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May 11 -27,2005

May 25,2005

Dear Participant,

The thirty-sixth course is nearing completion and except for the few topics to be covered in the remaining
sessions, most core topics have been covered. Piping Engineering has a mind-boggling scope. When we started
off to design this course, there were quite a few who believed that such a course couldn't be designed'and
taught. We also had our doubts about the success that we would achieve when we set out to design what was
perhaps the first formal training programme in Piping Engineering, anywhere in the world. The rest is now
history. The course has not only been reasonably succtssful. it has led to a few other teaching institutions to
start similar programmes. Piping Engineering has become a 'teachable' subject. -

You people have come to this course with varied expectations. Your perceptions of what is central to piping
engineering and what is peripheral may have been diffaent fiom ours. It would be unreasonable on our part to
expect or claim that we have fulfilled all your expectations. But we made a sincere attempt. We would now like
you to spend some time this evening, although the test is staring you in your face, for the benefit of this course
and ponder over the last fifttca days. Please fill up the feedback form attached with this letta and return it
tomorrow, just before the commencement of the test You shall get your question papa in exchange of the filled
up feedback form. We attach a lot of importance to your opinion, constructive criticism and suggestions.

The consolidated opinion is conveyed to various speakers. If it is flattering, they feel encouraged. If it is not;
like good professionals; they would vow to do better given a chance next time. That is the way the course has
come to its present form and +at is the way it shall be.

So, considering it as your duty, give us your feedback. You need not mention your name on the form if you so
like. Names do not matter, opinions do.

Thank you and good luck for the test!


.p.-Y*-. . . . . .
[ A. S. Moharir ] . .

Course Coordinator
Certificate Course
May 11 27,2005

. A

Organized by '

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Powai, Mumbai 400 076-

0730 : !OW
1030: 1300
1400 : 1630
1700 : 1930
.. ..
Practicals 1 Derxonmtjon
Flexibility .4nalysis (RIG)
Flexibility Andysis (Contd ...)
Practicals / Demonstntion

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I All
1 ,411
I Ail
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Creativity Hall,ChE Dept
Creativity Hall, ChE

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'. . 1030':'I300 ' - : ':.PipeStrisses (ASM) All .: Creativity Hal\ Wt. ?:.;i:::.:. . . .
,:-' ' 1 4 0 0 f . 1 6 3 0 ' .. Nozzle Reinforcement (ASM) , . . . . . Creativity Hall, C ~ ~E ~ i -
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. . . ' 1700 : 1930 . . ' . Practicals 7 Dems&ntion
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. . .
E . . CADC, cpc/R. NO..240, ChE-Dept. . . .
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'- '-07301'. 1000 \: -Practicals
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. M . CADC, cpc/R. No;- 240, ChE. Dept.
All : Creativity-Hall, ChE Dcpt . .:..
k 1030 : 1300'::;;' Flexibility Analysis (Contd.:.)
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Friday, 2 27.05.2005~ . . . , . . . .......
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1 All I Creativity ~dl.ChE

0800 : 1000
1000 :1030
1030 : 1200
( Counselling and conclusion
1 Announcement of Results
1 Guest Lecture/ Film Show
I All
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1 Creativity HaU. fii~epc
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1 1200 : 1300 ( Va!edictcry Function I All 1 Creativity Hall, ChE Dept
3 i.
3 1
3 3

3 I
3 Certificate Course
9 on
0 I -
May 11 27,2005


Prof. A. S. Moharir .
IlT Bombay

. -

Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Powai, Mumbai 400 076


About two decades . ago, in India, the In almost all chemical industries, the
design procedure for piping systems for installed capital cost of piping is a major
Refineries, Petrochemicals and Fertilizer factor in plant investment. Figs. 1 and
Plants, in magnitude, depth and 2 show a chart based on oil refineries,
complexities were not hlly evolved. Only chemical and petrochemical complexes.
in the recent past, we were exposed in Fig. 1 shows that, excluding major
detail to this field. Now we are self- equipment costs, piping is the largest plant
sufficient in the field of piping technology cost component. It exceeds the next
and design. largest component by a factor of two. It is
also observed h m Fig. 3 that piping
Piping systems in a chemical plant are exceeds all other field costs by a
comparable to the vanes and arteries substantial amount. Fig. 2 indicates &at
&ugh which fldds, vapors, slurries, design engineering utilizes approximately
solids, etc. flow under various conditions, 45% of engineering man-hours and 50%
as imposed by the process design 'of the of th'ese hours are used in piping design.
plant. Piping network is subjected to
almost all the sewerest conditions of the In addition to the above, the lost time in
plant such as high temperature, brissure, piping has au effect, which goes well.
flpw 'and combination of these. In beyond' its h t cast, as it involves
addition to the above, corrosion, erosion, financial loss in some pmportion to the
toxic conditions and radioactivity add to total plant inves.hnent. The delay in and
more problems and difficulties in piping during start up meam idle capital and
design. With the process conditions losses in plant earning capacity.
becoming more and more severe by the
advanccmcnt in process development, a
In the recent years, the &end is to develop
better techniques so as to save timt in
continuous e B r t is required to be carried
piping activities. Computer is being used
on simultaneously to cope .up with the
demands of process. This makes the job-of extensively to obtain rapid solutions to the
more complex problems of plant design
a piping engineer more complex and
and, in so for as piping is concerned, to
~ ~ i b l e .
. .
. . .. : . .
. . . . .. . .
.the solving of piioblems of pipe stressing.
,,Pip'& . , ; b h Cof .its m,rrq-
', '

a More recently, .it is being employed

. n&b&of day to jlay decisidns onn
. ..
mahers .. fbr prodz1ction of piping detail drawings,
.of d&l, *ich, in ways a e often piping isometrics, bill of materials, cost.
more"difficult to solve than major .issues estimation and control. Piping engineer
connected with the project It is-this same has therefore a furtherresponsiility in
detail which can cause expensive delays in understanding and application of
design and construction and consequently continually growing techniques of this
in commissioning. All too often in the nature.
past, piping h i been regarded as an
unimportant job in the overall project
engineering instead of being treated as a
h c t i o n requiring as wide a knowledge,
experience and variety skills as any other
branch of engineering.

Piping engineer requires not only wide sufficiently to discuss rationally, any
engheahg knowledge not necessarily particular subject with specialists
in depth, but certainly in understanding - concerned. More importantly, he must
but he must also have an understanding of have sufficient broad knowledge b h o w
engineering economics and costs, of that certain conditions can arise at the
metallurgy, of methods of pipe fabrication early stages of plant design, where lack of
and erection He must have some awareness can cause difficulties and even
knowledge of industrial chemistry and disasters.
chemical engineering in addition to a
sufficient knowledge of mechanical, civil, A fairly good knowledge of structural
electrical and instrument engineering so as engineering is a must. Piping in op&on
to discuss requirements and problems with is always in movement and subjected to
specialists in these fields. This will be pressure k d forces with consequent
more clear with the data piping reactions on mechanisms such as pumps,
department requires from other disciplines compressors and equipment ih general,
.-- as given in Annexure k He should be co- and on structures and related piping. .Lack
operative, able to communicate of knowledge can cause errors mflicient
effectively, lead or take part in teamwork, to cause machine or eqyiprnent

be alive to the application of new breakdown or to overstress and even cause

methods, materials and designs. He must collapse of structures.
be aware of standards, codes and
practices. A good knowledge of safety codes and
practices is also essential.
There are several aspects of e n g h d g ..
technology, which the piping engineer ' a piping engineer khollld be
~ b o v eall,
must know something about at- very well conversant w ith drafting
least pro&- d. practices. ..
> . .

The size and scale of a company or design organization in a small office of say, ten
office do not change 'either the basic men, and a large company with hundreds .
piping design ~ ~ e n ort sthe of pipimg men, as indicated in Figs. 4 and
underlying design principles and practices. 5, but the job performed in both cases is
As the volume of piping design work and i d d d and has the same degree of
the number of projects executed relative importance to the whob project
increases, so also does the degree of design organization. The real
speciaIization increase. Functions such as diffz~encelies in rate of projects, passing
pip* layout, piping specifications, detail through the design office. In the small
drafting and material listing begin to ' office, the flow of projects is such that
emerge as separate departments within the each project is substantially completed
design office. There is little apparent before the succeeding project commences.
similarity between piping design This demands flexible organization of a

small group, who have responsibility for In both cases, piping design is the most
all aspects of design: In the large lengthy and complex part of the whole
company, however, projects are much design procedure and almost always on
more Grequent. Thus the greater volume of the critical path of the project plan.
work handled by a large group makes a
high degree of specialization necessary for
economic and administrative reasons.

. 1

stage. It illustrates the unifying role

Piping is an important element of every
stage of project design, purchasing and by the piping engineer in acting as
Ol construction. It is intimately linked to the a clearinghouse for data provided from
q-3 : 3
i other project work on equipment,
electrical, instrument
engineering. Work on piping is
and civil
other specialist engineers. It also indicates
the last stage of the project, when piping
erection is being carried out and when one
1 proceeding at every stage of the project, faces the difficulties of correcting the
partly because of the sheer volume of desigd errors without delaying project
3 , 7 design and erection work, but mainly completion. Since the quantum of work
3 because of the need to rdate .other involved in piping is very extensive, the
project activities to the piping design. A d e s i ~and
, erection activities of piping
f, appear on the critical path of this network,
3 ' typical activity network and bar chart for a
: process plant project are shown in Figs. 6 The 'criti~alpath planning helps in proper
. .
and 7. allocation and utilization of manpower for
critical activities, thus avoiding
The activity network shows dearly the uneconomic and wastehl allocation of
?3 , ' intmlated activities of piping and other
bmohes of projeet, partiedarly at design

"Fhe efficiency with which the entire P i p i i engineer is responsible for a

systems of any particular projects work substantial part of total project &st.
depends upon initial phase and is in the Achievement of his program things is
hands of piping analytical engineer. critical to the completion of project in
Every change the engineer makes h m his time. In addition to his own h c t i o n as a
base design is compounded ten folds specialist design engineer, he must
down stream as so many other operations provide a considerable amount of
depend on his design. The analytical information and design continuity inside
design is the 'BIBLE' and must be correct the project design organization.
in the f b t inst&. The correctness,
thoroughness and efficiencyof the design
released by the analytical engineer
determines the efficiency of the piping
design and influences, significantly, the-
efficiency and quality of overall plant."


Adequacy The piping engineer has, therefore,

considerable responsibility for economic
'% Piping design must be adequate to and accurate design. Much development
meet the process specification and of design methods and organization has
physical conditions in which the plant taken pl.ace over the years. In large design
is to operate. . organizations, techniques have emerged,
Economy whereby procedures for producing simple
symbolic data conveying maximum
'% Adequate design must be achieved at information at minimum cost can be
an economic cost within the project
budget. Design cost must be
employed. The basic elements of these
procedures are:
minimized by maximiiing the use of

standardized methods of detailing and
&ta presentation.
3 Rapid data retrieval 1.
3 Standardization of engineering
design methods for stressing,
material selection etc. .
b Much of the piping data is derived
fiom and used by other engineeting
3 Maxknum use of standards I
departments and must be clear, 3 Symbolic drawing procedures
consistent and reliable. I
I .

3 Standarilization of document format

for issue of piping i n f o d o n .
Accuracy I1 .
b Details of piping and materials must A responsible piping engineer would try
to take the maximum use of such methods
be complete and accurate.
RcctXcation of mistakes in these
activities at a later stage may prove to
and procedures. I.
be very costly and can delay project

Major Equipment - 50%

Material Costs Major

FIG. 1 . .

FIG. 2

Design Depts.

Piping layouts
Flow Sheet & Plant layout &
Piping Details
Process Data> E a ~ tlayout
Material List & Summary
Purchase Requisitions
v Fabrications

Programme Target Erection

Pipe System
Cost Control
Project Dept



piping Activity Shaded)



I 1
Data as per project design basis such as indicative

- 1.
Overall plot plan showing location of various units,
Plot Plan, PFDs, P&XDs, FDS, Process Process tankfarms, offsite, package units, non-plant buildings, roads,
description, Equipment list, Line list, Site data, licensor culverts, piperacks, sleepers, etc.
etc. . . . .
. ,
. .
. ,

2 . Electrical tray , width . .,


requirements on -- ~ l e c t . 2. Piping matetia1pecifications.

., : piperacklpipe sleepers and cable trench width in
. . . . .
. .
. .
, ,

;.unitdoffsites , ,. . ., . . . . ..
. . .
.. . . . . .

3 Instr. cable tray size requirement on -- Instr.' 3. Equipment layouts (1 :200), (1:1OO), & (1 :50).

4 Engineering data sheets of equipments like -- Mech. 4. TOG Elevations and loads with anchor bolt size, no., and
columns, vessels, tanks, etc. bolt locations for all equipment.
. . .

5 , . ~ n ~ data
. g . sheets, giving o v d dimensions, -- 5. GGeneralarrange&nt of piperack and equipment supports
. supporting m g e r n e n t with no. of anchor bolis. Process s,tructures
. .
. .
.. . :, ', . size, location and bolt circle dia.. All. nozzles
location, size, rating, etc.
. .
for hh'exchangers. .
. .

6 HVAC-ducting layouts preliminary and final. -- Utility 6. Piping general arrangement drgs. including platforms,
ladders, overhead cranes elevation, location, loads and
layout of monorail, cutouts, inserts and sleeves, required for
piping, etc.
.. 4


7 Layouts of various emuent & drain sewers and -- Civil 7. BOM & technical evaluation and technical bidding analysis.
location of manholes.

8 System preliminaxy and final layout drawings of --Utility 8. Stress analysis

the packaged units including auxiliary

-- Civil

Architectural drgs. . o f : insh control mom,

9' , ,, ~ o i orientation
c drgs. including location of davits.
.. .
. . -electrical sub-station, laboratory and,othet offices
. . . ' inside the unit-plans and eievatigns.
, . . .
. .

. , : 10, G A drgs., overall dGkmions, base plate and --

' . 1 0 .vessel clcats lacation drgs. for pipe supports, platforms and
. : anchor bolt locations, ndzzle locd-, size,type, . process
. . ladders.
.. . rating, type of drive, permissible n~zzle~loads,
' for pu+s. , .. . .. .

. . . . . .. . .

: . . 11 . Foundation and super strucpue drgs. of. piperacks

-- Civil 11 undergriund piping layout.
. .
1 and process/technolkgical,
... .
$truchrr:ea. . . .
. . .
. .

. .. . . . .
1 2 Overall f?undat'ion
layout.. . .

. .
' .
. . ' ,
. -- Civil . ,12 Isometrics of piping including system ISOs

13 Platfixm drgs. and special pipe structure support -- Civil 13 Support drgs. of piping and special support details.
structure drgs.

14 G e n d arrangements drgs. of electrical cable -- Elect. 14 Tender for fabrication S.O.Q.

hyltrench layouts.

IS Tank settlement data. -- Civil 15 Tender for insulation S.0.Q

1 i
. -



't I . Indian Institute of Technology

7 INTRODUCTION because ignoring these may lead to penalties
1 The life of a chemical process, from in future as harsh as having to top the
' > concept to commissioning and beyond, activity. So, economics remains the guiding
.- involves almost all disciplines of principle. There is nothing to wrong with it
I . engineering. So wide is the knowledge base because such a profit motive has led to great
53 requirement and so intricately integrated technological innovations.
these inputs from various specializations are For new products, technical
3 that they make the conventional e n g i p e e ~ g feasibility is an important first aspect to -
1 disciplines such as chemical engineering, study. This can comprise of .
-t3 mechanical engineering, metallurgical Chemical Path Feasibility
4? -
I engineering, civil engineering, etc. look
artificial. A good chemical process engineer
needs to have a v a y broad howledge For the first part, especially in the
I derived &om these diseiphes.
P area of organic synthesis, reaction path
3 !
The idea of this paper is to take a
b i d s eye view of the activities during the
synthesis algorithms are available. These
would short-list a few routes for synthesis
-3 I
. Me cycle of a process, especially those that which are thermodynamically feasible. Every
concern a piping engineer. thermodynamically feasible reaction need -

i I
not necessarily be practical because for
fh MATORPHASES practicality, it is essential that the reaction

7 The major phases in the fife cycle of takes ,place at a suitable rate. Too fast
a c h d c a l process can be identified as: ,. .. reactions may lead to op&ation/control
4 1. Determination of Techno-aonomic problems while too slow reactions may
.> 's feasibility .
requke huge quipment to be able to process
2. . Design Phase commercial quantities. Means of
? '

ir - 3. Comtmc'iionPhase
, promoting/inhibiting reaction rates(catalysts)
>; ; . , .4. Commissionkig P k c srs ~ftcfirquircd. A major portion of
'-) 5. ~pmtibn/Produ~tion Phase . .. . ' . '

reactions in chemical industry are catalytic

J ,! , .
- A piping engineer h e an.important role'to in nature. A general view of any chemical
I) . .
p I a y d ~ g p b w 2 - 5 , .. . .. .
.. .
', ' . . -.

process plant can be a reactor at the heart and

2 d
"' 1, . . 1..
. . .

.li"EMIBILI[TY. . - --::
- .
. -.
. .
.- , .
-, . . .

. . .. . .
other units necessary to prepare feed for the
reactor or process output from the reactor.
.I,> ' . . ' Except perhaps hithe early days of., ' Once a chemical route which is
l . metallurgical industry, economic. gain has thermodynamically and kinetically feasible
. i
: been a.major .considerationin the choice and is chosen, a block flow diagram(BFD),
;i > ..
scale of .a production activity. Risk factor
and pollution considerations seem to be

which can be said to be the first engineering
diagram in the life cycle of a process, can be
d. :
.' i
gaining importa+e, but these are also due to prepared. It simply shows the operations that
CP economic considerations .
to. a large extent, are involved in the feed prepmtion section
1, ii
:..:+ . .
. .

1 -: . . . .
i I . ' . . . ,
and product treatment section of a process total mass is obviously conserved in any
and the general sequence of events. The process including the chemical processes.
operations could be heat removal or addition, All operations in chemical processes wherein
. mixing or separation, purnpinglcompressing, the masses of individual components are also
etc. For a given scale of operation and conserved are termed as unit operations. This
estimated or expected performance levels of would necessitate that no chemical
the equipment to be later selected for these transformations take place during these
operations, one can put fust estimates of operations. Phase change, is however, not
stream characteristics such as flow rates, excluded. Pipe flow, pumping, compression,
composition, temperatures, pressure etc. on mixing, evaporation, distillation, extraction,
the BFD. With this, the process can be said etc. are unit operations in this sense.
to be born in two dimensions. The heart of any chemical process, a
The chemically feasible route is yet reactor, is however, an operation where the
to be tested for its technical and economic total mass is conserved but the species mass
viability. is not. Some or all the species undergo
,4t a broad level, a decision as to the chemical transformations. These are called
desirability of batch operation, continuous unit processes. For example, nitration,
operation or a combination has to be taken. oxidation, hydrogenation, chlorination,
Scale is an important issue here, but not the esterification are called unit processes.
only one. Some operations are inherently The. operations in a process as
batcwsemibatch in nature, e.g. adsorption. identified in the BFD may be carried out by
The poition of the flowsheet involving batch on< or more candidate unit operations. For
operation must operate in that mode. It can example, a component from a mixture may
suitably coexist with upstream/downstream be separated by distillation or crystallization
continuous operation through provision of or adsorption. Which choice is the best ( h m
suitably sized storage tanks which do the job economic point of view)? Is a parallel or
of isolating the batch operation section from series combination of alternatives a better
the continuous one. solution?
Some operations are feasible in batch Even after selecting the appropriate
as well as continuous mode but strict quality unit operation, one may have to converge on
control (absence of byproducts due to side the appropriate implementation strategies.
reactions etc.) or variations in feed/products For example, a four component mixture may
specifications etc. may tilt the scale in favour be separated by multiple distillation columns
of bztch operation. Foi !3c siuae scale oC iu several possibk ways. W'hichone of t h e
operation, batch process equipment result in options is the best for a given situation?
much larger process fluid inventory in the - . -... la -.case .of...reactors, choice. of -
plant at any time. If the fluids being handled equipment is equally important A fluid
are hazardous, it would mean that potential phase reaction, for example may be carried
hazards are higher in batch operation vis-A- out in a tubular reactor with or without
vis continuous operation. This aspect is recycle, a stirred pot or a combination. A
. assuming more and more importance in the reaction involving solid catalyst may be
emerging zero-risk scenario. carried out in a packet bed, moving bed,
Once tlic operations and the mode in basket type reactor, a flllidized bed reactor, a
which these are to be carried out are riser reactor, etc. Which one of these options
determined, the actual methods of achieving is the best for a given situation?
results of an operation are to be decided. The

Plant cost and operating cost are two to carry out rigorous engineering
components to be considered in the choice of calculations for the chemical engineering
equipment. It is possible to pose the problem aspects as well as mechanical engineering
as an optimization problem (cost aspects and come out with rigorous
minimization), the solution of which gives documents (text, drawings) so that the
cost optimal flowsheet configuration. This implementation details can be passed on to -

phase of flowsheet development is called the subsequent phases in the life cycle.
Trocess Synthesis" and widely accepted It must be remembered that just as it
CAD tool in chemical engineering. is important to know what is happening
Mathematically, these are MILP (Mixed inside a particular piece of
Integer Linear Programming) or MINLP equipment(chernica1 engineering), it is
(Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming) equally important to know whether the
problems. mechanical design and metallurgy of the
Selection of other pieces of confining vessel are adequate to allow this to
equipment such as pumps, reboilers, heat happen without risks to the other flowsheet
exchangers can be taken up at and components and to the external world. The -
considered as a part of process synthesis issues are inseparably involved and chemical
stage or postponed to a later stage. and mechanical engineering have to hand-
Chemical processes are generally in-hand. Unfortunately, that is normally not
energy intensive. With the rising energy cost, the case.
attention has recently turned to minimization The design phase has essentially two
of external energy requirement. These u e components; the process design and the
cooling water, steam, heating oil etc., the so mechanical design.
called utility steams. It is essential to Process is the detailed material and
minimize utility requirement by encouraging energy balance calculation across the process
as much process stream to process stream flowsheet. It would also establish the
heat transfer as possible within operational operating conditions, equipnents size(not
and layout constraints. These problems are necfessarily shape), utility requirements, ete.
also mathematically posed as MILP and With this idonnation appended to the BFD,
Ml.NL,P and are called as HEN (Heat one gets a Process Flow Diagrams(PFD).
Exchanger Network) Synthesis problem. For example, process design of a
With these process synthesis tasks distillation column would mean calculating
accomplished, conceptual design stage of the the number of trays, feed tray locations,
process is over. The equipxnt have been draw locati~ns,draw locations, condenser
selected and roughly their capacities are and reboiler duties, reflux ratio, etc. The heat
known. The capital cost and the operating exchanger process design would mean

costs can be estimated. This information calculating the operating temperature,

coupled with the raw material availability pressure, reactor volume, reactor heat
and cost and the demand and market prices removaVaddition requirements, etc. These
of products and byproducts would help in operatingldesign conditions can be
establishing the economic feasibility of the calculated to satisfy some criterion such as
process. A techno-economically feasible minimum operating cost or minimum
process is now ready to enter the design impurities or minimum pollution or
phase. maximum conversion to desired cproduct or
2. DESIGN PHASE a combination of these.
The objective of the design phase is

These decisions which help to zarrive require the knowledge of dynamics of a

at optimal design and not only workable process. Dynamic process simulators are
designs are possible only by creating and being developed and slowly getting
answering what-if situations around each acceptance as decision making tools in these
equipment or part or whole of the flowsheet. areas.
For sxample, we need to try different feed Although designed for steady state
locations for a distillation column, different operations, truly speaking, no process
reflw ratios etc. and see how the steady state operates at a steady state. This is because
performance(top or bottom composition) there could be disturbances (may be with
changes. A feed location andlor reflux ratio zero mean) beyond the control of operators.
which gives the desired performance is one Even if we have a tight hold on everything,
of the candidate designs. There may be the ambient' conditions (temperature, wind
several such designs. The one which is velocity) change fiom time to time. This
optimum in some sense is then chosen. changes the amount of heat ingress or egress
Prediction of performance for inputed fiom the equipment and pipelines which
design and operating conditions by solving affect the energy balance of the whole
phenomenological equations of any system and system performance would vary
operation on computer is called simulation. if no counter measures are taken. This is the
Programs which can do it for the whole job of suitably chosen controllers.
flowsheet simultaneously are flowsheeting Control system design is an
. programmes. They are also termed as steady important area.. System identification,
state simulators because they simulate only modeling, manipulated-controlled variable
the steady state performance of a process pair selection, controller selection,
flow sheet. controllability evaluation are important
Simulation based process design areas. Dynamic simulation packages need to
completes one very important phase in the be used for this purpose so that CSSD can be
life cycle of a chemical process. The done at process design stage.
equipment types and sizes, all stream HAZOP is another important and
specifications (Flow rate, composition, now mandatory activity. It is a qualitative,
temperature, pressure), operating conditions experience intensive exercise as of now. It is
are known at this stage. This, when in the form of deviation analysis. After the
incorporated in Bfd, converts it to it PFD, an process design, the steady state
$portant engineering diagram. It is still 2- specifications of each stream in the
D, but since it has sigmficantly more tlowsheet are known. The M O P team
information content, let us call it a 2114-D - exhaustively asks itself questions as to what
drawing. This is often cbnsidereh as-anend- %

@ -ill if these specification deviate

- -- product of a conventional chemical engineer. from the expected steady state value. It
Although widely used in process debates the possible causes and
design, steady state stimulators do not help consequences of each such eventuality.
in decision making during several important Anything wbich appears to them as likely to
stages of a chemical process. The important lead to hazardous situation is debated further
ones start up and shut down, transition phase and possible means of avoiding the same or
during fecixrock and p r o d ~ ~chayeover,
t rai.sing alarm if it ha~pensso that remedid
relief and blow down, control systems action can be taken etc. are r,ecommended.
synthesis and design, Hazard and Operability This may lead to recommendation of
(HAZOP) studies, etc. These situations additional instrumentation on lines and

equipment, high-low alarms and trips etc. To make sure that a batch or semi-
which may be required to be provided. batch operation can coexist with upstream -

The idea of HAZOP is to foresee andlor downstream continuous units, storage

hazardous situation and take measures and tanks need to be provided as was mentioned
abundant precaution to avoid them and earlier.
increase process safety. Sometime, a particular requirement of an
The requirement of monitoring equipment may call for such a provision, for
instruments for providing signals to example, to ensure that the pump suction
controllers or also to continuously monitor does not run dry in the event of upstream
process performance is identified. process upsets. Start-up or shut-down

. The PFD shows the flow rates, conditions may also call for intermediate
composition, temp-erature and pressure of all storage tanks.
feed, product and intermediate streams. The A PFD modified further to indicate
properties of these streams such as density stand-by equipment, storage tanks,
and velocity can therefore be calculated. instrumentation and control, pipe sizes,
Hydraulic calculations to decide the pressure valves, etc. becomes a P&ID. It may also -

drop due to flow fiom one unit to another show relative elevation of various
can be done at this stage. Pipe sizing which equipment, number of trays and feed tray
is a balance between operating cost (energy location in a distillation column, etc.
lost due to flow in pipes) and capital cost P & D is a very important schematic
(function of pipe diameter, thickness and during the design stage process. In fact this
pipe run) can be canied out. is what is stored and updated throughout the
The pressure drop correlation to be life of a process. It is considered as a
used depends on the nature of flowing cardinal drawing for various sections in a
medium: incompressible, compressible, design organization. It also is the basic
slurry, two-phase, three-phase, etc. drawing for subsequent equipment design,
Reasonably good correlation are plant layout, piping layout, bill of
available for calculating pressure drop for material(BOM), insulation calculations, etc.
single phase compressible or incompressible Project engineering literally begins with this
fluid flow. or t w ~ - ~ h &flow,
e correlations mother drawing in hand.
are available but their predictive power is Piping Engineer must be thoroughly
. doubhl. Possibility of various flow regimes, conversant with P&ID. Each organization
uncertainties regarding regime transition may have its own nomenclature and
boundaries and lack of datt make przdictian prxtices for making P&Ds. But the
flow hydraulics very difficult for two and differences are mostly in representation and
multiphase flow. All one can do is to use the *.
not in the Sonnation content.
best available correlation. U$ortunately, a P&ID also shows the other details of
large percentage of flow situations in the pipe lines such as material of
industry are atleast two-phase flows. construction, service, etc. The material of
The HAZOP findings, process construction can be decided based on the
requirement or the available reliability data fluid that a pipeline is supposed to carry and
may require a standby unit provision in the the temperature-pressure conditions. The
flowsheet. This is quite often the case with materials of construction for equipment
pumps. These call for appropriate piping similarly are service dependent.
also. Although a piping engineer begins
with P&ID, it would be desirable if he has

some knowledge of the process background surface, which act as channels for leakage.
which led to P&ID. These channels need to be blocked by
At this stage, the capacity of each providing a softer material which is squeezed
equipment, the temperature- pressure that it between the two flanges so as to flow and
needs to withstand, the material of seal the irregularities on the flange surface.
construction, the inlet-outlet ports and their The gasket must flow but not be squeezed
sizes that need to be provided, the necessary out of flanges during bolting up conditions.
details of other intemals/externals(such as Also during operation, some of the bolt
trays in a distillation column, packing in an tension and pressure on gasket is reduced.
absorber, stirrer in a reactor, jacket around The gasket should still not leak.
kettle etc.) are available. The detailed The pressure vessel design would
mechanical design of each equipment involve calculating the shell wall thickness,
leading of fabrication drawing can be taken closure type selection and thickness
UP. calculations, selection of suitable gasket
The equipment design falls in the material with adequate yield stress and
area of pressure vessel design. The pressure gasket factor, choice of gasket location(mean
vessels are classified as fired and unired gasket diameter), gasket thichess, gasket
depending on whether they come in contact width, placement of bolts (bolt circle
with naked flame or not. Vessels subjected to diameter), bolt material selection, number of
inside pressure higher than the arnbient(eg. bolts, diameter of bolts etc. But this is not
vacuum service) are to be designed all.
'separately. There are separate design A vessel needs to have openings to
formulae for vessels subjected to internal and serve as inlet, outlet ports as well as for
external pressure. drainage, hand holes, man holes, etc. these
Typical vessel shapes ased in process could be on the shell or closures. The shell
industry are cylindrical and spherical. and closure wall thickness have been
Spherical shells are selficlosing while two designed to enswe that the stresses in the
ends of a cylindrical shell need to be closed walls even at the weakest ports (along
using closures of appropriate sbapes. welding, dong longitudinal seam or gizth
Depending on shell dimensions and service seam) do not cross the allowable stress value
conditions, the closures may be even aft61corrosion or inspite of nonudbrm
hemispherical, ellipsoidal, torrisperical, plate thickness (mill tolerance), etc. Whcb
conical or flat. openings are cut, stresses concentrate along
The ciosures need to be tightly fixed the edges of the opening and may exceed
to the shell, Flanges -are provided on the allowable stress value. Provision ef extra---
closure and the sheli for this purpose., thickness to counter this may be expensive.
Various .tyDes of flanges are possible and The theoretical finding that the stress
appropriate choice is important. Ingress of concentration is confined to a circle double
ambient air in the vessel or egress of inside the opening diameter is used to strengthen
fluid to the atmosphere must be avoided. the shell wall only in that region by welding
Apart from loss of material and/or off-spec a pad around the opening. The thickness
product, such a leakage could be hazardous. calculation of such a reinforcing pad is a part
If flange surfaces were pressed against each of pressure vessel calculation.
other, no matter how well they are machined, Not every opening need to be
the flanges would leak. This is so because of compensated. In the pressure vessels
the microscopic irregularities on the flange subjected to internal pressure, tensile stresses
are developed in the wall. In case of vessels thickness may have to amended to take care
subjected to external pressure, compressive of seismisity.
stresses are developed. The vessel wall It is assllmed that highest wind load
would have a tendency to buckle. To avoid and worst seismic effects do not occur
this, stiffening rings may be provided. simultaneously.
Spacing between stiffening rings and cross- The vibration period and deflection
section geometry of the stiffening ring are to of tall columns also need to be kept within
be designed using appropriate design tolerable limits. This can be done by
procedures. providing a suitably thick skirt.
Stiffening rings may be provided Eccentric loads on the column due to
externally or internally. Internal stiffening side connection also cause bending moment
rings may also be used as tray supports in at the skirt column connection and need to be
distillation columns, etc. considered.
Above design procedures may . After attention is paid to each and
normally be adequate for not so tall vessels. every aspect, a pressure vessel fabrication
For tall vessels which may most adequately drawing is issued for fabrication to begin at
be called towers, several other considerations an early stage. Equipment fabrication is time
come into picture. consuming. Also, in the field work,
Tougher distillations require lot of equipment need' to be in place quite early
trays in the column requiring to install very because only then the pipe routing job
tall columns. Tall column design is thus begins.
important. Pipe wall thickness design is
. ,- The wind velocities increase as one similarly carried out by treatin6 pipes as
goes away from ground level. A tall column cylindrical vessels. Flange calculations need
with its insulation, platforms and ladders not be done in the case of pipes as these are
.i provide obstruction to wind which i n turn provided by the codes in most cases. Once
.* -2 exerts force on the column. The column the nominal diameter and schedule of all
firmly supported at the skirt top bends as a pipes in a plant are known, a first bill of
result. This induces tensile stresses along the material for pipe length requirement can be
longitudinal seam on the leeward side. These prepared. This is even before the actual
additional stresses along with the stresses routing and isometrics are frozen. Additional
due to internal pressure should not cross the quantities can be procured once the 3-D
allowable value. This may have to be layout is finalized
ensured by provision of arlditiorlal shell wall In all the above calculations, design
thickness. The thickness requirement is pressure and design temperatun have to be
lowest at the top. To- minimize metal suitably chosen. For the equipment,
requirement, the tower may be divided into hydrostatic test pressures are .also to be
sections with the bottommost section having recommended.
highest thickness and the top just enough to With the completion of these
withstand internal pressure. calculations and the design documents: the
Tall tower design also needs to be design phase can be said to be over. The
checked for seismic effects which induce pipeline routing is however not yet decided.
additional stresses along longitudinal seam.
The seismic zone and the period of vibration' 3. CONSTRUCTION PHASE
decide the seismic coefficient. Wall Further analytical work needs to be


done before the final blue print of 3-D plant have to be laid out. It is not as simple as i
layout is finalized and construction begins. connecting the outlet of one equipment to the
Some of the activities given here may well inlet of the next in operational sequence by I
be considered as belonging to the design the shortest possible route. In fact, such I
phase itself. They are given here mainly direct connections are exceptional. And with
because,plant site details are a part of inputs reason! I
to the decision making. Most industrial hazards originate I
The choice of plant location, with failure of the piping system. The
if such a choice exists, is governed by I
equipment are fairly rigid and have strong
politico-socio-economic considerations. The foundation. During the cold assembly, all 1
basic approach is to assign weight factors to pieces are in place. When the operation
various considerations and to select a site
which scores maximum points.
begins, the high pressure temperature
conditions inside the equipment induce I
Knowing the site and its stresses and things literally move. Pipelines
neighborhood, a plant layout c a be worked I
being the most delicate elements in the plant,
out. Sites of the major equipment have to be bear the brunt of these operational loads, It is
decided on the site map. Apart firom the therefore essential that each pipeline routing,
equipment and offsites, other requirements especially the critical long ones, is properly
such as control room, fie station, hospital designed so that the pipe can sustain the
etc. are decided at this stage. The road map operational load. The load due to the weight I
of the site also emerges. Certain rules for of the fluid carrying pipe, vibrations in the
inter-unit distance which emerged fiom past equipment to which it is connected, thermal
experiences, certain guidelines for dusty, expansion etc. collectively and should not I

fire-prone, noisy, hazardous equipment lead to stresses in the pipe exceeding the
location are adhered to. allowable limitsoduringoperation.
A piping engineer is deeply . Weight analysis and stress analysis 1 :
involved in plant layout as it is one of the need to be carried out on pipeline. It may
most important factor which 'governs the lead to the requirement of rerouting the
piping layout and piping costs. pipeline, or provision of supports, hangars, I

It is important to orient the expansion bellows, etc. stress analysis is now

unit properly at it's assigned site. This facilitated by computer packages. Howcver,
activity is called unit layout or equipment analysis of the stress distribution churned out I
layout. Accessibility, ease of maintenance, by these packages for a complex pipe routing
impticatiolrs on pipkg iayout, ck. are the is the job of a piping engineer. Piping layout
considerations here. Each equipment has to is ant exclusive domain of a piping. engineer. I

be given individual attentiofi" by always Not 'miiny gk exposure to it during their -

keeping in mind that it is a member of the career as piping engineer.
whole. Guidelines' have emerged based on A software model of 3-D layout of a I '

past practices and experiences. plant is gaining imporatnce. Unlike P&ID

A piping engineer is again deeply which is schematic, a 3-D model is a
iavolvcd in unit layout as it has more direct dimensional graphics and can be made in all- I

influence on the piping layout, which is the details of the envisaged plant. It offers easy
next activity. visualization of Lbe plant structure. It allows
After the units have been located and checks on ergonomics. In conjunction with
r .
appropriately oriented on paper, the layout of stress analysis software, each pipeline can be
the veins and arteries of the plant, the pipes, checked for adequate flexibility and its route

if called for. Details of civil structure can be Another reason why c~mrnissionin~
checked and corrected. Isometric drawings is tough is that the start-up conditions are
of each pipeline can' be derived from 3-D significantly different than steady state.
drawings with ease. Orthographic drawings conditions for which the plant has been
in different views can be created. designed.
The 3-D software model has all the Dynamic simulation is a good tool to
details of plant including actual pipe routing. evolve a good start-up policy. It is, however,
Bill of material for pipes and piping not used much of today. Start-up procedures
elements (pipe run,piping elements such a s for common unit operations such as
elbows, tees, specialties, flanges, valves etc.) distillation are fairly' well tested, though not
procured equipments (pumps etc.) can be necessarily optimal:
easily extracted. A piping engineer may be involved in
The progress of project star-up to take care of mechanical design
implementation can be monitored using 3-D problems that may crop up. Some process
drawings and field information. knowledge would be desirable.
Specification sheet for piping
elements can be prepared using a 3-D model. 5. NORMAL OPERATION PHASE
3-D model of the plant is complete The problems during the production
database and visual of the plant that would phase of plant are mostly operational if it
be. Its use would increase in coming years. has been designed well. The need to
The construction phase involves the debottleneck and optimize on throughput,
actual placement of equipment and routing however, calls for minor/major changes
pipelines. Welding and fabrication, painting involving installation of additional
for corrosion prevention, thermal insulation equipment or bypassing an existing
to prevent heat ingress or egress are the field equipment and related changes in pipe
activities that a piping engineer need to be routing. These changes may be trivial fiom
familiar with. process point of view but not necessarily
4. COMMISSIONING fiom the mechanical design implications
If the entire design has been done of view. A tritrially simple change may
scientifically, if design intentions are lead to stresses crossing failure limits and
reflected in various design documents causing disaster. A healthy operating
conectly, if fabrication, erecfion and practice would require a piping engineer to
assembly have been done as. per design be associated with any hardware change or
intai"Uons, then commis;ia&g which operaAhgpoint shift during productive piui
involves taking the cold-assembled plant to of the life cycle of a plant.
go on-stream and produce design capicity A piping engineer is also a
should be srnooth affair. This is normally not part of M O P team. He is also involved in
the case because lots of adhoc decisions need accident review.
to be taken on field during erection to take IN CONCLUSION.A PIPING
care of fabrication errors, iate or non- ENGMEER IS INYOLVED I A
delivery of items or design errors which are MAJOR PORTION OF THE LJFE
made at early stages of project engineering CYCLE OF A PROCESS. HIS
or even late second thoughts. The project is RESPOSIBILITIES AND SCOPE OF
normally on the critical path during field A CTNITIES MAKE THE
work and not all these decisions and their NOMENCLATURE "PIPING
implications are thoroughly probed. ENGINEER "A MISNOMER.
Certificate Course

May 11 27,2005



Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
\ Powai, Mumbai - 400 076


For scientific design of Piping Systems, selection of proper material of
construction and to detail out the material specifications, knowledge of Codes and
Standards is essential. Standardization can, and does, reduce cost, inconvenience, and
confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable differences in systems,
components and procedures. Industry standards.are published by professional societies,
committees and trade organization;. A code is basically a standard that has been
generally accepted by the government. The objective of each code is to ensure public and
industrial safety in a particular activity or equipment. Codes are often developed by the
same organization that develop standards. These organizations also develop good
engineering practices and publish as Recommended Practices. The intent of these
documents is misunderstood since definition of Codes, Standards and Recommended -

Practices are not always correctly understood. The following definitions are generally
accepted. .

A group of general rules or systematic procedures for design, fabrication,
installation and inspection prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted by legal
jurisdiction and made into law.

Documents prepared by a professional group or committee who are believed to be
good and proper engineering practice and which contain mandatory requirements. The
users are responsible for the correct application of the same. CompIiance with a standard
does not itself confer immunity from legal obligation. .

Documents prepared by professional group or committee indicating good
engineering practices but which are optional.

Companies' also develop Guides in order to have consistency in the

documentation. These cover various engineering methods, which are considered good
practices, without specific recommendation or requirements.

Codes and Standards as we11 as being regulations, might be considered as "design

aids" since they provide guidance fiom experts.

Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On global basis, American
National standards are undoubtedly the most widely used and compliance with those
requirements are accepted world over. In India, other than American standards, British
standards and Indian standards are also used for the design and selection of equipment
and piping systems. The major organizations for standards are;

Codes and Standards I



S. No. Country Organization Abbreviation

1 United States American National ANSI
Standards Institute
2 Canada Standard Council of Canada SCC
3 France Association Francaise AFNOR
. 4 United British Standards BSI
Kingdom Institute
5 Europe Committee of European CEN
6 Germany Deutsches Institute Fur DIN
7 Japan Japanese Industrial JISC
Standards Committee
8 -
India Bureau Of Indian Standards BIS
. 9 Worldwide International Organization I S 0
for Standards
IS0 is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some
100 countries, one from each country.


Not all American standards are issued directly by American National Standards
Institute. The material standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for Testing
and Materials) and dimensional standards under ANSI (American National Standards
Institute). Most of these standards are adapted by AS& (American Society -of
Mechanical Engineers). %

The American Standards referred by Piping Engineers are mainly the standards by: I 4
i c:, 3
1.1 The American Petroleum Institute (API) 3
I '
1.3 The American National SLmdardsInstitute (ANSI) I ' 3
1.4 The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

1.5 The American Welding Society.(AWS).


. .

1.6 The American Water Works Association (AWWA).


1.7 The Manufacturers Standardization Society of VaIves and Fitting Industry -

Standard Practices (MSS-SP) 1 , ; I
1 j -

Codes and Standards 2 I ' 1



'1.8 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


The generally referred API standards by the Piping Engineers are :

1) M I 5L - Specification for Line Pipe

- b 1

2) MI6D - Pipe line Valves, End closures, Connectors and Swivels.
' I
3) API 6F - Recommended Practice for Fire Test for valves.
'r 4) API593 - Ductile Iron Plug Valves - flanged ends.

Valve Inspection and Test.

Steel ate Valves

~etallic'Gasketfor Refinery piping

MI602 - Compact Design carbon steel Gate.

API 603 - Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves

API 604 - . Ductile Iron Gate Valves - flanged ends.

API 607 Fire test for soft-seated ball valves

h'+\ 60%

- . 'b&\dn%
API.609 - Butteffly valves

13) API 1104 - Standard for welding pipeline andl facilities.


The American Iron and Steel Institute Standards specifies the material by its
chemical and physical properties. When specific mode of rna<facturt of the element is
not the concern, then the material can be identified by the AlSI standards. The most
commonly used AISI specifications are:

1) AISI 410 - 13% Chromium Alloy Steel

2) AISI 304 - 18/8 Austenitic Stainless Steel

3) AISI316 - 18/8/3 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Codes and Standards



The American National Standards Institute's standards used in the design of the
Piping Systems are as listed. In 1978,ANSI B31 committee was reorganized as ASME 1 -
Code for Pressure Piping B3 1 committee. Subsequently the code designation was i
changed. ASME B31 Code for pressure piping is at present a non-mandatory code in
USA, though they are adopted as legal requirement.
I '

1) ASME B 31.1 - Power Piping

I '

2) ASMEB31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping

3) ASME B 31.3 , - Process Piping
. .
.. .

4) ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline Transportation System for liquid

\ I '
hydrocarbon and other Li ~ i d s ~ ~( (!, Q, ~U
- taus c a m % y f r g

5) ASME B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping I '

6) ASMEB31.8 - Gas Transmi sion d Distributor Piping Systems.

-c b-% cpQ> I '

7) AShlEB31.9 - Building Services Piping

8) ASME B 31.11 - Slurry Transpiration Piping Systems I -

9) ASME B31.G- Manual for determining the remaining strength of
corroded piping - A supplement to ASME B3 1. 1 '

Of the above, the most commonly used code is ASME B 3 1.3: Refineries and chemical
plants are designed based on the same. All power plants are designed as per ASME I ' --
Unless agreement is specifically made between the contracting parties to use another I.

issue or the regulatory body having jurisdiction imposes the use of another issue, the < \'
. .
. 'j :
latest edition and addenda issued 6 monthsprior .to the original contract date,will h ~. l .d ., . .
, . .. . :. . .-

go&i for the first phase of the completion of work and h i t i d opirntion.
. . . . J ...-,
. :!
... $ .

. .
. . :.:. . . . . . . . ' ?
. .
1 .
It is the responsibility i f the user to seleci the code, Section,. which most nearl'yapplie3
. .. . to . .
. . :
. .

a proposed piping installation. A 1

Factors to be considered include:
Technical limitations of the Code Section, jurisdictional requirements and the
applicability of otherqCodesand Standards. All applicable requirements of the selected
Code shall be met. For some installations, more than one Code Section may apply to
different parts of the installation. The user is responsible for imposing requirements

Codes and Standards 4


supplementary to those of the Code if necessary to assure safe piping for the proposed
I installation.

9 When no section of the Code specifically covers proposed installation, the user has the
discretion to select any section determined to be'generally applicable. However, it i s
-3 / cautioned that supplementary requirements to the section chosen may be necessary t o
, x provide for safe piping system for the intended application.

The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed necessary for the safe design and
construction of pressure piping. While safety is the basic consideration, this factor aione
will not necessarily govern the final specification for any piping installation.

The Code prohibits designs and practices h o r n to be unsafe and contains warnings
, where caution, but not prohibition., is warranted. The designer is cautioned that the
. J I
Code is not a design handbook; it does not do away with the need for the engineer or
9 ) competent engineering judgement.

Other major ANSI I ASME dimensional standards referred for the piping elements are:

1)' ASMEB1.l - Unified Inch Screw Threads

2) ASME B 1.20.1 . - Pipe Threads general purpose -


Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

4) ASME B 16.3 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings.

5) ASME B 16.4 - Cast Iron Threaadd Fittings

Steel Pipe flanges and Flanged Fittings

> 7) ASME B 16.9 - Stee1 Butt welding Fittings

i 5 8) ASME B 16.10 - Face to face and end to end dimensions'of
p' . -
b: I
)> 4
9) ASME B 16.1 1 - Forged steel Socket welding and Threaded
), I
10) ASME B 16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges - ring
joint, spiral wound and jacketed flanges

11) ASMEB 16.21 Non Metallic Gasket for pipe flanges

. .
Codes and Standards . . .

12) ASME B 16.25 - Butt Welding Ends

13) ASME B 16.28 - Short Radius Elbows and Returns -.

14) ASME B 16.34 - Steel Valves, flanged and butt weldbg ends.

15) ASME B 16.42 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges & Flanged

Fittings -Class 150 and 300

16) ASME B 16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS 26-60

17) ASME B 16.49 - Buttwelding Induction Bends for Transportation

and Distribution System

18) ASME B 18.2 1 & 2 - Square and hexagonal head Bolts and Nuts -
(in & mm)

19) ASME B 36.10 - Welded and seamless Wrought steel Pipes

20) ASME B 36.19 - Welded and Seamless Austenitic Stainless

Steel Pipes.


ASTM standards consist of 16 sections on definitions and classifications of
materials of construction and test methods. Most of the ASTM standards are adapted by
ASME and are specified in ASME Section 11. The Section 11has four parts.
1.4.1 Part-A - Ferrous materials specifications
1.4.2 Part-B - Non-ferrous metals specification
1.4.3 Part-C - Specification for welding materials
1.4.4 Part-D - Properties of materials.

In Part-II, the materials are listed in the Index based on the available forms such as plates,
castings, tubes, etc. and also on the numerical index.
The selection of S T M specification depends upon the type of manufacture, form
of material, its mechanic$ strength and the corrosion properties.
The specification number is given on Alphabetical prefix, 'Ai for Ferrous materials
and 'B' for Non-ferrous materials.
ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metal and all;$ as Unified
N-mb&g System.


The UNS number itself is not a specification, since it establishes no requirements
for form, condition, quality etc. It is a unified identification of metals and alloys for
which controlling limits have been established in specification elsewhere.

Codes and Standards 6 I .

I '

The UNS provides means of correlating many naturally used numbering systems
currently administered by Societies, trade associations, individual users and producers of
metals and alloys, thereby av&ding confusion caused by use of more than one
identification number for the same material and by the opposite situation of having the
same number assigned to two different materials.
UNS establishes 18 series numbers of metals and alloys. Each UNS number
consists of a single letter prefix followed by five digits. In most cases the alphabet is
suggestive of the family of the metal identified.
. . . .

1. ~ 0 0 0 0 1 A
- 99999 - ~ l k i n i u r nand ~lumi'niurnalloys

Copper and Copper alloys

3. EOOOOl - E 99999 - Rare earth and rare earth like metals and
- Low melting metals and alloys
- Miscellaheous nonferrous metals and alloys
- Nickel and Nickel alloys

- Precious metals and alloys

- Reactive and Refractory metals and alloys

- Zinc and Zinc alloys

- Specified mechanical properties of Steels

- Cast Iron and Cast Steels
- AISI and SAE Carbon and Alloy steels
AISI H Steels
- Cast Steels

15. KO000 1 - K 99999 Miscellaneous Steels and Ferrous alloys

Stainless Steels
- Tool Steels

- Welding Filler Metals and Electrodes

Codes and Standards 7

! ...,

The American Welding Society (AWS) standards provide information on welding
hndamentals; weld design, welders' training qualification, testing and inspection of !
welds and guidance on the application and use of welds. Individual electrode
manufacturers have given their own brand names for the various electrodes and are sold
h d e r these names. I


The American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards refer to the piping
elements required for low-pressure water services. These are less stringent than other
standards. Valves, flanges, etc. required for large diameter' water pipelines are covered
under this standard and are referred rarely by CPI Piping Engineers. 1 :

Gate Valves for water & sewage system

2)C-510 - Cast Iron Sluice Gates

3) C-504 - Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves

4) C-507
. . - . . Ball valves 6'" - 48" . . 11

5) C-508 - Swing Check Valves 2" - 24"

6) C-509 - Resilient Seated Gate Valves for water & sewage


In addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standard practices I '
followed by manufacturers. These are published as advisory standards and are widely
followed. A large number of MSS Practices have been approved by the ANSI & ANSI
Standards published by others. In order to maintain a single source of authoritative 1
information, the MSS withdraws those Standard Practices in such cases. The most
common MSS-SP standards referred for piping are:
I '

1) MSS-SP-6 - ~tandard~inishes
for Contact Surface for Flanges ,
. .
2) MSS-SP-25 - Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings I


- . Class 1SO Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe and

Check Valves.
- Wrought Stainless Steel Buttweld Fittings
- Steel Pipeline Flanges

Codes and Standards


6) MSS-SP-56 Pipe Hanger Supports: Materials, Design and

Manufacture . . .

7) MSS-SP-61 Pressure testing of Steel Valves

8) MSS-SP-67 Butterfly Valves '

9) MSS-SP-68 High Pressure Offseat Design Butterfly Valves

10) MSS-SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports: Selection and


11) MSS-SP-70 Cast Iron Gate Valves

12) MSS-SP-7 1 Cast Iron Check Valves

13) MSS-SP-72 Ball Valves

---+ . .

14) MSS-SP-78 Cast Iron Plug Valves

15) MSS-SP-80 - Bronze Gate, Globe and heckv valves . .

16) MSS-SP-8 1 Stainless Steel Bdnnetless 'Knife Gate Valves

17) MSS-SP-83- Pipe Unions

.l8) MSS-SP-85 Cast Iron Globe Valves

19) MSS-SP-88 - Diaphragm Type Valves

: )
20) MSS-SP-89 - Pipe Hangers and Supports: Fabrication and
installation practices.
:I .
3 21) MSS-SP-90 - Pipe Hangers and Supports: Guidelines on
," i terminology
- k I

22) MSS-SP-92 - MSS Valve user >pide

23) MSS-SP-108 - Resilient Seated Eccentric CI Plug Valves.

24) MSS-SP- 115 Excess Flow Valves for Natural Gas Service.

25) MSS-SP-152 - Plastic Industrial Ball Valves

Codes and Standards



In many instances, it is possible to find a British Standard, which may be

substituted for American Standards. Now the Community for European Normalization is
issuing standards replacing different standards in force in the European countries. ir

Accordingly lot of BS and DIN standards are getting replaced by CEN standards. I
\ -

There are certain British Standards referred by Indian Manufacturers for the
construction of piping elements such as valves. The most commonly referred British
I' *-.

standards in the Piping Industry xe:

1 :
1) BSlO Flanges i

2) BS 806 - Pipes a n d ~ i t t i n ~fors boilers . , . I .:-

. . i ,

3) BS916 - . . Black Bolts, Nuts and Screws (obsolescent) . ,

I :
4) BS 970 - . Steel for forging, bars, rods, valve steel, etc.


Specification for float operated Valves

. I

6) BS 1306 - Copper and Copper alloy pressure piping system

I '

7) BS 1414 - Gate Valves for Petroleum Industry

8) BS 1560 - Steel Pipe Flanges (class designated) I -.


.z >
9) BS 1600 - Dimensions of Steel Pipes '
I ,' c. -.

- .-.
L < 4

.lo) BS 1640 - Butt Welding Fittings +


- ,
-., i
11) BS 1868 - Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry I

12) BS 1873 . . .
- . . . Steel Globe & Check Valves for Petroleum Industry . . I :
., i
. .
.. . . ..
. . . .
. . -
13) BS 1965 . . - Butt welding pipe fittings ; .
. . . .
. .
. .
. . .
. .
. . ,'
. .
-;.,..;, 1
. -. 4.
. . .. .
. . . .. . . . . , . . . . . .
.' I -
14) BS2080 '.,.... .' - ' . .. F& t o .~ a c IeEnd t o ~ n d d i m k s i o n of
. s Valves. . . . '
, '. ' ..
: : -.:.

. . - - ,(obsolescent) . . - .. .
. .
, '

-1 ...,'
. . . . . . . '1 I
15) BS 2598 - Glass Pipelines and Fittings
16) BS 3059 - Boiler and Super Heater tubes i '
17) BS 3063 - Dimensions of Gaskets for pipe flanges
' (obsolescent)
. .

Codes and Standards


18) BS 3293 C.S. Flanges 26748" NB.

19) BS 3381 Metallic'Spiral Wound Gaskets

20) BS 3600 Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Pipes &


21) BS 3601 C.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes at room

C.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes at high

I temperature
-- -
-.f 23) BS 3603 - C.S. and Alloy steel Pipes & Tubes for pressure
I 1
purposes at low temperature.
- Alloy steel Pipes & Tubes for high temperature

25) BS 3605 - S.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes

- SWIScrewed Fittings
: . 27) B S 3974 - Pipe hangers, Slides & Roller type Supports.
- PVC pressure Pipe -joints & Fittings
- Steel, CI & Copper alloy Flanges (PNdesignated).
- CI Wedge and Double Disc Gate. Valves for general

:> ? \

! 31) BS5t51 -

CI Gate (parallel slide) valves for general purposes

?- I - , 32) BS 5 152 - CI Globe & Check valves for general purposes.

33) BS 5153
34) BS5154
- CI Check valves for generalp-oses.

Copper alloy Gate, Globe, Check valves
I 35) BS 5156 Diaphragm valves for general purposes
l- L

36) BS5158 CI and CS Plug valves for general purposes

1 fI
37) BS 5159 CI and CS Ball valves for general purposes

Codes and Standards


Flanged steel Globe and Check vaives for general


Double flanged Cast Iron wedge gate valves for

water works purposes.

Steel Ball Valves for petroleum industries

Steel Gate, Globe, Check Valves < 2" NB.

Specification for Plug Valves

Specification for ABS Pressure Pipes

Specification for ABS Fittings

Specification for underground Stop Valves for

water services

Specification for GRP Pipes and Fittings

Specification for Valves for cryogenic services

Testing of valves


1 '
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)have so far not developed an Indian standard for
the design of Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI standards ASME B 3 1.113 1.3 are widely 1
I ,
referred for the design. These standards also accept materiaIs covered in other standards. I
Unlike American Standards. Indian Standards cover dimensions and material ?J
specifications under the same &dad. There are also no groupings done based on the
I '
' I1
series/branch of engine&g as well. Some of the most commorJy referred Indian 'L

Standards by the Piping Engineers are: -- .I

- I.
. . . . :. . . . . .

1) IS -210 ; - G & IronCastings

. .
. . . .
. .
1. . , ., . . . .
. . 3
. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
' 2) ' IS - 22'6 . -
Structural steel (superseded by IS 2062)
. . *;;

- Dimensions of Pipe Threads

IS-778 - Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and

I --
Check Valves.

Codes and Standards


5) IS 1239 Part I - Specification for Mild Steel Tubes and Fittings.

& Part I1 I

Hexagonal bolts, screws and nuts - Grade C

Hexagonal bolts, screws and nuts - Grade A & B

Technical supply conditions for threaded steel


Centrifugally Cast Iron Pipes

. . .
I .
.- .
1 18) IS 1537. - . Vertically Cast Iron Pipes
- Cast Iron Fittings

- Comparison of Indian and Overseas Standards

- Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings

- . ' Line Pipe . .

- High Test Line Pipe

- Steel Plates - Boiler Quality. - .

- Plain Washers

- Steel Plates for pressure vessel used at moderate

and low temperature

- Steel for general structural purposes

i 20) IS 2379 - Colour code for identification of pipelines

. .
. . . . . . . . . .
. .

-21) IS2712 : - Asbeitos Fibre jointing .

c&m@ressed . .

) i 23) IS 3076 - Specification for LDPE Pipes

- Code of Practice for laying CI Pipes

- CI Flanges and Flanged Fittings for Petroleum

Seainless or ERW Pipes (1 50 NB to 2540 NB)

Coder and Standards


27) ,IS 4038 Specification for Foot Valves

28) IS4179 Sizes for Pressure Vessels and leading dimensions

29) IS 4853 Radiographic examination of butt weld joints in
pipes. I
30) IS 4864 to IS 4870 - Shell Flanges for vessels and equipment / '

Specification for HDPE Pipes for water supply

Specification for PVC Pipes

Specification for Swing Check Valves

Classification of hazardous area for electrical


Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes

Valve Inspection and Test

Seamless and Welded Pipe for subzero temperature

Steel Pipe Flanges

- I -.
39) IS 6630 Seamless Alloy Steel Pipes,for high temperature
services I ' -. -
% , r

40) IS 6913 - Stainless steel tubes for food and beverage industry

41) IS7181 - Horizontally Cast iron pipes

- Metallic spiral wound gaskets .
5'3 .
43) IS 7806 - SS Castings I

44) IS 7899 - Alloy steel castings for pressure services

45) IS 8008 - Specification for moulded HDPE Fittings f. .

46) IS 8360 - Specification for fabricated HDPE Fittings

t -

47) IS 9890 - Ball Valves for general purposes -1


Codes and Standards 14 1

- -

48) IS 10221 Code of practice for coating and wrapping of

underground MS pipelines

49) IS 10592 Eye wash and safety showers

50) IS 10605 . Steel Globe Valves for Petroleum Industries

51) IS 10611 Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum Industries

52) IS 10711 Size of drawing sheets

53) IS 10805 Foot Valves, Reflux valves for Agricultural

Pumping system
54) IS 10989 CastIForged Steel Check Valves for petroleum

55) IS 10990 Technical drawings - Simplified representation of


56) IS 11790 Code of practice for preparation of Butt welding

ends for valves, flanges and fittings.

57) IS 11791 Diaphragm Valves for general purposes

58) IS 11792 - Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industries

59) IS 13049 - Specification for Diaphragm type float operated


60) IS 13095 - Butterfly Valves

61) IS 14164 - Code ofpractice for insulation

62) IS 14333 - - HDPE pipes for sewerage purposes

63) IS 14846 . - Sluice valves for water works 50-1200 mm

There are certain other international standards also referred in the piping industry. They
are the DM standards of Gemany and the nSC standards of Japan. DIN standards are
more popular and equivalent British and Indian standards are also available for certain
piping elements.

Periodic review of the standards by the committee is held and these arc revised to
incorporate the modified features based on the results of research and feedback from the
industry. Although some technological lags are unavoidable, these are kept minimum by

Codes and Standards 15


those updations. Hence, it is necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards
are referred for the design and year of publication also to be indicated along with.



Codes and Standards

Certificate Course
May 11 27,2005

T. N. Gopinath

Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Powai, Mumbai 400 076
. .


One of the major tasks in any MATERIAL SELECTION OF PIPING

process industry is the transportation of COMPONENTS
materials often in fluid form from one place The fust thing to be considered is the
to another. The most commonly adopted selection of suitable material for the senice.
method for the same is to force the fluid The selection of piping material requires
through the piping system. The piping knowledge of corrosion properties, strength
system is the inter-connected piping subject and engineering characteristics, relative cost .
to the same set of design conditions. The and availability.
piping system involves not only pipes but The main process considerations i n
also the fittings, valves and other specialties. the material selection are the corrosion
These items are known as piping properties of the fluid, the pressure
components. Code specifies the piping temperature conditions of the service and the
components as mechanical elements suitable nature of the service.
for joining or assembly into pressure-tight
fluid-containing piping systems. The Piping Designer selectddesigns the
Components include piping components based on the mechanical
1.0 Pipes properties such a s the following.
2.0* Fittings a. Yield strength
3.0 Flanges b. Ultimate strength
4.0 Gaskets c. Percentage elongation
5.0 Bolting d. Impact strength
6.0 Valves e. Creep-rupture strength
7.0 Specialties f. Fatigue endurance strength
Piping element is defined as any Based on the material of construction piping
material or work required to plan and install elements' could be classified as. shown in
the piping system. Elements of piping Fig.1. 1
include design specifications, materials, The basic material or the generic
components, supports, fabrication, material of construction is specified by the
inspection and testing. Process Licenser for the process fluids. The
Piping elements should, so far as Piping Engineer is expected to detail out the
practicable, conform to the specification and same based on the Codes and Standards.
standards listed in the code referred for The material of construction for the utilities
design. Unapproved elements may also be will be selected by .the Piping Engineer
used provided they are qualified for use as based on the service conditions.
set forth in applicable chapters of the code. The Piping Design Criteria originates .
Piping specification is a document fiom the Line List, which specifies design
specifying each of the components. conditions with respect to pressure and
Different material specifications are temperature.
segregated in different "Piping Class". In absence of this data, the Piping
Identification of the "Piping Classes" Engineer considers the following for
depends on each Designer, and the logic strength calculations.
hdshe adopts.

Piping Elements

Piping Elmmu

a) Design Pressure as 10% higher outside diameter of tubes is numerically

than the maximum anticipated operating identical to the size number for all sizes.
pressure. 1.2 Size
b) Design Temperature as 25" above The size of the pipe is identified by the
the maximum anticipated operating NOMINAL BORE or the N O W A L
temperature. PIPE SIZE. The manufacture of pipe i s
c) When operating temperature is based on outside diameter, which is
15C and below, the design temperature as standardized. The 0 D was originally
the anticipated minimum operating selected so that pipe with standard wall
temperature. thickness, which was typical of that
period, would have an internal diameter
The design should meet the approximately equal to the nominal size.
requirements of the relevant code. In American standard, the pipes are
The material used shall be in covered under
accordance with latest revision of a) ASME B 36.10 - Welded and
standards. If ASTM materials are used, Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
then the materials adapted by ASME b) ASME B 36.19 - Stainless Steel Pipe
should be preferred. The nominal bore and the
The selection of materials in corresponding outside diameters specified
general shall follow the norms below: therein are as given in the accompanying
(The basis in the design code governs.) table. American standards have not
metricated the pipe sizes and the
a) Carbon steel shall be used up to equivalent metric sizes widely followed
8WF (425OC). are also noted along with. However, the
b) Low temperature steel shall be latest revisions of these standards include
used below - ZO'F (- 2 9 ' ~ ) the SI metric dimensions for OD, -
c) Alloy carbon steel shall be used thickness and unit weight.
above 8000F (425OC).
d) For corrosive fluids, As regards the non-metallic and

recommendations from the Process lined piping systems, the thickness of pipe
Licensor to be followed. and/or lining are not covered under any of
the above standards. These are as per the
1.0 PIPES relevant ASTM standards. For certain
1.1 General plastic pipes, Indian Standards am also
Pipe can be defmed as a pressure tight
cylindcr used to convey a fluid.
The word "pipe" is used as distinguished
from "tube" to apply to tubular products of
dimensions commonly used for piping
systems. Tht pipe dimensions of sizes 12
inch (300 mm) and smalkr have outside
diameter numerically larger than
corresponding sizes, In contrast, the

Piping Elements . . .

Pipe Size Eq. Metric Outside Outside

NB (Inch) ! Pipe Size Dia (Inch) Dia (m)
NB (mm) I

118 6 0.405 10.3 ( -.T

j .

112 15 0.840 21.3

314 20 1.050 26.7
i :-
1 25 1.315 33.4 .

*l% 32 1.660 42.2 ' ,

1% 40 1.900 48.3 I

2 50 2.375 60.3
*2% 65 2.875 73.0 ,I .

3 80 3.500 88.9 I -

' *3K 90 4.000 101.6

4 100 4.500 114.3 i
*5 125 5.563 141.3 . .
6 150 6.625 168.3 3
8 200 8.625 219.1 I
10 250 10.750 273.0 ' >
I 12 300 12.750 323.9 1
14 350 . 14.000 355.6 I
16 400' 16.000 406.4 ,'
18 450 18.000 457.2 '
7 -


20 500 20.000 508.0 1 '

- 3
*22 550 22.000 558.8 .
24 600 24.000 609.6 --.
1 . <--

13 Wall Thickness 10, 20, 30, 40,60,80,100,120,140,160, , . .f

- ,
became effective, the pipes were
I );2
a u f a c t u r e d Per the Iron Pipe standard ~ h i standard ~ h and ~ s c h d u k 40 1 ,G
WS) with wall thickness
identical for nominal pipe sizes upto 10 inch '-1
d ~ i ~ t Standard i o ~ (ST'), Extra Sb'g 1
(250 -1 inclusive. largCTsizes o f ~ ~ D .,
(XS) and Double Extra Strong (XXS). 3
have 318-inch (10 mm) wall thickness. Extra
Subsequently schedule numbers were added
Stmng and Schedule 80 an of %*

as convenient designations. The pipe

nominal pipe sizes upto 8 inch (200 mm) ' 1
. t;
thickness is designated by Schedule Number inclusive^ All largm sizes of Extra mng
and the corresponding thickness is specified I $
have '/z inch (12.7 mm) wall thickness. The I ' -

standard 36'10 for thickness Double Extra Strong is more than b

stet1 pipes & ASME B 36.19 for stainless
Schedule 160 in pipe sizes upto 6 inch (150
_ J

steeI pipes. B.
mm) NB. This thickness is specified for pipe I ' -
Stainless steel pipes are available in
schedule 5s. 10s. 40s and 80s w h e m up to 12 inch (300 mrn) NB. For 12 inch - -3
(300 -1 hethichcJJ
- match*, to mat
carbon steel pipes are available in schedule ! P-

P i p a Elements 4 I '
. -
. -

Ii -

I of Schedule120 and for 10 inch (250 mm) 1.4.6 Buttress ends

xi 1 NB it is Schedule 140.
The figures indicated in these standards are Beveled ends are specified when pipe
- f the nominal thickness and mill tolerance of to pipe andlor pipe to fittings joints are done
--. f 12.5% is applicable to those values. by bun welding.
Plain ends are specified when pipe t o
i pipe andfor pipe to fittings joints are done by
7 i Generally the thickness specified by fillet welding.
schedule numbers of B36.10 and B36.19 Screwed joints are specified when pipe

Fj i match except in the followings: to pipe andlor pipe to fittings joints are done
by threaded connections.
-. 10" SCH80lSCH80S Flanged ends are specified to
.3 1 12" SCH~OISCH~OS provide bolted connections between pipes
",i 12" SCH80lSCH80S and between pipes andlor fittings.
I 14" SCHlOISCHlOS Spigot/ Socket ends are specified when -
? i -1 16" SCHlOISCHlOS
lead caulked/cemented joints are provided
between pipes and between pipes and
3 I
18" SCHlOISCHlOS fittings.

i 20" SCHlOISCHlOS Buttress ends are used in glass piping

22" SCHlOISCHlOS and are joined by bolting with the use of

; backing flanges.
' 1
1 In Indian Standard IS 1239s the 1.4.1 BUIT WELD PIPE JOINTS
3' thicknesses of pipes are specified as Light,
I Medium and Heavy. The medium and
: heavy pipes are only used for f l ~ handling.
In IS 3589, the thicknesses are specified in
[ actual dimensions in rnm.
As regards the non-metallic and
lined piping systems, the thickness of pipe
7 1 and/or lining are not covered under any of
-9 f the above standards. These are as per fhe
< ) r j relevant ASTM standards. For certain plastic
pipes, Indian Standards are also available. Advantages
3 The pipes are available in standard a) Most practical way of joining big bore
) - lengths of 20 feet (6 m). piping
, - b) Reliable leak proof joint
c) Joint can be radiographed
I 1
9 1.4 Pipe Ends
-?, i
Based On the matel"kl of ~ 0 n ~ t r U ~ t and
the pipe to pipe joint, the ends of the pipes
1 ' a) . Weld i n m i o n will affect flow
\ I
are specified as follows. b) End preparation is necessary
Beveled ends
Plain ends
Screwid ends
Flanged ends
Spigot/Socket ends

Piping Elements

1.4.2 SOCKET WELD PIPE JOINTS e) Code specifies that seal welding shall
not be considered to contribute for
EXPANSIONJOINT strength of joint


a) Easier Alignment than butt welding
b) No weld metal intrusion into bore
a) The 1/16"(1.5 rnm) recess pockets Advantages
liquid a) Can be easily made at site
b) Use not permitted by code if Severe b) Can be used where welding is not
Erosion or Crevice Corrosion is permitted due to material properties or
anticipated. fire hazard.

*, r
c) Dismantling is very easy

THREAD ENGAGEMENT' a) It is a point of potential leakage
b) Cannot be used when piping is
subjected to high bending moment.


a) Easily made at site
b) Can be used where welding is not
permitted due to fire hazard Advantages
. .
a) Can be easily made at site.
b) Can accept misalignment upto 100 at
a) Joint may leak when not properly pipe joints.
b) Use not permitted by code if severe
erosion, crevice corrosion, shock or Disadvantages
vibration are anticipated. a) Suitable for low pressure application
c) Skength of pipe is reduced as b) Special configuration at pipe ends
reduce wall thickness
d) Seal welding may be required required.

Piping Elements 6

i 1.4.6 BUTTRESS END PIPE JOINTS e) Spiral Welded
Pipes having helical seam with
- -+;
either a butt, lap, lock-seam joint which is '
? 1 welded using either an electric resistance,
electric hsion or double submerged arc
welding process.

1.5.2 Seamless
Pipes produced by piercing a billet
followed by rolling or drawing or both.

Used only for glass piping and not capable The most commonly used material
to hold high pressure. standards for the pipes are listed below:
1.5 Types Of Pipes
1.6 Pipe Materials
Based on the method of manufacture pipes
1. ASTM A 53 Welded and Seamless
could be classified as
Steel Pipe, Black and

1.5.1 Welded
a) Electric Resistance Welded (ERW)
2. ASTM A106 Seamless CS Pipe for
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint High Temp. Services
wherein coalescence is produced by the heat
3. ASTh4 A120 Black and Hot Dipped
obtained h m resistance of the pipe to flow
Zinc coated
of electric current in a circuit of which the (Galvanized) welded
pipe is a part, and by application of pressure.
and seamless pipe for
b) Furnace Butt Welded, Continuous ordinary use
Welded 4. ASTM A134 Electric h i o n welded
Pipes having longitudinal weld
steel plate pipe
joints forge welded by mechanical pressure
(Sizes 1 16"NB)
developed in passing the hot-formed and
5. ASTM A135 Electric resistance
edge-heated skelp through round pass weld
welded pipe
6. ASTh4 A155 Electric fusion welded
c) Electric Fusion Welded (EFW)
s-1 pipe for high
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint
wherein coalescence is produced in the temperature service
preformed tube by manual or automatic
7. ASTM A312 Seamless and welded
gusfcnitic stainless sfeel
electric arc welding. Weld may be single or
- pi?=
8. ASTM A333 Seamless and welded
d) Double Submerged-Arc Welded
steel pipe for low
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint
produced by at least two passes, one of temperature service
9. ASTM A335 Seamless ferritic alloy
which is on the inside of the pipe.
steel pipe for high
Coalescence is produced by heating with an
temperature service
electric arc or arcs between the bare metal
10. ASTM A358 Electric h i o n welded
electrode or electrodes and the pipe.
austenitic chrome-
Pressure is not used and filler material is
nickel steel pipe for
obtained fi-om electrode.

Piping Elements
high , temperature 22. ASTM A672 Electric fusion welded
service steel pipe for high
11. ASTM. A369 Carbon and fenitic pressure service at
alloy steel forged and moderate temperature
bored for high services
temperature service (Sizes 2 16" NB)
12. ASTM A376 Seamless austenitic 23. ASTM A691 Carbon and aIloy steel
steel pipe for high pipe, electric h i o n
temperature central welded for high
station service pressure service at high
A409 Welded large diameter temperatures
austenitic steel pipe for (Sizes 2 16" NB)
corrosive or high 24. ASTM A731 Seamless and welded
temperature service ferritic stainless steel
A426 Centrifugally cast pipe
ferritic alloy steel pipe 25. ASTM A790 Seamless and. welded
for high temperature ferritid austenitic
service stairrless steel pipe
15. ASTM A430 Austenitic steel forged 26. ASTM A813 Single or double welded
and bored pipe for high austenitic stainless steel
tempsrature service P~PC
16.' ASTM A45 1 Centrifugally cast 27. ASTM A8 14 . Cold worked welded
austenitic steel pipe for austenitic stainless steel
high temperature pipe
service 28. ASTM F1545 Plastic Lined Ferrous
17. ASTM A452 Centrifugally cast Pipe
austenitic steel cold 29. API 5L Line pipe
wrought pipe for high 30. IS 1239 Steel pipes for general
temperature service PWs=
(Sizes< 6" NB)
18. ASTM A524 Seamless carbon steel 31. IS 1536 C e n ~ g a l l ycast iron
pipe for atmosphen~ P~PC
and low temperature 32. IS 1537 Vertically cast iron pipe
services 33. IS 1978 Line pipe
19. ASTM A587 Electric welded low 34. -IS 1979 High test line pipe - -
carbon steel pipe for the 35. IS 3589 Steel pipe for general
chemical industry senrices
20. ASTM A660 Centrifugally cast 36. IS 4984 HDPE pipe for water
carbon steel pipe for service
high temperature 37. IS 4985 PVC pipe
21. ASTM A67 1 Electric fusion welded
steel pipe for
atmospheric and low
temperature service
(Sizes2 16" NB)

Piping Elements

1.7 Pressure Design (used only upto 1%" NB)

Codes specify the formula to amve at
the required thickness for the pipes to . The calculated thickness to be corrected
withstand intemaYexterna1 pressure to to consider the mill tolerance of - 12.5% as
which the system is subjected to. Unlike
pressure vessels, the pipes and fittings are
manufactured to certain standard
Hence, it is necessary for the Piping
Engineer to select the best suited thickness The use of the above equation is best
of the element. illustrated by means of the following
Corrosion allowance, depending on the example.
service to which the system is subjected'to Example:
and the material of construction, is to be A 12" (300 mrn) NB pipe has an internal
added to the calculated minimum thickness. maximum operating pressure of 500 psig
The thickness arrived thus is to be (3 5 kg/cmZg)and temperature of 675%. The
compared with the available standard material of construction of the pipe is
thickness after allowing for the mill seamless carbon steel to ASTM A106 Gr B.
tolerance of *12.5% on the nominal The recommended corrosion allowance is
thickness. . 118" (3mm). Calculate the thickness of pipe
as per ASME B 31.3 and select the proper
ASME B 3 1.3, the Process Piping Code, PD
in clause 304.1.1 gives minimum thickness Tm = +C
as follows: 2 (SE + PY)
PD P = 10% higher than the MWP
where T = = 1.1 x 500 = 550 psig
2 (SE + PY) D = 12.75" (OD of 12" NB
where pipe)
P = Internal Desi gauge pressure Design temperature = 675 + 25
. j psig (kd- g)
D = Outside Diameter of pipe = 700' F
inch (mm)
S = Allowable Stress fiom S = 16500 psi
Appendix A 1- psi (kg/cm2) (Refer ASME B 31.3 Appendix 'A'
E = Joint Quality factor fiom Table A- 1)
Table A - 1B E = 1 (Joint Quality factor.
Y = Coefficient fiom 304.1.1 Refer ASME B31.3, Appendix
C =Cl+C2 'A' Table A-1B)
C1 = Corrosion Allowance Y = 0.4 (Refer Table 304.1.1)
= 1.6 mrn in general for carbon C = 0.125" (Specified)
steel. 500 x 12.75
= 0 for stainless steel Tm = + 0.125
C2 = Depth of thread 2(16500xl + 550~0.4)

Piping Elements

Consider, L
-= 50
since L is unspecified.

Hence, considering the mill tolerance of

12.5%- the. nominal thickness for a
minimum thickness of &335"will be
From Graph (Fig. G) in ASME Section II
Part D,
Factor A = 0.000225
From Graph (Fig. HA-3) in ASME Section
In practice we will specify SCH 40 pipe, II Part D,
which has a nominal wall thickness of Factor B = 2750 for the above factor A and
0.406" and minimum 0.355" (0.406x0.875). for 7 5 0 ' ~
Allowable pressure
- -
The pipe with a large ratio of diameter 3 Do/t
to wall thicbess will collapse under an 4 x 2750
external pressure which is only a small - = 52.6 psig
fiaction of internal pressure which it is 3 x 69.7
capable of withstanding. This is less than the Desiga Pressure.
To determine the wall thickness under Therefore, assume higher thickness.
external pressure, the procedure outlined in Consider SCH 80 S pipe.
the BPV Code ASME Section VIII Div. 1 Nominal thickness = 0.432"
UG-28 through UG-30 shall be followed. Minimum thickness = 0.875 x 0.432
. . = 0.378"
Example: Do 6.625
A 6" (1 50 mm)NB pipe has an external - = - . . = 17.5,
Design Pressure of 400 psigat 750' F. The t 0.378 - .
mat&al of construction-ofpipe is seamless Do.
austenitic stainless steel to *TM A 312 TP Factor A for the new value of -is 0.0038
304L. The corrosion allowance is nil. . . .
t .
Calculate thickness and select -.proper . '....~arr,ewnd'j d'hdOof
, B -s-55'm., . .
. .

schedule. -
Refer ASME Section VIII Div. 1. UG 28 - ...=.
'~ll.owablePressure;.. .. .' . .

4x'550(- : . ' .
. .
Assume value of 't' and determine ratios Pa =
. . . .
= . 4 1 .9 p s i g : - . . , .
L Do 3x173 :
- and - .

More thanDesign Pressure .

. "


Do t Hence select SCH 80s pipe..

Do for 6" NB pipe = 6.625"
Assume SCN 5 S pipe
Nominal thickness = 0.109"
Minimum thickness considering negative
mill tolerance of 12.5%
t = 0.875 x 0.109 = 0.095"

Piping Elements

1.7.3 THICKNESS OF BEND connections. The dimensional standards

ASME B31.3, in it the 1999Edition, referred for the fittings are as follows:
has added the formula as below for DIhlENSIONAL S T A N D m S
establishing the minimum thickness of bend. 1. ASMEB16.1
The minimum thickness t, of a bend - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged
after bending, in its finished form, shall be Fittings
2. ASME B 16.3
- Malleable-Iron Threaded Fittings
3. ASMEB 16.4
- Grey Iron Threaded fittings
Where at the intrados (inside bend radius) 4. ASME B 16.5
- Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
5. ASME B 16.9
- Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt
6. ASME B 16.1 1
and at -cxtrados
-Forged Fittings, Socket welding and
7. ASME B 16.28
- Wrought Steel Butt welding Short
Radius Elbows and Retums
8. ASME B 16.42
- Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings
9. ASME B 16.49
and at side wall the bend centre line radius - Buttwelding Induction Bends for
I = 1. The thickness apply at mid span y12. Transportation and Distribution
10. BS 1640
- Butt weld FittiDgs
11. BS 3799 -
- Socket weld and Screwed end fittings
12. BS 2598
- Glass Pipelines and Fittings
13. IS 1239 Part-II M.S.Fittings
14. IS 1538 - Cast Iron Fittings
15. MSS-SP-43
Extrados - Stainless Steel Fittings
2.0 PIPE FITTINGS 2.1 Classification Based On End
The branching tree shown (refer Fig.2.1) 2.1.1 SOCKET WELDISCREWED END
indicates the various types of fittings. FITTINGS
These fittings can have various types of end
connections or can have combination of end For Socket Weldscrewed end fittings are
covered under ASME B 16.1 1/BS 3799. For

Piping Elements

these fittings, four pressure classes are SWISCRD FITTING MATERIALS

available. 1 ASTM A105 - Forged Carbon Steel
They are; 2 ASTM A1 8 1 - Forged Carbon Steel
1 2000 # Class for General Purposes
2 3000 # Class 3 ASTM A182 - Forged Alloy ~ t e e i
3 6000 # Class and stainless Steel
4 9000 # Class 4 ASTM A234 - Wrought Carbon Steel
These designations represent the and Alloy Steel pipe
maximum cold non-shock working pressure fittings for moderate
of the fitting in pounds per square inch. and elevated
1. 2000 # Class temperatures -
This class is applicable only to screwed 5 ASTM A350 - Forged Alloy Steel
fittings and is covered only in ASME B for Low Ternperatwe
16.1 1. The corresponding pipe thickness for Services
this class is SCH 80 or XS.
2. 3000 # Class 2.1.2 BEVELED END FITIWGS
This class is applicable to both screwed and These types of fittings are connected by
socket weld fittings. The corresponding pipe means of butt welding. The thickness of
thickness for this class is SCH 80 or XS for these fittings is to be specified the same as
socket weld end co~ectionand SCH 160 that of pipes because the bore of the pipes
for screwed end connections. and the attached fittings should match. That
3. 6000 # Class means both the items should have the same
. This class is also applicable to both screwed schedule number. There are certain
and socket weld fittings. The socket weld exceptional cases where fittings of higher
fittings under this class are normally used thickness are used.
with SCH 160 pipes and screwed fittings The beveled end fittings could be of
with XXS pipes. seamless or welded construction.
4. 9000 # Class The material of construction specified in
This class is applicable only to socket weld the American Standards for the beveled
fittings, which are normally, used with XXS weld fittings are;
The screwed end fittings can be with 1. ASTM A 234 - Carbon Steel fittings for
parallel threads or with taper threads. Taper Moderate & High temperature

threads are preferred for the W g s . These Service

could be to NPT as covered in American -
2. ASTM A 403 Austenitic Stainless

Standards or to BSPT as covered in British St91 Pipefittings

standards or to relevant Indian Standard 3. ASTM Pi 410 - Carbon Steel & Alloy
specifications. Steel Pipe. Fittings for low
The dimensional standard ASME B temperature services.
16.11fBS 3799 cover the sizes upto 4" (100 4. ASTM A 815 - Ferritic,
mm) NB only. FerritidAustenitic and Martensitic
The socket weld /screwed fittings are Steel Pipe Fittings
manufactured by forging. The materials of Beveled end fittings are covered under
construction used for the same are as ASMEB 16.9,B 16.28 andBS 1640.

Piping Elements 12

Piping Elements

2.1.3 FLANGED END FITTINGS or to branch off from main run of pipe. The
Fittings with both ends flanged are used special features of these are as below.
where welding is not possible or not
~ermitted. Normally these are made by 2.2.1 ELBOWS
casting. Classification of these fittings, Elbows are used to make 90 deg. or 45
based on the pressure temperature ratinzs, is deg. changes in the direction of run pipe.
same as that of flanges. There are two types of 90 deg. butt-welding
Flanged fittings fabricated from elbows available for use. These are the
standard butt-welded or socket welded long radius and short radius elbows. The
fittings are not covered under this standard. long radius elbows have a bend radius of
The material specification is the same as that 1.5D, where D is the nominal size, whereas
for castings. the short radius elbows have a bend radius
FLANGED END FITTING of ID. The 45 deg. elbows are of 1.5D
MATERIALS radius. Any bend with more than 1.5D
1. ASTM A 216 - Carbon Steel Castings bending radius has to be specially made as
2. ASTM A 351 - Stainless Steel Castings per requirements. For large diameter piping,
3. ASTM A 352 - Alloy Steel Castings bends are fabricated by profile cutting of
4. ASTM F 1545 - Plastic Lined Fittings pipes and are called mitre bends. Mitre
5.1s 1538 - C I Fittings bends with two piece, three piece or four
These fittings are covered under ASME B piece cocstruction can be made. These are
16.5 and BS 1650 for carbon and alloy steel normally not used in critical services. 22.5
piping and ASME B 16.1 for cast iron deg. elbows are also available in cast iron
fittings. B
construction. .\ 6 4


Spigot Socket fittings are used in Cast 4 SnPJ *c$l\b
\ b "\ L ~a&d
Iron piping for low-pressure services. The
joints are sealed by Lead caulking. This \6 -2L - " 4w-Sld .

type of connection has the advantage that it

can take misalignment to a certain extent.
Flanged socketsand flanged spigots are used
for connection to flanged equipments and
valves. These fittings are covered under IS


Buttress ends fittings are used in glass

piping. These Sttings are bolted together
with the help of backing flanges and PTFE
inserts. These fittings are covered under
BS 2598.

2.2 Types Of Fittings

There are various types of fittings used
to complete the piping system. These are
used to change direction, change diameter

Piping Elements 14

Fig. 2.5: Elbows - Socket weld

Fig. 2.2: Short Radius Elbow
(R=1 D) I

Fig. 2.6: Mitre Bend 90'

Fig. 23: Long Radius Elbow


Fig. 2.7: Mitre Bend 45'

Fig. 2.4: Elbows - 45'

Piping Elements

Returns change the direction through
180 deg. This is mainly used in heating
coils, heat exchangers, etc. Returns with
1.5Dradius and 1D radius are available.

Fig. 2.10: Tees - Socket weld I'

I s
2.2.4 CROSS
This is a fitting very rarely used in
Fig. 2.8: Long Radius Return piping system. There are two types of I:
crosses, the straight and reducing. To reduce
2.2.3 TEES- the inventory, it is prefmed to use tees r *
Tees are used' for branching off. For except where space is restricted as in marine I
low pressure services, branching off is done piping.
by direct welding of branch pipe to run pipe I I :
instead of using a standard Tee. In certain
cases, reinforcing pads are used for
structural stability of such connections.
Design code gives the calculation by which
the requirement of reinforcement pad can be
established and provided for branch
connection (Refer Appendix H of ASME B Y
31.3). The branching schedule specified Fig. 2.11: Cross
along with piping specification explains
what sort of a branch connection is to 2.2.5 REDUCERS,
be used for that particular piping class. There are two types of reducers
The. manufacturing restrictions do not available, the concentric reducers and the
allow reducing tees of 2 1 size combinations. Eccentric reducers.
To arrive at available sizes of reducing tees
in the standard, use the thumb rule of
dividing the major diameter by 2 and
consider the next lower size.
For example, the minimum size of
reducing tee available for 4" NB size is 4" x
1W (next lower size of 412 = 2").
Fig. 2.12: Concentric Reducer

Fig. 2.9: Tees - Butt weld

Fig.2.13: Eccentric Reducer
. ..
f :
. .

... . . . . .

Piping Elements

considered long pattern as the standard when

nothing is specified in this respect.

Fig 2.14: Cap

Fig. 2.15: Stub End - Class A
When the center lines of the larger pipe
and smaller pipe are to be maintained
same, then concentric reducers are used.
When one of the outside surfaces of the
pipelines are to be maintained same, then
eccentric reducers are required. There are no
eccentric reducers in socket weld fitting and
Swage nipples are used for such senrice. The Fig. 2.16: Stub End - Class B
size restrictions for manufacture as
explained in Tees is also applicable to 2.2.7 COUPLINGS
.reducers.. Couplings are of three types:
-; t 1.Full Coupling
i' To reduce the cost of piping, stub ends
2.Half Coupling
3.Reducing Coupling
are used with backing flanges for flange
? i
joints when exotic materials are used in
i piping. MME B16.9 specifies two types of
- 1 r
+ , stub ends, the long stub ends and the short
>\ i
- - stub ends. The length of stub ends as per
MSS-SP-43 is the same as that of short stub
1 ends. MSS-SP-43 specifies two classes,

:'t I Class A with radius and Class B without

radius at the comer. Class B can be used
Fig. 2.17: Full Coupling
. .

1 ' J :
with slip-on flanges. Designer selects stub
d (longlshort) ensuring the weld of pipe to
, stub end not get covered by flange. When
Class A stub ends are used, the inner
.,, diameter of backing flange is chamfered for
). better seating.
,A I
The minimum lap thickness should Fig. 2.18: Half - Coupling
1 ' be the same as that of the pipe wall. When

1, i special facings such as tongue and groove, Full couplings are used to connect small
.- a male and female etc. are employed
bore pipes as projection of welding inside
) additional lap thickness shall be provided.
-, the pipe bore, when butt welding is used,
The gasket face finish shall be provided with
,-I I serrations as required. ASME B 16.9
reduce the flow area. Half couplings are
. used for branch connections and reducing
1 couplings for size reduction. Reducing
f Piping Eleraents

couplings maintain the pipe centerlines same Unions can be with threaded end or with
and eccentric swage nipples are used to
' socket weld ends. There are three pieces in
maintain the outside surface same for such a union, two end pieces to attach to the run
systems. pipe and the third threaded piece to connect
these two. The ball type metal seating ensure
2.2.8 SWAGE NIPPLES sealing.
Swage Nippies are like reducers but are
used to connect butt welded pipe to smaller
screwed or socket welded pipe. There are
two types of swage nipples, tlre concentric
and the eccentric. Various conlbinations of
end connections are possible in swage
nipples. These are designated as
PBE Plain Both Ends
PLE - Plain Large End
PSE Plain Small End
BLE Beveled Large End
TSE Threaded Small End
'ig. 2.21: Union
These are covered under the regulatory Code . .
BS 3799.
The items referred under special fittings are;
* Weldolet
* Sockolet
* Threadolet
* Elbolet
* Sweepolet
* Nipolet
* Latmlet
Fig, 2.19: Concentric Swage Nipple

Fig. 2.22: Weldolet Fig. 2.23:Sweepolet , ..3



I ..
Fig. 2.20: Eccentric Swage Nipple B
A I %
2.2.9 UNIONS
Unions are used in low pressure piping Fig. 2.24: Sockolet Fig. 2.25: Thredolet
where dismantling of the pipe is required
more often, as an alternative to flanges.

Piping Elements

acceptable leak tightness. Classification o f

flanges is done in several alternate ways a s

i Fig. 2.26: Latrolet Fig. 2.27: Elbolet
r* 1
5 ;
r ,

I ...

13 ' . ,

."\ I .
'Fig. 3.1 .: Slip-on Raised,Face Flange

Fig. 2.28: Nipolet

. .

' 1 These are fittings, which have restrictive

-I use. Weldolet is used for butt-weld branch
--. !
Fig3.2: Socket Welded Raised Face
3 i connection where standard tee is not
7 available due to size restriction and the Flange
:1 piping is of criticafiigh pressure service.
f !
-3 ! Sockolet is used for socket welding branch
connection, which require reinforcing pad.
Threadolet is used for .thfeaded branch
i :' connections. Elbolet is used for branch
. - connection on elbows and have the profiles
. j
I made to suit the elbow. Sweepolet is
integrally reinforced butt weld branch
Fig. 3.3: Threaded Raised Face Flange

'; i

connection. Latrolet is used for branch
connection at an angle. .

3 : ) Flanges are used when the joint needs
dismantling. These are used mainly at
equipmcnts, valves and specialties. In .
. . . . . .

certain pipelines where maintenance is a
regular feature, breakout flanges are
Fig. 3.4: Lap Joint Flange with;-tub
. ..
. .
. .

provided at definite intervals on pipe lines.

-51 i A flanged joint is composed of three
jx separate and independent although
- ..
- I interrelated components; the flanges, the
1 gaskets and the bolting; which are
)> assembled by yet another influence, the
' 1 fitter. special controls are required in the
! selection and application of all these Fig.3.5: Welding Neck Raised Face
elements to attain a joint, which has Flange
-' ) i
j? I
Piping Elements 19

The Screwed-on flanges are used on

pipe lines where welding cannot be carried
out. Socket welding and threadediflanges are
not recommended for service above 2 5 0 ' ~
and below -45'~.
The Lap joint flanges are used with
stub ends when piping is of a costly
material. The stub ends will be butt-welded
Fig.3.6: Reducing Slip-on Flange to the piping and the flanges are kept loose
over the same. The inside radius of these
flanges is chamfered to clear the stub end
radius. With Class B type stub ends slip-on
flanges can be used for the same duty.
The Welding neck flanges are attached
by butt-welding to the pipes. These are used
mainly for critical services where all the
weld joints need radiographic inspection.
While specifjhg these flanges, the thickness
Fig.3.7: Expander or Reducer Flange
of the welding end also should be specified
along with flange specification.
3.1 Based On.pipe Attachment The Blind flanges are used to close the
Flanges can be classified based on the ends, which need to be reopened later.
attachment to the piping as below;
The Reducing flamges are used to
3.1.1 Slip-on
connect between larger and smaller sizes
3.1.2 Socket Weld
without using a reducer. In case of
3.1.3 Screwed reducing flanges, the thichess of the flange
3.1.4 Lap Joint should be that of the higher diameter.
3.1.5 Welding Neck
Integral flanges arc those, which are
3.1.6 Blind cast along with the piping component or
3.1.7 Reducing
equipment. Thickness of integrally cast
3.1.8 Integral flanges and welded on flanges differ in
The Slipon type flanges are attached certain sizes. There - are some types of
by welding inside as well as outside.
flanges developed by 'manufacturers, which
Normally, these flanges are of forged
arc not covered in Code. They are mainly
construction and are provided with hub.
modification on the welding neck such as:
Sometimes, these flanges are fabricated
fiom plates and are not provided with the
a) Long Welding neck flange
The Socket weld flanges are welded
b) ~ r ~ a n c l e r / ~ e d uflange
only on one side and are not recommended
for severe services. These are used for
Bolt holes are in multiples of four and
small-bore lines only. The thickness of
shall straddle the fitting centerline.
connecting pipe should be specified for this
type of flanges to ensure proper bore

Piping Elements

, 3.2 Based On Pressure-temperature

i Rating
'3 The flanges are also classified by the
pressure temperature rating in ASME B 16.5
as below;
, r
3.2.1 150 # ks b F
3.2.2 300 # b \6.5 Fig. 3.8: Flat Face
3.2.3 400 #
! 3.2.4 600 #
'3 '
3.2.5 900 #

,I 3.2.6 1500 #
3.2.7 2500 #
i Pressure temperature rating charts, in
the standard ASME B 16.5, specify the non-
3 shock working gauge pressure to which the
i Fig. 39: Raised Face
> flange can be subjected to at a particular
I temperature. The indicated pressure class of
B 15W,3 W , etc. are the basic ratings and the
'h flanges . can withstand higher pressures at
P I lower temperatures. ASME B 16.5 indicates
the allowable pressures for various materials
. of construction vis a -vis the temperature.

MME B16.5 does not recommend the use

\ ' 2
of 150# flanges above 400 OF (200 O C ) .
Fig. 3.10: Ring Joint
3.3 Based On Facing
> . The flanges can also be classified based
- - on tht facings as below:
. '
3.3.1 Flat face (FF)
<?' 1
3.3.2 Raised h e (RF)
3.3.3 Tongue and groove (TIG)
3.3.4 Male and Female (WF)
3.3.5 Ring type joint (RTJ) Fig. 3.11: Tongue and Groove Joint
-) + e - I.
Flat face flanges are used when the
counter flanges are flat face. This condition
occurs mainly on connection to Cast Iron
cquipmtnts, valves and specialties.
For 150# and 300# flanges, the raised
face is of 1/16 inch and is included in the
thickn& specified. For higher rating, the
flange thickness does not include the raised
face thickness. The raised face thickness for
higher rating is % inch. Fig. 3.12: Male / Female Joint

Piping Elements 21

3.4 Based O n Face Finish have a wider range of pressure temperature

There are two types of finishes done on classes. IS has developed IS 6392 in line
to the facings. They are the smooth finish with DIN standards !and the same is also in
and the serrated finish. The smooth finish use.
flanges are specified when metallic gaskets ASME B 16.5 Covers Sizes from '/z"
are specified and serrated finish is provided NB to 24" NB only and ANSI B16.47 / APT
when a non-metallic gasket is provided. 605 are referred for higher sizes.
The serrations provided on the facing could
be concentric or spiral (phonographic). 4.0 GASKETS
Concentric serrations are insisted for face
finish when the fluid being carried has very 4.1 Selection
low density and can find leakage path Proper selection of gasket depends upon
through the cavity. The serration is specifiedfollowing factors.
by the number, which is the Arithmetic 4.1.1 Compatibility of the gasket material
Average Roughness Height (AARH). This with the fluid. .
is the arithmetic average of the absolute 4.1.2 Ability to withstand the pressure-
values of measured profile height deviations temperature of the system.
taken within the sampling length and. 4.2 Type
measured from the graphical centre line. Based on the type of constructi.on, gaskets
are classified as: I
. .
3.5 Based On Material O i Construction 4.2.1 Full Face .
The flanges are normally forged except 4.2.2 Inside bolt circle
in very few cases where they are fabricated 4.2.3 Spiral wound metallic
fiom plates. 4.2.4 king type
When plates are used for fabrication, 4.2.5 Metal jacketed
they should be of weldable quality. ASME 4.3 Material
B16.5 allows only reducing flanges and Experience on the job and published
blind flanges to be fabricated from plate. literature shall be .used to select the gasket
The materials of construction normally used material with respect to the compatibility of
are as follows; the same with the fluid.
FLANGE MATERIALS The material, which is most commonly used,
3.5.1 ASTM A105 Forged Carban Steel is the Compressed Asbestos Fibre.
3.5.2 ASTM A1 8 1 - Forged Carbon Steel lndian Staadard IS 2712 specifies three
for General Purpose different materials at three different grades.
3.5.3 ASTM A182 Forged Alloy Steel 4.3.1 IS2712GfW/l,W/2andW/3
- and Stainless Steel - for Steam, Alkali and general
3.5.4 ASTM A350 Forged Alloy Steel for applications.,
low temgerature 4.3.2 IS2712GrN1,
services - for Acid applications.
4.3.3 IS 2712 Gr 0/1,0/2,0/3
3.6 Other Standards - for Oil applications.
Certain British Standards, German Asbestos fiee gaskets are also available
Standards and Indian Standards are also for above applications. For very corrosive
followed in India for flange specifications. applications, PTFE or PTFE enveloped
BS-10 is the most popular among them. gaskets are used.
DIN flanges are also popular because they

Piping Elements

For high temperature and high-pressure are used otherwise. Normally, the bolts are
applications, spiral wound metallic gaskets provided with hexagonal head, hexagonal
are used. The selection of material of nut and a round washer. Studs are provided
construction for winding depends upon the with two hexagonal nuts and two washers.
corrosive nature and concentration of the The length of boltdstuds required for the
fluid, the operating temperature and the flange joints of all pressure classes are
relative cost of alternate winding materials. specified in ASME B16.5.
The most commonly used are the Austenitic Flanged joints using low strength
stainless steel 304; 316 and 321 with carbon steel bolts shall not be used above
Asbestos filler. For very high temperatures, 200 OC or below -29 OC
graphite filler is also used. Alternate ASTM F-704 specifies the standard
winding materials also can be used practice of selecting bolt lengths for piping
depending upon the services. system-flanged joints.
ASME B 16.5 does not recommend
the use of 150# rating spiral wound 5.1 Material Of Construction For Bolting
gaskets on flanges other than welding Bolting materials normally used are:
neck and lapped joint type. 5.1.1 ASTM A 307 -Low Carbon Steel
Spiral wound gaskets are provided with Bolting Material
carbon steel external ring known as 5.1.2 ASTM A 320 -Alloy Steel Bolting
centering ring to position the gasket. When material
used in vacuum services, an internal ring is 5.1.3 ASTM A 563 - Carbon and alloy
also provided. The material of inner ring steel nuts
should be compatible with the fluid. The 5.1.4 ASTM A193 - Alloy Steel Bolting
spiral wound gasket will perform when the Material for high
flange face is 125-250 AARH finish. temperature service
5.1.5 ASTAMA 194 - Alloy Steel nut
4.4 Dimensional Standards material for high
Gasket dimensions are covered under temperature service
the following standards. 5.1.6 IS 1367 - Threaded steel
4.4.1 API 601 fasteners
- Metallic Gasket for Refinery Piping
4.4.2 BS 3381 5.2 D i m e n s i ~ n dStandards For Bolts
- Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets The dimensional standards referred for
4.4.3 ANSI B 16.20 the studdbolts are:
- Metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges flanges
4.4.4 ANSI B 16.21 -
5.2.1 ANSI B 18.2.1 Square & HexagonaI
- Won-metallic Gaskets for pipe head bolts
flanges. -
5.2.2 ANSI B 18.2.2 Square & Hexagonal
. . nuts
5.0 BOLTING. . ' , 5.2.3 BS 916 - Black bolts & nuts
5.2.4 IS 1367 - Threaded steel
Depending upon the service, its fasteners.
prcssure/temperature and the type of gasket,
type of bolting is selected.
For low pressure, low temperature
services, machined bolts are used and studs

Piping Elements

6.0 NON- FERROUS PIPING To add mechanical strength with the

corrosion properties of non-metallic
The non-ferrous piping is used materialb, the concept of lining of material is
depending upon the corrosion properties and established. The combination normally used
the temperature at which the fluid is in the industry are:
handled. Special teclmology is involved in * Mild Steel Rubber Lined (MSRL),
the fabrication of these pipins. The * MildSteelGlassLined(MSGL),
commody used materials are: * MiId Steel Cement Lined,
* Aluminurn * Mild Steel PP Lined,
* Alloy-20 * Mild Steel PTFE lined
* Hastalloy * Mild Steel PVDF lined
* Lead The lined pipes and pipe fittings have
* Monel flanged ends and are joined by bolting. Of
* Nickel late flangeless lined piping is.in use. In this
* Titanium case the liier is butt-welded and the outer
These materials arc specified under carbon steel shell of the pipe is connected by
ASTM Section I1 part B and the numbers are 'Lorking' mechanical +ling. *

prefixed with the Alphabet 'B'. The use of gasket is not recomrncnded
Due to economic considerations either in piping Lined with resilient materials, but
carbon steel flanges with lininghonding of this can damage the lining restricting the
these materials or Lap joint backing flanges reuse.
wherever possible are used in this piping. .- The requirement of lined pipes has to be
studied case by case based on the service
7.0 NON-METALLIC AiiD LINED conditions.
PIPING The glass pipes & fittings have either
Non-metallic piping is used where the buttress end or beaded ends 'and are
problem of: corrosion is severe and it is connected with flange assembly.
difficult to get a suitable economical
metallic piping. Temperature limitations 8.0 PIPING SPECIFICATION 1
restrict the use of these non-metallic piping. PIPING CLASS
The commonly used materials are: A document indigiting the dimensional
ABS - Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
and material specificatiok of pipes, fittings
CPVC Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride type is called a PIPING CLASS.
ETFE Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene - - - - -& -~ valve
Each class represents &tinct features such
FEP - Fluoro Ethylene propylene
as p r e s s ~ e - t e m p e r a ~ e conditions,
FRP Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic corrosion resistance and strength abilities or
HDPE High Density Polyethylene a combination of these abilities. There
LDPE - Low Density Polyethylene
could be a number of them selected and used
PFA - Perfluoro Alkoxyalkane
for one project While selecting these, care
PP - Polypropylene should be taken to minimize the number to
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene rationalize the inventory. The designation
PVC - Poly Vinyl Chloride
of these Piping Classes varies with the
PVDF - Polyvinyliedel~eFluoride
company. While designing the piping
systepl for a project, the components, which
Ceramic are not mentioned in the piping class, should
be avoided.

Piping Elements 24 I

, i -

9.0 TIPS FOR THE PREPARATION 9.3 Piping Components

9.3.1 PIPES
The approach should be to minimize the * All pipelines canying toxic/mflammable
number of different elements and thus fluids shall be seamless.
simplify and rationalize inventory. * Utility piping can be ERW or Seam
9.1 Materials * Steam pipelines shall preferably b e
.* Carbon Steel shall be used for seamless.
temperature upto 425C (SO0 OF) only.
* Low temperature steel shall be used for 9.3.2 FITTINGS
temperature below -29 OC (-20 OF) * Fittings shdl preferably be seamless.
* Alloy steel shall be used for temperature * Butt weld fittings shall be used for pipe
above 426 "C (801 OF) sizes 2" (50 mrn) NB and above for all
* Stainless steel shall be used for AlloyICarbon steel piping.
comsive fluids. Basic material of * For stainless steel piping where
construction specified by Process Licenser thickness is less, all fittings could be butt-
to be referred for the typc. welding'type.
* Galvanized steel piping shall be used for * Welding tees shall be used for full size
services such as drinking water, instrument branch connections. For reduced branch
air, nitrogen (LP) etc. sizes upto 2 steps less than run diameter, it
* Selection of Non-fcrrous, Non-metallic can be fabricated. For smaller sizes half
and Lined piping shall be as per the couplings shall be used. Full size
recommendation from the Process Licenser. unreinforced branch welding can be done
where pressure temperature condition are
9.2 Piping Joints mild.
* Butt-welded connection shall normally
be used for all AlloyICarbon steel piping 2" 9.33 FLANGES
(50 mi) NB and larger and also for * Rating shall be based on the pressure
Austenitic Stainless Steel. temperature conditions. However 150 lb .
* AlloyICarbon steel piping 1%'' (40 mm) flanges are not maitktb bey d 200C
NB and below shall be socket welded. (400F). $c~mnrdc2?
* Threaded connection shall be avoided * Socket welding flanges may be used for
except in galvanized piping. all pressure ratings upto 1%" (40 mm) NB
* Flanged joints shall be minimized, as size except on lines subjected to severe
they are points of potential leakage. It may cyclic conditions.. -
be used to connect piping to equipment or * Screwed flanges shall be used for
valves, connecting pipe lines of dissimilar galvanized stee~castiron piping.
materials, where spool pieces are required to * Slip on flanges are used in 150 lb and
pennit removal or servicing of equipment 300 lb rating upto a maximum of 200C.
and where pipes and fittings are with Welding neck flanges shall be used for
flanged ends. higher pressure ratings.
* Raised face is used for flanges upto 600
lb rating. For flanges 9001b rating and above
RTJ is recommended. Tongue and groove -

facing shall be used selectively.

Piping Elements 25

* Depending on pressure and temperature, * U s e Spiral wound gasket with inner ring
gasket shall be either CAF, spiral wound for Vacuum service
metallic for raised fice flanges or selected I * Low strength carbon steel bolting shall
based on the corrosive nature of the fluid. not be used above 200 O C and below -29 O C
* Use flat face flanges to mate with cast
iron valves and equipments.

Piping Elements
Certificate Course
May II 27,2Q05


Prof. A. S. Moharir
IIT Bombay :


non-optimal. Also, what is optimal today
> According to a 1979 American may not be optimum over a long period (due
survey, as much as 30% of the total cost to fouling, change in relative cost, change in
i I operating schedule. which affects the
of a typical chemical process plant goes
for piping, piping elements and valves. A utilization time of the pipeline,etc.)
significant amount of operating cost
(energy) is also used up in forcing flow Pipe sizing is thus a lot of experience,
through piping its components. A engineering foresight and judgment than just
significant amount of the maintenance theory. This paper attempts to review the
cost is also for the piping and associated pipe sizing procedures, the pressure drop
-j S things. calculation procedures which are integral to
Proper sizing, optimal in some pipe sizing procedure, the pitfalls in these
sense, is therefore very necessary. calculations, the confidence limits in
calculated values and the factors of safety
WHY IS IT DIFFICULT AND which must be incorporated in view of
AT TIMES MEANINGLESS known limiiations of correlations. Different
Piping must be sized before the concepts aie then cemented through .
' plant is 1gid out. Layout must be representative examples during the lecture in
complete (i-e. equipment must be the Certificate Course on Piping
located, pipe racks established, layout of Engineering conducted by Piping Cell at
individual pipe runs decided, etc.) for Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai.
calculating realistic pressure drop and
doing pipe sizing for each pipe segment. PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES
This 'chicken and egg' scenario means Pipe sizing is generally done using
that decisions regarding pipe sizing and one of the following criteria:
plant layout must be iterative h most
cases. That is normally not the practice 1) velocity considerations
except in few very large engineering 2) Available pressure drop consideratio~s
or~anizations which can afford it. 3) Economic considerations
Having to carry out pipe sizing at a
. yemature stage invariably means that The degree of difficulty increases as one
the recornmended pipe size inay not goes from (1) to (3). While pressure drop
meet process requirement or may not be calculation in an integral part of (2) and (3),
the most economic, etc. it would need to be calculated in case (1)
Normally a layout is assumed also to quantify energy requirement, sizing
drawing on past practices and.experience pressure providing equipment such as
and pipes are sized. No second iteration pumps/ compressors, etc. To be conversant
is carried out. Actual layout which with pressure drop calculation procedures
emerges later may be significantly for variety of flow types that are
different than what was assumed during encountered is thus very important. -
sizing. The sizes t h u may turn out to be
This paper assumes that the readers + Scientific approach
are conversant with pressure drop
calculation procedures and concepts
underlining them, a t least for the

single phase flow. The paper attempts FLOW PRESSURE DROP
to build on this background.
+ A possible approach
1. ,I

The paper reviews the following: I '

+ Velocity considerations
+ Single' phase, Two phase, Multi- + Pressure drop considerations . '

phase + Economic considerations

+ Horizontal, Inclined
+ . Through straight run-pipes, through TYPEOF FLOW
complex routings
+ Isothermal, non-isothermal Although the flow can be
+ Incompressible, compressible categorized on several basis the
+ Laminar, Turbulent classification based on number of phases
involved is the most commonly used. When
BERNOULLI'S EQUATION the flowing medium has uniform physical
properties across the flow cross-section, the
SINGLE' PHASE PRESSURE flow is a single-phase flow. Flow of pure
single liquids, solutions of solids in liquids,

mixtures of completely miscible liquids,

mixtures of gases and/or vapors come in this
+ - Horizontal, straight, constant cross- category.
section segment . All other flows are multiphase flows.
+ Inclined, straight, constant cross- The two phase flow would involve two
section segment distinct phases such as liquid with its vapor,
+ Fittings and valves a liquid with an incondensible gas, etc. A
+ Equivalent length in actual terms liquid or gasfvapor stream with suspended
+ Equivalent length in diameter terms solid particles is also a two phase flow.
However,'a two phase flow would nomaIly
TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP refer to-- two fluid phases. When two
CALCULATIONS immiscible liquids are involved with their
vapor andlor another inert gas, it is a three
+ Flow regimes and their phase flow and so OIL
identifications Energy required to sustain such
(Baker Parameters) flows in pipedtubes is a very hnprtant
+ Pressure drop caiculations information which has to be generated
(Lockhart Martinelli, Baker) through calculations of pressure drop that
the flow would cause in a conduit of given
+ Confidence kvels in calculated cross-section, and extent. This i n f o d o n
pressure drops is then used in locating equipments, sizing
+ Effect of inclination
pipes, deciding their routes, rating BERNOULLI'S EQUATION
pressure generating equiprnents, etc. In its original form, Bernoulli's
I Temperature of the flowing equation is merely statement of conversation
'I medium affects physical properties such of energy for flowing medium. Consider a
as density and viscosity which in turn
, . have a bearing on the pressure drop.
segment of an inclined conduit of variable
cross-section as shown in Fig.1 and fluid
When the temperature is constant over flowing through it. The energy of the fluid at
the pipe segment under consideration, or any location may be expressed in terms of a
' t I
! .
the temperature change along the flow vertical column of the flowing fluid itself.
path is not significant enough so as to The height at any point along the conduit is

- 3 cause appreciable change in the physical then seen - as comprising of three

I properties, it is treated as an isothermal components, the pressure (Plp), velocity
, I
I flow. When the temperature change is head (v212g) and elevation head (Z).
: significant, it is non-isothermal flow.
Bernoulli's theorem states that the sum of
' 1
i When the density of the flowing medium these three components is constant

c i- 1' is not strongly correlated with the everywhere along the flow path. This is true
-. pressure, the medium is termed as if there are no external inputs or withdrawals
. /. incompressible and the flow as from the conduit Applied at the two points 1
<A . incompressible flow. Liquid flow and 2 of the inclined pipe shown (Fig.l), the
f (single, two or multiphase) would come Bernoulli's equation can be written a s
1% in this category naturally. However
when gasedvapors which are

compressible (that is their density is a P I/p+v, /2g+z, =P ,/p+v ,'/2g+z 2
: strong function of pressure) are
5 ! involved, but the pressure drop along the
flow path is not significant enough to
i 'r
S e c t the medium density, their flow
may also be treated as incompressible
' flow. Oth&se, the flow of
jj> / gasedvapors is a compressible flow.
In some flow situations,
,I -
2;j !
- * especially two and multiphase flows, the
J inclination of the flow conduit from
2 s
horizontal is of great significance. Also
1 whether the flow in the inclined conduit
L4 I1 is upward or downw~d is also an-
> important considera2icx In the case o f .
i'i single phase flow, the inclination is
important in the sense that it affects the
overall energy balance given for the flow
When the pipe is horizontal (2, = Z ) and
situation by the famous Bernoulli's ,
the conduit cross-section is uniform (v, =v )

1 equation. But the flow type and
hydraulic pressure drop are not affected
, the pressures at the two points, 1 and 2,
should be equal, This is not the case because
by the pipe inclination. the flow is confined by the pipe and there is
i t a resistance to flow caused by fiiction
- -
i between the fluid and the wall, friction
between different layers of fluid flowing at

i l
different velocities and the small or big However, for other cross-section
swirls created in the liquid due to flow $rectangular, square, . annular, etc.), D is
turbulence. Flow against these defined in terms of the Hydraulic
resistances causes generation of heat radius@, ) as follows:
raising the temperature of the fluid as it
flows. This temperature rise is not D = 4 x Hydraulic radius.
enough to do any work an this energy
transformed into thermal energy is good
as lost energy. This expressed in The HYDRAULIC RADIUS is
pressure units or expressed in terms of defined as ratio of flow cross-sectional area
an equivalent column of the flowing to the wetted perimeter. For example, the
fluid is called fictional pressure drop or case of a rectangular cross-section with sides
head loss. a and b, the flow cross-section is ab while
the wetted perimeter is 2a+2b. Similarly, for
Incorporating this fact into the
Bernoulli's equation yields the following an annular region as shown (Fig.2), the
form which is generally used in hydraulic radius is as shown: .
calculating fictional pressure drop in



Single phase flow is classified as

TURBULENT. The deciding factor is
the REYNOLD'S NUMBER defined as

:.. r

= .I
It is a Dimensionless number if ..E

With D defined in this general sense t '

- 3
the quantities are in consistent units. For in the definition of Reynold's number, the , L:
Reynold's number values up to 2000, the limiting values of the number for laminar, ,
, P

flow is termed laminar and for values transient and turbulent flows remain the I -
above 4000, it is a turbulent flow. The J
same as given earlier. The linear velocity 3 -
range 2000-4000 is termed as the used in the definition of Reynold's number ,
transition region. D in the definition of is obtained by dividing the volumetric flow I . ,
the Reynold's number is the actual rate by cross-sectional area for flow. 1

diameter if the flow cross-section is

circular such as in commonly used pipes.
Alternative but equivalent forms factor for given value of Reynold's number.
of definition of Reynold's number which Newton-Rhapson method may be used for
are commonly used are as follows: getting the value in fewer iterations.
DG Fanning's equation is also used in
Re=- place of Darcy's equation as follows: a

Where G -is the .linear mass

velocity of fluid

W Comparison should show that the

Re=6.3 1 -
Darcy's friction factor is obviously four
times the Fanning's friction factor, f, .While
Where W is the mass flow rate using any friction factor vs Reynold's
l b h , D is pipe ID in inches and p is number graph to read friction factor and
density in lb/ft3 then while using it in the formula to
calculate the pressure drop, care must be
The frictional pressure drop is taken to choose the compatible graph and
calculated using Darcy's equation as compatible correlation. This is often a
follows. source of error.
Another friction factor is also
(fDv2) defined by Churchill ( which is half of
= Fanning's friction factor ) The
co&sponding formula for pressure drop
f D is tenned as the Darcy's calculation thus has a factor 8 in the
fiction factor and is related to the numerator instead of 4 in Fanning's
Reynold's number and pipe roughness. 'equation. So, one needs to be really very
The applicable and widely used m hs carehl in handling this prevailing multiple
are given in several text books. definition scenario. Generally, chemical
engineering literature uses Fanning's fiction
For turbulent region. The fiction factor and Process industry follows the
factor value should be read an Darcy's fiction factor.
appropriate curve for a pipe of roughness If one uses the f vs R, plot, it is
E by calculating its ratio with pipe necessary to note whether it is for Fanning,
diameter (a). Darsy or Chmhill fiction factor. There is a
The log-log plot h difficult tc .. simple way to do it which any engineer
read and the reading is error prone due to should know. If you don't, ponder over it a
non-lineariG of scale. Several little and you would get it.
correlations are therefore proposed by Several simplified correlations are
various authors so that the fiiction factor available to calculate fiiction factors fiom
can be calculated &om the Reynold's Reynold's number under different
number. Some of the famous conditions of flow. Some of the commonly
correlations are given later. used ones are given'below with reference to
In the case of implicit the Darcy's definition of fiiction factor.
correlations, an iterative approach is Suitable multiplying factors must be used to -
necessary to get the value of the fiction

convert these correlations for other situations in process in industry would fall
friction factors. in the fully developed turbulent region and
Blazius equation (especially
the one with R, with exponent -0.2) given
LAMINAR REGION above is widely used.
The roughness factor E is dependent
on the pipe material and method of
fabrication and some representative values
TURBULENT REGION are given in the Table 1. Note the wide
variation in perceptiocs of the roughness by
Rough commercial pipes, Re less than different authors. In most plots, Moody's
50000: roughness values are used. Because of the
variation in friction factor definition and
roughness values, it is advisable to stick to
one plot with full knowledge of the fiiction
factor it pertains to and the roughness values
Smooth Pipe, Re less than 3400000
. .
it refers to.
The frictional pressure drop
calculated by any of the above methods
should be multiplied by the effective length
of the pipe segment to get the net frictional
drop across the segment. This is then used in
Blazius equation, filly developed the Bernoulli's equation to obtain the actual
turbulent, : pressure drop between pipe origin and
destination. The effective length is the
actual pipe length if the pipe line is straight
and long enough so that pressure drop due to
extra turbulence created at the entrance
Another Blazius equation when fluid enters the pipe from an
equipment or at the exit when the pipe fetds
f=0.046 R, "' into another equipment are relatively
insignificant as compared to overall
Smooth or rough pipe, R, less frictional pressure drop. In case, . the
fittings such as elbows, tees, valves,
- than 3400000, developing turbul&t expanders, reducers, etc., an hypothetical
flow: straight pipe length of same diameter as the
run pipe on which the fittings exits is added
in place of each of the fittings. The effective
length is the sum of the straight-mn pipe
length plus the total equivalent for all
fittings. Entrance and exit of fluid in and
h r n the pipe segment also adds to
Most f vs R e plots would mark turbulence and to extra pressure drop. This
effect is also incorporated by adding
transition between developing turbulent equivalent length of these. The actual
flows by a broken line. Most flow equivalent 'lengths for important fittings are
5 L
given in real terms (i.e. length of pipe to of segmenting the pipe line may be adopted.
) I be added) in Tables 2-5. (The tables are A good practice would be to
. I taken fiom the famous paper on practical calculate pressure drop over the pipe run
pressure drop calculations by Robert assuming fluid properties at inlet or average
,-, Kern) temperature/pressure conditions to begin
In another approach, equivalent with. If the pressure drop so calculated i s
length of fittings are mentioned in terms within 10% or less of the actual pressure
of diameters of the pipe. This number levels at which the fluid is flowing, one may
should then be multiplied by the pipe ignore the effect of temperaturefpressure
B size to get the equivalent length of pipe change. If the pressure drop exceeds 10% of
to be added. The equivalent lengths for flow pressure, the above approach of
"1 valves and fittings in terns of diameters segmenting may be restored to.
:'6 are reported in several books and are not
given here. Analysis of the actual TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP
3 I
equivalent length for fittings of different
sizes as given in Tables 2-5 should show
-f 1

.$ that the equivalent diameter approach is

-j 5
rather approximate. Using actual pipe
Pressure drop in the case of a two
phase flow is dependent on the flow regime.
length as per tables is a more accurate
For two phase flow conditions, 7 regimes
! approach. are possible as shown in Fig.3. Flow regime
? Above procedure is applicable to
\ identification is done by following Baker's
'b fluids, i.e., liquids and gases.
In cases the temperature varies procedure.
i across the pipe segment, the physical
Two Baker parameters B, and B ,
2' are calculated as follows:
properties vary. Also if the fluid is
>',-. gadvapor, its volumetric flow rate may
3 i vary due to pressure changes arising out
I \ of temperature change as well as due to
j' v
pressm drop. To account for these
effects, it may be a good' practice to
i' divide the whole line into segments over
- 3 :
> 5
I each of which, the temperature change is
not so significant as to change the
3 properties drastically. The properties are
*-: r suitably updated to incorporate In the above definitions, following units are
i' temperature and pressure changes as one used: - -
3 traverses these hypothetical segments.
W, Vapor flow rate, Ib/hr
Calculation over all the segments thus
gives the total pressure drop. -
W, Liquid flow rate, I b h
, ,
Change in pressure across the -
p , Vapor density, lblft
pipe may be of importance in case of
compressible fluids. It may be ignored if p , - Liquid density, 1blft3
- ?

it is less than 10% of the total fluid A - Internal cross-sectional area, A

$ I
pressure. However, if it is more than this ,
p - Viscosity of liquid, cp
- engineering tolerance, above approach a,- Surface tension of liquid, dynelcm
Note that although the Baker
parameters are dimensionless, the
numerical constants (2.16, 531) in above
equations are dimensionless. Given units BAKER'S METHOD
must be followed.
The Baker parameter values are Depending on the regime identified
than used to identify the flow regime earlier, an appropriate correlation or plot is
from the plot given (Fig.4). Remember, used to get Baker's modulus, gL and it is
slug flow must be avoided in process multiplied with pressure drop with only gas
piping applications. flowing to get the two phase pressure drop.
The pressure drop calculations Fig.6 is used for dispersed flow.
then proceeds as per several correlations
offered by several researchers. Only two
commonly used ones discussed here.
These correlations were derived by
LOCKHART MARTINELLI the respective authors by . extensive
METHOD experimentation on air-water flow, but
Assuming that that only the mostly on smaller diameter pipes. There
liquid flows in the pipe line, calculate applicability for larger dimension industrial
the pressure drop that it would cause pipes is suspect. However, these remain the
over unit length, ( ) Similarly, most used correlations. Better approaches to
considering that only vapor/gas flows in two phase flow pressure drop estimation are
the pipe, calculate the pressure drop per avaliable but are seldom used.
In two phase flow calculations,
unit length, ( ) Single phase
confidence levels are low. Also, it is not safe
correlations are to be used in getting to overdesign here as the flow regime may
these two pressure drops. change and one may get an undesirable flow
Lockhart Martinelli Modulus, X, is then regime such as slug flow. Extreme
defined as follows; is therefore necessary at
engineering stage in designing pipes for two- '

phase flow and must be ready to handle

problems that may surface at the
For this value of modulus, a commissioning stage.
multiplier Y or Y is then read h m The Bakex map is applicable only if
the plot in Fig.5 and it is appropriately the flow line is horizontal. Inclinatioa has a
used in one of the following relations to. great effect on flow pattern and the flow
get the two phase pressure drop,
regime may change for same vapor and
liquid flows in same size pipe line if the
(AP),, per unit length. Multiplying
inclinations are different. Also, in inclined
this with the effective length (after pipes, it matters whether the flow is upward
including equivalent lengths of the or downward. Extensive work has been
fittings) of the pipe, one gets the total reported on these aspects but industrial
two phase fictional drop. practices ignore this fact
For this value of modulu~a multiplier Y,
(i.e.Yu ) or Y, (or Y ,)is then read for the
Or partly plot in Fig. 5 and it is appropriately used in
miscible liquid phases and a gas phase one of U, following relations to get the
comprising of vapors of these liquids three phase drop, P), pre unit
andlor other gases give rise to three
phase flow situations. There are no length ( after including equivalent lengths o f
reported reliable pressure drop the fittings) of the pipe, one gets the total
calculation approaches for three phase three phase iiictional pressure drop.
flow. What is proposed here is a possible
extension of the Lockhart Martinelli uv =yL MU
approach which was reasonably
successfid in using single phase flow (A% =YG&
correlations and predicting two phase
flow pressure drop. The approach would It may be appreciated that this is
be something like this: nothing but using the Lockhart Martinelli
approach on itself. In absence of any other-
Step 1 correlation with proven merit, this is likely
Consider only that the liquid phase to be a good engineering approach.
including the two liquids is flowing
through the pipe. Let these liquids be I PIPE SIZING
and L . Using Lockhart Martinelli The earlier mentioned three pipe
method or other method (say Baker's), sizing approaches are discussed here in
calculate the pressure dro$ per unit brief.
length that would be caused in this case.
Step 11 This is the simplest of approaches.
Consider only gadvapor is flowing and Herein, recommended values of linear
calculate the pressure drop that would velocities for the flowing medium are used
occur per unit length using single phase along with the design flow rates to back out
pressure drop correlation. Let this be the pipe diameter. EGecommendations for the
linear velocities may d s e due to process
APa considerations, material of consanrction
considerations, corrosion - c ~nsideratiom,
Step1 11 economic considerations based on prior
the Lockhart experience etc. or a combination of these.
modulus as was done in the two phase Consider the following examples:
flow situation as follows: '

a) In a steam carrying pipe, if the linear

x2=bP,/dP, steam velocity is beyond a certain value,
the flowing steam may pick up the
condensate, break it up into hgments.
These entrained condensate droplets may
impinge against the pipe wall causing the maximum hydraulic pressure dmp that
erosion and erosion-corrosion. one can accept over the pipe segment of
interest. A minimum pipe size which causes
b) Too low a steam velocity in steam a pressure drop at the most equal to this
headers may mean a large diameter maximum acceptable pressure drop is thus
pipe for design requirement of steam. recommended. Any size more than this size
This would increase pipe cost, would also be acceptable, but would be
insulation cost, etc. thereby uneconomical as it would involve higher
adversely affecting economics. capital cost.
c) A gaseous steam carrying The procedure would be one trial and
particulates (such as pneumatic solid error. A commercial pipe size would be
transport lines) must flow above a assumed in terms of NB. The pressure
minimum velocity to eliminate solids design of the pipe would decide the
settling down at pipe bottom causing schedule. From the appropriate .tables, the
flow obstruction, increased pressure ID of the pipe size would be obtained.
drop etc. Taking this as the hydraulic diameter and for
d) A gaseous steam carrying the design flow rates, hydraulic pressure
particulates must not flow above a drop over the proposed pipe route is
certain linear velocity to eliminate calculated using appropriate pressure drop
severe erosion of pipeline or elbows correlations. If this pressure drop is more
etc. than the acceptable level, a higher pipe size
e) A tine carrying two phase must be of is taken for next trial. If the pressure drop is
suitable dimension so that certain much smaller than that acceptable, next
two phase flow regimes ( such as lower pipe size can be tried. Minimum pipe
slug flow) are avoided or a certain size meeting the pressure drop requirement
regime is guaranteed (such as is recommended.
concentric flow). Some important situations where
f) Linear velocities- in exhaust lines pipe sizing needs to be done using avaliable
should be below certain upper to pressure drop considerations are as follows:
keep noise within acceptable levels.
1. Suction Pipe Sizing for a pump: A liquid
These are just representative is to be pumped f?om a storage tank to
examples to help appreciate the origin of an quipment. The storage tank pressure
such restrictions on hear velocities of is fixed. On its way from the'&%
flowing medium. tank to the pump suction, the liquid
Some of the more accepted linear would loose pressure due to fictional
velocities in a variety of design cases are pressure drop. If this pressure drop is
complied in Tables 6 and 7. excessive, the fluid pressure as it is
delivered to the impelim may be below
PIPE SIZING BASED ON the vapor pressure of the liquid at
AVALIABLE PRESSURE DROP flowing temperature. The liquid would
This is a more involved method flash and some of the liquid would then
of pipe sizing and perhaps the most evaporate. As the impellers impart
important. Pipes are sized here to meet kinetic energy which is then converted to
certain process requirements. These higher fluid pressure inside the pump
process requirements are translated into body, the pressure again rises above the
vapor pressure. The vapor bubbles a static head difference between the
previously formed thus collapse back downcomer and riser. Pipe sizing is a
into liquid form. This sudden delicate balance between barometric
collapse creates the ' cavitation ' head that is avaliable and pressure drop
effect which could damage the in downcomer and riser.
blades and cause vibration and noise.
This must be avoided at any cost. It
is therefore imperative that pressure 6. A fluid is to be transported from point A
drop in the suction pipe should be at pressure P1 to,point B at P2.There is
such that the liquid is delivered to a flow control valve on the transport line
the pump at not less than the vapor and it has been designed assuming
pressure at flowing temperature. certain pressure drop across the valve is
avaliable. Pressure 'drop across rest of
2. Even when there is no pump above the line that is avaliable is thus limited
consideration would apply. During and pipe must be sized accordingly. This
its passage through the pipe, the situation can come even in two phase
pressure of the flowing liquid should flow lines.
not drop below its vapor press&e
flowing temperature. Otherwise Pipe size as per avaliable pressure
vaporization would take place. drop is
closely linked to process requirements. Any
3. In the case of a feed to distillation errors in appreciating this and mistakes in
column, it may be the process pipe sizing could mean that the gravity flow
requirement that the feed is a would not sustain, thermosyphan reboiler
. saturated liquid. That is, at the cannot be commissioned, pump would be
flowing temperature, the feed is at damaged and so'on.
vapor pressure and flashes as soon as It helps to appreciate these process
it enters the column The pipe related limitations t!!ough working out
carrying the liquid fiom the reservoir suitable practical cases.
or the previous equipment to the
distillation column must ensure that ECONOMIC PIPE SIZING : LEAST
the pressure drop is such as to ANNUAL COST APPROACH
deliver the liquid at saturation point. If the linear velocity and avaliable -
pressure drop constraints are not shingent or
4. A liquid is required to flow at design these constraints still leave a scope of a -
rate by gravity h m a vessel to a reasonably broad choice of pipe sizes, the - --
lower destination. There is only one most economic among these should be .
pipe size which would come close to chosen.
this requirement. The nearest The economics is governed by the
commercial size should be capital cost of the pipe and accessories
recommended including fittings, insulation, etc. and the
annual operating cost, If for given service, a
5. A -distillation column uses smaller size is used, the capital cost would
thermosyphon reboiler. This kind of be lower. At the same time, smaller would
a reboiler works on the principle of mean higher fluid pressure drop and
natural circulation developed due to therefore higher pumping costs. These two
conflicting effects of pipe size mean that (capital -t maintenance) is (A, I P -
there is an optimum pipe size.
For the two costs to be
+G)(l+F)C . Substituting the expression for 1.
' '<--:, .
compared, it is necessary that the capital C, in this, one can write the annualized . :

cost be annualized. Fig. 7 shows a capital plus maintenance cost, C, as a r>

typical annualized cost of a pipe for function of diameter, D, as follows: !
given service as a function of pipe
diameter. The operating cost curve is
shown in Fig. 8. The sum of these two
costs (Fig. 9) gives the total annualized
cost which passes through a minimum. The second component is the
The objective of the Least Annual Cost operating cost involved in pumping the fluid
(LAC) approach is to obtain this through the pipe. The frictional losses
optimum diameter. ' Although decide the energy lost. If AP is the hydraulic
conceptually simple it is dependent on pressure drop (say in psi) and W is the. fluid
the reliability of cost data and cost flow rate (say lbh), the energy expanded in
projections over the life of the pipe the fluid flow is (W/p)(144AP). p is the
being designed. A possible approach density (lb/ ft' )and the factor 144 in
which appears reasonably scientific and second parenthesis is simple to convert psi
practical is presented here (Nolte, 1978). into psf for consistency of units-The energy
The cost of unit length of run required is then in A.lb force. The pump has
pipe of diameter D is calculated as : to supply this force using electrical energy.
Taking the pump efficiency (E), the annual
usage of the pipe in terms of hours of
operation per year (Y) and the cost of.
electrical power, K, (say per KW-hr), the
X is the cost of 2inch diameter pipe of annual energy cost of pumping (C ,) can be
same material and schedule. written as:
The pipe will have certain
accessories such as piping elements.
Although the cost of these would be
application specific, a general process
plant average statistics such as the
. The units of cost (e.g. RS. or $
. .

. .

folbwing could be useM to calculate - . ".
the cost of accessories per unit len& as
should be same as. ;that power cast). The '
. ' , .. -- 1
g .i 3
factor 0.0000542 comes ody b e ~ i u s eof . .. .i.9

some factor F of 'the run pipe cost. For - . > , . .. . b

. ;Y
different en& units for
tstsused energy .
example, a typical pipe line (93.5ft) may . .

. .
. . .
1, ..
. ,t

- (ft.lb.forceand-kwhr): :
-. : . .
' '


have 1.6 gate valves, 10.2 bends, 5.9 <

flanges, 2.1 tees, 32.6welds. So the total The. pressure drop, AP, can be . .' .u
.. . aJ3

calculated by conventional methods

. . '. I
capital cost is (l+F) C,. If the . . discussed .earlier. One. of the simplified - ,:. 'i -

amortization rate is A,, the annualized forms of pressure drop - - equations

. .f
capital cost of the pipe and accessories is
A, (l+F).C .. If the annual maintenance
recommended by Generawc has the.
following form;
r. - .I

cost is a fiaction G of the capital cost, 1 -. B

the total pipe cost
Most quantities in the above
expression are project specific. Their values
themselves may not be very reliable. What is
then the sanctity of the optimal value of D
arrived at ? some order of magnitude
It is a dimensionless equation analysis should resolve this issue and give
and the units for various quantities are as an idea as to how accurately one should try
fo Ilows:
these project specific parameters.
AP psi For example, in the expressions in
W 1000 1bs/hr square bracket of the above expressions, one
P CP would have reasonably good idea of Y, K,
p 1bs.1ft3 . E, X. However, at the time of pipe sizing
D. inch which is done quite early in the project life,
Substituting this in the earlier values of a, b, F etc. may at most be
equation, the cost of .moving the fluid guestimates. The important point to note is
per year is that the impact of error in estimating the
expressions in the bracket is diluted to a .
great extent by the exponent 0.169. For
example, a 33% error in the value of the
bracket expressions would lead only to a 8%
error in the optimal size estimate. Another
Remember, W above is in 1000 parameter which is often a source of low
lb*. confidence level is the viscosity. But, due to
a small exponent of p in the expressions,
The total annual cost of unit pipe length one can verify that even a 10 fold increase in
is thus viscosity changes the optimal diameter by
only 6%.
C ,4.353(AM +G)(~+F)xD" + hi view of the above, the optimal
diameter expression has been fhther
simplified by using representative values for
2840000 w~ ~ P ~ . ' ~ ~ K a (0.143. i.c. 1/7), b ( 0.01), F (6.75), E
D4-Mp2E (0.55), X (1.32 Wft), Y (7880 Myear). K
(0.0218 SkWhr) to obtain the following
simplified expressions for LAC diameter.
The optimum dimeter,which . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
minimizes' C , a s o b t a i n e d b y . ' . . ,
. .
0.479 '0.142 0.027 . .. . .
. . . . . . D,,=1.717Q. S
.. . .. p. .
, .

ditrerentiating C ; with fespect to zero . . , . . , . .! ..

and simplifying is given as follows: - With D ,

in cm, volumetric flow
- rate Q in m'lhr ,
Depthm S as specific gravity of fluid at 4



1 0.0657YK
(A, + + F)
centigrade, and p in kg/cm.sec.

An alternative expressions is as follows.

With D,, in inches, Q in US galdmin
and p in cp.
If the LAC diameter calculated
If the estimates of a, b, F, E, X,
Y, K for a project are different than the
earlier is above D , D is recommended. If
values used in arriving at the above ,
it is below D .DL is recommended.
simplified expressions, correction kctors A good question to ask would be
can be suitably used. For example if the - why exponent of D, is 0.6 and that of D Lis
actual number of hours of operation is Y 0.4 and why not the other way. Why not
and not 7880, the calculated LAC equal exponents?
diameter should be multiplied by a factor With better computing facilities, one
F defined as may not be required to use the simplified
F D= 0.2196YO.'~~ forms of Fanning equations and other
simplifications used in the above approach
Similarly, if the amortization rate should be justified by availability of more
is 'a' and not 1/7, the correction factor reliable cost data and values of other project
should be specific parameters. The essence of the
approach would remain the same.


F =0.728 /(a + 0 . 0 1 ) ~ ' ~ ~ Whatever the approach used to axrive
, .
at the pipe size, it must be kept in mind t4at
The reader should ponder a little the pipe sizing activity is being canied out ..
to see how these correction factors are rather prematurely. The actual pressure
arrived at. drops are going to be decided by the actual t' -
A better idea would be to use the layout of a particular point-to-point pipe
v d u a realistic estimates of the . routing. That evolves at a much later stage. I '
%-" -
parameters (a, b, F, E, X, Y, K) ' Also, over the .normal operating life of the
whenever they are available and use plant, the pipes are subjected to t
default values given earlier in the modifications in their ID (due to fouling) I '
, I
- .

absence of such estimates and uses the and surface roughness (due to scaling,
expressions for , D h its erosion, corrosion etc.). Also, optimization -3
unsimplified form. ------- --- . exercises and capacity enhancements in '
* -
The values thus calculated may firture may require the same pipe to catry
not conform to the commercial sizes. larger amounts of process fluid. In view of 1

The following procedure is all these, it is an industrial practice to * - 3

recommended to anive at the recommend a pipe of one size higher than
what is arrived at by any of the above - -

commercial size.
The adjacent commercial sizes procedures. .. !
on either side of the LAC diameter are I
(This paper has relied heavily on the article
identified Let these be L D, On by Robert Kmq published in Chem. En&. # -- 5
lower and higher sides respectively. An ,world I :
hypothetical size, called crossover A -
diameter is then defined as: a I t


1 '

14 -3

I '
Distributive Flow

. ? 1) Bubble b) b1 is c

Intermittent Flow


Segregated Flow

Stratifid 9 Annular

Flow Ilc.~,irncsfor Two Phiasc Flow

brct w- e, I
1 19 1
0 '0'


,( i

1 L-

- >

I d'

Two-Phase Flow Correlations 4

Dispersed Bubble Srug Stratified Wave Plug Annular I '

Hoody* O- 14.2Xa" 0*tt90Xmm B-S.4COX UauFaS 0*27.31Sx" 0=&

, . '.--
Fuzningo (WJAI" (HIJAf' PUN" .nd [W/AI*'' a -
4.8 0.311
friclipnbcpordk nd :lo)
d 8 1.0. d m. <-
t 4
kroid hlizmul F a pipe la-$
wlk* Huiyd
PPI P+ war, um d . ' g !t

.. C
-. I

Fi.4 i .
Bakerp~nmetcndctrrmined h e t)rpc oftwo pbuc Ikw and approprutr two phue llowcomhtion kusunit l a -&

I --

IBurmmetcnfur prcssurcdrop inliquid - Ilow through horiionral piw ' '

. .. .

. .
I ltnwd oil 1.1~liflan ..AS. J'I ( I Y . 1911
qnd ~t~rtiacUL.Chcm..Ea~~~Prop ... . . J
fig. 6
Lackbrrr ,H~rllrclliCorrtlrflo. r c l ~ l c rvrpoer amd liquid propenlcs to tstrbllrLcd t r a plant mw radmlcr.

FiL; 7 Fit J
Amortized trpitul costs lo8 ou reel aC plgc . Amflrrl cost d oprrmtlmg awe' C-I o f pipe.
Table 1
I Miller (32) K u t ~ t d a d z (19)
e !.
~n- 1 mm I m. 1 mm I ~n. I mm


Rough 0.02

Birch vene~r
Pin0 vaeer

Gakan'd '
SmooChIhirh 0.W1 - 0.025
~ o r n ul%w~
l o.m .a.is

Reslance a Row for Various f y p of V a h fa& 2 .

( Resialance in equivalent p(pa length. fl )

For p a d d y open globe valve

multiply tabulattd values by' "
for*reeQ-m, by .,
for me-halt open, and.by 7~
for orteguarter open 1

I. With port area open

Port area = plpe sire
.2. Pan area equals 80% .. c' .,
. PI@afea I

9 '

1 '

r '

Resistances of E l b o w 8 , T ~ sand Bends -Table 3
! (Resistance in equivaIent ppe length. ft)
;iesist,nce o l Eccentric and C o n c e n t r i c R e c u c e r s .
And of Sudden Changes in

Line Sixe Table 5 Typical Liquid Vtlocities in Steel Pipe{ines -Table 6

iRssistsnce ~n ecurralent p ~ p elength. fi.1 (Resistance in equ~valeolpipe leng~h.It.; I
Norn~nalSizm !n. -.A
-L. --.

YWMU 3 w Yrrr -n 2 oc ess
l l o 10 10 lo ,a
Laud c LWW v*an ra u ~ , rvs -v hs ,I
w.rr I
pvrp S U S ~
l to2 7 - 4
ho=bq8!W Zmf 105 4 - 7
c.uzUp.h.a~m~. 4 a a SIC 1 2 l a tr
ao4r -t 4 n J . SP'Z d o tr
3a4 3-5
3 -4 5 4107 - L
~ V r o o n 1 . w 2.2 2 14 4 106 1
rm? I

Ducnrrg.h.wkr!bg 2.5 to 3.5 3 IO5
bhbd bV13 5 M !2 8- IS

ONa 3 ~ 4 10s
v* oh
Rrrowabn ! i.
r ~ d b d p b
1.) lo 1
a4 D a7.S
2s to 5
9.3 O 1 .
[- 1ms roe !.J
On- 1 IS m 3

TypIcslVelocitler In Gar and Vapor Lines -Tabte 7

Swur S l u m oc N s ,I
w s.llmcu!Y.ory Susv.%~Vloor~G.r
Peak. '
La?mrun, U.aiUnP- HgtPnaw"
.* f e n v-ry Fvs *-=e ,I.
2 a h a U E 100 (4-80 Ir)*O -
1 4 4 =lo 110 90 =tom
a a0 120
4s 0
500 1 2 0 4JloW ,I
8 Lo lQ a lo 12s mm 1 6 0 as 12s
12 14 mlo 1JO 100 D 1- at8 1 4 .
16 o 18 7s 1 s 11010210 mm1m
ZQ mmta c2ahra !mbtm rl-

Note - W h i n me rbov6 w c l o ~ i i arrrd lirr4rc mt*r I s ) f&e'K*- .i'

a n b * c b6wt .drK/tiCI l C l ~vn~lkro n e (bl ywn Ilncr. rnd
- -.
kdr fmm kak.7 cur hive hi*? velocitia rhrn h g (inch r ~ c

R c b a i k r 40- curnn (liquid) j l o 7

Rcbotlu. ricer (liqard a d VSQQV) IS o 45
Ovcmcrd c o d c n s a ?S to IOU :
T - d ~ h n e I'C- j! :a a$

C~mprersarsuctrjn :I lo 204: ,
Clxnpramr d i s e h u ~ e tcO tu 3 0
Inlet. ~ C c a m4ur'Hne 1!t8 w ;I? I '
I d c t . zu ~wblnc I IO tu J!n
Wcl~cfr d v c i u c h u l e GSV.'
K:llcf -11bc t n e rc silcncc: '4-
.. .
TrroPham Flow brrrlrtknr
. T

m . Bubble I ' stratifid wm PI- kurulqr
bFb.3 9 - 142fi" 4- 1.l90f -"'4-16.4SOX Urn Fig, 6 #-27316~~"' # m e 9

Avoid Horiomol HorjzontJ Forp~12islwd
slug flow P~W: pipe ~ , l m d - ~ O .
. .
Courtesy: Mr. h i d B a b r and The Oil md Gas Joumd.

FIG. 1. Bakei parameten determine the type of tw+phase flow and the appmpshte two-
phas~flowcordation rett unit loss. ,
.. .

. .
I -.
Fluid FIOW, Two-Phase Design , .

t . -.-..-

Sourw: Crane Co.

. .

. ' ..
. . .
. . .
. . . . . .
'. .
- ~ t y n o t d i n u mN~ ,

. . . . .
. .
. . .
5 :
. . . .
. .

. .


. . .


. . .
.: . .
. .
. . . .



i .
FIQ. 2. F d h fktm
~ in new commcrdalatcd pipe fw vapor-pbast or liquid-pbc flaw.
31sornw: BuPblc slog
T w Q ~ %vv
~ ~ Corrgtations

Sr~at~tied Ware P!U~ i Annular

j 8

~ ' ~ " >1 * I s . ~ o Q ~

J - I ~ G x ~ "0' ' : . t ~ ~is.5 9. 23.3!5x".''" 0 -&'

an6 ZC. !31 (~/*;~+l
: W ~ A ; ~ - - ~ !r,p
!0-3 ant3 Ec. 19)
ana (1CI
(v,O.lt r*3.2-0.21%C
j2:1- 0..:2: @
1.2. IO I W .


lrug f:ow
Hcrrion~I HorizcntJ
pipe P~PC
Far olae f 2;n anc
ova-. use d 10. i
Caurterv: Atr. OWU-Iarker and The Oil and Cas-J~urnal.
Lockhart.Marrinelli modulus, X 2

AG. 3. Lochart-Martinclli conclation rclqtes .vapor and liquid properlies to es~ablishtwo-

phase flow modulus,

. .

,.. . C'" cp' ,"''

- -
:, i ir:
i <,. ~
'IIb :; :r>Fr)
p+.m ...".>,y?%
, .?.; -,y,,mY4* -+;,., -@"? . : ; / - . . ,+fl\ k. * ' . " . , . . A. ;-.. ,

Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Powai, Mumbai - 400 076 .


INTRODUCTION thought should be given for the selection

of valves. The first step in the selection
Estimates reveal that .a substantial is to determine exactly what b c t i o n the
portion, approximately 8-lo%, of tbe valve is expected to perform after it has
total capital expenditure of the chemical been installed.
process industry is used for the Valves are installed on equipmentfpiping
procurement of valves. In terms of the to perform any one of the following
number of units also, valves exceed any ~dions;
otber piping component. Hence, proper

Functions of Valves

I 1
Non-Return Special Purpose

The design of the valves are done in such 2.2 Needle Valves
a way as to perfom any of 'the above
hctions. The type of valves used can be 2.3 Butterfly Valves
classified in the following categpries.
2.4 Diaphragm Valves

. . 2.5 ,PistonValves
2.6 Pinchvalves
1.1 Gate Valves

1.2 Ball Valves 3.0- 'NON-RETURN

1.3 Plug Valves 3.1 Ched Valves. .

1.4 Piston Valves 4.0 SPECLAL PURPOSE

1.5 Diaphragm Valves 4.1 Multi-port Valves

4.2 Flush Bottom Valves

1.7 Pinch Valves 4.3 Float Valves

4.4 Foot Valves

2.1 Globe Valves 4.5 Line Blind Valves

4.6 Knife Gate Valves

Valves 1

The above classification is 4.0 Gun metal

based on functions. The valves could
also be classified based on the type of 5.0 Carbon Steel
construction. Valve manufacturers offer
endless varieties of constructions. Based 6.0 Stainless Steel
on the operation, valves can be broadly
classified as operated valves and self- 7.0 Alloy Carbon Steel
operated valves. Mainly the check valves
are self-operated and all other types 8.0 Poly propyl&e, UHMW-PE,
come under operated valves. UHMW-HDPE etc.
The valves can Wer be classified
based on the end connections. End 9.0 Special Alloys
c o ~ e c t i o nmeans the arrangement of
attachment of the valves to the 10.0 Fluom polymer/Elastomer lined
equipment or to the piping. The types of metals
end connections are:
11.0 Glass
1.O Screwed ends
2.0 Socket weld ends SPECIFICATION
3.0 Flanged ends
- -
1. Pressure Temperature Ratings
Pressure Temperature Rating
is. the maximum allowable sustained
4.0 Butt weld ends non-shock pressure at the corresponding
tabulated temperature. These are listed ha
5.0 Socketted ends ANSI B 16.34 and ANSI B 16.5.
6.0 Wafer type ends - 2. Class
The valve.isspecified by the
7.0 Buttress ends pressure rating of the body of the valves.
The valves could also be classified based The American standard specifies the
on the materials of construction. There following classes.
can be any number of combiitions
possible with the materials of 2.1 Class 1
constnactioa It is fir the piping engineer
to select the sane in consulation.,~th . .2.3 -A -.. .'Cl*s-
the process engineer to suit the process cCOO#
fluid. - 5 2 environment in which the 2.4 Class 600#
valves are installed is also to be
considered for seleztion of materials of
construction. However, the most 2.6 Class 15W
commonly available materials are:
2.7 Class 25W
1.0 Cast Iron 2.8 Class 800#
2.9 Class 4500#
2.0 Ductile Iron

3.0 Bronze

. .
i I

common types of valves. API 600

i , 3. Trim specifies Trim numbers in table 3 of
P The trim is comprised of Stem, Seat the standard. It specifies the types of
Surfaces, Back Seat Bushing and material, which can be used for the
"* I other mall internal parts .that parts with its typical specification and

normally contact the surface fluid. grade.
The table below indicates trim of

Stem Stem Seat Ring Disc guide

seat* seat Ring Disc holder Seat ring
Wedge Ring Disc nut Side plug
Bushing Bushing Holder pin
Disc nut pin

4. Wetted Parts
All parts, which come contact with the
7. Quarter Turn Vdves
This refers to the valve where the entire
service fluid, are called the wetted parts. operation of valve is achieved by 90
degrees turn ofthe closing element.
5. Wire Dmwiue
This t a m is 'used to indicate the 8. Pressure Drop
premature erosion of the valve seat Pressure drop is the loss of pressure
h u e d by excessive velocity b-een through resistance a m s s the valve while
seat and seat disc. An erosion pattern is flows and is expressed in terms of
left as if a wire had been drawn between ~ v a i mlength
t in pipe diameters
the scat surfaces. Excessive velocity can
occur when the valve is not closed Equivalent
tightly. A WOG (Water-oil-Gas, Type of Valve Parition length in pipe
relatively cool liquids) disc is the best dia (LA))
Gate Fully 13
defeasc against wiredrawing because its
resiliency makes it easier to close tightly. Globe
Discs of harder material are to be closed h g l e globe
Swing check
carefully to prevent wire drawing. In Plug -
LPG Service, the wire drawing effkct
causes a threat of anti-refrigeration. The Plug Port
Ball - Regular 40
ice formation on the wedge will obstruct Port
movement thereby increasing the leak Ball - Full port 8
through seat M e r .

6. Straight Through Flow 9. Upstream Pressure
This refers to the valve in which thc %s is h e prasurs of the fluid that
closing delnent is retracted entirely SO enters the valve. a s is sometimes
that there is no restriction of flow. referred to as'inlet or supply pressure.
. .

Valves 3

10. Downstream Pressure

This is the pressure of the fluid=that is
discharged fiom the valve. This is 13. LEAKAGE CLASS
sometimes referred to as outlet or
reduced pressure. Leakage class Maximum seat
11. LDAR
Class I A modification of
Signifies "Leak Detection And Repair"
to ensure that the fugitive emissions any class II, 111or
standards of EPA are met. Fugitive N valve where
emissions are the minute amount of design intent is the
same as the basic
process media that escape into the
class, but by
atmosphere though gland packing along
valve stem. agreement between
user and supplier.
No test is required.
12. LAER
Signifies "Lowest Achievable Emission Class II 0.5% of rated
Rate". It is the minimum rate of figitive valve capacity
Class 111 0.1% of rated
emission, which is achieved by
deploying proper sealhg arrangement. valve capacity
Class N 0.01% of rated
valve capacity
class v 5 1G4 d p t ~
minute water per
inch of orifice
dimeter per psi

as per table below

S i i NB ml. w min. . Bubble ua lninut~

I 0.15. 1 .
13 .. , . ... -
.0 3 0
32:. ' .. ' . .
'2 6.45
2.5 0.60 . . , 4
3 . . 0.m ' . . . 6 . . .
: . .

i 1.70 . 11.. , .. .
6 4.06 . -. . ' 27. . . . i
6 .. .
6.35 45 . .
. .

- 4 +


I"" """

Valves. . .

. .



SR. SERVICE Size NB Isolation Rtgulation Non-return Remarks

i Steam H.P. W" -1 % " a) C.S. Body a) C.S. Body C.S. Body Pion
stellited trim stellited trim Stellited valves arc
800# Globe 800# Globe trim 800# costlier.
withSWends with W e n d s Liftcheck Fromthe
b) C.S. ~ o d y b) C.S. ~ o d y with SW point of
stellited trim stellitcd trim view of
800#Piston 800# Piston ' E=U
with SW ends with SW ends COIISCTVII-

c) C S Body SS tion they

Ball. Special are 0 . K
800# SW ball
2"- 12" a) CSBody a) CSBady a) CS Body ALL
Stellited trim s t e f i a trim stellited trim VALVES
3W15W 3oo#/lSW 300#/150# TOBE
%dGate Flgd Flgdswing APPROV-
with flex Globe check ED BY
Wedge IBR
b) b) CS Body
13%Crtrim 13%crtrim
3W150# 300#1150#
Flgd P ' n ~ l g Pd i n
2. Steam LP. W" - 1 %" a) CS Body a) CS Body C.S. Body No IBR
13% Cr. Trim 13% Cr. Trim 13% Cr trim APPR , .
800# Globe 8 W Globe 800# Lift REQUD. :..


with SW ends with SW eads chock With FOR PR I;' 9

b) CSBody b)CS Body SW- <3.5

13% Cr. Trim 13% Cr. Trim ~tiLld S
800#Piston 8WPiston
With SW With SW ads
c) C S Body SS
Ball Special
PTFE seau.
Boo# SW ball
Y - 12" . a) C S B ~ a~ Y' 5 CSBO~ ~C . S . B O ~ ~
13% Cr. Trim 13Wr 13%Crtrim
Flex wedge trim 15U 15W Lift ,
1M# Flgd ngd check With
Gate Globe S W W
b) CSBody b) cs Body
t 13% Cr trim 13% Cr trim
150# Flgd . 1 m Flgd
Piston Piston


a) C.S. Body SS a) C.S. Body
ball PTFE 13% Cr.
scat 800# S W Trim 800#
Ball . SW Globe
b) C.S. Body
13% Cr.
SWTrim valve
a) C.S.Body SS a) CS.Body a) C.S.
Ball PTFE 13% Cr. Body
Seat 800# Trim 8OO# 13% Cr.
S c d Ball SW Globe Trim
b) G.M.Body b) G.M. 8W Lift
Bronze him Body check
Scrd Gate to Brpnzc With S W
IS 778 Trim Scrd Ends
Globe to b) G.M.
IS 778 Body
check to
IS 778
a) CI Body 13% a) CI Body a). CS Body
Crdisc125# 13%Crdisc 13% Cr.
wafatype 125#wafcr trim
Butterfly type Butterfly water
Gear Gear Operator b'P=
above 6" NB check
above 6" NB
b) CIBody 13% b) CI Body b) CI Body
Cror 18%Cr 13% or 13% or
him 12% 18% Cr 18% Cr
Flgd Gate to trim 125# tri 125#
IS 14846 %d flgd
Globe swing
check to

c) CS Body C)CS Body

13% Cr 13% Cr trim C)CS Body
trim 150# l50# agd 13 % Cr trim
Flgd Gate Globe 1SO# flgd
d) CastIron swing check
Body 13% Cr
plug 125 #
Fldg h b .


5) Hot 011/Heating %" - 1 %" a) C.S. Body a) CS. Body a) C.S.

Fluid Stelllted trim Stellited Body
Graphoil pkg trim stellited
800# SW Graphoil trim
Globe pkg 800# 800# SW
b) C.S. Body SW Globe lift check
B 13% trim b) CS. Body
8 W SW 13% trim
Piston with 800# SW
suitable Piston with
sealing rings suitable
. sealing

2"- 12" a) CSBody a) CS Body CS Body

stellited trim sttllited trim stcUittd trim
Graphoil pkg graphoil pkg 3 W (Mia)
300#(Min) 300#(Min) Flgd swing
Flgd Gate Flgd Gate with chock with
with125- 125-250 125- 250
250 AARH AARH Flgd AARH Flgd
FlgdFinish 6nkh Finish

b) CSBody b) (3Body
13%Crtrim 13%Crtrim
Craphoil pkg Grapbo'i pkg
300# (Min) 300 #(?din) ,

Flgd Piston Flgd Piston .

with Suitable witb Suitable
sealing ring sealing ring and
and 125 - 125- 250
250 AARH AARH Flgd
Flgdhaish hish

6) Chlorine @ry) W' - 12" Ball valve with Globe Valve Check (Lift /
CS body M o d with CS Body Swing ) valve
HastalloyCball hfonelf CS Manel 1
&stem Hasfalloyc HastaEoyC
trim trim
7) Solvcntl Process %"- 12" a) C.S. Body SS a) C.S. Body a) CS. Body
(&.dm11 Steel) Ball I50 Flgd 13%Cr. 13%Cr. trim
full port Ball him ISO# Flgd Lift
valve with Flgd Globe cback 5P to 1
rn GFr Yin and Flgd
seats swing check
b) CSB* 2- a above
13% Cr plug
~~~ p h

- s S:
1 -

Solvent1 Process $4" - 12" a) SS Body SS a) SS body SS SS Body SS

(StainlessSteel) ball 150 # him 150# Flgd trim l50#
Fldg full port Globe Flgd swing
ball valve , check
with PTFE !
GFT seats
b) SSBody SS
Plug 1 so#
Flgd slccvbd
Solvent/ Pn>ctrr~ %" - 12" a) Ductile Iron a) Ductile Suitabi-
CHighl~ MY plug Iron lity with
Corrosive) lined with MY Tcm~aa-
Quoropoyner lined turetobe
plug valve with checked
b) Ball valve fluoro
with suitable - pol~mm
plastic body ball
andball chk
b) -do-

i. ,


The isolation valves used in the
Process Industry qe:
1.1 Gate Valves

1.2 Ball Valves

1.3 Plug Valves

1.4 Piston Valves

1.S Diaphragm Valves

1.6 Butterfly Valves

1.7 Pinch Valves

O f these, the Butterfly, Diaphragm and
Piston Valves can be used for regulating
the flow as well. Similarly, the Globe
Valve design could be modified to use it 1.1.4 Stem
for positive shut-off purposes. The
present trend in industry is to go for 1.1.5 Gland
quarter tum valves for this duty due to
ease of operation. The types of valves in 1.1.6 Seat ring
this category are the Ball valves, Plug
valves and Butterfly valves. Ball and 1.1.7 Yoke
Plug valves are also car.. be used for flow
control with shaped port of the closing 1.1.8 Packing
element. More over the design of quarter
turn valves are inherently better suited 1.1.9 Gland Flange
for emission control applications. The
linear stem movement of the gate and 1.1.10 Valve Port
globe valve tends to open the path of
emissions release and in its dynamic 1.1.11 Yoke Bush
mode, emissions can be "dragged? along . ..
the stem. 1.1.12 Lantern

1.1.13 Back Seat Bushing

1.1. GATE VALVES 1.1.14 Gland eyebolts & nuts
A typical Gate valve will have the 1.1.15 Bonnet bolts & nuts
following parts, which could be
identified. 1.1.16 Hand Wheel
1.1.1 Body

1.1.2 Bonnet
1.1.18 Gasket
1.1.3 Wedge


1.1.1 Body services like the nuclear, very high

The body is the part which gets temperature and lethal services. The
attached to the vessel or piping. The screwed-on bonnetlunion bonnet is used
classification of the body could be done for very low priority application and
depending on the end connections as small size valves.
indicated earlier. Body could also be When valves are used for Cryogenic
specified based on the material of Service extended bonnet design is used
construction of the same. This could be to take care of large insulation thickness.
cast, forged or fabricated. When used for very high temperature
The wall thickness and end to bonnet attached with fins are also used.
endiface to face dimensions of the body
shall be as per the Regulatory code to 1.13Wedge
which it is designed. This is the part, which facilitates the
The end flanges shall be service by its movement up and down.
integrally cast or forged with the body. It The types of wedges are classified as;
can also be attached by weldin& if so Solid Plain Wedge
specified. Tbe end connection shall suit
the rating specified. The flanged Solid Flexible Wedge
connection shall be to ANSI B 16.5 or
any of the flange standards. The butt- Split Wedge
welding end connection shall be to ANSI
B 16.25 or any other end preparation When solid disc is wedged into the rigid
required. The socket weldlscrew body seat and the valve und-
connection shall be to ANSI B 16.1 1 or temperature changes, the wedge gets
any other equivalent standards. The body jammed in the seat. Hence the flexi'ble
can have auxiliary connection such as wedge and split wedge design is
drains, by-pass connections, etc. developed to overcome this difficulty.
Normally the solid plain wedge
1.1.2 Bonnet is refwed as solid wedge and the split
The bonnet is classified based wedge is r e f d as flexible wedge. The
on the attachment of the same to the design slightly alters with the
body. The type of connection nonnally manufmers though the basis temains
adopted are Bolted, Bellow sealed, the same.
Screwed-on, Welded, Union, Pressure The flexible wedge desiga is
sealed etc. followed for valve sizes 50 NB aud
The bolted connection shall be above. Valves 40 NB and Wow ,are
flanged, male and female, tongue and available in solid wedge design only.
groove or ring typejoint. In low pressure
- Flexible wedge design is superior as it
rating valves, it may be flat faced. The will not get jammed during high
bonnet gasket is selected to suit body- temperatwe operations.
b o ~ e conndon.
t It can be corrugated The wedge material should be
flat solid metal, flat metal jacketed, at least of the same quality as that of the
asbestos filled, metal ring joint, spiral body. In case of integral seat rings the
wound asbestos filled or flat ring wedge circumference is deposited with
compressed asbestos in case of low superior quality material. In smaller
pressure rating, Teflon or Teflon filled valves, the whole wedge will be
for comsive applications. manufactured out of superior material.
The bellow sealed bonnets can
be bolted or welded on to the body.
These are selected for very critical


material of lantern shall have corrosion I

1.1.4 Stem resistance equal to that of the body. I

The stem connects the hand Normally, the packing is of -,
wheel and the wedge for operations. The braided asbestos with suitable corrosion
design can have rising stem and non- inhibitor. When special packing such as 1 3
rising stem. The stem is operated 'Graphoil' is used, the number of packing .:
rotating the stem nut by hand wheel rings required will be more. To I
mounted at the top of the yoke. accommodate more packing rings, the I -
In the rising st& design, the length of gland is also modified. This
stem moves up along with the wedge to design is called the 'Deep Gland' design. .,
?. h

open. This is called the OS & Y (Outside This is used for the high temperature I -j :
Screw and Yoke) type of design. In case services. But this cannot satisfy the 5

i '
of non-rising stem the wedge moves up EPA's fugitive emission standard of 1 ,.
and down and the stem is stationary. 4 0 0 PPM threshold. Hence frequent ,
This is called the inside screw non rising LDAR will result in excessive I '
stem design. expenditure.
Normally, bar stock or forging
--. i

are used for the construction of stem. 1.1.6 Seat Rings ,. '-
There are two types of designs

1.15 Gland, Gland flange, Packing posslihle in seat rings. They are the -+
- ,
and Lantern integral and renewable. In case of I -
There are two types of gland renewable seat rings, it may be either
designs possible, Single piece and Two tlmaded, rolled-in or welded-in. In case
piece. In two-piece design, there will be of integral seat rings, the seat material is .,'t
gland flange and a follower. The welddeposited directly on to the valve I r i

follower will have a spherical end, which body. The minimum hardness specified $
facilitates proper aligning of follower by the code for this material is 250 HB, ij
and loading on the packing. In Single with 50 HB minimum differential iI *
piece, the gland and follower will be between body .and gate seats, the body
integral. This design is used mostly in seat being harder. Deposition of harder I ' r
low-pressure valves. materials like "Stellite-6'* is also done *. I
K t

Nonnally gland follower will be for valves used in special services. 2

of superior material than 'the gland The back seat m g e m e n t is
flange. Gland flanges are made of carbon
I 3
provided to repack the stufig box when ?:J
steel only. The glands are bolted to the
bonnet with gland eyebolts in low-
the gate is in fully open position. The
stem shall have an integral conical or -w
pressure valves. . . - spheaid backseat surface to Setit against ' , -
The regulatory codes specify the bonnet backseat.
that the stuffing box should 9 .
accommodate minimum six packing 1.1.7 Yoke and Yoke Bush .
rings for class 150 valves. As regards Yoke may be integral with or =*

higher rating valves, it should have separate b m the bonnet. When the yoke . % 1
lantern ring with five packing rings is integral, the stem nut should be -<

above and two packing rings below removable without m o v i n g bonnet. ' -- 1
lantern. Lantern is not provided for class The yoke should have the same material
150 valves. Lantern is provided for
' 1
of construction as that of the shell. The
higher rating if required. When lantern is Yoke bush is normally a Ni-resist . 1
provided, the stuffing box shall be material. This is to prevent gauling of the
provided with two plugged holes. The stem, as stem will normally be of a I 1 -
Nickel alloy.

1' -
end. The port or the bore is the pasage
1.1.8 Hand wheel and Hand wheel Nut through the valve.
There are two types of port designs
The hand wheel is fixed to the stem possible in gate valves, full bore m d
by a threaded hand wheel nut. The arrow reduced bore. In case of full bore, the net
pointing the direction to open the valve area of the bore through the seat shall b e
will be marked with the word "open" or as nearly practicable equal to the
"close" or "shut", unless the size makes nominal pipe size. For reduced port
it impracticable. Valves shall be closed valves, the port diameter is normally one
by turning the hand wheel in clockwise size less than the size of the end.
direction. The compact design small bore (% -
The material of construction of hand 1 % inch) gate valves are as per API 602
wheel shall be malleable iton, Carbon or BS 5352. Unless the full bore design
steel, Nodular iron or Ductile iron. Cast is specifically asked for, manufacturers
iron is not preferred. The nut shall be of supply the reduced bore valves. The full
carbon steel or stainless steel. bore design gate valves are also c o v d
When the installed position of the in BS 5352 and is designated as 'std
valve is such that the hand wheel is not bore'. In full bo* design, the net area of
accessible, then the hand wheels are the bore through seat shall be equivalent
replaced by chain wheels and the valve to that of Sch 80 pipes for class 800
is operated with chains. For large valves and Sch 160 pipe for class 1500
diameter valve where the operating valves. In no case less than 90% of the
torque is high, gear arrangement is above figure is acceptable as per axle.
provided to facilitate operation. Mostly,
bevel gear equipment is adopted.
General recommendation for specifying 1.2 B ALL VALVES
Gear operator is:

n g -
Class 150 14" NB & above
Class 300 12" NI3 &above
Class 600& above 8-"NB & above

If remote operation of the valve is

required, then this could be achieved
through motor with limit switches.
Proper selection of the drive unit should
be done depending on the services.

1.1.9 Bolting
Normally high tensile stud bolts are The ball valves are normally used as
used for bonnet bolts and low carbon positive shut off valves. The positive
bolts for gland and yoke bolting. Gland shut off is attained because of the soft
bolts are normally hinged bolts with seats. Special design is also available
hexagonal nuts. with ball having shaped port for
regulation Metal seated ball valves are
1.1.10 Valve Port also available' for high temperature
The valve size is specified by the service. The ball valves can be classified -
size of the end connection or the body based on:
. .

. .


Extended body design. i

The port size Lined Body

The type of body construction In the single piece design valve,

the body will be castlforged as one piece.
i The construction of seat The insertion of the ball will be through
the end or through top of the body and is
The construction of ball held in position by body insert or b o ~ e t .
The side entry design restricts the valve
The construction of stem to be of regular port only.
In two-piece design, the body is
The above classification is in constmcted in two pieces and the ball is
addition to the ones based on the end held in position by body stud. There can
connections, material for construction be firll port or regular port design
and the pressure classes. The pressure possible in this construction. In case of
temperature ratings of the ball valves three-piece comtmction, the body has
are g e n d y established by the materials two end pieces and one centrepiece.
of the seat rings. The service .
These are held by body studs.
temperatures are also limited by the
material of seat rings. The three-piece construction
permits in-line servicing without
The ball valve offers minimum disturbing the existing pipe work. If the
resistance to the h w . There are two valves have sock2 weld, screwed or
types of designs available as far as the butt-welding ends, this design totally
flow area through the valve is concerned. dispense with the necessity of
They are the Full Port design and the companion flanges.
Regular Port (Reduced Port) design. In The short pattern and the long
full port valves, the port diameter will be pattern of the body is on the basis of the
equivalent to the nominal sue of the end to end dimensions. Normally short
valve, whereas in the regular port valves, pattan body is adopted by the
the port diameter will be one size smaller manuhdurer up to 380 NB valves for
than the nominal .size. Valves with 150 LB class. In case of 300 NB to 400
shaped port are used for flow control NB, class 150 short pattern valves, the
applications. ball may protrude beyond the body and
flange fhces when the valve is in c l o d
Based on the M y construction the valve position.
could be classified as: The sandwich is the
Single p i e design flangeless design adopted by some
manufacturers. This is to confine the use
Two piece design of the high cost exotic materials like
Alloy-20, Hastelloy-B, Hastelloy-C, etc.
Three piece design to the wetted areas only. The valve is
designed to fit between the flanges. The
a Theshort pattern body covef gets bolted to body with
studs or hex&onal head screws.
The long pattern The seat rings are renewable in
the ball valves except for those having
s Sandwich design. one-piece sealed body construction. The
two different types of seat construction
Flush bottom design.

- 14

are possible, viz., the fire safe design and same has been explained earlier. The ball
the non-fire safe design. In the fire safe at the bottom end of the body could b e
design, a secondary metal seat will be supported fully by the seat or it could be
provided so that when the soft seat is trunnion supported. The ball can be solid
l l l y burnt, the ball will shift its position ball or of hollow construction with
and seat against secondary metal seat cavity. The cavity is to be sealed when
and arrest full leakage. The modified the valves are used in volatile liquid.
design incorpoiates a double staged stem This design of the ball is called sealed
seat design and a seating system that cavity design.
adjusts to the line differential pressure. The gland shall be bolted type
At low differential pressures the floating or screwed. Internally screwed stuffing
ball seats against resilient tip seat. At box is not allowed by code. Bellow
higher differential pressures, the ball sealed bonnet is also provided in case o f
deflects to produce contact across the valves used in lethal services. Two basic
entire seating surface of the seat ring. bellow seal designs are available. The
In an actual fire, the heat same is explained under plug valves.
intensity of the fire could be so different The valves shall be operated b y
that it is impossible to ensure that wrench or by hand wheel with gear
elastomer seats are fully damaged during amgement. The wench shall be
fire. If the seats are only partially designed so that it is parallel to the flow
damaged, the ball cannot @Ice seating passage of the ball. The valve shall be
against the secondary metal seat and closed by turning the wrench or the hand
hence the valve would leak. Hence, in wheel in clockwise direction. The length
my opinion, none of the soft-seated ball of the wrench or the diameter of the hand
valves can be declared fire siafe since the wheel shall be such that minimum force
valves are bound to leak in case of is required to operate the valve under the
partially damaged seats. The maximum differential pressure.
manufacturers have come up with metal- When added emission control is
seated ball valves, which are l l l y fire required, additional packing and leak off
safe. Here the resilient seats are replaced port &e options that can be added.
by metal seats, which could even be Normally all the parts are metal
deposited with high temperatme resistant except the resilient seats in a ball valve. .
materials. The fire safe design should Plastic valves arc. also selected for
also ensure that any development of corrosive process fluids while they
static electricity should be Mly operate up to 150 psi and 100-150C and
discharged by proper design and also in food industry. To select the best
manufacture of valve. Such 'an plastic valve, process data such as
arrangement is called the 'Anti-static' number of cycles before failures is
design. This ensures to have a discharge critical.. Ball valves Lined with PTFE on
path h m ball to the spindle and h m the body and ceramic ball is used for
spindle to the valve body with an extreme corrosive fluids.
electrical resistance of not greater than
10 ohms when the valve is new. A 13 PLUG VALVES
typical method of achieving earthed The plug. valves, like ball
continuity is to provide stainless steel valves, are quarter turn positive shut off
spring-loaded plungers, one fitted valves. Two major types of plug valves
between the stem tongue and ball and are in use. They arc the lubricated metal-
second fitted between stem and body. seated plug vdves and Teflon sleeved
The ball could be of full bore or plug valves. These valves can have
a reduced bore. The design aspect of the flanged, butt-welded, screwed or socket


weld ends. The pressure classification is with the tapered portiorl towards the top,
the same a s that specified for the gate it is called 'inverted plug'. Normally
valves. The range of pressure to which larger diameter (8"NB and above) have
these valves could be used depends upon this design.
the seat, seals and the lubricant. Plug Another design in use is the
valves with shaped port are used for flow Pressure Balanced Plug. The benefit of
control applications. the pressure-balanced design is the
elimination of the possibility of
13.1 Metal Seated Plug Valves unbalanced forces causing taper locking
In lubricated plug valves, the of the plug. This is achieved by using the
lubrication of the seating surfice is by live line presswe to replace the sealant
means of lubricant, which is fed into the pressure. The regular sealant injection is
operating surface of the valve either in not needed to keep the valve fiee to turn.
the form of mastic sticks or by grease The pressure balance system
gun. The selection of the lubricant consists of two holes in the plug
depends upon the service to which the wnnecting the chambers at each end of
valve is subjected to. In certain designs, the plug with the port, which contains
a low friction Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene line pressure.
(PTFE) is impregnated on the mrface The valve having pressure
structure of the valve plug. This is called balanced is called dynamically balanced
'LOMU' treatment. This reduces the plug. MIS Audw called these types of
frequency of valve lubrication. valves as 'Super-H' pressure balanced
The plug valve design refers to valves. The break away torque required
three patterns considering the shape or to operate these valves are lower than
port through the valve and the overall (almost half) that for the reduced port
length. They are the regular pattern, the ball valves.
short pattern and the venturi pattern.
The regular pattern valves have
plug ports generally rectangular in Comparison of Breakaway Torque
section and have area substantially equal Requirement of h v e s
to fill bore of the pipe. The transition
f?om the round body to nxbngular seat The following data has been published
ports is smooth without sudden alteration by a valve rnmufactum to indicate the
in section, which causes turbulence. easiness in operation of. the pressure
These are used where pipeline losses are balanced plug valve.
to be kept minimum. . . - . . a
..- ..: -.
The short pattern- valves baire
firce-to-face dimensions w m p d i n g
to wedge-gate valves. This is used as an
alternative to gate valves.
The Venturi Pattern Valves have
reduced port area. The change of section
through the body h a t is so graded as to
produce a venturi eff& to restore a large
percentage of velocity head ioss through
the valve and produce a resultant total
pressure drop of reiatively low order.
The plug could be installed with
the taper towards the bottom end of the
body or reverse. When the installation is


13.2 Teflon Sleeved Plug Valves

the temperature to which the sleeve can

be subjected to. The sleeved plug valve
also is available complying with the fire
safe atmospheric seal. They are not
manufactured fire safe through seat. The
anti static design as explained for ball
valve is also possible in Sleeved plug
The sleeved plug valves are also
designed with bellow seals to control the
emission rates. There are two basic
bellow seal design for quarter turn
lhwt cok.dclinbcc &eel valves. One is the "goose neck" or the
foamed dbptram PlFE
"bent-strawn design. The other is the .
"rack and pinion" type. The rack and
pinion type maintains a linear bellow so
there is less stress and no forging. There
is an alternative to bellow design is
available and is called a 'caged' plug
valve. In this design the plug is W e d
in another plug and it provides inherent
emission control characteristics of the
sleeved plug valve while improving the
throttling capabilities and reducing wear
BW. FEP u PFA h d potential. Plug valves are also available
dudleiam with Fluoro polymer lined metal body
and plug.

133 "Permasealn Plug Valves

Bdtm d'aphogm, PlFE
m These valves ate similar to the
sleeved plug valves but are provided
with Teflon seats instead o$ sleeves as in
the case of ball valves. These are
designed for on-off applications and can
handle clean viscous and corrosive
liquids. The construction features and
operation are identical to that of the
sleeved plug valves. Graphite seats also
can be provided for high temperature
In Teflon sleeved plug valves, the service. But this design cannot provide
plug and the body in the valve are drip-tight shut off.
separated by a PTFE Sleeve.. This sleeve
setves as the seat for the valve plug, thus 13.4 Eccentric Plug Valves
eliminating the contact of two metal
surfaces. Here, the turning effort is low These valves are provided with plugs,
and fiction is avoided. The limitation is which are mounted off-centre. Eccentric

- -


plug valves are used in corrosive and surfaces of the sealing rings. This
abrasive service for on-off action. provides a large sealing surface I
Eccentric action plug moves into and compared to globe valves of ' 2
away fiom seat eliminating abrasive conventional design.
wear. These are covered under MSS-SP
Piston valves are of two types,
balanced and unbalanced. Balanced
I I:'
valves are used in high-pressure services I. r. I
and unbalanced one for low-pressure I . -
1.4 PISTON VALVES. services.
[ '? - *
The main parts of the valve can
be identified as -- -

1.4.1 Body

1.4.2 Bonnet
-. i
I ' ',

1.4.3 Piston ! 2- .i

1.4.4 Valve rings I -u< =

I -
- >
1 -4.5 Lantern bush 't-
I i
1.4.6 Spindle
; ;
1.4.7 ' Gland I
. .
1.4.8 Packing
1.4.9 Hand wheel -


1.4.10 Yoke bush I

1.4.1 1 Bonnet stud
1.4.12 Gland eyebolt ' ;
c - ...*,, , '. .. > . x.:; -... :: . .
: , : 2-3
?n= bodyii normally d cast .
' . . . ~. .

. .
construction. Itcan have screwed.&,.. ;
' flanged ends or butt-welding ends. These - . . . ..
$. .. ..
.. . .:..J
.. t
valves foilow the regulatory codes' to :-

' . ' '

Piston valves resemble in construction DM. There are no API or ANSI
more towards a globe valve and are wed standards wvkring the piston valves. Tbc
for shut off and regulation. These valves end-to-end dimeasions are to DIN 3202,
provide positive shut off. The shut off which is more than a gate or globe valve
assembly comprises of a metal piston, of the same size to APWANSI/BS
two resilient valve rings and a metal standards. Of late, the Pistoa Valves are
lantern bush. The sealing s d a c e also made to ANSI B16.10 dimensions.
consists of the outer vertical surface of The end connections are also available to
the piston and the corresponding inner AN S m S standards.


The bonnet is also of the same The valve body can be lined or unlined.
material as that of the body and it is of
bolted construction. The piston along
with the two resilient seats provides
proper sealing. The upper valve ring seal
to atmosphere, the lower valve ring
provides seal across the ports. The
lantern ring serves as the distance piece
between the two rings.
There are two types of piston
designs available: Regulating type and
the normal. In regulating type the bottom
part of the piston is tapered to have
throttling effect. The sealing rings are
the heart of the piston valves. The
sealing rings are made h m specially
developed high quality elastomer
material or graphite. The materials are
selected depending upon the service
conditions viz. The fluid for which the ~
ymaterial is selected to suit the
valve is used and its prassure comsive nature of the service fluid.
temperature conditions.
Spring washers are fitted under
the bonnet nuts to ensure that the Diaphragm valve with plastic body is
pressure of the bonnet on the valve ring also manufachued.
is kept constant This along with the There are two types of
resilient sealing rings produces a spring diaphragm valves available. They are the
action, which compemates for any Weir'type and 'Straight flow' type. The
differential expansion that can occur. .most commonly used one is the weir
There are two types of stem type and are popularly known as the
designs available, (ha inside sam rising 'Saunderst type. In this type' the body
stem and the 0' S and Y type with rising configuration is such that isolation as
stem. The haqd wheel is of &g design. well as control is possible.
1110'sandY type, a s t u 5 g b o x with a
bolted g l a d is provided. This design is . A typical diaphragm valve has
mainly wd for Thennic fluid/High the following major parts that could be
t e m ~semdces. t identified. They are:
The piston valves are prefemd
by maintenance people, as they need 1. Body
lesser attention. They call it as 'Fit and
Forget' type of valve. 2. Diaphragm

3. Bonnet
4. Stem
Diaphragm valves are mainly used for
low-pressure corrosive services as shut- 5. Stem bushing
off valves. These can also be used as
control valves. Here the diaphragm 6. Compressor
moves up and down to operate the valve.

Valves 1q
7 . Hand wheel are covered by. British Standard md
MSS-SP Standards. I
8. Bonnet bolting. i 1

The body and the bonnet are

made of casting. The material of
1.6 BUTTERFLY VALVES [ ' $-- i
Butterfly valves are positive
wmtruction of the body depends upon shut off quarter turn valves. The major

I '
the service for which it is used. The body parts of the butterfly valves are: I +--

can also be lined with corrosion resistant 1. Body

materials like PTFE, Glass, Rubber, etc.
depending upon the comsive nature of 2. Disc
thc fluid or could be entirely made out of
plastic material. The diaphragm is 3. Shaft
normally made Grom an elastic material
like PTFE or ~ b b e r .The diaphragm 4. ~ o d seat
presses against the body to give positive
shut off. The port can also be adjusted by '5. Disc seat or seal
controlling the position of diaphragm,
which is being done for control
applications. The diaphrap is secured
6. ' Shaft seal 1 ' 1
2 4
between the bonnet and the body. The 7. Shaft bearing F;:
compressor attached to the diaphragm . .
. .
facilitates the up and down movements. 8. Handle.
There are two types of stem designs
possible in a diaphragm valve. They are
the 'Indicating' and Won-indicating' type.
In the indicating type, the position of the
spindle indicates the port opening. The
opening and closing of the valve is
effected by the hand wheel in a manually
~paated valve. The material of
construction of the hand wheel could be
ductile /malleable iron or even plastic.
The body ends could be flanged,
smwed or butt-welded as required. In
case of diaphragm valve with lined body,
the a d s are always flanged an8 the
lining extends to the flanged surface.
The use of these valves is
restricted as they can withstand a
maximum operating pressure of 7 to 10
k#sq.cm g, The damage to the
diaphragm occurs and hence the
maintenance is more bquent. On lined
valves, spark test is also conducted in
addition to the pressure tests. This is to
&we that the lining is continuous and
no 'holiday' occurs.
There are no MI or ANSI
standards for this type of valves. These

I '

There are three types of body The difference between the

designs possible in a butterfly valve. wafer lug and wafer type body design is
They are the double flanged type, wafer that the former has provision for all the
lug type and wafer type. ln the double- studs to pass through the body whereas
flanged body design, the disc is the latter has provision for only locating
contained within the body and is fitted to bolts. The wafer lug design is also called
the pipeline like any other conventional single flange design.
valve. These types of valves are used As regards the shaft is
rarely as the advantage of sandwich concerned, there can be a single shaft or
design is not available with the same. a main shaft and a stub shaft at the
In the wafer lug type and wafer bottom of the disc. Single shaft is a
type, the valves are designed to pennit better design as it minimizes the
installation between ANSYBS/DIN deflection. The shaft sealing can be done
flanges. There are different designs with '0' ring or stuffing box and
available in these types. In certain packing. These valve designs provide
designs, the body is lined with a resilient inherent emission control advaatages
f .
material such as Nitrile rubber, Ethylene over rising stem valves.
Propylene Dime Monomer (EPDM), . Valves up to 12" NB are
PTFE. The metallic disc with or without operated with lever. The lever cain have
coating ensures proper d i n g against positions to control the flow. Higher
these liners. By selecting proper disc diameter valves are provided with gear
material, this type of valve can be used unit and hand wheel. When used as
for corrosive services. The body could control valves, these can be provided
be of any material. There is no gasket with actuators also.
needed for the installation of these The use of this type of valvc for
valves. high tern- is limited by the
I . certain other designs, the material used for seats. Only resiliat
body will be provided with soft seat seats can ppvide positive shut off.
instead of a liner. This scat flexes against Metallic seating can as0 be provided for
the scaling edge of the disc when the use at higher tern- but will not
valve iS closed. The seat is made of provide positive shut OK
PTFE with catain rchforcemeats. This Thesc valves can be used for
seating is designed to replace the m vacuum service. When used for
seatswhcn~out~ cryogenic service, the ,valve shall bc
Anotha design is the ofErct provided with extended shaft to clear the
shaft and eccaltric disc design, which iIuulation.
imparts camming action to the disc. In When used beneath a h o p
this,. the st- mtre line, the disc centre for solid handling applications, tight shut
line and the pipe centre lines are offset. off is troublesome since particles jam
This feature causes the disc to swing between valve closure surfaces. Further,
completely out of contact with the seat the valve must be strong to lift half the
upon opening, eliminating wear points at disc against the weight of the solids in
top and bottom of scat. On closing, the the hopper. The advantages of these
disc mwes tightly into the flexible lip valves are that the wear resistant
for reliable seating around the entire elastomer has a longer life expectancy
seat. than the conventional metallic seated


(even stellited) valves when used in 2.3 Butterfly Valves

high-density mineral slurries. The
seating problem in other type of valves 2.4 Diaphragm Valves
does not affect these valves as the
encrusted scale will break when the 2.5 Piston Valves
valve operates and solids flush away
with the flow. The sleeve is the only 2.6 Pinch Valves
wetted part and by selecting the right
sleeve material, the valve body can be The features of Butterfly,
made out of low cost material. As the Diaphragm, Piston and Pinch valves
design calls for no gland, there is no were already explained under isolating
fugitive emission and meets the EPA valves. There are many identical f w
requirements. in the construction of gate and globe
valves. The foregoing note is intended to
1.7 PINCXVALVES explain the comparison between these
Pinch valves are also similar to valves highlighting the differences
diaphragm valves. In Pinch valves, the
bodies provided with slwes, which get 2.1 GLOBE VALVES
squeezed to control or stop the flow. The A typical globe valve has the
sleeve could be of comsion resistant following . p e which could be
materials like Rubber or PTFE. The identified
body is normally made firm cast iron.
These are used for special &ces
where service pressures are very low like
isolation of the hose connections etc. in
the chemical process industry. The body
is cast and can have flanged or screwed
Of late manufactunrs have
developed these valves to edldupe higher
pressures and temperaturts (0 to 100 bar
8 c up to 120C @vely) for
application in mining and mineral
These valves an also not
covered under MI or ANSI standads
and are manufactund as per
Mauufacturers' standards.

The valves normally used in the
plant to regulate/control the flow are:
2.1 Globe Valves

2.2 Needle Valves

. f ' . .-
_ I
Valves - 21

1. Body 25. Anti-Rotation Device

2. Bonnet 2.1.1 Body

The construction of the body
3. Yoke differs from that of the gate valve. The
body ports are arranged such that the
4. Backup Ring flow is from the underside of the disk.
Though the code specifies that the globe
5. Thrust Ring valves shall be designed suitable for
installation in either direction of flow,
6. Gasket the preferred direction of flow for globe
valve shall be h m under the disk.
7. Gland Normally the direction of flow is cast or
embossed on the valve body.
8. Stud and Nut There are two types of port
designs possible, the fill port and the
9. Plug duced port. In the fill port desigu the
body ports shall be as large as
10. Seat Ring practicable design considerations permit.
However, in no case the net area of the
11. Spindle bore through the seat of globe shall be
less than the 85% of the area of the
12. Plug Nut actual pipe bore. In the reduced port
design, the port diameter is normally one
13. Back seat size less than that of the connectedpipe.
14. Clamp 2.13 Bonnet
The body bonnet come@ion for
15. Gland Bush the globe valve is the same as that of
gate valves.
16. Gland Flange
2.13 Disk
17. Yoke Sleeve The disk of the globe valve.
shall be:
18. Cross Bolt and Nut Flat faced type
19. Eye Bolt and Nut Plug type
. ..,
20. Yoke Nut

2 1. Hand Wheel Needletype

22. Hand Wheel Nut Vporttype
23. Grub Screw The flat-faced type disks are
used when the valve is to be used for the,
24. Grease Nipple positive shut off service. For such

- 23

valves, disk can be provided with an 2.1.7 Yoke and Yoke bush
elastomer ring or facing which wiIl The construction of the Yoke is
ensure the same. The n d l e type disks the same as that of the gate valve. The
are used when finer flow control is to be Yoke sleeve of the gate valve is machine
achieved, These disks can be also of finished on all surfaces whereas that of
contoured design as used in flow control the globe valve shall be screwed or fitted .
valves. These are generally used for in the position and locked in case of
precise flow control applications. V port rising stern design.
type disc is used for k t t l i n g
application. 2.1.8 hand Wheel & Hand Wheel Nut
The disk shall be either loose or Unlike in gate valve the hand
integral with stem.The integral design is wheel also rises along with the stem for
used mainly for the needle type of disc. globe valve. When used as a control
The loose plug design allows the same to valve, actuators are fixed so that the
be renewable. When in the fully open stem movement is effected through tbe
position, the net area between the disk same. In case of bellow-sealed globe
and the seat shall be equal to the area valves, the non-tising hand wheel design
through the seat. is provided similar to that of gate valve.
Bellow seal is the only way to This is to ensure that the bellows art not
achieve emission control in this type of subjected to torsion.
The above are the major design
2.1.4 Stem aspects of the globe valves and
In case of globe valves, the comparison of'the same with that of the
stem is always of rising design along gate valves. As regards the material of
with the hand wheel. The stem is construction, end connection etc. are
provided with a disk nut at the lower concerned, the same shall be selected by
end. The upper end is provided with a the piping engineer based on the d c e
hand wheel screwed by stem nut. In case of the line to which the vdves are used.
of bellow sealed valves rising stem with Tbe environrnqnt in which the valve is
non-rising hand wheel is provided installed also will have to bt consided
similar to that in the case of gate valve. while selecting the material
2.15 Gland, Gland flange, Packing & There could be slight variation in
Lantern design. from mauufachmr to
Design, a d details same as that milllufbcturer, but the birsic design
of gate valves. features as specified are not a l t d ._
2.1.6 Seat rings 2.2 NEEDLE VALVES
In case of globe valves of The needle valves, like dobe
carbon steel, the hard faced seats can be valves, are used for flow control.
directly deposited on the body or the seat Normally needle valves are used in
rings shall be shoulder seated. smaller sizes and are provided with
either screwed or socket weld end Tbe
design of the needle valve can be c x d y
same as that of 'the globe valve except
for the disk. In globe valves, the disk is
Valves - 24-

like a truncated pyramid whereas in the code covers this design, these are mostly
needle valves it will be full. This facility made as per Manufacturers'standard.
eures finer flow control. The disk could
also be integral with the stem, in which
case UIe bottom part of the stem will be 23 BUlTERFLY,DIAPHRA'GM,
machined .accordingly.
The design and the construction
features of the same are alreadv
explained under the head '~solatio;
Valves'. These valves can perform the
dual duty of control as well as isolation.

As the name ipdicates, these '

valves are used to ensure unidirectional

flow of fluids. Check valves are mainly
divided into two types based on check

3.1 Lift check valves

3.2 Swing ch&k valves

The type is selected depending

Screwed Ends upon the seavice, size and material of
weld Ends construction. N o d l y , small bore .
vdves (up to 40 mm NB) are selected
as lift check and big bore as swing
check due to constructional limitation.
A totally diff-t t y p of
constmition is also used for the needle 3.1 L m CHECK VALVES
valves of smaller sizes. The body1 These valves m e by the
bonnet connection will be screwed on lifting action of .the &&element The
type instead of bolted. In place of a different types of lift check valves
flanged gland with gland bolting, the. available are -
packing will be positioned with a -
screwed d o n gland nut The stem will 3.1.1 Piston lift check
be of inside screw m g e m e n t . This
makes the valve compact. 3.1.2 Ball lift check
The body and bonnet can be of
forged construction or can be fabricated 3.1.3 Non-slam check
from barstock.
These valves are used' only for 3.1.1 Piston lift check
limited applications. Even though the The piston lift valve has body
similar to that of globe valve. The piston

Valves , - Crr

will be in cylindrical fom, the lower end 4. Seat

of which is shaped to form a seating
disk. The cylindrical part fit into the 5. Guide
guide making an effective dashpot.
When it is in l l l y open position, the net 6. Gasket
area between the seating disk and the
seat will be equal to the area through the 7. Cover stud nut
The body will be provided with The body shall be of forged or
renewable body seat rings like in globe cast construction and with socket
valves. In carbon steel valves, there can welded/screwed/flanged ends, integrally
be hard faced seats deposited directly on cast or with welded-on flanges.
to the body. The cover shall be either bolted
The piston lift check valves can or welded or with union nuts. The union
only be placed in the horizontal pipeline. nuts could be of hexagonal or octagonal
The lift check valves can also shape. The cover material shall be same
be provided with'qing-loaded piston as that of the body.
In this case, a spring of specified tension The &g shall be integral or
has to be placed, between the guide and renewable. The M e s s difference can
the piston within the cylindrical portioa also be achieved by weld dqmsit on
This type can be placed in any location seating surfaces. The renewable seat
rings shall be screwed-in type either
3.1.2 Ball lift check shoulder seated or bottom seated.
In ball lift check valves the
unidirectional flow is achieved by the 3.13 NON-SLAM CHECK VALYES
movement of a ball. There are two
designs possible in this pattern, the The non-slam check valve is a
horizontal and the vertical. In vertical spring loaded lift check valve with a
design, the valve should be placed in modified design of the body. he valve
such a way that the flow is always in the is designed in such a way that the same
upward direction. can be sandwiched betweea the two
Thcsc check valves are flanges. Here the disc is held in position
provided with guides to guide the ball by a spring, which is housed, in a
throughout the travel. The travel should housing cap or yoke.
be such that in fully opcn position, the
net area b e t w h the ball and the seat 33 SWING CHECK VALYES
shall be at least equal to the area through These valves operate by the
the seat. swinging action of the disk There arc
The main parts of lift check
valves are the following.
two of swa check dvcs
available. They are the conventid
1. Body swing check valves with flanged ends
and the wafer type spring loaded check
2. Ball / Piston vdves.

3. Cover



3.2.1 Conventional Swing check valves 12. Washer

In these types of valves, the The body will be cast with a tapered
check mechanism is the disk, which is wedge seat and will be provided with
hinged. The pressure of the fluid l i b the renewable seat rings. The wall thickness
disk and allows the flow. The disk and end to endfface to face dimensions
of the body shall be as per the regulatory
code to which it is designed. The end
flanges shall be integrally cast or
attached by welding. The flanged
comection shall be to ANSI B 16.5 or
my other flange standard. The butt-
welding end comection shall be to ANSI
B 16.25.
The disk will be attached to the
,body through hinge and hinge pin and
swings against the same conttolling the
flow. The disk mataid shall be of
quality at least equal to that of the body.
The cover will be bolted on to
returns to the seat with its own weight. the body. The bolted c o ~ e c t i o nshall be
This allows the valve for mounting in raised face/ tongue and groove/male and
horizontal as well as vertical position femaleking type joint depending on the
with upward fluid flow. The main parts pressure rating of the valve. The gasket,
of the valves are - shall be selected to suit the type of
connection. It can be corrugated or flat
1. Body solid metal, corrugated or flat metal
jacketed, asbestos filled, metal ring joint,
2. Cover spiral wound asbestos filled. Rat ring
compressed,asbestos is used for low-
3. Hinge pressure application, Teflon or Teflon
filled for c o d v e applications.
4. Hinge Bracket Normally high W e bolts are uscd for
cover bolting. In cast iron check valves
low &n steel bolts arc used.
6. Cover Stud and Nut 3.2.2 Wafer check valves
The wafer check valves are the
7. Bracket Stud and Nut flangeless swing check valves. These are
covered under the regulatory code API
8. Disc 594. There are two types of wafer check
valve dkigns available.
9. Seat Ring
a) Single plate wafer check valve
10. Hinge Pin . Dual plate wafer check valve
1 1. Disc Pin

- 22-

The arrangement of single plate 4.3 Float,Valves

check valve is somewhat similar to the
conventional swing check valve. Here a 4.4 Foot Valves
circular plate seated against the valve
body seat by line backpressure or flow 4.5 Line Blind Valves
reversal acts as a valve closure. This is
fkther aided by the provision of spring. 4.6 Knife gate Valves
In dual plate check valves, there
are two spring loaded semi circular
plates. The plates are arranged in such a 4.1 MULTI-PORT VALVES
way that the spring force acts beyond the Any valve, which has more
centre of area of each plate and the fluid than two ports, is classified as Multi-port
force acts within the same. This Mcrum Valves. The multi-port valves on certain
causes the heel to open first preventing services reduce the time for operating
rubbing of the seat surface prior to and the over all costs. There are thrc;e
normal opening. The sizes specified in pod valves and four port valves in
API 594 are from 2" NB to 48" NB. common use. Five-port designs are also
Manufacturers have developed standards available. Two types of three port
beyond these sizes as well. designs are available viz. The T'port
The plates shall be made of and the 2' port. The possible flow
matcrial at least equal to that of the patterns of these are as below
body. The body and plate seating surface
can be renewable or integral or with
deposited metal. The seat surface could
be stellited or can be of resilient
material. In these valves, the items
specified under trim are the seating
surfaces, springs, hinge and bearings.
Table 4 of API 594 gives trim numbers
and the corresponding material of
Compared to the conventid
check valves, t h e have less presswe
drop across the vdvc in larger sizes,
reducd water Rammer and are ccmpac.-----

Valves, which perform duties
other than the two-way isolation, control
and check, are classified under the i .. -
category of special purpose valves. Few A most economical layout could be A
of such valves are selected from the study of above flow
patterns. r- . ,b
4.1 Multi-port Valves -'i
The 'typical applications of the three, way 1
4.2 Flush bttom Valves
. valves are-,
I ': :4

. .
. -Z .
.. .3

Valves . . .

' : !
(1) alternate connection of the two (3) Simplification of piping layout and
supply lines to a common delivery, thus economy in fittings,
(2) diversion of flow to either of two (4) Less risk of product mixing by
directions, incorrect valve operation,

(3) isolation of one of a pair of safety (5) The stops can be arranged to arrest
valves for maintenance purpose, the unrequired flow patterns and at
the same time make it impossible
' (4) division o f . flow with isolation
' for desired positions to be obtained.
facility. .
Two of the multi-port valves can
The flow gatterns of a four-way valve also be inter coupled to pennit fast
are- multiple operation in the simplest
possible way and with minimum
It is essential for the designer to
specify the exact requirement of flow
pattems based on the piping
arrangement to the manufacturer. Lack
of proper coordination will result in a
totally different output tban what is
The typical applications .of four way
valves are:
(1) Reversal of pump suction and 43 FLUSH BO'ITOM VALVES
delivery 'These are special type of
valves, which are used to drain out the
(2) B y pass of strainer or meter piping, reactors and vessels. These are
attached to the vessels on pad type
, i
1 x,
(3) ~ e v & of flow through filter,
heat exchanger or dryer.
nozzle. The disks in closed position
match with the bottom of the vessel or
, piping leaving no room for hold up or
The types of valves used
for this design arc the ball or the plug There ire two types of flush
valves. However, globe pattern valves boaom valves.
also can be designed with suitable disc a) Valves with disk opening into the -.

positions to achieve the three-port tanks.

b) Valves with disk into the valve.
The advantages of multi-port design
valves arc - In the first case, the stem
(1) Reduction in number of valves pushes the disk into the tank to drain the
used, liquid. This type cannot be used when
there are any internals, which restrict the
(2) Quick and easy operation, movement of the disk The draining of
the material could be effected

1 Valves - 2-9

completely. In the second case, the disk depending upon the pressure holding
gets pulled down into the valve effecting capacity of the valve. I
II -
the discharge of material. The body lever and intemals
There are two types of disk are rnanufactured - out of gunmetal and I
design available, the plug type and the the float is of PVC or copper depending !
ram type. upon the temperature of the fluid. The
lever length could be adjusted to suit the
Normally, the inlet size of a
standard flush bottom valve is one size level in the reservoir. II
higher than that of the outlet size. There These valves have threaded
are special constructions possible with ends and are c o ~ e c t e dto the wall of the I
both sizes same. The outlet port is at an reservoir with hexagonal nut. The I
angle to the inlet port Normally 45 or 60 reservoir need not be provided with a
degrees deviation is provided. The end nozzle, only an opening is required. The
connections are normally flanged.
However, smaller size samplddrah
level of liquid will always be below inlet
1 J
valves have been developed with The maximum size of valve
1 ;
- -
welding end at inlet to withstand higher covered under the standard is 50 NB and I -
pressures. The maximum rating special design has to be done if higher 7 -
available at present for flanged valves is size valves are required. These are called II .< I
ANSI 300 lbs. equilibrium float valves. i -'>

The parts of the flush bottom . ,

valve are identical to that of a globe
valve and the closing and opening
actions are also similar. The shut off is Foot valves are a sort of non-
achieved by disk closing against the
body seat. The disk could be Globe type
return valves with strainers mounted at
the open end of the pump suction
1 :. -

or Ram type. pipelines. These are used when the pump I

has negative suction. The check action I ' :.I

Jacketed flush bottom valves of the valve holds the priming fluid of ' - 1,
are also possible if required for the the pump while the pumps arc filled Lf

service. The disk and seat also could be before stating. The suction strainer i1 -:-j1
machined to such accuracy to serve the helps to hold the solids while the pump
vacuum duty as well. is sucking the fluid f
43 mom VALVES ~ h e s valves
e are covered under -
, .-,I

the Indian Standard IS 4038. There are

Float valves are used to control
two types of check mechanisms - I ., B
the level of fluid in a m o i r . Only the
inlet of the valve is c o ~ e c t e dwith the available viz. the lift check and the b
supply pipeline and the outlet is open to swing check. The operation of this is t --'

the reservoir. There'will be a float with similar to the Non-return valves. Valves I 1
lever, which contr~lsthe movement of are available with either flanged end
connection or screwed end connection. ' 1
the piston regulating the flow.
The material of construction of the body - 3
These valves are covered under is Cast lron or Gunmetal for the valves.
the Indian Standard IS 1703. There are 1
two types, the "HP" and the 'LP' !
- A ) -

Valves 30

Line blind valves are used These are single seated valves
for positive shut off and replaces a used for slurry senices. They are
'spectacle blind'. Unlike blind plates covered under MSS-SP-Standards.
these are easier to operate and less Being single seated valve, it can be used
expensive than a standard valve. The for only unidirectional operations.
most common type of the line blind
valve is three-bolt/five bolt I-he blind In its simplest fonn, the sliding
valve. Another design is the single gate valves consist of two stationary steel
line blind valve or the 'pulp valve' plates each with large holes drilled
which can be power operated or with through it. A third plate slides between
hand wheel. There also exists a design of stationary plates to perfonn valve
visible-wedge line blind valve,, which operations. When open this design offers
provides a full bore opening or positive no resistance to flow. The ability of the
blinding inside a seat in a three quarter gate to slip through the plate effortlessly
enclosed body. No line residue c a spill
~ is the success of this design. The edge of
when wedges arc being changed and no the gate is shaped to shear the solids and
line movement is necessary when the elastomer seal is used to keep the
spectacles arc changed solids away from entering the space
between the plates when open and to
clean the sliding blade when it retracts.


If specified in the purchase order,
the valves shall be inspected by the
Purchaser's inspeding authority at the
place of manufacture before despatch. If
not, the manufacturer shall 'supply a
certificate stating that the valve and
valve parts comply in all respects with
the relevant standads and regulatory
U n l a additional inspection is
specified in the purchase order,
inspection by the Purchaser shall be
liited to the following.
1.0 Visual examination of any frnished
wnaponents at the assembly stage,

2.0 Visual and dimensional check of

the finished valve,

3.0 Witnessing of the required and

specified optional pressure tests.
Valves - 31

The regulatory codes referred for these For valves used for vacuum
tests are either; service, a low-pressure air test on the
1. API - 598 - Valve inspection and seat shall also be canied out.
Hydrostatic Test Pressures (in bar)
2. API - 607. - Fire safe testing of
soft-seated valves.

3. BS - 6755 - Testing of Valves.

Pressure Tests
Pressure tests, unless otherwise
specified, shall be carried out on each
valve as follows;

1. Shell - hydrostatic (inclusive of

body, bonnet, stuffing box and
cover plate)

For this test, disks, wedges and I .-,

plugs shall be in open psition and ball !
in the half open position. Check valves
shall have pressure applied to the
upstream side. When valves with
I ,i

stuffing box are tested, the back seat - ->

shall be tested for leakage with valve in r' i

! .
l l l y open position and stem packing Note # 1. The hydrostatic seat test
removed or untightened. pressure of soft-wkd valves shall not " 1
exceed the body rating or the seat rating f . .

2. Seat - hydrostatic whichever is lesser (refer regulatory

code for the valves). I - 3f
For gate valves, the test is to be CP

conducted to each side of disk. For globe

For hydrostatic tests, the test . .
fluid shall be water at ambient 3
valves, pressure is to be applied under
the disk For chock values, it is on the
temperature unless the use of another .- f, -,
liquid is agreed. Tbe use of high chloride
downstream side. For ball valves and
plug valves, it is to each side of
- containing water should be avoided. 3
'I'he water may contain water-soluble oil 1 : .)

or a rust inhibitor. - 3
3. Seat - Pneumatic Fire safe test is a destructive
test and carried out only in exceptional
All gate, globe, plug and ball cases when specified. The arrangement
valves are air seat tested at a minimum and test shall be as per API 607 or BS
of 80-psig/100 psig with liquid on the 6755.
side, which is not under pressure. This
test is not required for check valves.

- I

1.1. ~ a t Valves

Steel Gate Valves

Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate
9 API 603 - Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves
P API604 - Ductile Iron Gate Valves - flanged
Gate Valves for water & sewage
Resilient Seated Gate Valves for
water & sewage
Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate,
Globe and Check Valves.
Cast Iron Gate Valves

Gate Valves for Petroleum lndustry

CI Wedge and Double Disc Gate
Valves for general purposes .
CI Gate (parallel slide) valves for
general purposes
Steel Gate, Globe, Check Valves < 2"
Steel ate Valves for Petroleum
Sluice Valves for water works 50 -
1200 rnm.
Steel Gate Valves

1.2. Ball Valves

Recommended Practice for Fire Test

for valves.
P API 607 - ' Fire test for soft-seated ball valves
> C-507 - Ball valvesd'.' - 48'.'
P MSS-SP-72 - Ball valves

aa 3s
Piastic Industrial ball valves
CI and CS Ball valyes for general
Stee1 Ball Valves for petroleum
Ball Valves for general purposes
Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum

1.3. Plug Valves

P. API 593 - Ductile Iron Plug Valves - flanged

Cast Iron Plug Valves
Resilient Seated ~ccentricCI
Plug Valves.
CI and CS Plug valves for
genera1 purposes
Specification for Plug Valves

. . . .
. :
. .
r .T

. . .. . ..
l .S.. Diaphragm Valves .. ,

I '
1 .

. h MSS-SP-88 Diaphragm Type Valves

. . ... 1
P BS-5156 - Diaphragm valves for general
. .

. .

-..- .~.

Purposes ... ,.
1 ;

h BS 5186 - Diaphragm Valves. . 3


3 IS11791 : . - ~~DiaphragmValvesf~general.
. . . . I ~:.
. . . . . . . : . : . . . . . . .
-- . .
. . . . . . .

. ,-

purposeg . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . - 1
. .

. .. . .
. . . .
. .
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .
. .
. . .
-. . . 1 . 1 . . ..-
. 1 . 6 , . ' ~ u t t e . ~ ~ ~ a .l v: e s . . , . " . . ' , . , .. . . : . . .. . . ,. . . . .
. .
. .. . . . . . .
. . . .
. .
. - . i .

. '

7 3

>: 'MI609 - Butterfly valves

. .
I : 3
. h C-504 - . - Rubberse&d Buttemy , 4
h MSS-SP-67 - Butterfly valves' . 1"
' 3
' . .
h MSS-SP-68 . - High pressure. Offseat Design b
Butterfly Valves
. . .
. .
1 ' j -
. .
. . . . . . ;.
. . . . . .. . .
. . . . . .
. . .
- .
. . 3 6 .i r
. .
. .
. .
. . . j

: I !
. .
The Pipes and Tubes can be compared on the following lines: I
Tube pipe
1. Lower thickness and Lower ductility makes it
higher ductility permits unsuitable to coil. Duc to
rolling into coils without higher Moment of Inertia
high differential stress larger bending moment is
between h i & and required for the same radius.
outside of coil. This means larger residual

2. Specified by outsi& dia- Specified by Nominal Bore and

meter and actual thickness thickness by Schedule.
in d m c h or wire gauges.

3. Uniform thickness means Variation in thickness can

Jcsschance of tube failure cause hot spots and consequent
due to hot spots. fail-. . . .

4. lLow rougkytess factor and Higher roughness factor and

lower pressure drop. high pnssun drop.

5. Normally wsd in heat -, : . N o d y used in straight. length

-: &changers & coils for heat' . . , . for fluid transfa. . . ' '

. . . ..
.. transfer. . .
. . . . ..

. . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . .. . . :
. . . . .
. . . . . .. .
. .. . . . . . . . . . , . . .
. . . :

. .

'6. Limitation in s h . No limitation:'

. .
Certificate Course
May 11 27,2005


T. N. Gopinath

Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
\ Powai, Mumbai - 400 076



The drawings are always considered as the which 3D representation of the pipelines can
language of engineers. The machine be prepared.
drawings and the geometrical drawings are 1.0 ' PLAN AND ISOMETRIC -
taught in the basic engineering curriculum. PRESENTATION OF A PIPING
Piping Engineers derive basics from these to SYSTEM
represent the pipeline routing on the
The purpose of drawing is to give detailed
drawing. There are two types of views used
information so that the pipelines could be
in the piping drawings: fabricated and erected to satisfy the process
requirements. Prior to making the piping
a) Orthographic- Plans and Elevations drawings the equipment layout drawings and
b) Pictorial - Isometric Views plot plan are prepared and these drawings
> Piping layout is developed in both plan view are used as the basis for developing the
and elevation view and section 1 details are piping drawing. Sometimes preliminary
f I
piping study is made to fix the equipment
added for clarity wherever necessary. These
co-ordinates. The other data required for the
I drawings are called the General
i Arrangement of Piping. To represent a three development of piping drawings are defined
J in the paper on "Equipment and Piping
plane piping in two dimensions of the paper,
certain symbols are followed. Most Layout".

used are in !' For presentation of unit piping layout the
olthopphic s)mbals are ln
scale adopted usually are 1:25 or 1:33m and
I templates that are wed for spedins up the 1:100 for the pipe mk mas dilfasnf
drakg and 'lso the library sires of drawing sheets available for the
- , ,
for computer drafting.
In complex piping system, especially within -
preparation of the drawings. The Indian
Standard IS 10711 standardises the drawing
-- the unit/plant building where orthographic sheets as below:
views do not illustrate the details of design, OVERALL DIEAENSIONS
pictorial view in isometric presentation is in rnrn (Untrimmed)
drawn for clarity. Specially printed isometric . 841x1189 . -
sheets are available with lines drawn 594 x 841
vertically and at 30' clockwise and 30' 420 x 594
counterclockwise respectively fiom the 297 x 420
horizontal axis of the paper by the use of 210 x 297

Piping Drawings




AT 90'

1.1 .1 BW elbow

1.1.2 1 SW elbow

-7 E
1.1.3 Scrd elbow
--I B
1 .I . 4 Flgd elbow



BW elbow

H 8-J 1
1.2.2 SW elbow

w .?L-JJ
1.2.3 Scrd elbow -II- T

Piping Drawings

AT 90'



Piping Drawings


3.1.3 Scrd Tee &t?t+ $

?-? (

J- S-

3.1.4 Flgd Tee

-r" B .
3.1.5 Stub connection ?+J
'r' Y
3.1.6 Half Coupling ? ) >


3.2.1 BW Tee

3.2.2 SW Tee
.+a++ L. 1
- r
,,A 0
3.2.3 Scrd Tee

i (d0-i-3

Piping Drawings


3.2 1 UPWARD

Piping Drawings 5


8.0 . VALVES

8.1 H a n d Wheel O p e r a t e d
F l g d Valve w i t h
v e r t i c a l h a n d wheel tik%H HWFI 6
8.2 'Lever o p e r a t e d
Hy- / .
wdi+ . 6
8.3 H a n d wheel operated
BW Valve w i t h
r o l l e d hand w h e e l $--&L, +&$+- . .


H3-5 +c+ , .. @.
. .

. .

. .

. . . . . .
. . . . - .
. . .. . . . ..
. . . . .. . . . , . . .. . : . .

. .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. .
. .
. . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . . . . .
. . .
. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .
. . . ' . , , . .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .

. .


Piping Drawings 6

Piping General Arrangement is normally 2.4 Process equipment and piping have
drawn on A, size sheet. If the area to be priority on the Piping GA. The piping
i; covered is small then A, size sheet is also
used. Piping group produces a 'KEY PLAN',
drawings are started after fixing
positions of the equipments.
the plot plan on a small scale (1:500, 1:750 or
! 1:1OOO), which can be a c c b o d a t e d on. an 2.5 Equipment layout is reproduced on
i A,, size drawing sheet as per scale and dividing the Piping GA to its scale and drawn
the area of the site into smaller areas identified on the reverse side in case of manual
i by key letters or numbers. This is added to the drafting. In case of CAD separate
, i piping drawing for reference purposes. The layer is used.. The major primary
subject area of the particular drawing is beams and sec~ndarybeams are also
i hatched or shaded. shown if area covered is indoor.

The dimensional details of the title 2.6 Pertinent background details which
block are specified under the Indian Standard govern piping routing, such as floor
IS 11665. The drawing sheet is divided along drains, HVAC ducting, electrical and
the length and the breadth in equal spaces. The instrument cable trays, etc. are also
longitudinal blocks are identified by alphabets drawn in faint on the reverse.
and those along the breadth numerically.
These co-ordinates are used to locate the area 2.7 Utility stations are also established so
on the drawing. The direction of the north is that the most convenient utility header
taken either towards right or left on top of the routing can be carried out.
drawing sheet. This direction is kept constant
in all the areas covered in the plant, so also is 3.0 DEVELOPMENT OF PIPING
the scale of the drawing. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
3.1 Tbe piping drawings should be
2.1 Obtain the drawings numbers and fill in developed in such a way that all the
the title block, with the drawing number process requirements are met with.
and title at the bottom right hand comer
of the sheet. 3.2 It is not always possible for the piping
drawing to follow exactly the logical
2.2 Place the north arrow at the top lewright arrangement of the P & IDS.
hand corner of the sheet to indicate plant Sometimes lines must be routed with
north. different junction sequence and line
numbers and subsequently the list
2.3 Do not plan. drawing, in thc area above may be changed.
the title block of drawing, as this is
allotted for general notes, number and 3.3 Performance .and economics have to
title of reference drawings, brief be considered in parallel while
description of changes during revision deciding the routing.
and the bill of materials wherever
3.4 Piping is represented by single lines
up to a size of l5ONB and double
lines for sizes 200NB and above. This

Piping Drawings 7

is to save die time of drafting and to 3.14 Each line should be ~dentifiedby line
avoid confusion. number and should also show the
insulation, tracing requirements, etc.
3.5 In single line representation only the
centre line of the pipeline is drawn using 3.15 Lines, if required, shall be broken to
solid line and in double line show the required details 05 hidden
representation the actual size to scale is lines without drawing other views.
drawn with centre line marked in chain-
dotted lines. 3.16 Do not draw details that can be
covered by a note.
3.6 Line numbers are shown against each
line exactly in the same way as 3.17 Draw plan to a larger scale for any
represented in the P&I diagrams. part needing more details and identify
it as "Detail 'A"', etc.
3.7 The change in specification should be
shown in line with P&I diagram. This 3.48 Draw part isometric sketches or part
change is -usually indicated inimediately elevations to clarify complex piping
to the downstream of the valve, flange or or piping hidden in the plan view.
3.19 Full sections through the plant may be
3.8 Valves should be drawn to scale with avoided if isometric drawings are
identification number from the P&ID drawn for the lines. Part sections
marked thereon. where required shall be shown to
clear the hidden details in plan.
3.9 Draw valve hand wheels to scale with
stem fully extended. If it is lever 3.20 Sections in the plan views- are
operated, then the movement of handle identified by numbers say 1-1, 2-2,
position should be marked. etc. and details by alphabets, e-g.
"Detail 'A"'.
3.10 If a valve is chain operated, note the
distance of the chain fiom the operating

3.1 1 Show location of each insfnunent

connection with encircled instrument
number taken b m P&ID.
- ..
3.12 Similar arrangement shall be shown as
typical detail or covered in a separate
company standard as Instrument Hook-
up drawings.

3.13 Draw plan view of each floor of the

plant and these views should indicate
how the layout ,will look like between
floors as seen from top.

Piping Drawings

I I r I I I I

- 0 -

- -

- ,
: I
8 a : '

- : -
. F l '
$. ' D
- : a2 .
: x
- 4

- U&M IR N
- By
@PO B?
8 I 7 ' 1 6 1 5 I 4 I 3. 1, 2. I . I


Piping Drawings

I 0 LL w: a U m I <




- N1/350

5 EL. 1 13.650M Ln


$ EL. 1 0 1 . 5 5 0 M


:;I ;-
" 5 EL. 1 0 3 . 0 4 0 M
-% EL. 100.448M rc)

c b m DR~(~YP)

- =
3 5 0 x 2 0 0 ECC-RED
- 0

* cn

q jut
- . 2000 - 2000


L 4 I 3 I 2 I 1


Piping Drawings


) 1

Piping Drawings 11


, Piping isometrics are three
dim&sional representation or piping on two
dimensional of drawing sheet. An isometric
drawing covers a complete line as per the line
list connecting one piece of equipment to
another. It should show all information
necessary for the fabrication and erection.
Isos are not drawn to scale but should be
proportional for easy
' understanding. 4.2 Dimensions and angles.
Dimensions are given relative to centreline of
piping. 4.3 Reference number of P & IDS, GA
Drawings, line numbers, direction of
Isometric drawing should also include the flow, insulation and tracing. . . . . .

following information:
4.4 Equipment location and equipment
4.1 Plant North -
The direction should be so identification.
selected as to facilitate easy checking of
GA with.Is0 4.5 _ Give nozzle identification on the
connected equipment.

4.6 Give the details of flange: on the . . 1.

equipment if the specification is
different fiom the connecting piping.
. $1 3

4.7 Size and type of every -valve/

., .
. .
1. ,


Direction of operation. 1
4.8 Size and number of control valve.
I .
s -- 3

i 4.9 Location, orientation and number of

each equipment.
. . . .
. .. .. . . . . . . : .

. .
- 1

-4.10. Field .&*Id pief&ed in all.&&tions . '

. .
- =
. __ . . to. take ; c. a. n of 'site variations, Ciin-- . 1'. g
. .
.. . . also be covered
. . .
with a . g e n dnote.
. . . .

. . :
. .

. :. . i..J

4.11 Location o f high point vents and low .

. . . . .

. ..

:' '.

. ,
. .

point drains. Covered with a standard ' ..P

; i
arrangement note.. " -)

4.12, Billof Materid.

;-. .3 ,.
- ,

4.13 Requirements of stress relieving, seal

weldiig, pickling, coating, etc.

Piping Drawings 12 .


When the piping is shop fabricated, the
isometric drawings are developed further to 6.1 Sufficient dimensions to be given for
create spool drawings. A spool is an assembly positioning equipment and for
of fittings, flanges and pipes that may be erecting piping.
prefabricated. It does not include bolts, gaskets,
valves or instruments. A spool sheet is an Duplicating dimensions in different
orthographic drawing of a spool drawn either views should be avoided, as this may
from piping GA or from an iso sheet. Each lead to errors if changes are made.
Reserve horizontal dimensions for the
spool sheet shows only one type of spool and
plan view.
5.1 Instructs welder to fabricate the spool
6.3 If single pipe is to be positioned or a
5.2 Lists the cut lengths of pipe, fittings and pipe connected to nozzle is to be
flanges etc. needed to make the spool indicated, then show the centre line
elevation and mark as c.
5.3 Gives material of construction and any
special treatment of finished piping . 6.4 If several pipes are sharing a common
support, show elevation of Bottom of
5.4 Indicates how many spools of the same Pipes and mark as BOP EL. This is
type are required more applicable to non-insulated
Spool' numbers are given to make the
identification easy. Iso sheets are identified 6.5 In case of several pipes on a pipe
with line number it represents. Both the spool rack, show the 'Top of Support"
and the spool sheet can be identified by a elevation and mark as TOS EL.
number or letter using the ~ S Gsheet number as
prek. 6.6 In case of buried pipelines in trench,
Straight run pipes over 6 m are usually show elevation of bottom of pipes.
not included in a spool, as such lengths may
be welded in the system during erection in the 6.7 In case of drains and sewers, the
field. The size of a spool is limited by the Invert Elevation of the inside of the
available means of transport. pipe is marked as IE.

As a general practice Carbon Steel 6.8 Centre lines of the equipment and .

piping 43NB and below are 'field fabricated'. pipelines shall be located with
All Alloy Steel and Carbon Steel spools 50 reference to the building columr~
NB and above are norma!ly 'shop fabricated'. centre lines or the co-ordinates which
Large diameter piping, being more difficult to can be considered 'as a reference base.
handle, more economically produced in
6.9 The distance between the lines shall
be dimensioned centre line to centre

Piping Drawings

6.10 The horizontal nozzles on the equipment 6.15 For foundation the Top of Grout
shall be located from centre to flange (TOG) elevation is shown.
face in plan. For vertical nozzles show
Face ofFlange elevation (FOF). 6.16 Show dimensions outside the drawn
view - do not cut pictures.
6.1 1 For valves, instruments and non -
standard equipments, show the 6.17 Draw dimension line uibroken with
dimensions from flange face to flange fine line. Write dimension just above
face. . the horizontal line. For vertical lines
write sideways.

6.12 Flanged valves are located with 6.18 The dimension lines can be
dimension to flange faces. Non-flanged teminated with arrow heads or
valves are dimensioned to their centres oblique dashes.
or stems.
6.19 If series of dimension is to be shown,
6.13 For flanged joints show a small gap string them together. Show overall
between dimension lines to indicate dimension .of the string of
gasket. Flanged joints can also be shown dimensions. Avoid one of the break-
without gasket but cover the same with a up dimensions to omit repetition and
general note and include gasket thickness crror during changes.
in the valve or equipment dimensions.

6.14 For Finished Floor (FF) the elevation

shall be the high point of the floor.

Piping Drawings

6.20 Do not omit significant dimension other 7.1 Title of the drawing.
than fitting make up.
7.2 orientation - North arrow against plot
'V plan.

7.3 Inclusion of graphic scale (if drawings

is to be reduced).

7.4 Co-ordinates of equipments against

equipment layout.

7.5 Equipment numbers and their

appearance on the piping dra&g.
6.21 For field run piping, give only those
dimensions which are necessary to route 7.6 Correct identification on all lines in
piping clear of equipments and other all views.
obstructions. Locate only those items 7.7 Line changes.
which are important to the process.
7.8 Reference drawing numbers and files.
6.22 Underline out of scale dimensions or
mark as NTS. 7.9 ~orre'ctnkssof all -&ensii>ns. -- .
6.23 DO not terminate dimensions at screwed 7-10 ~h~~ repramtation is corrwtly
or welded joints. made in line with the standard
symbols or not.
DRAWINGS 7.1 1 Location and identification of all
Checking shall be done only on the print
or the check plot of the drawings and by
instruments. Requirements
coloured pencildpens.
7.12 Insulation requirements as per P&Ds.
A. Corrected areas and dimensions are
marked yellow. 7.13 Piping arrangement against PkID
requirements such as gravity flow,
B . Areas and dimensions which are to be seals, etc.
deleted are marked green.
7.14 Possible interference.
C. Areas to be comctdincorporated on
the drawing are marked in red. 7.15 Correctness of scale in case of
General Anangement Drawings.
The new print after correction is "back
checked" for incorporation. 7.16Whether all stress analysis
requirements are met or not.
Points to be checked on the piping drawing

Piping Drawings IS

7.17 Adequacy of clearance from civil 7.21 Details and section identification
structures, electrical apparatus and match.
instrument consoles,
7.22 "Matchline" provision and accuracy.
7.1.8 Floor and wall openings.
7.23 Presence of signatures and dates.
7.19 Accessibility of operation and
maintenance space and provision of drop 7-24 Accuracy of BOM in ~ s ~ m e t + s -
out and handling areas.
7.25 Number of issues and revision.
7.20 Foundation drawings and vendor
equipment requirements.

I '
i ---
Piping Drawings 16
I .
/ Certificate Course

May 1I 27,2005

. .
. .

: .

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
\ Powai, Mumbai 400 076 -


The selection of a project site is a 1.0 BASIC DATA

major corporate decision considering the
various factors that make the plant 1.1 Civil
technologically and economically viable.
The industrial policy of the government is a 1.1.1 PLANE TABLE SURVEY MAP
major factor to be considered. Availability This document shows the extent of
of the various supporting facilities such as the plot with the overall area identifying all
power, water, emuent disposal, manpower the existing constraints such as transmission
etc. have also to be taken into consideration lines, structures, ponds, place of worship if
along with the size and. nature of the any etc. The survey covers 20 to 30 metres
industry. Once the site selection is done, the beyond the extent of the specified plot to
next activity is to develop the plot plan. show the nearby r o d , drains, etc. and
Plot plan is the master plan locating broad features of the neighbouring plots.
each unitlfacility within the plot boundary This will also show the geographical north
for a process industry such as direction. The location of power and water
co~mcctionsare also shown therein. (Ref.
i) Refinery Fig. 1)
ii) Chemical I A g o Chemical I
Petro-Chemicall Organic Chemical I 1.1.2 CONTOUR SURVEY MAP
Inorganic Chemical Contour survey map shows the levels
iii) Fertilizer of the plot with respect to the mean sea
iv) Pharmaceutical level. These levels arc taken at 10 M Grids
v) Metallurgical so that the topography of the plat is well
vi) Power Generation represented. This will establish the co-
ordinates; normally North-South and East-
The development of plot plan is a much West or it could be X-Y as well. The
involved' job. While locating the various contour map will also show the benchmarks
units/facifities w i ~the. piot' co&dera~on indicating the mean sea level (MSL) to
$balk. b e . given for the operation,
. . .. . establish the level of the plot. (Ref. Fig. 2)
maintenance &ety .=pests related to the
. . 7 . : .

plant and that of the neighbour, fire hazards, 1.1.3. SOIL SURVEY
location o f ' . power and water supply, , , Soil survey is conducted to establish
expansion facilities,
. 'man-material
, .. . . . . the bearing capacity of the soil which will be
mvmmb eu.in a:balm& m m e ~
. .
required for the civil design. The nature of
the soil is also tested to determine the
Before the activity of development of the expansive nature, corrosion properties etc.
plot plan starts, there are a lot of data,
related to all disciplines of engineering, to
be collected and analysed andlor made use
of. Data to be collected before starting can
be classified as follows.

Plot Plan

1.2 Electrical
1.3.10 Steel / Scrap Yard
The data related to electrical will
constitute the supply voltage levels, the 1.3.11 Fire Station
voltage levels required within the plant and
fault levels to establish the power 1.3.12 Weigh Bridge
distribution system, the location of supply
point to decide the location of the receiving 1.3.13 Staff Colony
station and the requirement of the state
electricity boards. 1.4 Meteorological Data

1.3 Non Plant Facilities This data is required to arrive at the

location of the process area, utility ana
Necessary data is required to be and the type of enclosure required for the
collected, to anive at the block size of the building, basic design parameters, the
following facilities, before the work is- drainage details, etc. The data includes
started on the development of plot plan. The
user department should be consulted to 1.4.1 Minimum,maximum and normal
arrive at the requirement and the allocation temperatures during the year
should also be proportionate to the available
plot area and the effective process area.

1.3.1 Administrative Block 1.4.3 Intensity and direction of the wind

(wind rose)
1-3.2 Canteen
1.4.4 Seismic zone
1.3.3 Workshop
1.4.5 Wet and Dry BuIb tcIElpcrahnes '

1.3.4 R & D, QC Laboratory and Pilot

Plant 1.4.6 Flood level
. ,
1.3.5 Gate House 1 Time Office 15 Process data
. . . . <.,&,?
13.6, Security Arrangements .. . . : ....
. . ... . . . . . A lot, of. 'b.
+&. &b
. .- . .. 1-:: )
, ,' ' ' '

- ...
. . : wOrking Of the proces~plant is also required. . . . .c .,I
. .
1.3.7 Vehicle Parking . . .. :
. to develop a plot plm. These a&; . . .;I . 3
. .. ..- ., .. .. . .. ..
. . . .. . . . . .
. . .
. . .. . .. . . .&

... . . . . . . . . .

1.3.8 ~ e d i i aCentre.
l . .. .
. . . 13.1 Size / capacity of the p m e s s unit to . :4 v

work &the area to 'accommdate 1:)

1.3.8 Ware House . . -

. ..
the same.. . . . ' .
8' 1
i) Covered Area 1.5.2 Knowledge on the type of plant, \-- -3
ii) Open Area whether it is to be located indoors or s

iii) Solid Warehouse

iv) Liquid Warehouse

Plot Plan
. ,

outdoors or the extent of enclosure 1.6.4 Requirement of different types of

required. utilities such as Steam, Air, -
1.5.3 Sequence of process flow to locate Nitrogen, DM Water, Soft Water,
the process unit in the proper Cooling Water, Chilled Water,
manner. Brine, etc.
1.6.5 Capacities and the grouping
1.5.4 Hazardous nature of the plant to keep philosophy based on the nature of
proper inter unit distances and work utilities.
out the fire water storage volume.
1.7 Statutory Requirements
1.5.5 The overall operating philosophy of
the plant such as Based on the location, nature and
i) Fully Automatic type of the plant, the requirements by the
ii) Partially Automatic statutory authorities are well spelt out.
iii) Manual Knowledge and application of these are .
iv) Batch / Continuous essential to develop the plot plan. These
talk about the requirements of the Green
1.5.6 Raw material receipt and product belt, Floor area occupation, Floor apace
despatch philosophy index, Width of .the mads. Free area to be-
maintained along the plot boundary, Height
1.5.7 Storage Philosophy. The and tread of the steps, Floor to floor
requirement of above ground and/or distances, requirements of distances to be
underground storages, the nature of maintained between the units, requirements
storage material etc. are required to within the petmleum storages and gas
decide on the block size. storages, fire fighting requirements,. height
of chimneys, etc. These requirements arc as
1.5.8 Effluent plant 'capacity md discharge per the nonns set by
points, incineration requirements,
. 1.7.1 State Industrial Development

1.5.9 Type of hazard to decide 6re hydrant Corporation (SIDC)

system. 1.7.2 Central / State Environmental

1.4. t 0 Numbcr of flares. Pollution Control Boards (PCBS)

I .7.3 Factory Inspectors$: --
1.6 Data on Utilities
1.7.4 State Electricity Boards (SEB)
The following data on utilities are
required to be to size and locate the 1.75 Chief Controller of Explosives
various utilities. (CCOE)
1.6.1 Source andlor supply point of Raw
water 1.7.6 Static and Mobile Pressure Vessel
1.6.2 Quality of water available
Rules (SMPV)
1.6.3 Water consumption for the process
1.7.7 Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC)

Plot Plan 3

1.7.8 Aviation Laws

2.1.6 Non explosive chemical storaged =-.
1.7.9 Chief Inspector of Boilers (CIB) Explosive chemical storages as per ! 4
, -

1.7.10 Oil Industzy Safety Directorate classification t

2.1.7 Petroleum Storage as per

(OISD) classification
1.7.1 1 Food and Drug Administration
2.1 -8 Fire water storage requirements 5-3
2.1.9 Acid / Allcali storage s-?
% >

1.7.12 Ministry of Environment and Forest

WEF) 2.1.10 Steelandscrap yard f)

1.8 Expansion Philosophy 2.1.11 Raw material storage and treatment

The philosophy of expansion within
the unit iind additional units should be 2.1 -12 c ~ shed ~ ~ ~
considered while developing a plot plan. -d
The expansion could be segregated as near 2.1 13 Emuent treatment & Incinerator B
future expansion and far future expansion. plants t <j
apd both should reflect in the overall plot 3,
. plan. 2.1.14 Flare stacks .

2.0 DEVELOPMENT OF PLOT PLAN 2.1.15 control

. I

Based on the data collected as listed above, 2.1.16 Administrative buildings, workshop,
the following details shall be worked out so cant- laboratories, pilot plant ctc.
that these can be used for the development
of plot plan 2.2 Tentative details of Pipe rack/Sleepcrs
* 1
. =d
2.1 Block dimensions of: 2.3 -Interunit distance based on the type
and nature of the process.
2.1.1 Process plants considering- the . .

e x p e o ~philosophy
' l ; . . . .. ,. ,2.4 Safety dist;m~afor #e mragfi:. :.:. - ,

. . based on the relimnt

. .
atahtory . , ' .
. .
2.12 Utilities b s s d on the. group in^.
. .. , . regulationr.... ... . . . ..... . . .. . , '.,. , ,

'.. . .
: and' :
:. ' . . .
philosophy . . ,expansion. .
' ' . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .

... '
. .
. ~ T E .:
iPOI~~TS-TO . .
. .

2.1.3 Electrical receiving station and sub- 3.1. Normally Construction is permitted
station maximum on 50% of the plot area with
total built up area equal to area of the
2.1.4 Uncovered storage spaces plot (i.e. F.S.I. .= 1 (Depending upon
the regulation governing the area and
2.1.5 Solid ware houses the type of industry)

Plot Plan

3.2. Area reserved for tree plantation shall that material handling (solid,liquid) is
be 1/3 of the area occupied. minimum.
3.3. Parking space - 10% of the plot area 4.6 The blocks shall also be arranged
3.4. Water storage capacity - 24 hr. considering prevailing wind direction
minimum. so that flammable gases do not get
The following basics can be used to carried to sources of ignition.
.estimate the water requirement. 4.7 Storage . tanks shall be grouped
according to process classification.
3.4.1 Domestic water - 100 litres per person
Per day 4.8 Centralised control room shall be
located in safe area close to process
3.4.2 Water requirement for Boiler - Steam plant.
rating x Working factor
4.9 Two adjacent process units shall be
3.4.3 Cooling tower - 1114 % of capacity as located based on annual shut down
drift and blow down losses philosophy so that hot work shall not
affect the operation.
3.4.4 Washing - 10.15 litres per day per
sq.R of floor area of the plant 4.10 Process unit shal'l be located on higher
ground away h m the unwanted
3.4.5 Gardening 5 litres per day per sq.ft. traffic.
of garden area
4.11 Process units shall be s e ~ c e c iby
3.5. Height of Boiler Chimney H (in m) = peripheral roads for easy approach.
14 Q where-Qis the quantity of SO2
generated in kg/hr. 4.12 Utility block shall be kept at safe area
close to process plants.

4-0 t3"I'PS TO BE CONSIDERED 4.13 Electrical sub-stations shall be placed

WEFILE DEVELOPING THE at the load centre to minimise cabling.
4.14 Receiving S'tation shall be placed near
Study the contour map and establish the supply point.
the grade leveldtexraces.
4.15 Ware houses shall be lmated close to
Establish the N-S and E:W (or X-Y) the material gate to avoid truck traffic -
grids, the plant north in relation to within the process area
geographical north. 4.1 6 Flms, ~urmaces/~eat&, cooling
Establish the h e area dong the plot towers, etc. shall be placed depending
boundary as per the statutory norms. on the wind direction.
Work out the area requirements for the
green belt, vehicle parking etc. as per 4.17 Provision of future expansion shall be
the norms.
The process blocks shall be located in
the sequential order of process flow so

Plot Plan 5

,. .

4.18 Raw water storage shall be placed i) Class-A - Liquids, which have flash
closer to water source. Fire and raw point less than 23C
water tanks shall be located together.
4.19 Fire stations shall be away from .the ii) Class-B - Liquids which have flash-
hazardous area and nearer to main point 23C and above but
gate. below 65C

4.20 Effluent treatment plant shall be iii) Class-C - Liquids which have flash
located away &om the process and. point 65C and above but
utility area on the downwind direction. below 93C

4.21 Workshop, contractor's shed, storage iv) Excluded

yard, etc. shall be at centralised Petroleum: Liquids, which have flash
location seniced by peripheral roads. point above 93'T

4.22 Two gates are preferred, one for the 5.1.2 REGULATORY QUANTITY
material entry with weigh bridge and ABOVE WHICH LICENCE IS
the other one for man entry. NECESSARY

4.23 Administrative block, laboratories, i) Petroleum Class A - 38 litres

etc. shall be located closer to the man In case of motor conveyance or stationary
entry gate. engines, capacity of fuel tank

4.24 Process unit can be separated within a ii) Petroleum Class B 2,500 litres -
fencing providing additional gate. provided it is contain& in a receptacle not
exceeding 1,000 litres capacity
4.25 Consider recommendation from the
statutory authorities for inter unit iii) Petroleum Class C - 45,000 litres

4.26 Residential colony shall be located EXPLOSIVE TANK FARM I -t 31

away h m the plant more closer to the
city limits. i) P e t m b storage tanks shall be [ >
. . . .
l m d in &IonrrrP I ..
i s .. '..
. . ..
. .
. ..
5.0 P O ~ T S ~ T ~ WHILE:
N S I ~. . ' -a ~~'encloSUTeC . . . . '

DEVELOPING 'MEE EXPLOSIVE . ' l. , '. . ' . .. '. ' ' . .. ' : . :'.
. . . I.t ... I
- ;


REQnRm .
. . : D y k d enclo-.
ii) : be. able to..
.. .. . . . . .

. , .
& mwf&& of
, ,

. ' .
"! .

largest tankinthe tank fium in case of 1

5.1 Layout of Liquid Storage an emergency. . Enclosure capacity

shdl be calculated after deducting the
volumt of the tanks (other than the
- - >
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS largest tank) upto the height of -
enclosure. A h e b o d of 200 mm _4

. .
Plot Plan

shall be considered in fixing the height bund to allow safe access/ escape in all
of the dyke. wind directions.
In case of excluded petroleum the !
capacity of the dyked enclosure could xi) Distances to be observed around
be based on spill containment and not facilities in an installation shall be a s
containment on tank ~u~ture. .
per the relevant chart fiunished in the
Petroleum Rules. (Refer Fig. 3 &
iii) The height of tank endosure dyke shall relevant Table in the Petroleum Rules)
be at least 1 M and shall not be more
lhan 2 M above average ground level
inside. However, for excluded 5.2 Layout Of Gas Storage
petroleum it can be 600 mm. 5.2.1 Storage Vessels are not allowed
below ground level.
iv) Class A andlor Class B petroleum can They are to be installed above ground
be stored in the same dyked enclosure. level.
When Class C is stored together, all
safety stipulations applicable to Class 5.2.2 Vessels shall be located in open.
A and Class B shall apply.
5.2.3 Vessels are not to be installed above
v) Excluded petroleum shall not be stored one another.
in the same dyke.
5.2.4 If vessels in the installation are more
vi) Tanks shall be arranged in two rows so than one, the longitudinal axis of
that each tank is appro~hableh m the vessels should be parallel to each
surround road. other.

vii) The tank height shall not exceed one 5.2.5 Top surfaces of vessels are requhd to
and a half times the diameter of tank or be made in one plane.
20 M whichever is less.

viii) hhhnurn distance between the tank 5.2.6 Vessels installed with their dished ends
shell and the inside of the dyke wall facing each other shall have screca
- dull not be less than one half the' . waIls in between them.
./ height of the tank. Height is
considered-fbmbottom to the top 5.2.7 The distances to be observed between
curb angle, two vessels in one installation and
distance from buildbig or group of
ix) It is better that the comer of the bund building or line of adjoining property
should be rounded and not at right are given in Table 1 & Table 2.
angle as it is difficult extinguish hre in
I a 90' angle comer because of the air 5.2.8 The area where vessels, pumping
compression effect. equipment, loading and unloading
i !. facilities and direct fired vaporizers are
, i There should be a a minimum of two
) x) . provided shall be enclosed by an
access points on opposite sides of the
, i
Plot Plan

Industrial Type Fence at least 2 M high liquefied state shall be provided with
along the perimeter of Safety Zone. enclosure wall all around the ground.
The minimum distance between vessel
5.2:9 The minimum distances to be observed and enclosure wall shall be the
around installation shall be as per the. diameter of the vessel or five meters
guidelines in SMPV, which are whichever is less. Ground shall be
reproduced in able 1.& Table 2. graded to form a slope away 6.om
pumps, compressors or equipments.
5.2.10 Not withstanding anything contained The height of the enclosure shall be 30
in the sub rules above, the storage of cm. on the upper side and gradually
LPG can. be placed underground or increasing to 60 cm. On the lower side
covered by earth in such a manner and at the end of which a shallow sump for
subject to such conditions as may be collection of spilled liquid if any, shall
specified by the notifications by the be provided.
Central Government.
5.2.1 1 Above ground vessel for storage of
corrosive flammable or toxic gas in
- ,

TABLE 1 I pi
F -

Minimum Safety distances for flammable, corrosive & toxic gases .<
. ,


I .!
. /

from Building or . between Pressure


Group of bldgdline
of adjoining property . -?. .

, . . ..f
Not above 2000 . - # .<
, ;
I- <)

Above 2,000 but not

- !
9 r

. . . .

, B
. . . . . .. ...
7 ?

iii Above 1 0 , 0 ~ ) b u t. n .o t .' , 1. . : 15 metres

. ' .2.5 metres : . , .:, . . JP
. .
, ~ v e 2 0 , 0 0 0 ' ~ ; ~ . . . .. .
. . .
. . . .
. .
1 : ;,
.. .
. . . . . : .
. . . .. . . . .. .
. . . . . .
.: .:I
. . 3- >
. . .. . . . . .
. .
iv A b v e 20,(Jmbut not '. 20
. . 2metres
' .-
! ,'
- .

above 40,000 .. . . A 3
- .

. . . , 1-" . b
v . Above 40,000 30 metres 2 metres ..

- - 1
. . 1 : --i
. . . . . . . : 8: --
. . . . J ..
. . . . . . . . .
. .
. .
. .
. . .

Plot Plan 8. . - .' I-"

. . .
. .
- -
. . .

. . 1 ,'

. .
. .

Minimum Safety distances for non-toxic gases

SI. No. Water capacity of Vessels Minimum distance Minimum distance

( in litres ) from Buildiog or between Pressure
Group of bldgsfine Vessels
of adjoining

I Not above 2000 1 3 metres I . 1 metre

ii Above 2,000 but not 5 metres 1.5 metre

above 10,000

Above 10,000 but not 10 metres 2 metres .,

above 20,000

Above 20,000 15 metres Diameter of larger

I t I
Y ote: The distances specified above may be reduced by the Chief Controller in cases 1
he is of the opinion that additional safety m&ures have been provided.,

Minimum Clearances to be considered in a Process Unit
(As per OISD guidelines)

Process units to flare 90M

Storage tanks class A/B - 0.5D or ISM for Class

Am, 6M for Class C

Storage tanlc to vehicle unloading ISM - Class A/B

3M - Class C

Vehicle unloading to boundary facing ISM - Class A/B

3M -Class C

Storage tank periphery to boundary facing -

15M Class A/B
4.5M - Class C

Electrical substation to process units

Head room over main refinery mads 7.6M

Head room oves main-service roads 6M

Head room over secondary

.. . .
.roads -
4.5M for cranes
3.6M-for truck

Plot PIan
!. .
- .



Fig. 2

Plot Plan

\ /
- .'\





++ -~ _ z * - u _ N c ~ . ~ ?PSIE

\ / \/ \/ \/ \/
/\ /\ /\ A .".


Plot Plan
Certificate Course

May 11 27,2005


T. N. Gopinath
Consultant .

Organized by

Piping Engineering Cell

Computer Aided Design Centre
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay I



Equipment and Piping arrangements During the planning stages, the Piping
cannot be segregated to have different Engineer could meet with simple ideas
approaches since the r&uirements of that can effect substantial cost savings. Let
equipment and piping layout design often us take a practical example to it.
overlap. In a chemical process industry, a waste
Equipment is arranged in the process heat boiler had to be installed at the
flow sequence in plan and elevation and exhaust of a diesel mgine to recover the
piping is laid to effect the pmcess flow. It waste heat. Thc .job was award4 to a
is v q . appropriate to say that the Consulting organization on a turnkey
Equipment and Piping layout design is an basis. The design activities took the
ART and not a SCIENCE.There is not a following sequence.
single formula available for the design of The process group worked out the
Equipment and Piping . layout. The required parameters did the process design
equipment layout design can be as rational of the heat exchanger and issued Process
as the matheamtics of fluid flow but with Data Sheet (PDS) to the Fabricated
the language of projective geometry. Equipment Group (FEG), who did the
Mathematics is abstract; geometry is mechanical design and issued the drawing
visual. All engineering courses have to the Piping Group. Piping Group located
mathematics; few have the subject of the h@ exchanger and designed the inlet
projective geometry but none has layout piping and also did the flixibiity analysis
design. HOWCVQ, systematic methods and of the same piping as it is subjected to
pmcedurts can be developed fiom high w . To save the upipment,
engineering principles, specifications, an anchor was placed near the inlet nozzle
practical engineering knowhow, and just with an expansion bellow. The data of the
SIMPLE COMMON SENSE. All this anchor loading was pascd on' thc
sbMlld be coupld with thC: capacity to Structural Group, who deigned a braced
vis;ualize the armsgcmmt of apipmcnt stmdum to take arc ofthis. The total cost
d pipig tbm dimcmsional~. The h e prohibitive. At this point, a
design must take comtmtibility; sumdon was ma& to tum the waste
economics, safety, quality and operation heat boiler q d d e down slnd thus
hito account. All these should be achieved clbhating the heavy shwture. The final
within the Saportest schedule and will design turned out to be simple, cost
demonstrate the technical capacity along effective and occupied less space. (Refa
with cnative taleat and common sense Fig. 1.1% 1.kb)
approach to problcm solving. Although the
tools to achieve thest goals h a v ~cHqngad
from pencil and papcr to computer
graphics, the responsibilities of the Piping
Engineer remains the same.

Equipment and Piping Layout

between alternate layouts. In addition to

capital cost, the plant layout also I

\ f"
influences the operating and maintenance
cost. These are long-term benefits that
affect profitability. I
Incorrectly established plant layouts
can have serious impact on safety and
operability. If the layout does not have I, E'I
enough room, the plant will be --- ,

overcrowded, unsafe and difficult to

a + I :
operate and maintain. On the o k hand, I1 ,c-
&- an overly generous layout results in
~ investmatt
I '-'
2.1 Conceptual Layout
Conceptual l b u t is a part of the basic
engineering package. The design of it is a
highly innovative activity.
In this, only the essential process
design quirements are established,
horizontal and vertical . relationship of
equipment is sptlt out. Space allocation is
there for all the basic plant requirements
such as laboratories, offices, storage etc.
Access for operation, maintenance and
construction is provided for. Control room,
motor control centre room ctc. is also
planned. Thi basic size of the

Fig. 1.1% l.1b buildh#stnieturc is worked out. The

resultant drawing is the conceptual layout.
. DESIGN N o d y small scales of the or& of
1:200 or 1:lOO are used to r e p a the
The mechanical dtsi& and development same along with simplified prcscntation
of the plaut has three majm steps viz. - techii~~es. Plans .along with zLamsuy
2.1 Conceptual layout design .cm& sccbns' Complete this .drawing.
2.2 Equipment layout design - Changes in the process, operating
2.3 Piping laput design .. - philosophy or equipment type and size can
Thcse are not sharply divided anas. cad up in suhtadal changes in. the
Though equipmeat arrangement cam be C O M : ~arraugcment. Hence it is
made along with the piping laputs, it is h p c d v e that, being a basic document,
normally dealt with separately in large pmpa thought should be givca while
plants. g d g the conceptual layout. A typical
The plant layout can be the biggest cost conceptual layout is illustrated in
saver in chemical plant design next to the Fig. 2.1.1.
PPocess and Equipmuit design. Money
wasted or saved can be substantial

Equipment and Piping Layout


--+ +.--+ .-.-. +----+ Information req* for the preparation of

klQliei i +-,3g *
i the equipment layout is more extensive
-. i $pi @ iqq.l i than those required for the concept layout
Tb-101 r P - 2 0 q P-mi-!- -r design. The essential data required for the
preparation of an Equipment Layout is as
--+.-.-I-.--+ 23.1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS
PFD / P&ID is the most important
document refemd to by a layout engineer.
They show how eacb of the equipment is
Fig. Z l . l b PUN MEZ. FLOOR
intccconnccted. P & ID indicates the
information such as solid handling, gravity
fcad, line slopes, loop sizes, v h g and
drabbg requirements, special piping
matcliaas etc. which govem the equipment
l d o n to a great extent
Utility flow diagrams show the
F i g 2 . 1 . 1 ~SECTION individual seavice lines and utility headers.

2 2 Eq-ment ~ayout: 2 3 3 PROJECT DESIGN DATA

EQPipment layout is an extension of Project Design Data includes the
th%.c~nceptuallayout in a more detailed geographic location, proximity to roads
m&cr. In the same way as the P & I d railways, topography and local codes
diqpms are the basic documcats of and regulations. It also lists w e a k
&deal ~~gSnccring dtsiga, equipment ccmditions such as W a l l records,
layout is the basic document of seasonal 'tempcsaturt diffmcts, wind
'mec&icd engincuing design. This is a directions, outlet point for drains ctc. This
*te rndmical C L P design,
~ ~
data affects the desiga of storm watcr
the dcqign infhption to drains and recphment of axlosum.
. bqdhathg
&jwe wnshucticm drawings. Further, the wiqd diPsctian i l l f l m thc
Generally all equipment and facilities Ioaition of cooling towas; b e s ;
@at a& floor space are shown. Access, ineinaatm stacks ttc. .
. -removal space, cleaning area, storage
Grade elevation is d l y r e f d to a
space and handling facilities arc outlined. *
datum such as +100.00 M or O.OM and
GQod layout design minimizes the cost of is r t f d to an absolute levcl in the Plot
opedon and maintenauce. A- is the Plaa This is tixed at the ground floor of
most importad featrrrc to be considend one of the rnajor process plants and it is
Cadwtibility is motha factor, which absolutely essential to establish a
have equal importance. Equipment layout consistent elevation dationsbip between
of laqc outdoor plant is sometimes various facilities. The plants and major
ref@ as plot plan This doctqncpt is the equipment an located with ref- co-
basis for the development of construction ordinates that arc establish4 in the Plot
drawings by all disciplines. Plan.

Equipment and Piping Layout


The soil characteristics decide the convenience. Process compressors under

foundation.depth and the required area to one roof are a fizquei requirement.
be occupied. This affects the equipment Pumps in a row can facilitate better rack
spacing to take care of foundation layout, cable arrangement and
interference and layout of drains. maintenance accessibility
c) Functional euui~menterou~ing
2.23 EQUIPMENT SIZES AND Cost of alloy steeVstainless steel piping
BUILDINGS initiates a compact arrangemekt of
Equipment includes fabricated equipment Bolting condensers on top of
equipment such as Vessels, Heat distillation column as a part of the same,
Exchangers, Reactors, Tanks and stacking heat exchangers one above the
proprietary equipment such as Pumps, other ate some examples. Reactors are
Compressors, Furnaces, Filters etc. The arranged in a row, which need crane or
layout and piping arrangement trolley for removing equipment intmals
characteristics of each of these shall be and for' material handling. Equipment
dealt with subsequently. However certain containing acids or toxic materials is
general principles arc followed in locatiag grouped and located within a paved a d
the same. The equipment is grouped to curbed area which will have the fhcility to
have the optimum location for minimum drain out the efnuent treatment plant or for
pipe run. Pmccss flow sequc~jc is neutralizing i t The building sizes in an
followed to cstablikh the functional outdoor plaht include the MCC mom,
performance of the same. control room, liboratories and space
a) Inline Layout required for personal facilities. These are
Exchangers are placed next to towas. worked out in co-ordination with
Thennosyphon reboilers, which have large Electrical, Instnuneat and CiviVStructural
diameter pipelines, are attached to towers groups-
as well. Towers are ammged with
individual platforms or with a common 23A GUIDELINES - A NEW
platform for several in a line. Generally, APPROACH
surge dnrms, storage vessels, cooks, Layout guidelines for major
heaters are placed betweem distillation equipment arc basedon minimum distance
columns in the process flow se~ueme r e p i d bdwcm various types of
b;) W a r apipneat mou~ing apipmcnt to meet the humncc
Operating or maintenance c o n v c n i ~ rtgulatiom. They tire designed to Wp
and d e t y c o n s i d ~ o n scan dictate the F a t , . =P=idy.
grouping of quipmtnf. Grouped' ' d e n highly inflammable chemicals
exchangers and b e d up channel gads involved-Dese guidelines, wbde usdul,
make possible the use of a common gantry often include ambiguous entries such as
crane moving on rails in the h t for "provide spacing based on access for
bundle reznovaf. Colmm can bt iincd up o p e d o n and main-'; "as
to haw r common pfatfm for Ilmhols rquhd", and "not applicable'' etc. H a m
and valve opcxations. React& or agitated following these guidelines d y could still
kettles can be grouped to have common d t in crowded plant. The solution is to
opcratbg levels and lifting h a m frm the study each piece of equipment to
agitators. Utility equipment is normally determine the needs of oped011 and
housed together for opmting maintenance. This, howevers is an

Equipment and Piping Layout


extremely time consuming activity, and is b) Volume Calculation

qgite possible to be overlooked or not As a second part of the evaluation,
eccowtcd for certain specific need. As a make a similar study by comparing the
result, plant layout becomes a subjective equipment volumes. Calculate the volume
$pic, left to an experienced Piping of each major piece of equipment with the
Enginax. total volume of the plmt. Then compare
A quantitative method is evolved the results with voltnnc ratios of the
by d a Piping Engineers for evaluating existing plants in similar service.
the quality of a given layout in the early - Adjust the size of plant and the
part of design. Two complimentary equipment layout, if necessary. The
calculations meet these criteria. The following guidelines and cautions are
nsults are then compared to those of helpful in improving the accuracy
plants in similar strvice - both good and comparisons.
bad layouts. Used in conjunction with i) Make comparison to as similar a plant
! established pmpticts, this new approach as possible.
can iLgProve engineer's ability to evaluate ii) Use similar a s s u m p k in analyzing
the equipment layout. both existing M1itics and new design.
a) A r c a m iii) For outdoor installation, where volume
Make a scale drawing of the layput has less relevance than in an ~1clOSCd
showing all the equipment such as strrpcturc, rely on the area comparison
Reactors, Exchangers, Filters, ~1~ done.
Vessels, Pumps, and other devices. iv) For tank fann, g& guide lines,
-M- the area actually occupied by dictated for firc safety rcasons or
each quipment and the total area of the statutory requirements govern.
- plant. Now compare this value with that of
thcto@a plants of the same or similar General guide lines for equipment
dcc. k the operatom and minimum spacing &all be as given in the
maintcamce personnel of these plants Table..
wh&a the ama is a8aquate, crowded or
roomy. Thus compare the proposed layout
with that of the existing plants.

Equip~entand Piping Layout



, ,
r <

LINES b) TOC - Top of Concrete

The following are the guidelines c) TOG - Top of Grout 1 ' -:
generally followed while making an a) FGL - Fished Gromd t
Equipment layout drawing. Level ,-'
a) Equipment IayoutNnit Plot Plan &all e)Fm.-FinishcdF100t .
be drawn in 1:SO or 1: 100 scale.
1. = I
Level 3
f ) FS - Ficd Support

b) -40 size drawing sheet should ~enerally =)

be used for equipment layout If the g) SS - Sliding Support -d
.I -
area to be c o v d is small, A1 size can iii) F k r flail or floor treatment - 6
be wed. required should also be explained such as;
c) Place north arrow at the top right hand a) 'AR=ling - 1
I -
comer of the sheet to indicate plant b) Gating i 1
north. c) Chequered Plate F-C

d) The area above title block to be kept e) All cquipmmts are marlcd with its !
free for general notes, legends, equipmdt no. as appearing in .a
reference drawings etc. equipment list 8t dimensions (diameter, -
i) One of the general notes s b d d heightncngth ttc.)
establish how to ascertain thc f ) All cquipments centerline art located in
1' :,
- .
datum level. plant building w.r.t. the column grid
ii) The legends normally adopted For layout of outdoor plant / ofkite I
.A f

Equipment and Piping Layout 6 f ' "


facility, the equipment shall be located coordinates shall be clearly mafked.

by co-ordinates. Avoid duplication. t) One of the general not@ should specify
g) Conceptual layout, P & ID, vendor / the absolute level of the area covered
fericated equipment dra+gs are to be with rkspect to the plot. The dahun
used as basic documeat for preparing preferably should be considered as
equipment layout drawing. +100.00M.
h) Walkways, cutouts, pipe racks, floor u) The equipment load, operating or test
drains, gutter, trenches, ramp etc. if load whichever is msximum shall be
applicable should be clearly marked in considered for design and the layout
the drawing. Mark invert level in should indicate this along with the
trenches p r e f d slope for ramp is 1:s. dynamic factor whertva applicable.
i) For in house plant layout, the location of This could also Be covered in table as
staircases, lift & other utility areas well.
should be clearly shown. v) or k t o r s with agitators, beam
9) In equipment layput sectional drawing, shall be pmvided for agitator removal.
for each equipmeat its top most or w) For vendor cquipments maintenance
bottom most elevations should Be space as rccocnrmcndcd by them for
marked.Enough sections to cover each maintemce shall be pmvidd
equipment shall be considered. X) Equipment layout shall also indicated
k)Oricntation of equipment shall be the positions of utility stations, safety
clearly marked for all the cquipmcnts by shower and eye wash.
orienting one of the major nozzles. y) Equipment elevation shallbe so
1) In case of reactors / tanks, the location arranged to ensure gravity flow where
of manhole / hand hole, SG/LG,I;I etc. specified.
shall be at accessible position. ~3 ~ s c n p r i a ~ riht cjcT T % h o d
a d&;rr\
m)Equipment lifting cutout alongwith 2.2.6 TYPICAL LAYOUTS * wq*h..pa.
laydown area shall be marked clearly In tenns of the equipment
in the drawing. arrangerheat, the equipment layout (unit
n) Equipment planned to be instslled ip plot plan) can b a s i d y bc divided into
filturtshallbeshowndotted. two c o n f i ~ t i o n s :
o) For heat ex~hangcrs,tube rcmovd / a) the grade mourrted horizontal -

cleaning space shall bc marked amngcmcnt as seen in the

p) While locating the pumps carc shall be re6ndcs and petrochemical
takmtocnsutethattheN9SH plants, and
r a q h m t is met. b) the vertical m g e m e n t found in
q)G t n d notes an writtea on one of the many chemical process
drawings (first) and shall not be . __ industries.
repeated on all layouts but reference Irrespective of the type of
shall be given. amn~dmcnt, &ere are certain basic
r) Dimtion of north shall be maintihed principles to be followed while locating
same for all the plans for the same plant the equipment.
/project. i) Economic piping; To minimk cost of
s) If more than one drawing is required to piping; equipment should be located in
cover a specified ma, then the match p m a s scqu~9~:c and close mugh to
line shall be indicated clearly with the suit safety netds, ;access raphments
refxcnce drawings. Matchipg and flcxibili@. Ideafify the group of --

Equipment and Piping Layout 7



r*. 12.1 nuu MRU~


iv) Undergmund facilities: Piping s p d footings. S p d bting

Engineer should investigate the foudation will rapire more space and
fhdities such as storm water drain, equipmcatshouldbespacedt0~t.h
efnucnt drain, fire water, cooling water cataia cases multiple equipment d d
to be placed u n d w u n d before be p l d on r common foundatioo.
deciding the equipment position. v) CLimatic canditions: Weather
Depending upon the soil condition, the condition iduencm the typc of
foundation will be either piled or enclosures aud location of CQUipmcd

Equipment and Piping Layout 8


Wind influence the location . of- The cross section of such units is
furnaces,cooling towers and stacks shown in the sketches 2.2.2 to 22.5. In
principle all these variations of the layout
shown therein are same. One or two lines
of process equipqg~tsare placed along the
a) Grade mounted Hoe2
oat4 pipe rack. Maintenance mads art provided
amnnement parallel to the pipe rack and process
equipments. Central pipe - rack is
In the grade-mounted horizontal in tht line economical as shown in Fig. 2.2.2 and
unit, the equiprnents are placed on either 2.2.3. Air coolers can be placed over the
side of the central pipe rack with auxiliary pipe rack while those at the ground will
roads. The main advantage of this increase the ground coverage. When .
arrangement is that the cquipments are pumps are lined up under the pipe rack
located at grade level, which makes' it with central access and air coolas placed
easier to constxuct, operate and maintain. above, the insuraacc requirement may ask
The disadvantage is that it talres a lot of for sprinklers above the pumps. Tbis type
ground area. The typical layout of a grade of layout is the most economical and
rnountcd outdoor petrochemical plant is thousands of petmchanical plants are built
illustrated in Fig. 22.1. all over the world &g this principle.

Fig. 2.2.2

) Fig. 2.2.3

I r

Equipment and Piping Layout


i. tompressor r=->
houn II II

Fig. 2.2.4

Air coolers.
outside the ~ i ~ e r o c k'

When pumps are placed outside the rack b) Structure mounted Vertical
that will increase the distance between the &-ranetmtnt
pipe rack and process equipment resulting The structure mounted vertical
in additional pipe length. This arrangement bas equipment located at
arrangement is shown in Fig. 2.2.3. multilevels in steel or concrete structure,
The one sided arrangement as This could be indoor or outdoor. The
shown in Fig. 2.2.4 and 2.2.5 are more advantages of this are small amount of
expensive, since only one side of the area ground coverage and the ability to house
is used to locate the process equipments. the facility to suit process requirements
However, if only a narrow area is or climate conditions. The basic principle
available and or if expansion is to be taken of locating equipment in an indoor and
.up in future, these arrangements give outdoor plant remains same. The
optimum solution. applicable principle is economy. In a
The control room and fiunaces m multilevel layout, the vertical'rdationship
placed outside the main process area, of eqdpmmt also to be c o n s i d d The
keeping the required safe distaaces. confined building does not c h q e the
Auxiliary pipe rack is required to run philosophy of kuiPment layout and piping
cables to control room and piping tiom design. However, the requirements of
furnace to process area Safety distance operation and maintmance diffa.
and maximum ,allowable length of transfer in a building, mobile platforms can
line influence the h a c e location. be used extensively but it is m t practicable
Tlrie baric principle to be outdoors Hence permanent local
remembered while locating equipments in platfom are more common in outdoor
all these cases is to eliminate, combine plants Mobile cranes can be used in
and minimize structures to achieve cost . outdm for maintenance. In indoor, tube
savings. pulling area for exchangers is ta be built
in. Bdding will be costly if this facility is
to be included. Or else, the exchanger will
. . . . . .. .,
. .
. . . .
- .
.. . .
. .
. .
Equipment and Piping Layout . . I0
. . . . . .

have to be shifted to workshop for 2 3 Piping Layout
'B cleaning which again will need more time 23.1 PHILOSOPHY OF YARD
and hcnce cost. Removal of large vessels, PIPING
1 glass lined kettles etc., will need space The main artery of an outdoor process
above or below and also access aisle to plant is the pipe rack. Because the rack is
b outside with adequate clearance. Lifting located in the mid of an outdoor plant, the
beams with cranes located with negligible pipe rack must bc mted first. Hence the
* ! initial cast can make substafltial qvings in development of structural drawing
future maintenance cost. becomes one of d y requirements in a '

Typic@ in house vertical . plant. To pass on the data to the

' I arrangement is shown in Fig. 2.2.6. civilhtmctural p u p , ' a civil scope
i drawing showing the width, the column
i spacing and the design load is prepared.
I This 104 data should include, in addition
to the dead weight specified per tunning
&I metcr, the thcimal and occasional loading
. the piping will ixupart 0s to the structure.

iI- !, &,dm: + I t @' h e Ma will inc$udeforces and moments

depending on the type of support provided.
i i1
The struchual designex ~ o f i r t ssuch
pipe rack'@ overcome these
rces and moments. Hence, a proper
B, ! d in the initial stages of
f :
So, the first step in the development of
1) 1 9 TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF AN pipe rack is the generation of a line -
. 1 INDOOR PROCESS PLANT routing diagram. A linc - muting diagram
'r, Fig. 2.2.6a

> r
is a schematic r e p k t a t i o n of all process
and utility-piping systems dnwn on a
copy of plot plan or it could be
plamrnetric r e p e o n of the utility
[ ? and proccss line diagrams. Although it
-3 dkGgads the txsct lmations, e l ~ ~ a t i o ~ ~
or inttrferenees, it locates the most
'j 1 congested -area.
The pipe rack splits the plant area into
-a convenient parts. The pi* rick takes
a I various shapes such as 'straight', 'L', 'T',
and 'C' or 'U*.This d p t i o n is based
on the o v d l m g c m e n t and site
.) 1 conditions. Based on the
incomingloutgoing lines and locations, the
pipe rack is laid.
Fig. 2.3.1 to 2.3.7 shows the typical
pipc rack layout for various plant
1 Fig. 2.2.6b arrangements. Smaller plants have the

Quipment amj Piphg Layout 11

simplest yard piping as shown in

Fig.2.3.1 and 2.32. In the arrangement *--i

shown in Fig 2.3.1, the process and utility r - iI I

line enter and leave at one end of the
battery limit. Fig. 2.3.2 presents a
fiquently adopted layout, with utility
lines entering at one end of the battery
limit and process lines at the opposite end.
This is called a straight through yard.
Layout condition sometimes result in an
'L' - shaped yard as shown in Fig. 2.3.3.
L-shaped yard. lines can enter ond-
leave north a n d east side of the plot.

Fig. 2.3.3

Dead-end y a r d . Lines enter

ond l e o v e one end of y a r d .

Fig. 2 . 3 . ;
i r.-.-- 1 1I
1-shaped yard. Lines can enter and
leove on three sides of the plot

Fig. 2.3..4
. ..
1 . I-.-.,. I --.,. -.-._I .i . , -. ....:. . - -: .. . ,. . . -.
-'. .., . .. .

Strdight-' through: yard. Gnrs con enter. ond . '
leave both ends of the. plot '
. .

. .
.-. . . -

Fig... 2.3.2
' .. .
- . .-

. ...
. .
. .. .



. ' .... .

. .

. .
. .

Equipment and Piping Layout

enter and leave on three sides of the plant.
.-l I Fig. 2.3.5 shows a 'U' or 'C' - shaped
yard. Lines can enter and leave at all four
sides of the plant. Fig2.3.6 shows a
' 13
combination of the 'L' and 'T' - shaped
yard. Lines enter and leave siinilar to that
shown in Fig. 2.3.2. Fig. 2.3.7 shows
-'' i
-c $
complex yard piping for a very large plant.
This layout can be considered as a
combination of many simpler yard Piping
I arrangements.
Of course, the configuration of pipe
'-1 rack is not determined while doing the
1 j plant layout. The arrangement results h m
;3 , an overall plant l a m site conditions,
U-shoped yard. Lines con enter and
le0ve dl four sides of the plot
client requiregents aud above all plant
7 Fig. 2.3.5
_ .tz [ r------------'-------- economy.
1- r----------- The pipelines on the rack arc classified

i 1
\ i L.-.-.-.-., I!
as proctss lines, dicf line headers and
utility lines. The rack should


I ,
~ ~ s F i ~ i % i iu&ci~-7
accommodate the electrical and instrument
cable trays as well. The width of the pipe
! i - -- -- -- - LE0EPPuEN.!J I
rack is estimated as
1: I 528b I. . W=(fxnxs)+A+B
. .

., . 1 I
@~sotsn '
f = ~dcty factor
= 1.5 if pipes arc counted from the PFD