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VIBRATION ANALYSIS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF

A 135,000M 3 LNG CARRIER

ANALYSE DU COMPORTEMENT VIBRATOIRE D’UN NAVIRE LNG DE 135000M 3 AU STADE DE LA CONCEPTION

Claude Andreau Tecnitas / Bureau Veritas Group Paris La Défense, France

Kazuhisa Yanagi Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Vibration Laboratory, Research and Development Center Nagasaki, Japan

Laboratory, Research and Development Center Nagasaki, Japan ABSTRACT The precise study of the vibration behaviour of
Laboratory, Research and Development Center Nagasaki, Japan ABSTRACT The precise study of the vibration behaviour of

ABSTRACT

The precise study of the vibration behaviour of a ship at the design stage is of primary importance . Such an analysis is particularly complex for an LNG Carrier with Moss type containment system because it involves specific phenomena such as added virtual mass of fluid in tanks, the vibration of which can be potentially coupled with vibration of hull girder, especially in full load conditions.

Vibration study at design stage of a 135,000m 3 LNG Carrier with Moss type containment system is presented. Strategy of computations, as well as the most important matters of the study are emphasised, such as whole ship analysis, influence of virtual mass of fluid and dynamic behaviour of propulsive plant. Sea trials measurement results (vibration accelerations) are presented and compared with corresponding calculated results at design stage.

The conclusions develop the benefits for the shipyard, and for the owner, of integrating the vibration analysis of an LNG Carrier in the design process of the ship to ensure the most comfortable operating conditions of the vessel and avoid costly structural modifications at the building stage.

RESUME

L’analyse précise du comportement vibratoire d’un navire au stade de sa conception est très importante. Une telle étude est particulièrement complexe dans le cas d’un méthanier à cuves sphériques de type Moss car elle implique de prendre en compte des phénomènes spécifiques tels que la masse de fluide ajoutée au niveau des sphères, des couplages pouvant intervenir entre les vibrations de ces sphères et les vibrations de la poutre navire, en particulier lorsque le navire est en pleine charge.

L’analyse du comportement vibratoire au stade de la conception d’un méthanier à sphères de type Moss est présentée. La stratégie des calculs, ainsi que les points les plus significatifs de l’étude, sont mis en lumière, comme l’analyse globale de l’ensemble du navire, la masse virtuelle de fluide entraînée, et le comportement vibratoire de l’appareil propulsif.

Les résultats des mesures effectuées pendant les essais en mer sont présentés et comparés aux valeurs correspondantes calculées au stade de la conception.

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Les conclusions expliquent les avantages pour le chantier, et pour l’armateur, de la prise en compte de l’analyse vibratoire d’un méthanier au stade de la conception du navire, afin de lui assurer les conditions d’opération les plus confortables et éviter de coûteuses modifications de la structure au stade de la construction.

modifications de la structure au stade de la construction. General presentation of BADAK VI project In

General presentation of BADAK VI project

In the context of BADAK VI project, a new 135000 m3 liquefied natural gas carrier, having five spherical Moss-Rosenberg tanks was built at Nagasaki shipyard in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

The vessel is jointly owned by Osprey Maritime Limited of Singapore and The Chinese Petroleum Corporation of Taiwan and is on a long term charter to Pertamina of Indonesia delivering LNG between Indonesia and Taiwan.

Principal characteristics of the ship “GOLAR MAZO” are as follows.

Principal dimensions

Main engine, etc…

Length overall: 290.0m Length between perpend.:

276.0m

Main turbine Mitsubishi marine turbine x1 Maximum output: 21320kW x 81 rpm

Breadth, moulded:

47.2m

Normal output : 19190 kW x 78.2 rpm

Depth, moulded:

25.5m

Propeller : 4 blade solid type Ni-Al-B Bronze

Designed draught, moulded: 10.80m

Purpose of the analysis

The final objective of a vibration analysis of a ship is to keep the vibration level onboard within permissible limits (recommended by international organisations such as ISO, or required by Owner’s specification). It is of primary importance to detect as early as possible, on the basis of reliable information, the fact that there is a high probability for a non compliance of vibration levels with specification values. If this detection is performed early enough, it will be then possible to take efficient decisions of design modifications at minimum cost. The ideal situation occurs when vibration level assessment is completely achieved before ordering steel or, at least, before starting steel cutting operations. Despite the fact that we have observed a tremendous increase of computer power and capabilities during the recent ten years, the completion of an exhaustive vibration analysis of a ship takes a lot of time and a precise strategy is requested to get useful results and information in target. We must keep in mind that a resonance phenomenon is always at the origin of a high vibration level onboard. This occurs when an excitation frequency is located in the vicinity of a natural frequency corresponding either to a vibration mode of assembly of the ship or to a vibration mode of a sub-assembly of the steel-work (resonator). In the particular case of BADAK VI project, and as usual on LNG ships, onboard excitations are only generated by the propeller (propeller forces and moments and hull surface forces). Corresponding excitation frequencies (first and second harmonics) are directly related to the number of blades. As it was essential to

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decide very early in the project which propeller is the most recommended one (among four and five blades), a preliminary study was performed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries consisting in free and forced vibrations calculations of assembly of superstructures block and engine room. The purpose of this preliminary study was to choose the number of blades on the basis of the minimum risk of resonance between propeller excitation frequencies and natural frequencies of superstructures block. Global vibration analysis was then conducted for definitive assessment of vibration behaviour of the whole ship and confirmation of the choice of number of propeller blades. Finally, results of measurements during sea trials will be compared to calculations results.

Preliminary analysis This preliminary analysis was performed for the initial design of the ship and

using a three-dimensional finite element model of the assembly of superstructures and engine room steel-work. Free vibrations calculations were performed for determination of risk of resonant response of superstructures with following configurations:

- excitation frequency corresponding to four or five blades propeller,

- superstructures block and engine casing completely disconnected,

- superstructures block connected to engine casing using a bracket.

Forced vibrations calculations were performed with a coarse assumption consisting in the application of excitations in way of frame corresponding to aft section of engine casing at the level of double bottom. Figure 1 shows the finite element model used for the calculations.

Conclusions of the preliminary study were the following:

- 4 bladed propeller is a better choice than 5 bladed propeller considering vibration behaviour,

- there is a benefit in fitting a connecting bracket between superstructures and engine casing. Global overall finite element analysis will then be performed under these assumptions.

analysis will then be performed under these assumptions. Figure 1 : Finite Element model of superstructures

Figure 1 : Finite Element model of superstructures and engine room used for preliminary free and forced vibration analysis

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Global overall Finite Element vibration analysis

The most important thing to keep in mind when building up any finite element

model, and especially for performing vibration analysis of a ship, is that the model has to reflect as far as possible the physical behaviour of the structure. First of all, the whole ship has to be modelled (from portside to starboard, from extreme aft end to extreme fore end, and from base line to compass bridge deck).

If calculations are performed using a half ship model (portside or starboard) with

symmetric or anti-symmetric boundary conditions in way of centre line, only pure symmetric (or pure anti-symmetric) vibration modes can be calculated. Real ship exhibits in fact vibration modes which are neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric (for example a vibration mode of the assembly of the ship characterised by vertical vibration of aft part and torsion vibration of cargo area). Secondly, line-shafting must be included in the model and properly connected to double bottom and stern tube steel-work in way of supports and bearings. This is essential because line-shafting dynamic response under excitations produced by propeller forces and moments may act as a resonator and produce, in case of resonance of line shafting, a dynamic amplification of the response of double- bottom, engine room steel-work, and superstructures.

A Moss LNG ship is quite specific because due to the particular tank arrangement

(spherical tank fitted on cylindrical skirt). For this reason, dynamic behaviour of tank system is expected to be completely different between full load and ballast conditions.

different between full load and ballast conditions. Figure 2 : Finite Element model of BADAK VI

Figure 2 : Finite Element model of BADAK VI LNG carrier (whole model and portside half)

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Finite Element model shown on Figure 2 is built up using I-DEAS Master Series software. Calculations are performed using MSC/NASTRAN software. The model is constituted by 15,781 nodes, 42,528 elements, corresponding to 94,686 degrees of freedom. Decks, transverse and longitudinal bulkheads, platforms, outside shell, … are modelled by thin shell elements, stiffeners and pillars being modelled by beam elements. Heavy equipment, such as turbine, boiler, condenser,… and weights in ballast tanks are represented by concentrated masses fitted on corresponding nodes. Weights corresponding to other equipment are considered as evenly distributed and included in the density of thin shell elements representing the structure. Effects of virtual mass of fluid associated to the structure are integrated in the analysis through specific capabilities of MSC/NASTRAN based on integral equations approach. Both external fluid (sea water) and internal fluid (cargo) are concerned. It is assumed that fluid acts on the two sides of pipe tower in each tank when full load conditions are considered. Line shafting is modelled using classical beam elements. These beam elements are connected to elements modelling ship structure by equivalent springs which stiffness represents oil film stiffness (corresponding values are estimated on the basis of line shafting arrangement and experience). It would have been possible to calculate precisely these oil film stiffness values as a function of line shafting alignment conditions but corresponding studies were not included in the decided scope of work. Despite this, it is fundamental to integrate oil film stiffness in the analysis, even if corresponding values are estimated, because they influence directly the dynamic behaviour of line shafting which is itself directly excited by propeller forces and moments. First step of analysis consist in calculations of natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the assembly of the ship for determination of the risk of resonance with first and second harmonics of excitation frequencies generated by the propeller. It is important to note that if we could succeed in completely avoiding resonance phenomena, the vibration level onboard will be extremely low. In fact, ship structures always exhibits a very high modal density and it is more realistic to say that our target will be to avoid as far as possible resonance phenomena. This high modal density occurs in particular on Moss type LNG ships in full load conditions due to numerous coupling effects between tank systems vibrations and hull girder vibrations. Specific arrangement of tank systems, as already described, lead to low values of natural frequencies of this tank system in full load conditions, in the same frequency range than natural frequencies corresponding to hull girder vibrations. On the contrary of the preliminary analysis in which we tried to avoid resonance phenomenon by acting on excitation frequency (choice of the number of propeller blades), avoidance of resonance phenomenon is now targeted by acting on natural frequency through steel-work modifications or reinforcements.

Free vibration calculations

First and second harmonics of excitation frequencies generated by the propeller at a rpm value corresponding to MCR (81 rpm) are respectively 5.4 Hz (324 c/mn) and 10.8 Hz (648 c/mn). Natural frequencies and corresponding modes are calculated up to a frequency of 13 Hz for covering a frequency range extending over second harmonic of propeller excitation.

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Four hundred natural frequencies are calculated in ballast conditions and five hundred in full load conditions for covering this frequency range. It is outside the scope of this paper to present an exhaustive analysis of the different calculated natural frequencies and mode shapes but it is interesting to highlight the main conclusions of each calculation step and the corresponding benefits we can obtain at the design stage.

In ballast conditions, classic behaviour is observed with some pure hull girder modes (flexural modes in vertical and transverse directions, torsion modes, …) corresponding to lowest values of calculated natural frequencies. More and more complex deformed shaped are observed as far as the frequency increases. Several modes exhibit vibrations of some sub-assemblies such as funnel and radar masts, corresponding natural frequencies being situated in the vicinity of first harmonic of propeller excitations. Among the modes which can be at the origin of a resonant response of superstructures block, one of the most significant one has its natural frequency equal to 4.29 Hz (257.4 c/mn) – see Figure 3 -. This resonant response would occur at about 64 rpm which may correspond to an intermediate speed often used in operating conditions. This mode can be excited by hull pressure fluctuations on stern because it exhibits vertical movement of stern part. Superstructures block, funnel and radar mast are also concerned as longitudinal deflections of these sub-assemblies can be observed on the deformed shape corresponding to this vibration mode. In view of the deformed shape of this mode, it would be impossible to change significantly its natural frequency for avoiding resonance phenomenon because we are facing to a global mode and too much modifications and reinforcements would be needed without any guarantee of non existence of other resonance phenomena with other modes. The real problem we have now is to check if the response amplitude of this mode will exceed the permissible limits. This will be done by forced vibrations calculations – see below - .

be done by forced vibrations calculations – see below - . Figure 3 : Vibration mode

Figure 3 : Vibration mode shape in ballast conditions (frequency: 4.29Hz)

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In full load conditions, it is observed a strong interaction between vibration modes of tank system and vibration modes of hull As for ballast conditions, several modes exhibit vibrations of some sub-assemblies such as funnel and radar masts, corresponding natural frequencies being situated in the vicinity of first harmonic of propeller excitations. The most important calculated vibration mode for ballast conditions is shown on Figure 4, its natural frequency being equal to 5.44 Hz (326.4 c/mn), quite exactly in resonance with first harmonic of excitation frequency.

This mode can be excited by hull pressure fluctuations on stern because it exhibits vertical movement of stern part. Superstructures block, funnel and radar mast are also concerned as longitudinal deflections of these sub-assemblies can be observed on the deformed shape corresponding to this vibration mode. In addition, line shafting exhibits vertical and longitudinal deflections which make this mode sensitive to the action of propeller forces and moments fluctuations. In view of the deformed shape of this mode, it would be impossible to change significantly its natural frequency for avoiding resonance phenomenon because we are facing to a global mode and too much modifications and reinforcements would be needed without any guarantee of non existence of other resonance phenomena with other modes. The real problem we have now is to check if the response amplitude of this mode will exceed the permissible limits. This will be done by forced vibrations calculations – see below - .

be done by forced vibrations calculations – see below - . Figure 4 : Vibration mode

Figure 4 : Vibration mode shape in full load conditions (frequency: 5.44Hz)

Forced vibration calculations

Performing forced vibration calculations needs to have available as input data hydrodynamic excitations generated by the propeller (propeller forces and moments and hull surface forces). In the particular case of BADAK VI project, this information was available through two different ways. First set of data is obtained from analysis performed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, second set of data is obtained from analysis performed by Bureau Veritas Group. Our target in performing forced vibration analysis was to be on the safe side regarding vibration response and it was decided, for this reason, to use in the calculations the most severe propeller forces and moments (they were issued from

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Bureau Veritas Group analysis) and the most severe hull surface forces (they were issued from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries analysis). Choice of damping coefficients to be used in calculations is made having in mind that damping coefficient is function of frequency and that it must be the most representative one for the conditions of calculations. Modal damping coefficient is considered (as a fraction of critical damping) equal to 1% for first harmonic of excitations and equal to 2% for second harmonic of excitations. Considering our target for being on the safe side regarding vibration response as mentioned above, no phase difference is considered between hull surface forces and propeller forces and moments (phase difference between the different components of propeller forces and moments and between the different hull surface forces are part of the analysis). Frequency response calculations are performed on a frequency range corresponding to a rpm range between 40 and 85 rpm. Acceleration response curves presented on Figure 5 show that vibration levels are kept below the lower curve of ISO 6954 diagram for the considered conditions of calculations. This confirm the proper choice of the four bladed propeller and the decision of connecting superstructures block and engine casing with a bracket. Nevertheless, results pointed out a high vibration response of radar mast the structure of which has to be reinforced.

of radar mast the structure of which has to be reinforced. Figure 5 : Frequency response

Figure 5 : Frequency response curves at top of superstructures (ballast conditions)

Sea trials measurements

Measurements were performed during official sea trials, off Nagasaki (Japan), near Goto Island from November 29 th to December 3 rd 1999, and according to main specifications of ISO 6954:

- ship in steady state conditions (rpm and heading),

- observation during 0.5 to 1 minute,

- keeping the “maximum repetitive value”.

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Loading conditions of the ship during measurements are not identical to the loading conditions assumed in the theoretical analysis as they consist in two different ballast conditions with a draught value of 9.65m and 9.05m respectively. Ballast condition corresponding to a draught value of 9.05m is similar to ballast conditions considered in theoretical approach (draught value of 9m). Curves of Figure 4 show variations of vibration velocity on wheelhouse as a function of frequency. It can be observed a quite good correlation of amplitude levels as these amplitudes are kept below lower curve of ISO 6954 diagram. Correlation for other loading conditions are more difficult to establish as the ballast conditions with a draught value of 9.65m correspond more or less to an intermediate position between ballast and full load conditions considered in calculations (draughts of 9m and 10.73m respectively).

in calculations (draughts of 9m and 10.73m respectively). Figure 4 : Vibrations measurements during sea trials
in calculations (draughts of 9m and 10.73m respectively). Figure 4 : Vibrations measurements during sea trials

Figure 4 : Vibrations measurements during sea trials (vibration velocities in mm/s) on wheelhouse

Conclusions

The step by step vibration analysis presented in this paper was started very early in the BADAK VI project and performed all along design stage process as an assistance to this design. It has proved its efficiency because T/S “GOLAR MAZO” was delivered in target with a vibration response level complying with Owner’s specifications and in accordance with results of theoretical approach, as demonstrated during sea trials. An efficient strategy of analysis is of primary importance because it is the condition for taking as early as possible important decisions related to the design of the ship. If these decisions are taken later, there is an important risk of supplementary costs which can be generated either by costly steel-work or

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equipment modifications. There is also a risk of operating the ship in non optimum conditions of comfort than possible. Only benefits can be made by the shipyard and by the owner’s in deciding at the early beginning to include vibration assessment in the design process. This decision was taken for BADAK VI project and the fruitful co-operation between Bureau Veritas Group and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for performing efficient studies demonstrates that it was particularly useful for the project.

References

(1) G. VOLCY, M. BAUDIN, C. ANDREAU, A. MANNER, S. SEPPALA "European Built Sea barge carriers, the design, machinery/hull interaction and investigation into vibratory behaviour". The Institute of Marine Engineers - London 1979.

(2) G. VOLCY, M. BAUDIN, C. ANDREAU, M. ISHII, K. ABE "Integrated treatment of static and vibratory phenomena of third generation of container vessels leading to vibration and noise free ships " PRADS Tokyo - 1983.

(3) P.MOREL, M. BAUDIN "How to adapt vibration studies to shipbuilding sequence requirements" International Symposium on Ships Vibrations – Genova 1984

(4) G. VOLCY "How to build vibration free propulsion plants and ships" China- Japan Vibration Joint Conference - Shanghai.1984.

(5) M.

BAUDIN,

D.SAKAI

"On

the

design

of

comfortable

LNG

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preventing vibrations" GASTECH - Paris 1993.

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