Section 2.1.6.4. (a) anchorage seating loss,
The moment strength of provided reinforcement and (b) elastic shortening of masonry,
tendons shall be not less than the moment strength (c) creep of masonry,
obtained by the minimum reinforcement specified in (d) shrinkage of concrete masonry,
Section 2.1.6.4. The combined minimum number of (e) relaxation of prestressing tendon stress,
bars and tendons shall be four. (f) friction loss, and
(c) Lateral ties in columns shall conform to Section (g) irreversible moisture expansion of clay masonry.
2.1.6.5, except that tendons do not need lateral
support provided by the corner of a lateral tie if the 4.5 Axial compression and flexure
tendons remain in tension at moment strength 4.5.1 General
conditions. 4.5.1.1 Members subjected to axial
4.1.3 The provisions of Section 1.13 shall apply compression, flexure, or to combined axial
to prestressed masonry members, except as follows: compression and flexure shall be designed according
(a) For members with laterally restrained prestressing to the provisions of Section 2.2.3, except as noted in
tendons, the provisions of Section 4.5.3.3 shall apply Section 4.5.
in lieu of the provisions of Section 2.1.3.3.2 for the 4.5.1.2 The allowable compressive stresses
computation of nominal moment strength. due to axial loads, Fa, and flexure, Fb, and the allowable
(b) The cross-sectional area of bonded prestressing axial force in Eq. (2-11) may be increased by 20 percent
tendons shall be considered to contribute to the for the stress condition immediately after transfer of
minimum reinforcement requirements of Sections prestress.
1.13.5 and 1.13.6. 4.5.1.3 Masonry shall not be subjected to
flexural tensile stress from the combination of
4.2 Design methods prestressing force and dead load.
4.2.1 Prestressed masonry members shall be 4.5.1.3.1 Members shall have design
designed by elastic analysis using loading and load moment strength at all sections equal to or greater than
combinations in accordance with the provisions of the required moment strength computed for the factored
Sections 1.7 and 2.1.2 except as noted in Section 4.5.3.3. load combinations given in the legally adopted building
code or ASCE 7-98 for strength-level loading.
4.2.2 Immediately after the transfer of
prestressing force to the masonry, all limitations on 4.5.2 Laterally unrestrained prestressing tendons
masonry stresses given in this chapter shall be based In members with laterally unrestrained prestressing
upon f mi . tendons, the prestressing force, Pps, shall be included in
the computation of the axial load, P, in Eq. (2-11) and in
4.3 Permissible stresses in prestressing tendons the computation of the eccentricity of the axial load, e, in
4.3.1 Jacking force Eq. (2-15).
The stress in prestressing tendons due to the jacking 4.5.3 Laterally restrained prestressing tendons
force shall not exceed 0.94fpy, nor 0.80fpu, nor the 4.5.3.1 Members with laterally restrained
maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of the prestressing tendons shall be designed for service and
prestressing tendons or anchorages. moment strength requirements according to Section
4.5.3.
C-38 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

4.5.3.2 Requirements under service loads 4.6 Axial tension


The prestressing force, Pps, shall not be Axial tension shall be resisted by reinforcement,
considered for the computation of the axial load, P, in prestressing tendons, or both.
Eq. (2-11). The prestressing force, Pps, shall be
considered for the computation of the eccentricity of the 4.7 Shear
axial resultant load, e, in Eq. (2-15). 4.7.1 Shear stress shall be computed by Eq.
4.5.3.3 Moment strength requirements (2-16).
4.5.3.3.1 Members shall have design
4.7.2 The shear stress shall not exceed any of the
moment strength at all sections equal to or greater than
following:
the required moment strength computed for the factored
load combinations given in the legally adopted building Nv
code or ASCE 7 for strength level loading. Fv = v + 0.45 (4-4a)
An
4.5.3.3.2 The design moment strength
shall be taken as the nominal moment strength, Mn, N
multiplied by a strength reduction factor () of 0.8. Fv = (2.25 f m ) + 15
. f m (4-4b)
An
4.5.3.3.3 For cross sections with
uniform width, b, over the depth of the compression N
zone, the depth of the equivalent compression zone, a, F = (f m ) 2 (f m ) (4-4c)
An
shall be determined by the following equation:
where is as defined in Section 2.2.5.2.
f ps A ps + f y As + Pu
a = (4-1)
0.85 f m b 4.8 Deflection
Computation of member deflection shall include
For other cross sections, Eq. (4-1) shall be modified
camber and the effects of time-dependent phenomena.
to consider the variable width of compression zone. If P
(the unfactored design axial load) does not exceed
4.9 Prestressing tendon anchorages, couplers, and
0.05 f 'mAn, its effect on the equivalent compression zone,
end blocks
a, need not be included.
4.9.1 Prestressing tendons in masonry construc-
4.5.3.3.4 For members with bonded
tion shall be anchored by either:
prestressing tendons, computation of fps shall be based on
(a) mechanical anchorage devices bearing directly on
strain compatibility or shall be taken equal to fpy. In lieu
masonry or placed inside a concrete or fully grouted
of a more accurate determination of fps for members with
end block, or
unbonded prestressing tendons, the following equation
(b) bond in reinforced concrete end blocks or members.
shall be used:
4.9.2 Anchorages and couplers for prestressing
d f pu A ps tendons shall develop at least 95 percent of the specified
f ps = f se + (100,000) 1 1.4 (4-2)
tensile strength of the prestressing tendons when tested in
l p b d f m an unbonded condition, without exceeding anticipated
In Eq. (4-2), the value of fps shall be not less than fse , but set.
not larger than fpy. For tendons with a tensile strength of 4.9.3 Reinforcement shall be provided in
less than 150 ksi (1034 MPa), fps shall be taken equal to masonry members near anchorages if tensile stresses
fse. created by bursting, splitting, and spalling forces induced
4.5.3.3.5 The ratio a/d shall not exceed by the prestressing tendon exceed the capacity of the
0.425. masonry.
4.5.3.3.6 For members with (a) uniform
width, b, (b) concentric reinforcement and prestressing 4.9.4 Bearing stresses
tendons, and (c) concentric axial load, the nominal 4.9.4.1 Local bearing stress in masonry in
moment strength, Mn, shall be computed by the following prestressing tendon anchorage zones shall be computed
equation: based on the contact surface between masonry and the
mechanical anchorage device or the concrete end block.
a 4.9.4.2 Bearing stresses due to maximum
M n = ( f ps A ps + f y As + Pu )(d ) (4-3)
2 jacking force of the prestressing tendon shall not exceed
where a shall be computed according to Section 4.5.3.3.3 0.50 f mi .
and fps shall be computed according to Section 4.5.3.3.4.
The nominal moment strength for other conditions shall
be based on static moment equilibrium principles.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-39

4.10 Protection of prestressing tendons and 4.10.3 Parts of prestressing tendons not embedded
accessories in masonry shall be provided with mechanical and fire
4.10.1 Prestressing tendons, anchorages, couplers, protection equivalent to that of the embedded parts of the
and end fittings in exterior walls exposed to earth or tendon.
weather, or walls exposed to a mean relative humidity
exceeding 75 percent shall be corrosion protected. 4.11 Development of bonded tendons
4.10.2 Corrosion protection of prestressing Development of bonded prestressing tendons in
tendons shall not rely solely on masonry cover. grouted corrugated ducts, anchored in accordance with
Section 4.9.1, does not need to be calculated.
C-40 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

CHAPTER 5
EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY
5.1 General lateral stability, shear walls shall be provided parallel to
5.1.1 Scope the direction of the lateral forces resisted.
This chapter provides requirements for empirical 5.3.1.1 Minimum nominal thickness of
design of masonry. masonry shear walls shall be 8 in. (203 mm).
5.1.1.1 The provisions of Chapter 1, excluding 5.3.1.2 In each direction in which shear walls
Sections 1.2.2(c), 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9, shall apply to are required for lateral stability, shear walls shall be
empirical design, except as specifically stated herein. positioned in two separate planes. The minimum
5.1.1.2 Article 1.4 of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/ cumulative length of shear walls provided shall be 0.4
TMS 602 shall not apply to empirically designed times the long dimension of the building. Cumulative
masonry. length of shear walls shall not include openings or any
element whose length is less than one half its height.
5.1.2 Limitations
5.3.1.3 Shear walls shall be spaced so that the
5.1.2.1 Seismic Empirical requirements
length-to-width ratio of each diaphragm transferring
shall not apply to the design or construction of masonry
lateral forces to the shear walls does not exceed values
for buildings, parts of buildings or other structures in
given in Table 5.3.1.
Seismic Design Categories D, E, or F as defined in
ASCE 7-98, and shall not apply to the design of the 5.3.2 Roofs
seismic-force-resisting system for structures in Seismic The roof construction shall be designed so as not to
Design Categories B or C. impart out-of-plane lateral thrust to the walls under roof
5.1.2.2 Wind Empirical requirements shall gravity load.
not apply to the design or construction of masonry for
buildings, parts of buildings, or other structures to be 5.4 Compressive stress requirements
located in areas where the basic wind speed exceeds 110 5.4.1 Calculations
mph (145 km/hr) as given in ASCE 7-98. Dead and live loads shall be in accordance with the
5.1.2.3 Other horizontal loads Empirical legally adopted building code of which this Code forms a
requirements shall not apply to structures resisting part, with such live load reductions as are permitted in
horizontal loads other than permitted wind or seismic the legally adopted building code. Compressive stresses
loads or foundation walls as provided in Section 5.6.3. in masonry due to vertical dead plus live loads (excluding
5.1.2.4 Glass unit masonry The provisions wind or seismic loads) shall be determined in accordance
of Chapter 5 do not apply to glass unit masonry. with the following:
(a) Stresses shall be calculated based on specified
5.2 Height dimensions.
Buildings relying on masonry walls as part of their (b) Calculated compressive stresses for single wythe
lateral load-resisting system shall not exceed 35 ft (10.67 walls and for multiwythe composite masonry walls
m) in height. shall be determined by dividing the design load by
the gross cross-sectional area of the member. The
5.3 Lateral stability area of openings, chases, or recesses in walls shall
5.3.1 Shear walls not be included in the gross cross-sectional area of
Where the structure depends upon masonry walls for the wall.

Table 5.3.1 Diaphragm length-to-width ratios


Maximum length-to-width ratio of
Floor or roof diaphragm construction
diaphragm panel
Cast-in-place concrete 5:1
Precast concrete 4:1
Metal deck with concrete fill 3:1
Metal deck with no fill 2:1
Wood 2:1
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-41

5.4.2 Allowable compressive stresses 5.5.2 Cantilever walls


The compressive stresses in masonry shall not Except for parapets, the ratio of height-to-nominal-
exceed the values given in Table 5.4.2. In multiwythe thickness for cantilever walls shall not exceed 6 for
walls, the allowable stresses shall be based on the solid masonry or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets
weakest combination of the units and mortar used in see Section 5.6.5.
each wythe.
5.5.3 Support elements
5.5 Lateral support Lateral support shall be provided by cross walls,
5.5.1 Intervals pilasters, buttresses, or structural frame members when
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the limiting distance is taken horizontally; or by floors,
the horizontal or the vertical direction at intervals not roofs acting as diaphragms, or structural frame
exceeding those given in Table 5.5.1. members when the limiting distance is taken vertically.

Table 5.4.2 Allowable compressive stresses for empirical design of masonry

Allowable compressive stresses1 gross


Construction; compressive strength of unit,
cross-sectional area,
gross area, psi (MPa)
psi (MPa)
Type M or S Type N
mortar mortar
Solid masonry of brick and other solid units of
clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete brick:
8000 (55.16) or greater 350 (2.41) 300 (2.07)
4500 (31.03) 225 (1.55) 200 (1.38)
2500 (17.23) 160 (1.10) 140 (0.97)
1500 (10.34) 115 (0.79) 100 (0.69)
Grouted masonry of clay or shale; sand-lime or
concrete:
4500 (31.03) or greater 225 (1.55) 200 (1.38)
2500 (17.23) 160 (1.10) 140 (0.97)
1500 (10.34) 115 (0.79) 100 (0.69)
Solid masonry of solid concrete masonry units:
3000 (20.69) or greater 225 (1.55) 200 (1.38)
2000 (13.79) 160 (1.10) 140 (0.97)
1200 (8.27) 115 (0.79) 100 (0.69)
Masonry of hollow load bearing units:
2000 (13.79) or greater 140 (0.97) 120 (0.83)
1500 (10.34) 115 (0.79) 100 (0.69)
1000 (6.90) 75 (0.52) 70 (0.48)
700 (4.83) 60 (0.41) 55 (0.38)
Hollow walls (noncomposite masonry bonded2):
Solid units:
2500 (17.23) or greater 160 (1.10) 140 (0.97)
1500 (10.34) 115 (0.79) 100 (0.69)
Hollow units 75 (0.52) 70 (0.48)
Stone ashlar masonry:
Granite 720 (4.96) 640 (4.41)
Limestone or marble 450 (3.10) 400 (2.76)
Sandstone or cast stone 360 (2.48) 320 (2.21)
Rubble stone masonry:
Coursed, rough, or random 120 (0.83) 100 (0.69)
1 Linear interpolation for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths which are
intermediate between those given in the table is permitted.
2 Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wythe under
load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity
between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as noncomposite walls unless collar joints
are filled with mortar or grout.
C-42 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Table 5.5.1 Wall lateral support requirements

Construction Maximum l/t or h/t


Bearing walls
Solid units or fully grouted 20
All other 18
Nonbearing walls
Exterior 18
Interior 36
In computing the ratio for multiwythe walls, use the following thickness:
1. The nominal wall thicknesses for solid walls and for hollow walls bonded with masonry
headers (Section 5.7.2).
2. The sum of the nominal thicknesses of the wythes for non-composite walls connected with
wall ties (Section 5.7.3).

Table 5.6.3.1 Foundation wall construction

Wall construction Nominal wall Maximum depth of


thickness, in. (mm) unbalanced backfill, ft (m)

Hollow unit masonry 8 (203) 5 (1.52)


10 (254) 6 (1.83)
12 (305) 7 (2.13)
Solid unit masonry 8 (203) 5 (1.52)
10 (254) 7 (2.13)
12 (305) 7 (2.13)
Fully grouted 8 (203) 7 (2.13)
masonry 10 (254) 8 (2.44)
12 (305) 8 (2.44)

5.6 Thickness of masonry 5.6.3 Foundation walls


5.6.1 General 5.6.3.1 Foundation walls shall comply with
Minimum thickness requirements shall be based on the requirements of Table 5.6.3.1, which are applicable
nominal dimensions of masonry. when:
(a) the foundation wall does not exceed 8 ft. (2.44 m)
5.6.2 Walls in height between lateral supports,
5.6.2.1 Minimum thickness The minimum (b) the terrain surrounding foundation walls is graded
thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story so as to drain surface water away from foundation
high shall be 8 in. (203 mm). Bearing walls of one story walls,
buildings shall not be less than 6 in. (152 mm) thick. (c) backfill is drained to remove ground water away
5.6.2.2 Rubble stone walls The minimum from foundation walls,
thickness of rough or random or coursed rubble stone (d) lateral support is provided at the top of foundation
walls shall be 16 in. (406 mm). walls prior to backfilling,
5.6.2.3 Change in thickness Where walls (e) the length of foundation walls between
of masonry of hollow units or masonry bonded hollow perpendicular masonry walls or pilasters is a
walls are decreased in thickness, a course or courses of maximum of 3 times the basement wall height,
solid masonry shall be interposed between the wall (f) the backfill is granular and soil conditions in the
below and the thinner wall above, or special units or area are non-expansive, and
construction shall be used to transmit the loads from (g) masonry is laid in running bond using Type M or S
face shells or wythes above to those below. mortar.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-43

5.6.3.2 Where the requirements of Section 5.7.3.2 Bonding with prefabricated joint
5.6.3.1 are not met, foundation walls shall be designed reinforcement Where the facing and backing
in accordance with Chapter 1 and Sections 2.1 and 2.2 (adjacent wythes) of masonry are bonded with
or Chapter 1 and Sections 2.1 and 2.3. prefabricated joint reinforcement, there shall be at least
one cross wire serving as a tie for each 22/3 ft2 (0.25 m2)
5.6.4 Foundation piers
of wall area. The vertical spacing of the joint
Foundation piers shall not be less than 8 in. (203
reinforcement shall not exceed 24 in. (610 mm). Cross
mm) in thickness.
wires on prefabricated joint reinforcement shall be not
5.6.5 Parapet walls smaller than wire size W1.7 (MW11) and shall be
Parapet walls shall be at least 8 in. (203 mm) thick without drips. The longitudinal wires shall be
and their height shall not exceed 3 times their thickness. embedded in the mortar.
5.7.4 Natural or cast stone
5.7 Bond
5.7.4.1 Ashlar masonry In ashlar masonry,
5.7.1 General
uniformly distributed bonder units shall be provided to
The facing and backing of multiple wythe masonry
the extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area.
walls shall be bonded in accordance with this section.
Such bonder units shall extend not less than 4 in. (102
5.7.2 Bonding with masonry headers mm) into the backing wall.
5.7.2.1 Solid units Where the facing and 5.7.4.2 Rubble stone masonry Rubble
backing (adjacent wythes) of solid masonry stone masonry 24 in. (610 mm) or less in thickness
construction are bonded by means of masonry headers, shall have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 ft
no less than 4 percent of the wall surface of each face (0.91 m) vertically and 3 ft (0.91 m) horizontally, and if
shall be composed of headers extending not less than 3 the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 in. (610
in. (76.2 mm) into the backing. The distance between mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 ft2 (0.56 m2)
adjacent full-length headers shall not exceed 24 in. of wall surface on both sides.
(610 mm) either vertically or horizontally. In walls in
which a single header does not extend through the wall, 5.8 Anchorage
headers from the opposite sides shall overlap at least 3 5.8.1 General
in. (76.2 mm), or headers from opposite sides shall be Masonry elements shall be anchored in accordance
covered with another header course overlapping the with this section.
header below at least 3 in. (76.2 mm).
5.8.2 Intersecting walls
5.7.2.2 Hollow units Where two or more
Masonry walls depending upon one another for
hollow units are used to make up the thickness of a
lateral support shall be anchored or bonded at locations
wall, the stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical
where they meet or intersect by one of the following
intervals not exceeding 34 in. (864 mm) by lapping at
methods:
least 3 in. (76.2 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping
5.8.2.1 Fifty percent of the units at the
at vertical intervals not exceeding 17 in. (432 mm) with
intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry
units which are at least 50 percent greater in thickness
bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing
than the units below.
of not less than 3 in. (76.2 mm) on the unit below.
5.7.3 Bonding with wall ties
5.8.2.2 Walls shall be anchored by steel
5.7.3.1 When the facing and backing
connectors having a minimum section of 1/4 in. (6.4
(adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are bonded with
mm) by 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) with ends bent up at least 2
wire size W2.8 (MW18) wall ties or metal wire of
in. (50.8 mm), or with cross pins to form anchorage.
equivalent stiffness embedded in the horizontal mortar
Such anchors shall be at least 24 in. (610 mm) long and
joints, there shall be at least one metal tie for each 41/2
the maximum spacing shall be 4 ft (1.22 m).
ft2 (0.42 m2) of wall area. The maximum vertical
5.8.2.3 Walls shall be anchored by joint
distance between ties shall not exceed 24 in. (610 mm),
reinforcement spaced at a maximum distance of 8 in.
and the maximum horizontal distance shall not exceed
(203 mm). Longitudinal wires of such reinforcement
36 in. (914 mm). Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape
shall be at least wire size W1.7 (MW11) and shall
shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the
extend at least 30 in. (762 mm) in each direction at the
cells vertical. In other walls, the ends of ties shall be
intersection.
bent to 90 degree angles to provide hooks no less than
5.8.2.4 Interior nonload-bearing walls shall
2 in. (50.8 mm) long. Wall ties shall be without drips.
be anchored at their intersection at vertical intervals of
Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all
not more than 16 in. (406 mm) with joint reinforcement
openings, spaced not more than 3 ft (0.91 m) apart
or 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) mesh galvanized hardware cloth.
around the perimeter and within 12 in. (305 mm) of the
opening.
C-44 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

5.8.2.5 Other metal ties, joint reinforcement 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) of bond beam reinforcement placed
or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide not less than 6 in. (152 mm) from the top of the wall.
equivalent area of anchorage to that required by this
5.8.4 Walls adjoining structural framing
section.
Where walls are dependent upon the structural
5.8.3 Floor and roof anchorage frame for lateral support, they shall be anchored to the
Floor and roof diaphragms providing lateral structural members with metal anchors or otherwise
support to masonry shall be connected to the masonry keyed to the structural members. Metal anchors shall
by one of the following methods: consist of 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) bolts spaced at 4 ft (1.22 m)
5.8.3.1 Roof loading shall be determined by on center embedded 4 in. (102 mm) into the masonry,
the provisions of Section 1.7.2 and, where net uplift or their equivalent area.
occurs, uplift shall be resisted entirely by an anchorage
system designed in accordance with the provisions of 5.9 Miscellaneous requirements
Sections 2.1 and 2.3. 5.9.1 Chases and recesses
5.8.3.2 Wood floor joists bearing on Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider
masonry walls shall be anchored to the wall at intervals than 12 in. (305 mm) shall be supported on lintels.
not to exceed 6 ft (1.83 m) by metal strap anchors.
5.9.2 Lintels
Joists parallel to the wall shall be anchored with metal
The design of masonry lintels shall be in
straps spaced not more than 6 ft (1.83 m) on centers
accordance with the provisions of Section 2.3.3.4.
extending over or under and secured to at least 3 joists.
Blocking shall be provided between joists at each strap 5.9.3 Support on wood
anchor. No masonry shall be supported on wood girders or
5.8.3.3 Steel floor joists bearing on masonry other forms of wood construction.
walls shall be anchored to the wall with 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
5.9.4 Corbelling
round bars, or their equivalent, spaced not more than 6
Solid masonry units shall be used for corbelling.
ft (1.83 m) on center. Where joists are parallel to the
The maximum corbelled projection beyond the face of
wall, anchors shall be located at joist bridging.
the wall shall be not more than one-half of the wall
5.8.3.4 Roof diaphragms shall be anchored
thickness or one-half the wythe thickness for hollow
to masonry walls with 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) diameter bolts
walls; the maximum projection of one unit shall neither
6 ft (1.83 m) on center or their equivalent. Bolts shall
exceed one-half the height of the unit nor one-third its
extend and be embedded at least 15 in. (381 mm) into
thickness at right angles to the wall.
the masonry, or be hooked or welded to not less than
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-45

CHAPTER 6
VENEER

6.1 General 6.2 Anchored veneer


6.1.1 Scope 6.2.1 Alternative design of anchored masonry
This chapter provides requirements for design and veneer
detailing of anchored masonry veneer and adhered The alternative design of anchored veneer, which is
masonry veneer. permitted under Section 1.3, shall satisfy the following
6.1.1.1 The provisions of Chapter 1, conditions:
excluding Sections 1.2.2(c), 1.7, and 1.9, shall apply to (a) Loads shall be distributed through the veneer to the
design of anchored and adhered veneer except as anchors and the backing using principles of
specifically stated herein. mechanics.
6.1.1.2 Section 1.11 shall not apply to adhered (b) Out-of-plane deflection of the backing shall be
veneer. limited to maintain veneer stability.
6.1.1.3 Articles 1.4 A and B and 3.4 C of ACI (c) All masonry, other than veneer, shall meet the
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 shall not apply to any veneer. provisions of Section 1.1.3, excluding subparagraphs
Articles 3.4 B and E shall not apply to anchored veneer. (e) and (f).
Articles 3.3 B and 3.4 A, B, D and E shall not apply to (d) The veneer is not subject to the flexural tensile stress
adhered veneer. provisions of Section 2.2.
(e) The provisions of Chapter 1, excluding Section
6.1.2 Design of anchored veneer
1.2.2(c), and Section 6.1, excluding Section 6.1.1.1,
Anchored veneer shall meet the requirements of
Section 6.2.2.9, and Section 6.2.2.10 shall apply.
Section 6.1.5 and shall be designed rationally by Section
6.2.1 or detailed by the prescriptive requirements of 6.2.2 Prescriptive requirements for anchored
Section 6.2.2. masonry veneer
6.2.2.1 Prescriptive requirements for anchored
6.1.3 Design of adhered veneer
masonry veneer shall not be used in areas where the the
Adhered veneer shall meet the requirements of
basic wind speed exceeds 110 mph (145 km/hr) as given
Section 6.1.5 and shall be designed rationally by Section
in ASCE 7-98.
6.3.1 or detailed by the prescriptive requirements of
6.2.2.2 Connect anchored veneer to the
Section 6.3.2.
backing with anchors that comply with Section 6.2.2.5
6.1.4 Dimension stone and Article 2.4 of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
Dimension stone veneer is not covered under this 6.2.2.3 Vertical support of anchored masonry
Code. Any such system shall be considered a Special veneer
System and submitted accordingly to the Building 6.2.2.3.1 The weight of anchored
Official. veneer shall be supported vertically on concrete or
masonry foundations or other noncombustible structural
6.1.5 General design requirements
supports, except as permitted in Sections 6.2.2.3.1.1,
6.1.5.1 Design and detail the backing system
6.2.2.3.1.4, and 6.2.2.3.1.5.
of exterior veneer to resist water penetration. Exterior
6.2.2.3.1.1 Anchored veneer is
sheathing shall be covered with a water-resistant
permitted to be supported vertically by preservative-
membrane unless the sheathing is water resistant and the
treated wood foundations. The height of veneer
joints are sealed.
supported by wood foundations shall not exceed 18 ft
6.1.5.2 Design and detail flashing and weep
(5.49 m) above the support.
holes in exterior veneer wall systems to resist water
6.2.2.3.1.2 Anchored veneer with a
penetration into the building interior. Weepholes shall be
backing of wood framing shall not exceed the height
at least 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) in diameter and spaced less than
above the noncombustible foundation given in Table
33 in. (838 mm) on center.
6.2.2.3.1.
6.1.5.3 Design and detail the veneer to
accommodate differential movement.
C-46 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

6.2.2.3.1.3 If anchored veneer with a (b) With hollow units, embed anchors in mortar or grout
backing of cold-formed steel framing exceeds the height and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
above the noncombustible foundation given in Table (38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar or
6.2.2.3.1, the weight of the veneer shall be supported by grout cover to the outside face.
noncombustible construction for each story above the 6.2.2.5.2 Sheet metal anchors
height limit given in Table 6.2.2.3.1. 6.2.2.5.2.1 Sheet metal anchors shall
be at least 7/8 in. (22.2 mm) wide, have a base metal
Table 6.2.2.3.1 Height limit from foundation thickness of at least 0.06 in. (1.5 mm) and shall:
(a) have corrugations as given in Section 6.2.2.5.1.1, or
Height at plate, ft (m) Height at gable, ft (m) (b) be bent, notched, or punched to provide equivalent
30 (9.14) 38 (11.58) performance in pull-out or push-through.
6.2.2.5.2.2 Sheet metal anchors shall
be placed as follows:
6.2.2.3.1.4 When anchored veneer is
(a) With solid units, embed anchors in the mortar joint
used as an interior finish on wood framing, it shall have a
and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
weight of 40 lb/ft2 (1915 Pa) or less and be installed in
(38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar
conformance with the provisions of this Chapter.
cover to the outside face.
6.2.2.3.1.5 Exterior masonry veneer
(b) With hollow units, embed anchors in mortar or grout
having an installed weight of 40 psf (195 kg/m2) or less
and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
and height of no more than 12 ft (3.7 m) are permitted to
(38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar or
be supported on wood construction when installed in
grout cover to the outside face.
compliance with the provisions of this Chapter. A
6.2.2.5.3 Wire anchors
vertical movement joint in the masonry veneer shall be
used to isolate the veneer supported by wood 6.2.2.5.3.1 Wire anchors shall be at
construction from that supported by the foundation. least wire size W1.7 (MW11) and have ends bent to form
Masonry shall be designed and constructed so that an extension from the bend at least 2 in. (50.8 mm) long.
masonry is not in direct contact with wood. The 6.2.2.5.3.2 Wire anchors shall be
horizontally spanning element supporting the masonry placed as follows:
veneer shall be designed so that deflection due to dead (a) With solid units, embed anchors in the mortar joint
plus live loads does not exceed l/600 nor 0.3 in. (7.6 and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
mm). (38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar
6.2.2.3.2 When anchored veneer is cover to the outside face.
supported by floor construction, the floor shall be (b) With hollow units, embed anchors in mortar or grout
designed to limit deflection as required in Section 1.10.1. and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
(38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar or
6.2.2.3.3 Provide noncombustible lin-
grout cover to the outside face.
tels or supports attached to noncombustible framing over
all openings where the anchored veneer is not self- 6.2.2.5.4 Joint reinforcement
supporting. The deflection of such lintels or supports 6.2.2.5.4.1 Ladder-type or tab-type
shall conform to the requirements of Section 1.10.1. joint reinforcement is permitted. Cross wires used to
6.2.2.4 Masonry units - Masonry units shall be anchor masonry veneer shall be at least wire size W1.7
at least 25/8 in. (66.7 mm) in actual thickness. (MW11) and shall be spaced at a maximum of 16 in.
(406 mm) on center. Cross wires shall be welded to
6.2.2.5 Anchor requirements
longitudinal wires, which shall be at least wire size W1.7
6.2.2.5.1 Corrugated sheet metal anchors
(MW11).
6.2.2.5.1.1 Corrugated sheet metal
6.2.2.5.4.2 Embed longitudinal wires
anchors shall be at least 7/8 in. (22 mm) wide, have a base
of joint reinforcement in the mortar joint with at least 5/8
metal thickness of at least 0.03 in. (0.8 mm), and shall
in. (15.9 mm) mortar cover on each side.
have corrugations with a wavelength of 0.3 to 0.5 in. (7.6
6.2.2.5.5 Adjustable anchors
to 12.7 mm) and an amplitude of 0.06 to 0.10 in. (1.5 to
2.5 mm). 6.2.2.5.5.1 Sheet metal and wire
components of adjustable anchors shall conform to the
6.2.2.5.1.2 Corrugated sheet metal
requirements of Section 6.2.2.5.1, 6.2.2.5.2, or 6.2.2.5.3.
anchors shall be placed as follows:
Adjustable anchors with joint reinforcement shall also
(a) With solid units, embed anchors in the mortar joint
meet the requirements of Section 6.2.2.5.4.
and extend into the veneer a minimum of 11/2 in.
(38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) mortar 6.2.2.5.5.2 Maximum clearance
cover to the outside face. between connecting parts of the tie shall be 1/16 in. (1.6
mm).
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-47

6.2.2.5.5.3 Adjustable anchors shall 6.2.2.7.4 Maintain a 41/2 in. (114 mm)
be detailed to prevent disengagement. maximum distance between the inside face of the veneer
6.2.2.5.5.4 Pintle anchors shall have and the steel framing. Maintain a 1 in. (25.4 mm)
at least two pintle legs of wire size W2.8 (MW18) each minimum air space.
and shall have an offset not exceeding 11/4 in. (31.8 mm). 6.2.2.8 Masonry veneer anchored to masonry
6.2.2.5.5.5 Adjustable anchors of or concrete backing
equivalent strength and stiffness to those specified in 6.2.2.8.1 Attach veneer to masonry
Sections 6.2.2.5.5.1 through 6.2.2.5.5.4 are permitted. backing with wire anchors, adjustable anchors, or joint
6.2.2.5.6 Anchor spacing reinforcement. Attach veneer to concrete backing with
6.2.2.5.6.1 For adjustable two-piece adjustable anchors.
anchors, anchors of wire size W1.7 (MW11), and 22 6.2.2.8.2 Maintain a 41/2 in. (114 mm)
gage (0.8 mm) corrugated sheet metal anchors, provide at maximum distance between the inside face of the veneer
least one anchor for each 2.67 ft2 (0.25 m2) of wall area. and the outside face of the masonry or concrete backing.
6.2.2.5.6.2 For all other anchors, Maintain a 1 in. (25.4 mm) minimum air space.
provide at least one anchor for each 3.5 ft2 (0.33 m2) of 6.2.2.9 Veneer laid in other than running bond
wall area. Anchored veneer laid in other than running
6.2.2.5.6.3 Space anchors at a bond shall have joint reinforcement of at least one wire,
maximum of 32 in. (813 mm) horizontally and 18 in. of size W1.7 (MW11), spaced at a maximum of 18 in.
(457 mm) vertically. (457 mm) on center vertically.
6.2.2.5.6.4 Provide additional anch- 6.2.2.10 Requirements in seismic areas
ors around all openings larger than 16 in. (406 mm) in 6.2.2.10.1 Seismic Design Category C
either dimension. Space anchors around perimeter of 6.2.2.10.1.1 The requirements of this
opening at a maximum of 3 ft (0.91 m) on center. Place section apply to anchored veneer for buildings in Seismic
anchors within 12 in. (305 mm) of openings. Design Category C.
6.2.2.5.7 Joint thickness for anchors 6.2.2.10.1.2 Isolate the sides and top
Mortar bed joint thickness shall be at least twice the of anchored veneer from the structure so that vertical and
thickness of the embedded anchor. lateral seismic forces resisted by the structure are not
imparted to the veneer.
6.2.2.6 Masonry veneer anchored to wood
6.2.2.10.2 Seismic Design Category D
backing
6.2.2.10.2.1 The requirements for
6.2.2.6.1 Veneer shall be attached with
Seismic Design Category C and the requirements of this
any anchor permitted in Section 6.2.2.5.
section apply to anchored veneer for buildings in Seismic
6.2.2.6.2 Attach each anchor to wood
Design Category D.
studs or wood framing with a corrosion-resistant 8d
6.2.2.10.2.2 Support the weight of
common nail, or fastener with equivalent or greater
anchored veneer for each story independent of other
pullout strength. For corrugated sheet metal anchors,
stories.
locate the nail or fastener within 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) of the
6.2.2.10.2.3 Reduce the maximum
90 degree bend in the anchor.
wall area supported by each anchor to 75 percent of that
6.2.2.6.3 Maintain a maximum distance
required in Sections 6.2.2.5.6.1 and 6.2.2.5.6.2.
between the inside face of the veneer and outside face of
Maximum horizontal and vertical spacings are
the solid sheathing of 1 in. (25.4 mm) when corrugated
unchanged.
anchors are used. Maintain a maximum distance between
6.2.2.10.2.4 Provide continuous,
the inside face of the veneer and the wood stud or wood
single-wire joint reinforcement of minimum wire size
framing of 41/2 in. (114 mm) when other anchors are
W1.7 (MW11) at a maximum spacing of 18 in. (457 mm)
used. Maintain a 1 in. (25.4 mm) minimum air space.
on center vertically.
6.2.2.7 Masonry veneer anchored to steel
6.2.2.10.3 Seismic Design Categories E
backing
and F
6.2.2.7.1 Attach veneer with adjustable
6.2.2.10.3.1 The requirements for
anchors.
Seismic Design Category D and the requirements of this
6.2.2.7.2 Attach each anchor to steel
section apply to anchored veneer for buildings in Seismic
framing with corrosion-resistant screws that have a
Design Categories E and F.
minimum nominal shank diameter of 0.190 in. (4.8 mm).
6.2.2.10.3.2 Provide vertical expan-
6.2.2.7.3 Cold-formed steel framing
sion joints at all returns and corners.
shall be corrosion resistant and have a minimum base
6.2.2.10.3.3 Mechanically attach
metal thickness of 0.043 in. (1.1 mm).
anchors to the joint reinforcement required in Section
6.2.2.10.2.4 with clips or hooks.
C-48 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

6.3 Adhered veneer 6.3.2 Prescriptive requirements for adhered


6.3.1 Alternative design of adhered masonry masonry veneer
veneer 6.3.2.1 Unit sizes Adhered veneer units
The alternative design of adhered veneer, which is shall not exceed 25/8 in. (66.7 mm) in specified thickness,
permitted under Section 1.3, shall satisfy the following 36 in. (914 mm) in any face dimension, nor more that
conditions: 5 ft2 (0.46 m2) in total face area, and shall not weigh
(a) Loads shall be distributed through the veneer to the more than 15 lb/ft2 (718 Pa).
backing using principles of mechanics. 6.3.2.2 Wall area limitations The height,
(b) Out-of-plane curvature shall be limited to prevent length, and area of adhered veneer shall not be limited
veneer unit separation from the backing. except as required to control restrained differential
(c) All masonry, other than veneer, shall meet the movement stresses between veneer and backing.
provisions of Section 1.1.3, excluding subparagraphs 6.3.2.3 Backing Backing shall provide a
(e) and (f). continuous, moisture-resistant surface to receive the
(d) The veneer is not subject to the flexural tensile stress adhered veneer. Backing is permitted to be masonry,
provisions of Section 2.2. concrete, or metal lath and portland cement plaster
(e) The provisions of Chapter 1 excluding Section applied to masonry, concrete, steel framing, or wood
1.2.2(c), and Section 6.1 excluding Section 6.1.1 framing.
shall apply. 6.3.2.4 Adhesion developed between adhered
veneer units and backing shall have a shear strength of at
least 50 psi (345 kPa) based on gross unit surface area
when tested in accordance with ASTM C 482, or shall be
adhered in compliance with Article 3.3 C of ACI
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-49

CHAPTER 7
GLASS UNIT MASONRY

7.1 General 7.2 Panel size


7.1.1 Scope 7.2.1 Exterior standard-unit panels
This chapter provides requirements for empirical The maximum area of each individual standard-unit
design of glass unit masonry in exterior or interior walls. panel shall be based on the design wind pressure, in
7.1.1.1 The provisions of Chapter 1, excluding accordance with Fig. 7.2-1. The maximum dimension
Sections 1.2.2(c), 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9, shall apply to design between structural supports shall be 25 ft (7.62 m) wide
of glass unit masonry, except as stated herein. or 20 ft (6.10 m) high.
7.1.1.2 Article 1.4 of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS
7.2.2 Exterior thin-unit panels
602 shall not apply to glass unit masonry.
The maximum area of each individual thin-unit panel
7.1.2 Units shall be 85 ft2 (7.90 m2). The maximum dimension
7.1.2.1 Hollow or solid glass block units shall between structural supports shall be 15 ft (4.57 m) wide
be standard or thin units. or 10 ft (3.05 m) high. Thin units shall not be used in
7.1.2.2 The specified thickness of standard applications where the design wind pressure exceeds 20
units shall be 37/8 in. (98.4 mm). lb/ft2 (958 Pa).
7.1.2.3 The specified thickness of thin units
7.2.3 Interior panels
shall be 31/8 in. (79.4 mm) for hollow units or 3 in. (76.2
The maximum area of each individual standard-unit
mm) for solid units.
panel shall be 250 ft2 (23.22 m2). The maximum area of
each thin-unit panel shall be 150 ft2 (13.94 m2). The
maximum dimension between structural supports shall be
25 ft (7.62 m) wide or 20 ft (6.10 m) high.
7.2.4 Curved panels
The width of curved panels shall conform to the
requirements of Sections 7.2.1, 7.2.2, and 7.2.3, except
additional structural supports shall be provided at
locations where a curved section joins a straight section,
and at inflection points in multicurved walls.

Fig. 7.2-1 Glass Unit Masonry Design Wind Load Resistance


C-50 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

7.3 Support 7.4 Expansion joints


7.3.1 Isolation Glass unit masonry panels shall be provided with
Glass unit masonry panels shall be isolated so that expansion joints along the top and sides at all structural
in-plane loads are not imparted to the panel. supports. Expansion joints shall have sufficient thickness
to accommodate displacements of the supporting
7.3.2 Vertical
structure, but shall not be less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in
Maximum total deflection of structural members
thickness. Expansion joints shall be entirely free of
supporting glass unit masonry shall not exceed l/600.
mortar or other debris and shall be filled with resilient
7.3.3 Lateral material.
7.3.3.1 Glass unit masonry panels, more than
one unit wide or one unit high, shall be laterally 7.5 Base surface treatment
supported along the top and sides of the panel. Lateral The surface on which glass unit masonry panels are
support shall be provided by panel anchors along the top placed shall be coated with a water-based asphaltic
and sides spaced not more than 16 in. (406 mm) on emulsion or other elastic waterproofing material prior to
center or by channel-type restraints. Glass unit masonry laying the first course.
panels shall be recessed at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) within
channels and chases. Channel-type restraints must be 7.6 Mortar
oversized to accommodate expansion material in the Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S or N
opening, and packing and sealant between the framing mortar.
restraints and the glass unit masonry perimeter units.
Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be 7.7 Reinforcement
designed to resist applied loads, or a minimum of 200 lb Glass unit masonry panels shall have horizontal joint
per lineal ft (2919 N/m) of panel, whichever is greater. reinforcement spaced not more than 16 in. (406 mm) on
7.3.3.2 Glass unit masonry panels that are no center, located in the mortar bed joint, and extending the
more than one unit wide shall conform to the entire length of the panel but not across expansion joints.
requirements of Section 7.3.3.1, except that lateral Longitudinal wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 in.
support at the top of the panel is not required. (152 mm) at splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed
7.3.3.3 Glass unit masonry panels that are no in the bed joint immediately below and above openings
more than one unit high shall conform to the in the panel. The reinforcement shall have not less than
requirements of Section 7.3.3.1, except that lateral two parallel longitudinal wires of size W1.7 (MW11) and
support at the sides of the panels is not required. have welded cross wires of size W1.7 (MW11).
7.3.3.4 Glass unit masonry panels that are
single unit panels shall conform to the requirements of
Section 7.3.3.1, except that lateral support shall not be
provided by panel anchors.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-51

TRANSLATION OF INCH-POUND UNITS TO SI UNITS


The equations in this Code are for use with the specified inch-pound
units only. The equivalent units for use with SI units follow.

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units

1.8.2.2.1 Em = 700 f 'm for clay masonry


f 'm in MPa
Em = 900 f 'm for concrete masonry

1.8.2.3 500 fg f'g in MPa

(2-1) Ba = 0.042 Ap f m Ap in mm2


Ba in Newtons
f m in MPa

(2-2) Ba = 0.2 Ab f y Ab in mm2


Ba in Newtons
fy in MPa

(2-3) Ap = lb2 Ap in mm2


lb in mm

(2-4) Ap = lbe2 Ap in mm2


lbe in mm

(2-5) Bv = 1072 4 f m Ab Ab in mm2


Bv in Newtons
f m in MPa

(2-6) Bv = 0.12 Ab f y Ab in mm2


Bv in Newtons
fy in MPa

(2-7) ba b Ba in Newtons
+ v 1
Ba Bv Bv in Newtons
ba in Newtons
bv in Newtons

2.1.5.2.2(c) 0.083 unit compressive strength of header unit compressive strength of header in MPa

(2-8) ld = 0.22d b Fs db in mm
Fs in MPa
ld in mm
C-52 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units

Av in mm2
2.1.10.3.1.5(b) Av 0.41b w s / f y
bw in mm
s in mm
s d / 8 b fy in MPa
d in mm
b is dimensionless

(2-9) ld = 0.29d b Fs db in mm
Fs in MPa
ld in mm

(2-10) fa f Fa in MPa
+ b 1
Fa Fb Fb in MPa
fa in MPa
fb in MPa

(2-11) P ( )P
1
4 e
P in Newtons
Pe in Newtons

(2-12) h 2 Fa in MPa
Fa = ( 1
4 ) m 1
f f 'm in MPa
140r h in mm
r in mm

(2-13) 2
Fa in MPa
( ) f
70r
Fa = 1
f 'm in MPa
h
4 m

h in mm
r in mm

(2-14) Fb = ( )f
1
3 m
Fb in MPa
f 'm in MPa

(2-15) 2 E m I n e
3 Em in MPa
Pe = 2
1 0.577 e in mm
h r
h in mm
I in mm4
Pe in Newtons
r in mm

(2-16) VQ b in mm
fv = fv in MPa
Inb
I in mm4
Q in mm3
V in Newtons

2.2.5.2(a) 0.125 f m f m in MPa


Answer in MPa
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-53

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units

2.2.5.2(c) An in mm2
v + 0.45 Nv /An NV in Newtons
v in MPa
Answer in MPa

(2-17) An in mm2 h in mm
h 2
Ast in mm2 Pa in Newtons
Pa = ( 0.25 f m An + 0.65 Ast Fs ) 1 Fs in MPa r in mm
140r f 'm in MPa

(2-18) An in mm2 h in mm
2 Ast in mm2 Pa in Newtons
70r
Pa = (0.25 f m An + 0.65 Ast Fs ) Fs in MPa r in mm
h f 'm in MPa

(2-19) V b in mm
fv =
bd d in mm
fv in MPa
V in Newtons

(2-20) Fv in MPa
Fv = 0.083 f m f m in MPa

(2-21) d in mm
Fv = 0.028[4 ( M / Vd )] f m Fv in MPa
M in Newton-mm
but shall not exceed
V in Newtons
0.55 0.31 (M/Vd) in MPa
f m in MPa

(2-22) Fv in MPa
Fv = 0.083 f m
f m in MPa

(2-23) Fv in MPa
Fv = 0.25 f m
f m in MPa

(2-24) Fv = 0.042[4 ( M / Vd )] f m d in mm
Fv in MPa
but shall not exceed
M in Newton-mm
0.82 0.31 (M/Vd) in MPa
V in Newtons
f m in MPa

(2-25) Fv = 0.125 f m Fv in MPa


f m in MPa
C-54 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units

(2-26) Vs Av in mm2
Av =
Fs d d in mm
Fs in MPa
s in mm
V in Newtons

(3-1) & (3-4) Ban = 0.332 Apt f m Apt in mm2


f m in MPa
Ban in Newtons

(3-2) & (3-5) Ban = Ab f y Ab in mm2


fy in MPa
Ban in Newtons

(3-3) & (3-7) A pt = lb 2 lb in mm


Apt in mm2

(3-6) f 'm in MPa


Ban = 1.5 f m eb d b + [3.07 (lb + eb + d b ) d b ]
eb in mm
db in mm
lb in mm
Ban in Newtons

(3-8) Bvn = 0.332 Apt f m Apt in mm2


f m in MPa
Bvn in Newtons

(3-9) Bvn = 0.6 Ab f y Ab in mm2


fy in MPa
Bvn in Newtons

(3-10) lbe 2 lbe in mm


Apv =
2 Apv in mm2

(3-11) b af bvf baf in Newtons


+ 1
B an B vn bvf in Newtons
Ban in Newtons
Bvn in Newtons

(3-12) le = 13 d b le in mm
db in mm
ld in mm
(3-13) & (3-15) lde lde in mm
ld =

db in mm
1.5d b 2 f y f m in MPa
(3-14) ld =
K f m fy in MPa
K in mm
lde in mm
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-55

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units
2
Ae in mm
h 2 As in mm2
(3-16) [ ]
Pn = 0.80 0.80 f m ( An As ) + f y As 1
140 r f 'm in MPa
fy in MPa
Pn in Newtons
h in mm
r in mm
Ae in mm2
(3-17) 2 As in mm2
[
Pn = 0.80 0.80 f m ( An As ) + f y As ]
70r
f 'm in MPa
h fy in MPa
Pn in Newtons
h in mm
r in mm
Vm in Newtons
(3-18) V n = Vm + V s Vs in Newtons
Vn in Newtons
An in mm2
(3-19) M M in N-mm
Vn 6 An f m For 0.25 V in Newtons
Vd v
dv in mm
Vn in Newtons
f m in MPa
An in mm2
(3-20) M M in N-mm
Vn 4 An f m For 1.00 V in Newtons
Vd v
dv in mm
Vn in Newtons
f m in MPa
An in mm2
(3-21) M M in N-mm
Vm = 0.83 4.0 1.75 An
f m + 0.25 P
Vd v V in Newtons
dv in mm
Vm in Newtons
f m in MPa
Av in mm2
(3-22) A fy in MPa
V s = 0 .5 v f y d v dv in mm
s
s in mm
Vs in Newtons
Pu Pu in Newtons
(3-23) 0.05 f m Ag in mm2
Ag
f 'm in MPa

h in mm
wu in N/mm
(3-24) wu h 2 e Puf in Newtons
Mu = + Puf u + Pu u
8 2 eu in mm
Pu in Newtons
u in mm
Mu in N-mm
C-56 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units

Pu = Puw + Puf Pu in Newtons


(3-25) Puf in Newtons
Puw in Newtons
(3-26) Mu in N-mm
Mu Mn Mn in N-mm
a Mn in N-mm
(3-27) (
M n = As f y + Pu d
2
) As in mm2

fy in MPa
d in mm
a in mm
Pu in Newtons
a in mm
(3-28)
a=
(Pu + As f y ) f 'm in MPa
0.80 f m b As in mm2
Pu in Newtons
fy in MPa
b in mm
s 0.007 h s in mm
(3-29) h in mm

5 M ser h 2 s in mm
(3-30) s = For M ser M cr h in mm
48 Em I g
Em in MPa
Ig in mm4
Mser in N-mm
Mcr in N-mm
5M cr h 2 5 (M ser M cr )h 2 s in mm
(3-31) s = + h in mm
48 Em I g 48 Em I cr
Em in MPa
Ig in mm4
Mser in N-mm
For M cr < M ser < M n Mcr in N-mm
Mn in N-mm
Icr in mm4
Mcr in N-mm
M cr = S n f r
(3-32) fr in MPa
Sn in mm3
Pn in Newtons
h 2 h 2
(3-33) Pn = 0.80 0.80 An f m 1 For 99 A n in mm
140 r r f 'm in MPa

Pn in Newtons
70 r
2
h
(3-34) Pn = 0.80 0.80 An f m For > 99 An in mm2
h r f 'm in MPa

h in mm
r in mm

3.3.4(a) 0.375 An f m An in mm2


f 'm in MPa

3.3.4(b) 0.83 An An in mm2


BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES C-57

Code Eq. No. SI Unit


or Sec. No. Equivalent Equation Units
2
0.26 An + 0.3 N v An in mm
3.3.4(c) Nv in Newtons

An in mm2
3.3.4(d) 0.26 An + 0.3 N v Nv in Newtons
An in mm2
0.414 An + 0.3 N v
3.3.4(e) Nv in Newtons
3.3.4(f) 0.103 An An in mm2

a in mm
(4-1) f ps A ps + f y As + Pu fps in MPa
a = Aps in mm2
0.85 f m b fy in MPa
As in mm2
Pu in Newtons
f 'm in MPa
b in mm
f 'm in MPa
4.5.3.3.3 0.05 f 'm An
An in mm2
Answer in MPa
fps in MPa
(4-2) d f pu Aps fse in MPa
f ps = f se + (690) 1 1.4 d in mm
l p bdf m lp in mm
fpu in MPa
Aps in mm2
b in mm
f 'm in MPa

Mn in Newtonmm
(4-3) a fps in MPa
M n = (f ps A ps + f y As + Pu )(d )
2 Aps in mm2
fy in MPa
As in mm2
Pu in Newtons
d in mm
a in mm

Nv Fv in MPa
(4-4a) Fv = v + 0.45 v in MPa
An
Nv in Newtons
An in mm2

N Fv in MPa
(4-4b) Fv = (0.0155 f m ) + 0.125 f m f 'm in MPa
An Nv in Newtons
An in mm2
Fv in MPa
(4-4c) N
F = (f m ) (f m )
2 is dimensionless
An f 'm in MPa
Nv in Newtons
An in mm2
C-58 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE