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VIBRATION ANALYSIS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF

A 135,000M 3 LNG CARRIER


ANALYSE DU COMPORTEMENT VIBRATOIRE DUN NAVIRE
LNG DE 135000M 3 AU STADE DE LA CONCEPTION
Claude Andreau
Tecnitas / Bureau Veritas Group
Paris La Dfense, France
Kazuhisa Yanagi
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Vibration Laboratory, Research and Development Center
Nagasaki, Japan

ABSTRACT
The precise study of the vibration behaviour of a ship at the design stage is of primary
importance . Such an analysis is particularly complex for an LNG Carrier with Moss type
containment system because it involves specific phenomena such as added virtual mass of
fluid in tanks, the vibration of which can be potentially coupled with vibration of hull
girder, especially in full load conditions.
Vibration study at design stage of a 135,000m3 LNG Carrier with Moss type
containment system is presented. Strategy of computations, as well as the most important
matters of the study are emphasised, such as whole ship analysis, influence of virtual
mass of fluid and dynamic behaviour of propulsive plant. Sea trials measurement results
(vibration accelerations) are presented and compared with corresponding calculated
results at design stage.
The conclusions develop the benefits for the shipyard, and for the owner, of
integrating the vibration analysis of an LNG Carrier in the design process of the ship to
ensure the most comfortable operating conditions of the vessel and avoid costly structural
modifications at the building stage.

RESUME
Lanalyse prcise du comportement vibratoire dun navire au stade de sa conception
est trs importante. Une telle tude est particulirement complexe dans le cas dun
mthanier cuves sphriques de type Moss car elle implique de prendre en compte des
phnomnes spcifiques tels que la masse de fluide ajoute au niveau des sphres, des
couplages pouvant intervenir entre les vibrations de ces sphres et les vibrations de la
poutre navire, en particulier lorsque le navire est en pleine charge.
Lanalyse du comportement vibratoire au stade de la conception dun mthanier
sphres de type Moss est prsente. La stratgie des calculs, ainsi que les points les plus
significatifs de ltude, sont mis en lumire, comme lanalyse globale de lensemble du
navire, la masse virtuelle de fluide entrane, et le comportement vibratoire de lappareil
propulsif.
Les rsultats des mesures effectues pendant les essais en mer sont prsents et
compars aux valeurs correspondantes calcules au stade de la conception.

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Les conclusions expliquent les avantages pour le chantier, et pour larmateur, de la
prise en compte de lanalyse vibratoire dun mthanier au stade de la conception du
navire, afin de lui assurer les conditions dopration les plus confortables et viter de
coteuses modifications de la structure au stade de la construction.

General presentation of BADAK VI project


In the context of BADAK VI project, a new 135000 m3 liquefied natural gas
carrier, having five spherical Moss-Rosenberg tanks was built at Nagasaki
shipyard in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

The vessel is jointly owned by Osprey Maritime Limited of Singapore and The
Chinese Petroleum Corporation of Taiwan and is on a long term charter to
Pertamina of Indonesia delivering LNG between Indonesia and Taiwan.

Principal characteristics of the ship GOLAR MAZO are as follows.

Principal dimensions Main engine, etc

Length overall: 290.0m Main turbine Mitsubishi marine turbine x1


Length between perpend.: 276.0m Maximum output: 21320kW x 81 rpm
Breadth, moulded: 47.2m Normal output : 19190 kW x 78.2 rpm
Depth, moulded: 25.5m Propeller : 4 blade solid type Ni-Al-B
Bronze
Designed draught, moulded: 10.80m

Purpose of the analysis


The final objective of a vibration analysis of a ship is to keep the vibration level
onboard within permissible limits (recommended by international organisations
such as ISO, or required by Owners specification).
It is of primary importance to detect as early as possible, on the basis of reliable
information, the fact that there is a high probability for a non compliance of
vibration levels with specification values. If this detection is performed early
enough, it will be then possible to take efficient decisions of design modifications
at minimum cost. The ideal situation occurs when vibration level assessment is
completely achieved before ordering steel or, at least, before starting steel cutting
operations.
Despite the fact that we have observed a tremendous increase of computer power
and capabilities during the recent ten years, the completion of an exhaustive
vibration analysis of a ship takes a lot of time and a precise strategy is requested to
get useful results and information in target.
We must keep in mind that a resonance phenomenon is always at the origin of a
high vibration level onboard. This occurs when an excitation frequency is located
in the vicinity of a natural frequency corresponding either to a vibration mode of
assembly of the ship or to a vibration mode of a sub-assembly of the steel-work
(resonator).
In the particular case of BADAK VI project, and as usual on LNG ships, onboard
excitations are only generated by the propeller (propeller forces and moments and
hull surface forces). Corresponding excitation frequencies (first and second
harmonics) are directly related to the number of blades. As it was essential to

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decide very early in the project which propeller is the most recommended one
(among four and five blades), a preliminary study was performed by Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries consisting in free and forced vibrations calculations of assembly
of superstructures block and engine room. The purpose of this preliminary study
was to choose the number of blades on the basis of the minimum risk of resonance
between propeller excitation frequencies and natural frequencies of
superstructures block.
Global vibration analysis was then conducted for definitive assessment of
vibration behaviour of the whole ship and confirmation of the choice of number of
propeller blades. Finally, results of measurements during sea trials will be
compared to calculations results.
Preliminary analysis
This preliminary analysis was performed for the initial design of the ship and
using a three-dimensional finite element model of the assembly of superstructures
and engine room steel-work. Free vibrations calculations were performed for
determination of risk of resonant response of superstructures with following
configurations:
- excitation frequency corresponding to four or five blades propeller,
- superstructures block and engine casing completely disconnected,
- superstructures block connected to engine casing using a bracket.
Forced vibrations calculations were performed with a coarse assumption
consisting in the application of excitations in way of frame corresponding to aft
section of engine casing at the level of double bottom.
Figure 1 shows the finite element model used for the calculations.
Conclusions of the preliminary study were the following:
- 4 bladed propeller is a better choice than 5 bladed propeller considering
vibration behaviour,
- there is a benefit in fitting a connecting bracket between superstructures and
engine casing.
Global overall finite element analysis will then be performed under these assumptions.

Figure 1 : Finite Element model of superstructures and engine room used for
preliminary free and forced vibration analysis

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Global overall Finite Element vibration analysis
The most important thing to keep in mind when building up any finite element
model, and especially for performing vibration analysis of a ship, is that the model
has to reflect as far as possible the physical behaviour of the structure.
First of all, the whole ship has to be modelled (from portside to starboard, from
extreme aft end to extreme fore end, and from base line to compass bridge deck).
If calculations are performed using a half ship model (portside or starboard) with
symmetric or anti-symmetric boundary conditions in way of centre line, only pure
symmetric (or pure anti-symmetric) vibration modes can be calculated. Real ship
exhibits in fact vibration modes which are neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric
(for example a vibration mode of the assembly of the ship characterised by
vertical vibration of aft part and torsion vibration of cargo area).
Secondly, line-shafting must be included in the model and properly connected to
double bottom and stern tube steel-work in way of supports and bearings. This is
essential because line-shafting dynamic response under excitations produced by
propeller forces and moments may act as a resonator and produce, in case of
resonance of line shafting, a dynamic amplification of the response of double-
bottom, engine room steel-work, and superstructures.
A Moss LNG ship is quite specific because due to the particular tank arrangement
(spherical tank fitted on cylindrical skirt). For this reason, dynamic behaviour of
tank system is expected to be completely different between full load and ballast
conditions.

Figure 2 : Finite Element model of BADAK VI LNG carrier


(whole model and portside half)

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Finite Element model shown on Figure 2 is built up using I-DEAS Master Series
software. Calculations are performed using MSC/NASTRAN software.
The model is constituted by 15,781 nodes, 42,528 elements, corresponding to
94,686 degrees of freedom. Decks, transverse and longitudinal bulkheads,
platforms, outside shell, are modelled by thin shell elements, stiffeners and
pillars being modelled by beam elements. Heavy equipment, such as turbine,
boiler, condenser, and weights in ballast tanks are represented by concentrated
masses fitted on corresponding nodes. Weights corresponding to other equipment
are considered as evenly distributed and included in the density of thin shell
elements representing the structure.
Effects of virtual mass of fluid associated to the structure are integrated in the
analysis through specific capabilities of MSC/NASTRAN based on integral
equations approach. Both external fluid (sea water) and internal fluid (cargo) are
concerned. It is assumed that fluid acts on the two sides of pipe tower in each tank
when full load conditions are considered.
Line shafting is modelled using classical beam elements. These beam elements are
connected to elements modelling ship structure by equivalent springs which
stiffness represents oil film stiffness (corresponding values are estimated on the
basis of line shafting arrangement and experience). It would have been possible to
calculate precisely these oil film stiffness values as a function of line shafting
alignment conditions but corresponding studies were not included in the decided
scope of work. Despite this, it is fundamental to integrate oil film stiffness in the
analysis, even if corresponding values are estimated, because they influence
directly the dynamic behaviour of line shafting which is itself directly excited by
propeller forces and moments.
First step of analysis consist in calculations of natural frequencies and
corresponding mode shapes of the assembly of the ship for determination of the
risk of resonance with first and second harmonics of excitation frequencies
generated by the propeller. It is important to note that if we could succeed in
completely avoiding resonance phenomena, the vibration level onboard will be
extremely low. In fact, ship structures always exhibits a very high modal density
and it is more realistic to say that our target will be to avoid as far as possible
resonance phenomena. This high modal density occurs in particular on Moss type
LNG ships in full load conditions due to numerous coupling effects between tank
systems vibrations and hull girder vibrations. Specific arrangement of tank
systems, as already described, lead to low values of natural frequencies of this
tank system in full load conditions, in the same frequency range than natural
frequencies corresponding to hull girder vibrations.
On the contrary of the preliminary analysis in which we tried to avoid resonance
phenomenon by acting on excitation frequency (choice of the number of propeller
blades), avoidance of resonance phenomenon is now targeted by acting on natural
frequency through steel-work modifications or reinforcements.

Free vibration calculations


First and second harmonics of excitation frequencies generated by the propeller at
a rpm value corresponding to MCR (81 rpm) are respectively 5.4 Hz (324 c/mn)
and 10.8 Hz (648 c/mn). Natural frequencies and corresponding modes are
calculated up to a frequency of 13 Hz for covering a frequency range extending
over second harmonic of propeller excitation.

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Four hundred natural frequencies are calculated in ballast conditions and five
hundred in full load conditions for covering this frequency range.
It is outside the scope of this paper to present an exhaustive analysis of the
different calculated natural frequencies and mode shapes but it is interesting to
highlight the main conclusions of each calculation step and the corresponding
benefits we can obtain at the design stage.

In ballast conditions, classic behaviour is observed with some pure hull girder
modes (flexural modes in vertical and transverse directions, torsion modes, )
corresponding to lowest values of calculated natural frequencies. More and more
complex deformed shaped are observed as far as the frequency increases.
Several modes exhibit vibrations of some sub-assemblies such as funnel and radar
masts, corresponding natural frequencies being situated in the vicinity of first
harmonic of propeller excitations.
Among the modes which can be at the origin of a resonant response of
superstructures block, one of the most significant one has its natural frequency
equal to 4.29 Hz (257.4 c/mn) see Figure 3 -. This resonant response would
occur at about 64 rpm which may correspond to an intermediate speed often used
in operating conditions.
This mode can be excited by hull pressure fluctuations on stern because it exhibits
vertical movement of stern part. Superstructures block, funnel and radar mast are
also concerned as longitudinal deflections of these sub-assemblies can be
observed on the deformed shape corresponding to this vibration mode. In view of
the deformed shape of this mode, it would be impossible to change significantly
its natural frequency for avoiding resonance phenomenon because we are facing
to a global mode and too much modifications and reinforcements would be needed
without any guarantee of non existence of other resonance phenomena with other
modes.
The real problem we have now is to check if the response amplitude of this mode
will exceed the permissible limits. This will be done by forced vibrations
calculations see below - .

Figure 3 : Vibration mode shape in ballast conditions (frequency: 4.29Hz)

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In full load conditions, it is observed a strong interaction between vibration modes
of tank system and vibration modes of hull As for ballast conditions, several
modes exhibit vibrations of some sub-assemblies such as funnel and radar masts,
corresponding natural frequencies being situated in the vicinity of first harmonic
of propeller excitations.
The most important calculated vibration mode for ballast conditions is shown on
Figure 4, its natural frequency being equal to 5.44 Hz (326.4 c/mn), quite exactly
in resonance with first harmonic of excitation frequency.

This mode can be excited by hull pressure fluctuations on stern because it exhibits
vertical movement of stern part. Superstructures block, funnel and radar mast are
also concerned as longitudinal deflections of these sub-assemblies can be
observed on the deformed shape corresponding to this vibration mode. In addition,
line shafting exhibits vertical and longitudinal deflections which make this mode
sensitive to the action of propeller forces and moments fluctuations. In view of the
deformed shape of this mode, it would be impossible to change significantly its
natural frequency for avoiding resonance phenomenon because we are facing to a
global mode and too much modifications and reinforcements would be needed
without any guarantee of non existence of other resonance phenomena with other
modes.
The real problem we have now is to check if the response amplitude of this mode
will exceed the permissible limits. This will be done by forced vibrations
calculations see below - .

Figure 4 : Vibration mode shape in full load conditions (frequency: 5.44Hz)

Forced vibration calculations


Performing forced vibration calculations needs to have available as input data
hydrodynamic excitations generated by the propeller (propeller forces and
moments and hull surface forces). In the particular case of BADAK VI project,
this information was available through two different ways. First set of data is
obtained from analysis performed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, second set of
data is obtained from analysis performed by Bureau Veritas Group.
Our target in performing forced vibration analysis was to be on the safe side
regarding vibration response and it was decided, for this reason, to use in the
calculations the most severe propeller forces and moments (they were issued from

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Bureau Veritas Group analysis) and the most severe hull surface forces (they were
issued from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries analysis).
Choice of damping coefficients to be used in calculations is made having in mind
that damping coefficient is function of frequency and that it must be the most
representative one for the conditions of calculations. Modal damping coefficient is
considered (as a fraction of critical damping) equal to 1% for first harmonic of
excitations and equal to 2% for second harmonic of excitations.
Considering our target for being on the safe side regarding vibration response as
mentioned above, no phase difference is considered between hull surface forces
and propeller forces and moments (phase difference between the different
components of propeller forces and moments and between the different hull
surface forces are part of the analysis).
Frequency response calculations are performed on a frequency range
corresponding to a rpm range between 40 and 85 rpm. Acceleration response
curves presented on Figure 5 show that vibration levels are kept below the lower
curve of ISO 6954 diagram for the considered conditions of calculations. This
confirm the proper choice of the four bladed propeller and the decision of
connecting superstructures block and engine casing with a bracket. Nevertheless,
results pointed out a high vibration response of radar mast the structure of which
has to be reinforced.

Figure 5 : Frequency response curves at top of superstructures (ballast conditions)

Sea trials measurements


Measurements were performed during official sea trials, off Nagasaki (Japan),
near Goto Island from November 29th to December 3rd 1999, and according to
main specifications of ISO 6954:
- ship in steady state conditions (rpm and heading),
- observation during 0.5 to 1 minute,
- keeping the maximum repetitive value.

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Loading conditions of the ship during measurements are not identical to the
loading conditions assumed in the theoretical analysis as they consist in two
different ballast conditions with a draught value of 9.65m and 9.05m respectively.
Ballast condition corresponding to a draught value of 9.05m is similar to ballast
conditions considered in theoretical approach (draught value of 9m).
Curves of Figure 4 show variations of vibration velocity on wheelhouse as a
function of frequency. It can be observed a quite good correlation of amplitude
levels as these amplitudes are kept below lower curve of ISO 6954 diagram.
Correlation for other loading conditions are more difficult to establish as the
ballast conditions with a draught value of 9.65m correspond more or less to an
intermediate position between ballast and full load conditions considered in
calculations (draughts of 9m and 10.73m respectively).

Figure 4 : Vibrations measurements during sea trials


(vibration velocities in mm/s) on wheelhouse

Conclusions
The step by step vibration analysis presented in this paper was started very early
in the BADAK VI project and performed all along design stage process as an
assistance to this design. It has proved its efficiency because T/S GOLAR
MAZO was delivered in target with a vibration response level complying with
Owners specifications and in accordance with results of theoretical approach, as
demonstrated during sea trials.
An efficient strategy of analysis is of primary importance because it is the
condition for taking as early as possible important decisions related to the design
of the ship. If these decisions are taken later, there is an important risk of
supplementary costs which can be generated either by costly steel-work or

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equipment modifications. There is also a risk of operating the ship in non
optimum conditions of comfort than possible.
Only benefits can be made by the shipyard and by the owners in deciding at the
early beginning to include vibration assessment in the design process. This
decision was taken for BADAK VI project and the fruitful co-operation between
Bureau Veritas Group and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for performing efficient
studies demonstrates that it was particularly useful for the project.

References
(1) G. VOLCY, M. BAUDIN, C. ANDREAU, A. MANNER, S. SEPPALA
"European Built Sea barge carriers, the design, machinery/hull interaction and
investigation into vibratory behaviour". The Institute of Marine Engineers -
London 1979.

(2) G. VOLCY, M. BAUDIN, C. ANDREAU, M. ISHII, K. ABE "Integrated


treatment of static and vibratory phenomena of third generation of container
vessels leading to vibration and noise free ships " PRADS Tokyo - 1983.

(3) P.MOREL, M. BAUDIN "How to adapt vibration studies to shipbuilding


sequence requirements" International Symposium on Ships Vibrations
Genova 1984

(4) G. VOLCY "How to build vibration free propulsion plants and ships" China-
Japan Vibration Joint Conference - Shanghai.1984.

(5) M. BAUDIN, D.SAKAI "On the design of comfortable LNG Carriers


preventing vibrations" GASTECH - Paris 1993.

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