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12) Before the Planck time of 10-43 seconds, the Big Bang must be treated as a

singularity, with even general relativity yielding no information about it. Answer:
TRUE

13) In the GUT, gravity was the first force to take on a separate identity at the
Planck Time. Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 27.2 14) In the GUT, the electromagnetic force and weak nuclear force
were the first to separate, then came gravity.
Answer: FALSE Page Ref: 27.2 15) The period before the separation of the
gravitational force is the Planck Epoch. Answer: TRUE 16) The density of the
cosmos at the end of the lepton epoch was comparable to iron, about ten times
denser than water. Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 27.2 17) Deuterium and helium could be made only during the nuclear
epoch. Answer: Answer: FALSE 18) The protons, neutrons, and electrons of our
atoms were made in the quark epoch. Answer: FALSE

19) Deuterium was made only in primordial nucleosynthesis, since stars destroy
it. Answer: TRUE

20) Primordial nucleosynthesis refers to the Big Bang making all elements up to
iron. Answer: FALSE

21) At decoupling, the electrons and protons were made from neutron decay.
Answer: FALSE

22) Decoupling refers to interactions between matter and antimatter at the end
of the Radiation Era. Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 27.3 23) The horizon problem relates to the isotropy of the microwave
background radiation.Answer: Answer: TRUE Page Ref: 27.418) 24) The universe
expanded by a factor of 1050 during inflation, when the strong force separated
from the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces. Answer: Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 27.4 Multiple Choice 1) Homogeneity and isotropy, taken as
assumptions regarding the structure and evolution of the universe, are known as:
A) Obler's Paradox. B) Hubble's Law. C) Wien's Law. D) the Cosmological Principle.
E) the Grand Unified Theory. 2) Answer: D The redshift of the galaxies is correctly
interpreted as A) a Doppler shift due to the random motions of galaxies in space.
B) an aging of light as gravity weakens with time. C) space itself is expanding
with time, so the photons are stretched while they travel through space. D)
placing our Galaxy near the center of the Local Group. E) the differences in
temperatures and star formation in old and young galaxies. Answer: C

Page Ref: 26.2 3) What does the Hubble law imply about the history of the
universe? A) The universe must be infinitely old and huge. B) The universe had a
beginning and has expanded since, giving it a finite age. C) The Milky Way lies
exactly at the center of this expansion. D) The red shifts will lengthen with time
due to dark energy. E) The red shifts will turn to blue shifts as universe
contraction follows the expansion. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.2 4) The presently accepted value of the Hubble constant
gives an age of A) 4.5 billion years.
B) 8-9 billion years. C) 13.7 billion years. D) 18.0 billion years. E) 22.3 billion
years. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.2 5) The center of the universe A) is the Milky Way. B) is the
Sun. C) is Earth. D) is where the Big Bang happened. E) does not exist anywhere
in space. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.2 6) The sky is dark at night A) because the stars in the Milky
Way are far away. B) because the Sun is on the other side of Earth. C) because
there are far fewer stars on the night side of Earth. D) because all the light from
all the objects in the universe hasn't arrived here yet. E) because the quasars are
too far away from Earth for their light to have arrived here. Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.2 7) What was there just after the Big Bang? A) nothing B)
the primeval fireball C) a singularity D) a black hole E) everything was inside
Earth Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.2 8) What is the Big Bang? A) An enormous explosion that
organized all matter in the universe. B) The creation of matter and the universe.
C) The creation of the primeval fireball. D) An explosion that spewed matter all
over the universe. E) The event that started the expansion of the universe.
Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.2 9) Astronomers know the universe is expanding because A)
everything is moving away from us. B) all stars are moving away from us. C)
most galaxies are moving away from us. D) galaxies farther away are moving
away from us faster. E) there is a cosmic microwave background. Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.2 10) In which of the following models will the universe stop
expanding? A) High Density Universe B) Low Density Universe C) Steady State
Universe D) Critical Density Universe E) Euclidean Universe Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26.3 11) In which of the following models will the universe stop
expanding? A) Open Universe B) Closed Universe C) Critical Density Universe D)
Steady State Universe
E) All have an ultimate collapse. Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26.3 12) What is the meaning of a "closed" universe? A) The
universe is already collapsing back into another cycle. B) The universe will
someday stop expanding and begin collapsing inward. time. C) The universe will
slow down and stop expanding in an infinite amount of

D) The universe is in a steady state, with constant replacement of matter and


energy. E) The universe will expand forever. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.3 13) According to the data from the microwave background
radiation, at what speed and in what direction is Earth moving through the
universe? A) 380 km/s in the direction of Leo B) 70 km/s in the direction of the
Big Bang C) 300,000 km/s in the direction of Polaris D) 250 km/s in the direction
of Vega E) 600 km/s North Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.3 14) In the closed universe model, the geometry of
spacetime in two dimensions resembles the surface of a A) flat piece of paper. B)
saddle. C) cylinder. D) sphere. E) pyramid. Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.4 15) The critical evidence for cosmic acceleration in 1998
came from two teams of
astronomers, both observing: A) hypernovae. B) gamma ray bursts. C) type I
supernovae. D) type II supernovae. E) ages of globular clusters. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.5 16) The expansion rate of the Universe is A) increasing. B)
decreasing. C) constant. D) different in different directions. E) independent of
time. Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.5 17) The universal accelerating force could NOT be
considered: A) antigravity. B) Einstein's cosmological constant. C) dark energy. D)
vacuum pressure. E) dark matter. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.5 18) The luminous matter in the universe accounts for what
percent of the total mass of the universe? A) less than 4% B) about 23% C) about
27% D) about 73%
E) 100% Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.6 19) In the critical universe now proposed, the ratio of
matter/energy is about: A) 50:50. B) 27:73. C) 75:25. D) 10:90. E) 95:5. Answer:
B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.6 20) The two teams involved in the discovery of the cosmic
microwave background radiation were at: A) NRAO and Cal Tech. B) JPL and the
Hubble Space Institute. C) Kitt Peak and the University of Arizona. D) Bell Labs
and Princeton. E) Mt. Palomar and the VLA. Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.7 21) What temperature has the Big Bang cooled to by now?
A) About 3,000 K B) 5,800 K C) About 300 K D) Just over 2.7K E) 1.4 K Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.7 22) The discovery of the cosmic microwave background
was important because A) it established a firm center of the Universe.
B) it was was experimental verification of a prediction from the Big Bang theory.
C) it proved that astronomy at radio wavelengths was possible. D) its detection
was a major advance in microwave testing. E) it showed the universe must be
closed, with more than the critical density here. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.7 23) The photons from the microwave background have not
interacted with matter since the universe was how old? A) 4,000,000,000 years
old B) 4,000,000 years old C) 400,000 years old D) 4,000 years old E) 4 seconds
old Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.7 24) When the microwave background radiation was
emitted, about how big was the universe? A) smaller than the head of a pin B)
1/1,000,000 its current size C) 1/100,000 its current size D) 1/1,000 its currents
size E) 1/100 its current size Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.7 25) According to the microwave background radiation Earth
is A) at the center of the universe. B) near the location of the Big Bang. C) in no
special location in the universe. D) in a part of the universe that is just like any
other part.
E) moving at about 380 km/s toward Leo. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.7 26) The cosmic microwave background is A) redshifted in
the direction of Earth's motion. B) redshifted in the direction of the Sun's motion.
C) redshifted in the direction of the center of the Milky Way. D) blueshifted in the
direction of Earth's motion. E) blueshifted in the direction of the Virgo Cluster.
Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 26.7 27) The critical temperature above which pair production
can occur is called the A) Chandrasekhar Limit. B) Cosmological Constant. C)
fusion temperature. D) threshold temperature. E) event horizon. Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.1 28) When new particle pairs are being created as fast as
they annihilate, it is A) hydrostatic equilibrium. B) thermal equilibrium. C) the
threshold equilibrium. D) the cosmological constant. E) the critical density.
Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.1 29) Currently, most of the mass of the matter of the
universe is believed to consist of A) baryonic matter, made up of protons and
neutrons.
B) tachyonic matter, travelling only faster than the speed of light. C) dark matter
not made of protons and neutrons. D) dark energy. E) tiny but very numerous
black holes. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.1 30) Pair production can occur if A) the energy of two
photons is greater than the combined mass-energy of a particle-anti-particle pair.
B) only virtual particles are produced. C) photons are at the event horizon of a
black hole. D) one particle is struck by a sufficiently high energy photon that a
pair of electrons are formed. E) the particle and antiparticle have opposite spins.
Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.1 31) How does the energy of the cosmic microwave
background compare to the energy radiated by all the stars and galaxies that
ever existed? A) They are very close to being equal. B) 73% cosmic background,
27% starlight. C) About ten times more from the Big Bang than from stars and
galaxies. D) The starlight now dominates the background, as your eyes show
clearly. E) We have no way of comparing matter and energy this way. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 32) The crossover point from radiation to matter
domination occurred A) when the strong force separated from the other two
forces. B) with the emission of the cosmic background radiation. C) about 50,000
years after the Big Bang, at a temperature of about 16,000 K. D) with the
creation of neutrons and protons, at about 1013 K. E) with the creation of
electrons and positrons at about 6 109 K. Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 33) Both protons and neutrons (and their anti-particles)
froze out A) after 10-43 seconds, at the Planck Era. B) at 1032 K, at the end of
the Inflationary Era.

C) at 1013 K, about .0001 seconds after the Big Bang. D) after about a minute of
expansion. E) about 50,000 years after the Big Bang. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 34) In pair production in the Big Bang, which statement is
FALSE? A) The heaviest particles and their antiparticles formed first, from
collisions of the highest energy gamma rays. B) Matter is frozen energy,
according to Einstein's E = mc2. C) Every electron should have a proton formed
at the same time with it. D) Even neutrons have their antineutrons, although
both lack any charge. E) In addition to familiar neutrons and protons, many other
exotic particle and antiparticle pairs formed, but decayed back to radiation.
Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 35) Concerning dark energy, we do know A) that it is
created when matter annihilates anti-matter. B) its density remains constant over
time, so it is not important in the early Universe. C) combined with dark matter,
it will ultimately produce a closed universe. D) that it was revealed with Type II
supernovae distances in the late 1990s. E) that it makes up 90% of all the matter
and energy in the whole universe. Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 36) At this time, the universe is A) radiation dominated. B)
quark dominated. C) lepton dominated.
D) matter dominated. E) dark energy dominated. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 37) Before about 4 billion years ago the universe was A)
radiation dominated. B) quark dominated. C) lepton dominated. D) matter
dominated. E) dark energy dominated. Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 38) Before about 50,000 years after the Big Bang the
universe was A) radiation dominated. B) quark dominated. C) lepton dominated.
D) matter dominated. E) dark energy dominated. Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 39) In the process of pair production, which of the following
is a possible product pair? A) electron-neutron B) proton-neutron C) electron-
positron D) proton-positron E) electron-proton Answer: C is

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 40) Because of their mass, the threshold temperature for
electrons A) higher than that of neutrons.
B) lower than that of protons. C) higher than that of protons. D) lower than that
of hydrogen. E) higher than that of hydrogen. Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.1 41) How hot was the universe at time zero? A) 2.73 K B) 5,
800 K C) 16, 000 K D) 1032 K E) We have no theory capable to addressing this
question. Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.2 42) Gravity becomes separate from the other forces at the
A) decoupling Event, about a million years after the Big Bang. B) end of the
Planck Era, about 10-43 seconds after the Big Bang. C) end of the Inflationary
Epoch, about 10-32 seconds into creation. D) beginning of particle production,
about .0001 seconds into the universe. E) end of electron production, about a
minute after creation. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 43) What would help scientists probe the period from zero
time to 10-43 second? A) discovery of a white hole, with matter and energy
flowing out B) more sophisticated gravity wave detectors C) a theory
incorporating the force of gravity into existing GUTs D) a better understanding of
the nature of dark energy E) more detailed observations of the cosmic
microwave background Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2


44) Collectively, electrons, muons, and neutrinos are called A) hadrons. B)
baryons. C) photons. D) leptons. E) pions. Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 45) The period from about one to 100 seconds after the Big
Bang is called the A) pair-production era. B) atomic epoch. C) nuclear epoch. D)
quark epoch. E) lepton epoch. Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 46) The quark epoch is when A) all known matter. B)
everything in normal atoms. C) only dark energy. D) protons and neutrons that
still survive. E) the rapid inflation of the cosmos. Answer: D _________ was/were
created

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 47) During the nuclear epoch, the temperatures were A)
higher than 1032 K. B) about a trillion degrees. C) comparable to the
temperatures inside giant stars today. D) less than 10 million K. E) between
3,000 and 16,000 K.
Answer:

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 48) What key event took place during the atomic epoch? A)
the universe expanded and cooled enough to allow the first particles to appear.
B) The universe expanded and cooled enough for electrons to orbit protons. C)
The neutrinos were created. D) Atoms in the universe collected to form stars and
galaxies. E) The universe underwent a brief period of rapid expansion. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.2 49) The period from about 100 seconds up to 15 minutes
after the Big Bang is the A) Radiation Era. B) Lepton Epoch. C) Nuclear Epoch. D)
Decoupling Epoch. E) Matter Era. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 50) In the Grand Unified Theory, the superforce was A) only
dark energy. B) a union of the weak and electromagnetic forces. C) a union of all
matter and energy. D) a union of the gravitational, strong and weak nuclear, and
electromagnetic forces. E) was only in effect at low energies. Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 51) Scientists are able to use the theories of physics to
describe the conditions of the universe back to A) the moment of the Big Bang.
B) the end of the Planck Epoch. C) the beginning of GUT. D) the end of the
Radiation Era. E) the Recombination Epoch. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 52)
The nuclear epoch occurred during the formation of A) only protons and
neutrons. B) dark energy. C) deuterium and helium. D) all elements up to iron. E)
all known elements. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 53) How do astronomers define the "superforce"? A) a force
connecting electromagnetism and the strong and the weak nuclear forces B) the
GUT, with all five forces combined C) the GUT, but with no dark energy added in
D) a force connecting gravity and the electroweak force E) a force including only
dark energy and gravity Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 54) At what point do the weak nuclear and electromagnetic
forces split? A) never, they are still united B) at 1012 K, when pair production
starts for neutrons and protons C) at 10-43 seconds, when all four forces
separate as the Planck Era ends D) at about four seconds, when at millions of
degrees hydrogen forms helium E) after about 10-10 seconds, when the
temperature drops below 1015 K
Answer:

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 55) The stellar epoch, which we are still in today, began
with A) the end of the quark epoch, when neutrons and protons fused into
deuterium. B) the end of the lepton epoch, when neutrinos were formed and
escaped from matter. C) with the liberation of the dark energy. D) about 100
million years after the Big Bang, with the making of galaxies. E) about three
billion years after the Big Bang, with population I stars forming. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 56) Which of these orderings of the epochs is correct? A)
nuclear, stellar, galactic B) quark, lepton, atomic C) Planck, lepton, quark D)
nuclear, lepton, quark E) Planck, stellar, galactic Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 57) Of the normal elements around us, the Big Bang
produced A) none, only energy. B) only hydrogen. C) hydrogen and helium. D) all
elements up to iron. E) all elements in much their present proportions. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 58) At the end of the first fifteen minutes, the mass ratio of
H/He created was about A) 50/50. B) 75/25.
C) 27/73. D) 90/10. E) 1/4. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 59) Which of these substances must be primordial? A)
helium B) lithium C) deuterium D) beryllium E) tritium Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 60) The scarcity of what isotope is a critical test of the
density of the present cosmos? A) carbon 14 B) deuterium C) helium 3 D) helium
4 E) lithium 5 Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 61) About how hot was the Big Bang when matter and
energy "decoupled"? A) 900 million K B) 15 million K C) 3,000 K D) 300 K E) 2.73
K Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3


62) What key event happened during the decoupling epoch? A) Pairs of neutrons
and protons were created. B) Electrons and positrons were created. C) expansion
cooled the universe enough that protons could capture electrons in orbit. D) Dark
energy accelerated the cosmos on to infinity. E) The universe underwent a brief
period of very rapid expansion. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 63) The Big Bang formed A) only hydrogen. B) only helium.
C) hydrogen and helium, but nothing else. D) all elements up to iron. E) all
elements found in nature now. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 64) Before the decoupling, A) the Universe was transparent
to radiation. B) the Universe was opaque to radiation. C) protons and electrons
combined to form atoms. D) there was more helium than hydrogen. E) deuterium
produced electrons and positrons. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 65) Most of the deuterium that formed right after the Big
Bang A) is still around today. B) broke down into electrons and neutrons. C)
turned into dark matter. D) quickly burned into helium nuclei.
E) was found in the globular clusters. Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 66) The critical temperature for nucleosynthesis to begin
was the A) triple alpha reaction at 100 million K. B) deuterium bottleneck at
about 900 million K. C) proton-proton cycle at 10 million K. D) iron production at
10 billion K. E) formation of lithium at 50 million K. Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.3 67) There is observational evidence that supports the
theoretical conditions of the universe. The farthest back in the history of the
universe this evidence goes is A) the moment of the Big Bang. B) the end of the
Planck epoch. C) the beginning of GUT. D) the end of the Radiation Era. E) the
Recombination Epoch. Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.3 68) Which of these did NOT occur at decoupling? A) The
cosmic microwave radiation was released from matter. B) Neutral atoms were
formed. C) Matter dominated radiation. D) Electrons began to orbit protons. E)
The universe became transparent. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.3 69) Why didn't elements heavier than helium form in the
first minutes of creation?
A) The first generation of stars used them up too quickly to observe them. B)
There was not enough matter in the universe at that time. C) When He-4 was
formed, the expansion cooled the cosmos below 100 million K. D) The electrons
slowed down enough to be captured into orbits by protons. E) Only Type I
supernovae can produce iron and heavier elements. Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.3 70) The best answer to both the flatness and horizon
problems is A) the Steady State Theory. B) the GUT theory. C) the inflationary
epoch. D) dark energy. E) decoupling. Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.4 71) What did the cosmic microwave background tell
cosmologists about the early universe? A) Nothing; it is a product of the black
hole in the center of our own Galaxy. B) The horizon problem in that the
microwave background is almost too isotropic. C) The discovery of dark energy
and its role in accelerating the universe. D) The discovery of relativistic red shifts
and the Big Bang. E) The dark matter in the universe is mostly baryonic in
nature, for a closed Big Bang. Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.4 Fill-in-the-Blank 1) Most astronomers agree to interpret


________ Law to mean that the present day universe is expanding. Answer:
Hubble's Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26.2
2) ________ Paradox asks why is the night sky dark. Answer: Olbers'

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26.2 3) Einstein's ________ is a candidate for the dark energy that
would be a repulsive force that may exist throughout space, and accelerate the
expansion of the universe. Answer: cosmological constant Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26.5
4) The ________ is the observational evidence that the whole universe was once
extremely hot and dense, as called for in the Big Bang, but has now expanded
and red shifted this energy to much longer wavelengths. Answer: microwave
background radiation

5) Discounting the newly discovered role of dark energy, the universe we live in
now is said to be ________ dominated. Answer: matter

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.1 6) The ________ background radiation in fact far exceeds all
the energy radiated by all the stars and galaxies that formed since then. Answer:
microwave

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.1 7) During the Planck Epoch, all forces were ________, and
the universe was considered as a singularity. Answer: unified

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.2 8) The ________ epoch has dominated the last ten billion
years of universal evolution. Answer: stellar

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.2 9) The universe was ________ old when electrons and
positrons formed. Answer: about a minute

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.2 10) The universe was two minutes old when ________
started to form from deuterium fusion.
Answer:

helium

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.3 11) All of the ________ now observed must be primordial.
Answer: deuterium

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27.3 12) The ________ epoch explains how the uniformity of the
2.73K background could evolve into the clumpy cosmos we live in today. Answer:
inflation

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27.4 13) The separation of the ________ force from the Grand
Unified Force was accompanied by the release of energy which went into forcing
an immense inflation of the size of the universe. Answer: strong (nuclear)

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27.4 14) A compelling advantage of the inflation theory is its
explanation of both the ________ and ________ problems. Answer: horizon; flatness
Ref: 27.4

Diff: 2 Page