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EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 1 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 2

Faculty of Engineering Topics to Cover (Part I)

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Introduction to Statics (2 Hours)
Basic concepts; Fundamental principle of mechanics;
EG1109M Statics and Mechanics of Force vectors and vector operations.
Materials (Part I) Equilibrium of Particles (3 hours)
What is a particle? Forces on a particle & equilibrium
Course Lecturer: A/Prof C. Quan equations; Free body diagram (FBD); Procedures for
problem solving.
Office: EA 05-28 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies (3 Hours)
Tel: 65168089 Moment of a force; Moment of a couple; Equilibrium
Email: mpeqcg@nus.edu.sg
equations, Support reactions, Two-force members;
Three-force members.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 3 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 4

Analysis of Trusses (3 Hours)

Topics to Cover (Part II) by Prof Victor
Definition of truss; Simple truss; Method of joints;
Method of sections.
Analysis of Frames/Machines (2 Hours) Introduction to Stress & Strain
Structures containing multi-force members; Analysis of Axial Loaded Structural Members
frames and machines. Torsional of Cylindrical Shafts
Analysis of Cables (3 hours) Bending (Flexure) of Beams
Cables with concentrated loads; Cables with distributed Stresses in Beams of Symmetrical Cross-Section
loads; Parabolic cables. Subjected to Bending
Friction (2 Hours) Beam Deflection Induced by Bending
Characteristics of dry friction; Problem involving dry
friction; Coefficients of friction; Angles of friction.
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 5 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 6

Lecture Notes: Lecture

Lecture (3hr) / week; also read the recommended textbooks and
C. Quan, EG1109M Part I, Statics, 2015. reference books
Victor Shim, EG1109M Part II, Mechanics of Tutorials
Materials, 2015. e-Tutorials (10 e-tutorial questions)
Inquiry-Based (ib) Tutorials: Four tutorials; compulsory
Recommended Textbook (Part I):
R. C. Hibbeler, K. B. Yap, Mechanic for Engineers: CA Components
Statics, 13th SI ed., Pearson Education South Asia Pte e-Tutorials (15%)
Ltd, 2013. ib-Tutorials (10%)
Quiz (10%) (closed book)
References (Part I): Bridge Design Project (15%)
F. P. Beer, E. R. Johnston, D. F. Mazurek, Vector Mechanics for 2-hour Closed Book Exam (50%), (27 Nov 2015, 2:30 PM)
Engineers: Statics, 10th SI Ed., McGraw Hall, 2013. Websites:
K. K. Ang, B. Michael, C. M. Wang, Statics, McGraw Hall, e-Tutorials: https://citmaple.nus.edu.sg
2011. Course Information: http://ivle.nus.edu.sg/

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 7 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 8

Schedule Schedule
Web-Based Inquiry-based Week 08
Week No Lecture Axially-Loaded Members - -
Tutorial (ib) Tutorial 5 Oct 9 Oct 2015

Week 01 Introduction to Statics, Equilibrium of Week 09 e-Tutorial 6

- - Torsion of Cylindrical Shafts ib-Tutorial 3
10 Aug 14 Aug 2015 Particles 12 Oct 16 Oct 2015 12 Oct 26 Oct
Week 02 Equilibrium of Particles (contd) Quiz (All topics in Statics, Stress/Strain, Axially-Loaded Members)
- -
17 Aug 21 Aug 2015 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies Saturday 17 Oct 2015, Venue: LT7A; Time: 10:00 am 11:00 am
Week 03 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies/Analysis e-Tutorial 1
ib-Tutorial 1 Week 10 Torsion of Cylindrical Shafts (Contd) e-Tutorial 7
24 Aug 28 Aug 2015 of Trusses 24 Aug 7 Sep -
19 Oct 23 Oct 2015 & Beam Bending 19 Oct 2 Nov
Week 04 e-Tutorial 2
Analysis of Trusses/Analysis of Frames - Week 11 e-Tutorial 8 Bridge Project
31 Aug 4 Sep 2015 31 Aug 14 Sep Beam Bending (Contd)
26 Oct 30 Oct 2015 26 Oct 9 Nov Presentation
Week 05 Analysis of Machines/Analysis of e-Tutorial 3
7 Sep 11 Sep 2015 Cables 7 Sep 21 Sep Week 12 e-Tutorial 9 Bridge Project
Bending Stresses
2 Nov 6 Nov 2015 2 Nov 16 Nov Presentation
Week 06 e-Tutorial 4 ib-Tutorial 2
Analysis Cables/Friction
14 Sep 18 Sep 2015 14 Sep 28 Sep Week 13 Bending Stresses (Contd) & Deflectione-Tutorial 10
ib-Tutorial 4
Recess Week: Sat 19 Sep Sun 27 Sep 2015 9 Nov 13 Nov 2015 of Beams 9 Nov 23 Nov
Reading Week: Sat 14 Nov Fri 20 Nov 2015
Week 07 Introduction to Mechanics of Materials, e-Tutorial 5
28 Sep 2 Oct 2015 Stresses and Strains 28 Sep 12 Oct Examination
Friday 27 Nov 2015, Time: 2:30pm 4:30pm
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 9 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 10

3. Upon registering, account will be created.

e-Tutorials (MapleTA) 4. Enter your matriculation number in the student ID field,
Register Account then click on Submit

1. Go to the website https://citmaple.nus.edu.sg/

2. Click on Create an account

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 11 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 12

2. Select the appropriate class (For ME students

Enrolling to EG1109M ONLY) EG1109M Sem 1 2015/2016, then click
1. Upon logging in, click on Enroll in a Class on Register.

3. The class will then appear on your MapleTA home

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 13 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 14

1) Click on a tutorial to open it; 2) Enter answers to the question in the given field; 3)
Tutorial Click on Next or Back to view other questions in the tutorial; 4) After finishing all
1) Upon login to MapleTA, click on the class; 2) The list of tutorials will be questions, click on Submit Assignment to submit the attempt and receive a score; 5)
shown; 3) Homework Tutorials have a start and end date; 4) Homework Click Quit to save your answers to continue again at a later time.
tutorials will only be accessible in between the start and end dates; 5) Practice
tutorials will open when the tutorial has ended.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 15 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 16

After clicking on Submit Assignment, the score will Gradebook

be shown. Click on View Details to view the 1) MapleTA records all attempts for tutorials that are not marked as
breakdown for each question. practice.
2) To view, click on Gradebook View Past Results.
3) Select the appropriate values to query for and click on Search.
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 17 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 18

e-Tutorials (MapleTA) Contact Information:

Mr. Md Khairul Syamil

IT Analyst, Engineering IT Unit
Email: engmksh@nus.edu.sg
Tel: 6516 8761

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 19 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 20

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 21 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 22

Group Design Project Tasks

Truss Bridge over Singapore River Estimate the maximum loading condition the bridge
20 m may experience during its service life. Provide
A B justifications on the loading condition you have
Make a reasonable assumption on the load
Singapore River transfer from the bridge slab to the truss that you
are going to design.

The bridge deck Calculate the forces in each member of the truss,
supports a and select a proper circular hollow section,
twoway traffic! max tension 0.85 Y , max compression 0.75 Y .
Justify the choice of your sections.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 23 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 24

Requirements Objectives of Courses

Group Project
Deliverables 1. To introduce students to the fundamental concepts of
A Group Report (less than 20 pages, 12font double space) (50% of
total grade);
Statics and Mechanics of Materials and their
Grading Scheme (Report): (a) 40% Engineering Design (justification applications to real world engineering problems.
loadings, selection of truss schemes, calculations, etc.); (b) 30% Practicality
(Economic use of materials); (c) 30% Aesthetics and innovation 2. Through this course, the drawing of free-body
Presentations (15 minutes, each team member needs to present) (50% diagrams (FBD) is strongly emphasized. This step is
of total grade)
particularly important when solving equilibrium
Suggestions problems.
There is no standard solution!
Engineering judgment is very important! 3. More importantly, students will develop the ability to
From what is numerically correct to what is rational analyse any Static and Mechanics of Materials
Provide your justifications (references, sources of information)! problems from a simple and rational perspective using
Safety is the utmost concern the principles of mechanics.
But do not design the most expensive bridge!
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 25 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 26

Learning Outcomes Part I: Statics

Equilibrium of Particles.
At the end of this course, students are expected to be able to Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies.
1. Draw a FBD correctly and identify/compute the unknown Analysis of Trusses.
forces/moments to maintain equilibrium.
Analysis of Frames/Machines.
2. Solve statically determinate problems involving rigid Analysis of Cables.
bodies, pin-jointed structures and frames/machines Friction.
with/without friction.
3. Solve statically indeterminate axial/torsional members Part II: Mechanics of Materials
using stress-strain law and compatibility equations. Basic concepts of stress and strains.
4. Analyse a loaded beam and determine the stresses and
Analysis of axial members.
deflections in beam. Analysis of torsional members.
Analysis of flexural members (beams).

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 27 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 28

1. Introduction to Statics What is statics?

1.1 What is Mechanics? Statics is the study of forces and reactions on non-moving
bodies or bodies in uniform motion.
Mechanics is a branch of physical sciences that is concerned
with the state of rest or motion of bodies under the action of
Statics is involved with just the following two equations:
F 0 and M 0
Rigid body Deformable body Fluid mechanics These two main equations imply that all forces (F) and
mechanics mechanics
moments (M) acting on the body must be in equilibrium.
If that is not the case, then the object will move. In statics,
it assumes that nothing moves. In dynamics this restriction
Statics deals with Dynamics deals with is removed.
bodies at rest bodies in motion
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 29 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 30

Statics is the study of forces and reactions on non-moving bodies.

Large cranes such as this one are
required to lift extremely large loads.
Their design is based on the basic
principles of statics and dynamics.

The support columns of the

MRT station are in compression.
The support columns of the
bridge between block EA and
block E1A are in compression. Design of bow ramp system: to facilitate vehicles transportation from
shore to vessel or connect with other barges to form a bridge for
loading and unloading of vehicles.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 31 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 32

Determine the forces that this

prosthetic arm will need to
withstand to make exercise
possible for the wearer.

Tow bar is in tension and landing gear

strut is in compression.

The tension in the cable

supporting this person can be
found using the concepts in
These steel tie rods, used to support
a portion of a bridge, are subjected
to tensile forces.
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 33 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 34

Calculate the force in each

member of this structure (a
truss) in order to design it to
withstand the loads that it will

The truss structure consists of two-

force members that may be in
tension or in compression.
Offshore structures are designed based on the principles of
statics and dynamics.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 35 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 36

Design the joints and support Design hard disk drive in

of the Shuttle Remote electronics application.
Manipulator System (SRMS)
so that it can be used to pick
up and support various

Design the joints and support

of the crane arm so that it can
be used to pick up and support
various payloads.

Design electronic arm and legs in bioengineering application.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 37 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 38

1.2 General Solution Procedure Significant Digits

Important to use enough digits to minimize rounding errors
Problem Solving The use of hand calculators and computers generally makes the accuracy
of the computations much greater than the accuracy of the data. Hence, the
solution accuracy is usually limited by the data accuracy. That is,
Statics revolves just two main equations remember what you learned about significant figures.
As a general rule for engineering problems, numerical values can be
F 0 and M 0 rounded to 4 significant digits without lost of accuracy.
Round all numbers the same.

General solution procedure Actual

Significant Digits
1 2 3 4
1) Read and understand the problem 1230.4567 1000 1200 1230 1230
2) Draw FBD (important and crucial in solving the problems)
0.0034512 0.003 0.0035 0.00345 0.003451
3) Think through and apply relevant equations
88.246864 100 88 88.2 88.25
4) Perform calculation using symbols
5) Substitute in the numerical values and compute answers 28000 30000 28000 28000 28000
3.1415926 3 3.1 3.14 3.142
0.0128 0.01 0.013 0.0128 0.0128

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 39 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 40

1.3 Fundamental Principles Newtons First Law (Law of Inertia)

Every body continues in its state of rest, or in uniform motion in a
Fundamental Quantities of Mechanics straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces
x space In Newtonian mechanics, impressed upon it.
t time these are absolute quantities,
independent of each other. Newtons Second Law
m mass
F ma
F force But force is dependent on the three
Work Energy Principle Impulse Momentum Principle
dv ds dv dv dv
F m m mv F m
dt dt ds ds dt
Fds mvdv
Fdt mdv
1 2 1 2 Impulse mv2 mv1
Work done mv2 mv1
2 2
change in momentum
change in kinetic energy
a 1 m/s2 W mg Newtons Third Law
F ma F 1N
g 9.81 m/s2 To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 41 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 42

Newtons Law of Gravitation

Reading Quizzes
F G 2 where G is the universal gravitational constant
r 1. A collision occurs between a bus and a small sports car. During
G 66.73(1012 ) m3/(kg s2 )
r impact:
a) There is no force between the bus and the car
b) The bus exerts a force on the car, but the car does not
exert any force on the bus
m M
F F c) The bus exerts a much larger force on the car than the car
does on the bus
This principle leads to the concept of weight. d) The force that the bus exerts on the car is equal to the
W mg g 9.81 m/s2 or g 10 m/s2 force the car exerts on the bus
Me e) The car exerts a larger force on the bus than the bus on
where g G = gravitational acceleration
re2 the car
M e and re are the mass and the radius of Earth, respectively.

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 43 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 44

1.4 Force Vectors and Vector Operations

2. If you moved to a planet of the same radius but a greater
mass, your weight would
a) decrease W mg There are three concurrent
b) increase M forces acting on the hook
g G 2e FR
due to the chains.
c) remain the same re
We need to decide if the
hook will fail (bend or
3. If you moved to a planet of the same mass but a larger radius, break).
your mass would To do this, we need to know
a) decrease the resultant or total force
b) increase acting on the hook as a
c) remain the same result of the three chains.
EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 45 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 46

Parallelogram Law, Law of cosine & Law of sine Example 1.1 The screw eye in Fig. 1.1a is subjected to two forces
F1 and F2 . Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant
A force has both magnitude & direction, making it a vector quantity. force.
Addition of forces obeys the parallelogram law of vector addition.

F1 or F1


Magnitude and direction of FR can be obtained by the Law of cosines

or Law of sines
FR F12 F22 2 F1F2 cos R

F1 F FR Fig. 1.1a
sin 1 sin 2 sin R

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 47 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 48

Solution: Parallelogram law. The parallelogram is formed by Trigonometry. From the parallelogram, the vector triangle is
drawing a line from the head of F1 that is parallel to F2 and another constructed as shown in Fig. 1.1c. Using the law of cosines
line from the head of F2 that is parallel to F1 . The resultant force FR
extends to where these lines intersect at point A (Fig. 1.1b). The two FR (100) 2 (150) 2 2(100)(150) cos115o
unknowns are the magnitude of FR and the angle . 10000 22500 (30000)( 0.4226) 212.6 N

Applying the law of sines to determine .

150 212.6 150

sin (sin 1150 )
sin sin115o

The direction of FR measured from the
horizontal is
Fig. 1.1b Fig. 1.1c 39.8o 15o 54.8o
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 49 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 50

Example 1.2 A barge is pulled by two tugboats (Fig. 1.2a). If the Solution: (a) Parallelogram law. With the magnitude and direction
resultant of the forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5-kN force of the resultant known and the directions of the other two sides
directed along the axis of the barge, (a) determine the tension in each parallel to the ropes given, apply the law of sines to find the rope
of the ropes for = 45o; (b) At what value of would the tension in tensions.
rope 2 be a minimum? T1 T2 5

5 kN sin 45 sin30 sin105

T1 3.66 kN, T2 2.59 kN

Fig. 1.2b (b) The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs

when T1 and T2 are perpendicular
5 kN
T2 (5) sin30o T2 2.5 kN
T1 (5) cos30o T2 4.33 kN
Fig. 1.2a
90o 30o 60o
Fig. 1.2c

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 51 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 52

Addition of a System of Coplanar Forces Addition of Several Forces

We resolve vectors into components using
the x and y-axis coordinate system.
Each component of the vector is shown as a
magnitude and a direction.
The directions are based on the x and y axes.
We use the unit vectors i and j to designate
the x and y-axes. For example,

F Fx i Fy j or F Fxi ( Fy ) j
Break the three vectors into components, then add them.
The x and y axis are always perpendicular
to each other. Together, they can be directed FR F1 F2 F3
at any inclination. F1 x i F1 y j F2 x i F2 y j F3 x i F3 y j
( F1 x F2 x F3 x )i ( F1 y F2 y F3 y ) j

The Principle of B FRx i FRy j
Transmissibility FRy
F F F F F F F F arctan , FR FRx2 FRy2
EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 53 EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 54

Solutions I: Scalar notation.

Example 1.3 The link in Fig1.3a is subjected to two forces F1 and First we resolve each force into its x and y components, as shown
F2 . Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force. in Fig. 1.3b, then we sum these components algebraically.
+ ( FR ) x Fx : ( FR ) x 600 cos 30o 400 sin 45o 236.8 N
+ ( FR ) y Fy : ( FR ) y 600 sin 30o 400 cos 45o 582.8N
The resultant force shown in Fig. 1.3c is given by
FR ( 236.8) 2 (582.8) 2 629 N
From the vector addition, arctan( 582.8 / 236.8) 67.9 o

Fig. 1.3a

Fig. 1.3b Fig. 1.3c

EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 55 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 56

Solutions II: Vector notation. Example 1.4 Four forces act on bolt A as shown in Fig. 1.4a.
From Fig. 1.3b, each force is first expressed as Cartesian vector. Determine the resultant of the forces on the bolt.
F1 {600 cos 30o i 600 sin 30o j}N Solutions:
F2 {400 sin 45o i 400 cos 45o j}N
Resolve each force into
Then, FR F1 F2 (600 cos 30o 400 sin 45o )i rectangular components.
(600 sin 30o 400 cos 45o ) j Determine the components of
{236.8i 582.8 j} N the resultant by adding the
The magnitude and direction of resultant corresponding force
force are components in the x and y
FR ( 236.8) 2 (582.8) 2 629 N
Fig. 1.4a Calculate the magnitude and
arctan( 582.8 / 236.8) 67.9o
direction of the resultant.
Note: Comparing two methods, the use of scalar
notation is more efficient since the components
can be found directly. However, Cartesian vector
Fig. 1.3b
analysis is very beneficial for solving 3D problems.
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 57 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 58

Resolve each force into rectangular Addition of Cartesian Force Vectors

Many structures and machines
Force Mag x comp y comp
involve 3-dimensional (3D) space.
F1 150 129 .9 75 .0
F2 80 27 .4 75 .2 In this case, the power pole has guy
wires helping to keep it upright in
F3 110 0 110 .0
high winds. How would you
F4 100 96 .6 25 .9
represent the forces in the cables
Rx 199.1 R y 14.3 using Cartesian vector form?
Fig. 1.4b
Determine the components of the resultant
by adding the corresponding force In the case of this radio tower, if you
components. know the forces in the three cables,
Calculate the magnitude and direction. how would you determine the
Fig. 1.4c resultant force acting at D, the top of
R Rx i R y j R (199.1 N) i (14.3 N) j
the tower?
14.3 N
tan 4.1
199.1 N

EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 59 EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 60

Cartesian Vector Representation in 3D Direction of Cartesian Vector in 3D

Consider a box with sides Ax, Ay, and Az meters long. The vector The direction of vector A is defined by the angles , , and .
A can be defined as These angles are measured between the vector and the positive x, y and
A ( Ax i Ay j Az k ) m z axes, respectively. Their range of values are from 0 to 180.
Using trigonometry, direction cosines are found using
The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system
Ax A A
are i, j, and k. They are unit vectors along cos cos y cos z
the positive x, y, and z axes respectively. A A A
These angles are not independent. They must
The projection of vector A in the x-y plane
satisfy the following equation.
is A. The magnitude of A is found by
using the same approach as a 2-D vector: cos2 cos2 cos2 1
This result can be derived from the definition of a
A Ax2 Ay2 coordinate direction angles and the unit vector. The
The magnitude of the position vector A can formula for finding the unit vector of any position
vector: A A A A
now be obtained as uA x i y j z k
A ( A) 2 Az2 Ax2 Ay2 Az2 or
u A cos i cos j cos2 k
2 2
EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 61 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 62

Addition of Cartesian Vectors in 3D Example 1.5 Determine the resultant force acting on the hook as
Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy to add shown in Fig. 1.5a.
or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as when 2-D
vectors are added. For example, if
A Ax i Ay j Az k and
B Bx i B y j Bz k then

A B ( Ax Bx )i ( Ay B y ) j ( Az Bz )k
A B ( Ax Bx )i ( Ay B y ) j ( Az Bz )k
For a system of several concurrent forces,
the force resultant is the vector of sum of
all forces and can be written as Fig. 1.5a
FR F Fx i Fy j Fz k

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 63 EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 64

Solution: Now, resolve force F2

Using geometry and trigonometry, write F1 and F2 in Cartesian vector F2 z 800 sin 45o 565.7 N
F2 800 cos 45o 565.7 N
Then add the two forces (by adding x and y-components).
F2 can be further resolved as F2

First, resolve force F1 F2 x 565.7cos30o 489.9 N

Fx 0 N F2 y 565.7 sin 30o 282.8 N F2z

Fy 500(4 / 5) 400 N Thus, we can write:

Fz 500(3 / 5) 300 N F2 {489.9i 282.8 j 565.7k} N

So the resultant force FR F1 F2
Now, write F1 in Cartesian vector form (dont forget the units!)
F1 {0i 400 j 300k} N
F1 {0i 400 j 300k} N F2 {489.9i 282.8 j 565.7k} N
FR {490i 683j 266k} N
How to determine the magnitude and direction of resultant force?
EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 65 EG1109FC (Part 2) Chap 1 - 66

Position Vector & Force Vector Directed Along a Line in 3D Example 1.6 The guy wires are used to support the telephone pole
The position vector directed from A to B, rAB , is defined as as shown in Fig. 1.6. Represent the force in each wire in Cartesian
rAB {( xB x A )i ( y B y A ) j ( zB z A )k} m vector form. Neglect the diameter of the pole.

Note that B is the ending point and A is the starting point. ALWAYS subtract the
tail coordinates from the tip coordinates!

If a force is directed along a line, then we can represent the force vector in
Cartesian coordinates by using a unit vector and the forces magnitude. So
we need to: a) Find the position vector, rAB , along two points on that line; b) Fig. 1.6
Find the unit vector describing the lines direction, uAB = (rAB/rAB); c)
Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the force, F = F uAB .

EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 67 EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 68

Solution: Unit vector uBD :

Find the position vectors rAC & rBD, and their unit vectors uAC & uBD rBD [( 2 0)i ( 3 0) j (0 5.5)k ]
Multiplying the unit vectors by the respective magnitude of forces to [2i 3j 5.5k ] m
obtain the force vectors.
rBD 22 ( 3)2 ( 5.5)2 6.576 m
Unit vector uAC :
rBD 2i 3j 5.5k
u BD
rAC [( 1 0)i (4 0) j (0 4)k ] rBD 6.576
[ 1i 4 j 4k ] m 0.3041i 0.4562 j 0.8363k
rAC ( 1)2 42 ( 4)2 5.745 m Force vectors: FA FAu AC 250[0.1741i 0.6963j 0.6963k ]
r 1i 4 j 4k [43.52i 174.08 j 174.08k ]
rAC 5.745 [43.5i 174 j 174k ] N
0.1741i 0.6963j 0.6963k FB FB u BD 175[0.3041i 0.4562 j 0.8363k ]
[53.22i 79.83j 146.36k ]
[53.2i 79.8 j 146k ] N
How to determine the magnitude and direction of resultant force?
EG1109M (Part 1) Chap 1 - 69

Force Components Obtained by Dot Product of Vectors

The component of a force along a given axis may be obtained
using the dot (or scalar) product A B AB cos . The angle is
the smallest angle between the two vectors and is always in a range
of 0 to 180.
To find the component of force P along the direction of Q:

The component of P along Q direction is

P cos b Q
ob oa cos P cos

o a As P Q PQ cos
Q P cos P P uQ
In this expression, uQ Q / Q is a unit
o P vector along Q. Hence, the component of P
along Q is P uQ