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Human always tries for better comfort and sophistication at each level of
his life. Considering air conditioning, evaporative cooler are used in less
humidity and dry climate. The limitation of evaporative cooler is that it is not
suitable in humid environment and also their performance is poor in the places
where ventilation is not proper. The objective of this project is to increase the
effectiveness of the ordinary table fan by using simple mechanism and
overcome the limitation of evaporative cooler. In this project the table fan is
wound with copper tube by copper wire. Vinyl tube is connected with one end
of the copper tube and another end of vinyl tube is connected with pump. Pump
immersed in the cooling chamber. Vinyl tube is connected with another end of
copper tube another end of vinyl tube is immersed in the cooling chamber. Fan
and pump connected with electricity pump and is sucks the cool water from the
cooling chamber. Oryzopsis hymenoides (Synonym: Stipa hymenoides,
Common name: Indian ricegrass) is can be used for this cooling process

KEY WORDS -evaporative cooler, copper coil, pump, cooling chamber,

refrigerant, Indian ricegrass


World is always trying to invent new one. Somebody tries to find new
one and tries to modify an ordinary one to implement a technology. Energy
plays an important role in the material, social and cultural life of mankind. This
is the result of population growth and increase in the standard of living which is
directly proportional to energy consumption.

In practice air conditioner and air cooler are widely used in the world.
These electrical devices consumed more electrical power and it is not benefit for
the poor people. In practice powershortage is also occurred. These problems are
rectified by modification of ordinary table fan.

In summer season, the ordinary table fan gives small amount of cold air
in the room. So the table fan is modified by using copper tube and Special
design Cooling Chamber. In this project the cooling of air by using cold water
or any other refrigerant which is circulated in the copper tube for the purpose of
reducing the heat in the surrounding environment is of great importance in
widelydistributed villages with little or no rural electrification and also in the
urban areas where power shortage is often in practice.

In this project the ice cooler chamber for storing the cold water or cold
ice bars or ice cubes which whose temperature decrease as time passes. This
cold water or refrigerant is circulated through the copper tube with help
aquarium pump which kept water cold for long times. The fan blowing against
the copper tube which gives more cooling air in the surroundings.
Historically, much of the automotive air conditioning industry has been
dominated by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, particularly R-12

However, CFC refrigerants are suspected of causing harm to the

environment. They are believed to be partially responsible for the depletion of
the earth's ozone layer. Many design changes must be incorporated to bring the
performance and efficiency of new R-134a systems up to those of past R-12
systems. Furthermore, with the increased use of microprocessors in
automobiles, additional improvements in air conditioning system performance
can be achieved through the use of optimal or adaptive control algorithms.

To facilitate design changes, aid in system performance optimization and

allow for the development of advanced control algorithms, reasonably accurate
mobile air conditioning system models need to be developed.

If a mobile air conditioning model is to be useful, it must simulate the

system under transient conditions. Mobile air conditioning systems almost
always operate under transient conditions. These transients are primarily
induced by changes in the compressor speed (proportional to engine speed),
changes in the inlet air conditions of the evaporator and condenser, and cycling
of the compressor to avoid evaporator frosting.

To facilitate the development of transient simulation models, it is often

useful to start with the development of a steady-state model. The present study
is a segment of a mobile air conditioning transient modeling investigation being
conducted by the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center (ACRC) at the
University of lllinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The transient system model under development is based on simple
analytical equation forms derived from basic conservation of mass, energy, and
momentum equations. This helps maintain a reasonable system simulation time
by avoiding the complexities of a finite element approach. In addition, the final
model equations will contain physical system parameters such as the
compressor displacement and condenser area in addition to parameters
estimated from experimental data.

By varying the physical parameters within the system model, system

performance optimization can be performed without the use of exhaustive
experimental efforts. Furthermore, by analyzing the effect of each system
parameter on overall system performance, potential improvements to system
components can be prioritized. This prioritization can indicate which areas of
mobile air conditioning research will provide the greatest increase in system

This will aid in the difficult task of deciding where to devote research
efforts. In addition, the system model can be used to analyze and develop
optimal and adaptive system control algorithms for increased transient system

Since the system model equations contain parameters based on

experimental data, the specific model developed is system dependent. However,
more important than the numbers from the current system model is the
modelling algorithm presented.

The equation forms should be valid, independent of the system. Only the
parameter magnitudes will change from system to system. Hopefully, the
algorithm used to develop the current model can easily be applied to a wide
variety of systems with a minimal amount of experimental data for parameter

The complete system model under development is composed of

individual component models which are each developed separately. The
objective of the current study is to develop a modelling algorithm for an
automotive air conditioning compressor.

The compressor mode development follows the entire system model

guidelines outlined above. To facilitate the development of a transient
compressor model, a steady-state model is developed first.

This report contains details concerning the development of a steady-state

compressor model with suggestions provided for future development of a
transient form.


Any construction project an important decision is the selection of the

most appropriate management approach and this is worth a note here. Of the
available approaches, the EPCM and turn-key approaches were considered.
With the EPCM approach, a company is contracted to provide Engineering,
Procurement, and Construction Management services.

This company is responsible for all engineering and will assist in placing
contracts for all equipment and construction services necessary. The EPCM
Company will manage all other contractors on behalf of the mine. The EPCM
Company is mandated to work within a prescribed (and calculated) this budget
and schedule.
Project risks associated with budget and schedule are carried by the
mining company. With the turn-key approach, the mine places a single contract,
for a fixed lump sum, with a single company to design, build and commission
the installation. Historically, South African mining companies have followed the
EPCM approach but, since 2003, there has been a significant movement
towards the turn-key approach. The reasons for this are varied, but the primary
driving force is the trend towards outsourcing and the desire to minimize
exposure to risk.

From the mines perspective, turn-key contracts are far simpler with the
full responsibility resting with a single contractor. This must be compared to the
EPCM approach which would require contracts with about 60 individual
companies, with a high level of design and management input from mine

With the turn-key approach the project risk is transferred to the turn-key
contractor and significant provision for contingencies does not have to be made
by the mine. Impala Platinum favored the turn-key approach over the EPCM
approach and the first phase of the refrigeration installation at Impala No.16
Shaft has been completed by BBE as a turn-key contract.

Air cooling duty 14.5 MW[R]

Air flow 670 kg/s

Ambient air [wet-bulb] 20C

Cooled air [wet-bulb] 13.1C

Water chilling duty 15.6 MW[R]


Materials used included a large oscillating fan,

inch outer diameter (OD) copper tubing,

inch inner diameter (ID) vinyl tubing,

Copper wire,

A garbage can,

Garden hose,

Pipe insulation, and

various small accessories used to attach the components together.


The initial design used a basic gravity siphon to force water through the
copper coil. A garbage can, filled with ice water, was placed in an elevated
location. Vinyl tubing led from the garbage can to the copper coil on the back of
the fan.

The copper coil was constructed out of approximately 7.5 meters of

copper refrigerant tubing, which was coiled in a spiral on the back of the fan
and attached by zipties. Vinyl tubing then led from the coil to a window.

Suction was then applied to the end of the vinyl tubing at the window to
remove any trapped air. Once all air was removed, water flowed freely through
the system due to the siphon effect, and waste warm water was diverted outside.


The initial design possessed several limitations that were later addressed.
The first design limitation was that of the water supply. As built, the system
could only cool for the duration of one garbage pail full of water.

In addition, the presence of a large pail of water in the location to be

cooled led to transport difficulties and the risk of flooding. As such, the design
was modified to use a garden hose as the source of cold water.

The garden hose was insulated and then attached to the vinyl tubing
previously in the garbage pail.

The dimensions and mounting holes must suit the equipment that uses the
fan. Square-framed fans are usually used, but round frames are also used, often
so that a larger fan than the mounting holes would otherwise allow can be used
(e.g., a 120 mm fan with holes for the corners of a 90 mm square fan).

The width of square fans and the diameter of round ones are usually
stated in millimeters; common sizes include 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm, 92 mm,
120 mm and 140 mm, although 8 mm,17 mm,20 mm, 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm,
38 mm, 45 mm, 50 mm, 70 mm, 250 mm,and 360 mm sizes are also available.

Heights are typically 10 mm, 25 mm or 38 mm, but this is usually not an

important dimension as it does not affect mounting holes or apertures in the

Typically, square 120 mm and 140 mm case and power supply fans are
used where cooling requirements are demanding, as for computers used to play
games, and for quieter operation at lower speeds. 80 mm and 92 mm fans are
used in less demanding applications, or where larger fans would not be

Smaller fans are usually used for cooling CPUs, graphics cards, north
bridges, etc.


It was assumed that the location had a sufficient volume of circulated air
such that any cooling effect generated by the unit would be negligible. This
would result in a constant heat gradient, as opposed to the varying gradient
encountered in a closed system.
It was also assumed that any increase in temperature of the water flowing
through the system was due to the performance of the unit. This was deemed to
be reasonable, as any exposed surfaces that would introduce heat to the water
were also exposed in typical operation.

The characteristics of the testing location reflected the usual characteristics

of a hot room where the unit would be used. It was also assumed that the
temperature of the water feed was constant.


Testing was done with the help of an assistant. The temperature of the
incoming water supply was measured. Following this, the water supply was
modulated to produce a certain flow rate, which ranged from 0 to 2 L/min in
steps of 0.25 L/min.

A period of five minutes was allowed to elapse, to ensure that the unit was
at a steady state condition. Temperature readings were taken at the end of the
system, where waste warm water was released. The amount of water released in
thirty seconds was also measured to determine flow rate more precisely.

Finally, a temperature reading of the incoming water source was taken

again to ensure no variation in water feed temperature. If significant variation
was noted in feed temperature, the procedure was repeated. Three readings were
taken for each flow rate.


Copper coil

Two clay pots

48 LB Patio leveling sand

Dry ice,

Exhaust fan

Polyvinyl tube

Refrigerant such as water,

Glycol etc.


2.1 Modeling of an Automotive Air Conditioning Compressor Based on

Experimental Data J. H. Darr and R. R. Crawford February 1992

The objective of the current study was to develop a model for the steady
state performance of a reciprocating automotive air conditioning compressor.
The model equations were composed of analytical equations based on simple
energy and mass balances in addition to simple relations developed from
experimental data.

Since the model equations are simple in form, they can easily be solved
sequentially yielding a reasonable solution time. Furthermore, the analytical
equations contained physical parameters which can be varied to provide
simulations of various compressor geometries.

The constant parameters used in the empirical relations were obtained

from a least squares analysis of experimental data. The experimental data used
for parameter estimation were obtained from a mobile air conditioning system
test facility which utilized R -134a as the refrigerant.

It is believed that the modeling algorithm presented can easily be

extended to other reciprocating compressors with a minimal amount of
experimental data. Furthermore, the algorithm is capable of producing a model
that is accurate over a broad range of conditions.

The model's performance was verified by comparison of simulation

results with experimental data. When provided the suction refrigerant state,
discharge refrigerant pressure, compressor speed and ambient air temperature,
the model proved capable of predicting the discharge refrigerant enthalpy, the
required compressor power and the refrigerant mass flow rate with reasonable

2.2 Design and construction of a surface air cooling and refrigeration

installation at a South African mine R.W. Wilson 2008

Impala Platinums No.16 Shaft mine is currently under construction and

is expected to reach full production of 256 500 tons per month by 2014. Mining
will start at 1260 m below surface with a maximum mining depth of 1 535 m
where virgin rock temperatures of 56.6C will be experienced.
As a result of depth, high virgin rock temperature and narrow reef
mining, an expected total of 31.5 MW[R] of air cooling capacity will be
required to achieve acceptable underground conditions.

This will be achieved by cooling mine intake air in a single dedicated air
cooling installation located on surface. The compact installation includes air
cooling spray chamber, refrigeration machines, condenser cooling towers,
evaporator and condenser water reticulation as well as all electrical and control

Construction and commissioning of the first phase of this air cooling

installation has recently been completed on a turn-key contract basis.

Best Available Technology (BAT) entails a technical analysis not of the

current products on the market but on currently available technology, expected
to be introduced at product level in the shorter term.

Best Not yet Available Technologies (BNAT) summarise the state-of-the-

art in research and development for a product, indicating market possibilities in
the longer term. The environmental performance of BAT and BNAT both
provide part of the input for the identification of the improvement potential



Naikodi Mallappa, Mane Amit, Manave Ashish, Pangale Suhas, Shinde


Human always tries for better comfort and sophistication at each level of
his life. Considering air conditioning, evaporative cooler are used in less
humidity and dry climate.

The limitation of evaporative cooler is that it is not suitable in humid

environment and also their performance is poor in the places where ventilation
is not proper. The objective of this project is to increase the effectiveness of the
ordinary table fan by using simple mechanism and overcome the limitation of
evaporative cooler.
In this project the table fan is wound with copper tube by copper wire.
Vinyl tube is connected with one end of the copper tube and another end of
vinyl tube is connected with pump.

Pump immersed in the cooling chamber. Vinyl tube is connected with

another end of copper tube another end of vinyl tube is immersed in the cooling
chamber. Fan and pump connected with electricity pump and is sucks the cool
water from the cooling chamber.


It can be expensive both in price and in energy to cool your RV when the
weather warms up. Many smaller RVs receive very little in the way of A/C and
are left with open air cooling or small fans to get the job done.

Regardless of your situation you may find some interest in this very clever and
cost effective 5 gallon bucket-turned DIY air conditioner idea.
He uses very simple techniques and easy to find materials such as
cardboard, bottles, wood, and glass. One of our favourites is his DIY air
conditioner made from a 5 gallon bucket.

For around $25 (assuming you do not have any of the needed materials
laying around the garage), you can generate approximately 5 hours of cold air


The essential ingredients in an air conditioning system are a fan to blow

air around, a cold surface to cool and dehumidify the air, a warm surface and a
source of water vapour. In a large system there will also be a tangle of tubes to
distribute the air and collect it again. Notice that the cold surface has two
independent jobs to do: it is used to cool the air and it is also used to
dehumidify, by condensing water from the air.

This means that the air is cooled more than is necessary for temperature
control, so that it must be heated again afterwards. Air conditioning wastes
energy. It also wastes space, because air has to be pumped around in quite large
tubes, so that it doesn't make a rushing noise. It does, nevertheless, generate a
disturbing background noise if the room is otherwise quiet.

There is worse news to come: air conditioning is spreading to more and

more buildings in climates that we once thought were so mild that they would
be immune. The origin of this technological epidemic is not the subject of this

I will however mention some reasons which are relevant to museum

conservators. Modern museums and old ones as well, are showpieces designed
to be admired for bold and original architecture. They tend to be massive, and
those old museums which originally had courtyards to give light and air are now
glassed over with domes and atria.
The heat and moisture cannot easily escape to the outside: they have now
to be pumped out. The subtle elegance of buildings designed for their purpose
counts for little nowadays. Grand Gestures are fashionable, and air conditioning
hides the architects' and engineers' lack of understanding or respect for natural

One must say that conservators have reinforced this trend, because they
have set specifications for allowable variation of temperature and relative
humidity that can only be achieved by mechanical air conditioning.

The purpose of this article is to explain how air conditioning works, in

order to show why one cannot just pluck values from some standard or
recommendation without risking unexpected penalties in energy use,
maintenance cost and noise.

Furthermore, once the mess of steel boxes and ducts is installed, you
cannot dial the temperature and humidity exactly as you want them without
risking surprisingly expensive side effects of energy consumption, climatic
instability and hidden condensation. I will describe two typical systems.

The first is air conditioning for a single room, the second is a full system
for a large building. Most of the available literature, particularly on the internet,
takes it for granted that air conditioning is a good thing and then proceeds to tell
you how to design it. This article is designed to help you understand other
people's designs, and judge their suitability for your purpose.

A fan draws air from the room first through a cooling device, consisting
of metal fins extending from a pipe through which cooling fluid circulates, at a
rate determined by the thermostat or by the humidistat. The air next passes over
a heater, usually electrical, which is energised on instructions from the room


The part of the system in the room, on the left, pulls air first over a cool
surface and then over a warming surface. The part of the system on the right
recirculates the cooling fluid. The fluid passes from the reservoir through a
valve B into the lower pressure within the cooling unit in the room.

There the liquid boils, removing heat from the air. The boiling point is
fixed by the constant pressure set by valve A. The vapour is then compressed
and condensed back into a liquid which collects in the reservoir ready for
another cycle.

Air conditioning has in the past been used where the climate is too hot
for comfort. Cooling will increase the relative humidity of the air, so
humidification is not usually built into these systems. If it is necessary, the usual
method is to inject steam from electrically boiled water.

That is all there is to the part of the system in the room, which is sketched
on the left . The bit that is more difficult to understand, or at least unfamiliar to
most people, is how the cooling fluid is produced and controlled. That is the
part on the right of the diagram.
The cooling fluid used to be a chlorofluorocarbon compound, and often
still is, though they all more or less ravage the earth's ozone layer. The essential
characteristics of these fluids is that they have quite a low boiling point at
atmospheric pressure and that they can stay in the pipes for a long time without
decomposing either themselves or the pipes.

Finally they need to have some lubricating ability, or the ability to carry
a lubricant, because the fluid has to be compressed and pumped round the
system. This rare set of necessary properties has proved difficult to combine
with friendliness to the earth's atmosphere.

The liquid is let into the cooling unit through a valve marked B on the
diagram. It evaporates while it passes through the pipe, taking heat from the air
just as water evaporating from a towel laid on your fevered brow cools you
when on holiday in the Mediterranean. The temperature in the cooling coil
depends partly on the amount of fluid let in by the valve, which is controlled by
the thermostat or the humidistat.

But now comes a crucial difference from your Mediterranean experience:

the minimum temperature at the cold surface can be fixed controlling the
pressure in the cooling coil, with the valve marked A on the diagram. The
boiling point of any liquid depends on the pressure.

One could use water in the cooling coil, if the pressure is kept low
enough. At 1000 Pa pressure, which seems a lot but is just 1% of atmospheric
pressure, water boils at 7 degrees. It isn't used in cooling coils of this
evaporative type because it has practical disadvantages. The reason for wanting
to limit the minimum temperature is to stop ice clogging the air passage.
There are clever systems which notice when ice has formed and hold a
melting pause, but that adds to the cost. The pressure controller is therefore set
to make the cooling fluid boil at the lowest temperature that is likely to be
needed to control the humidity, but always over zero degrees. The temperature
needed for cooling is nearly always higher than that needed for
dehumidification so it is the RH setting that is decisive.

This brings me to the first point that conservators need to understand: it is

expensive to produce air at a dew point below about 4 degrees in this type of
equipment. This dewpoint corresponds to 50% RH at 15C. This sort of air
conditioning is entirely suitable for keeping people comfortable but it is not
good for specialised stores, for films or for furs, for example, where one needs a
temperature below 15 degrees.

Such equipment is, however, often used for such places. A better solution
is to use an absorption dehumidifier, which will be described in a later article.
Now back to the main story: The vapour that emerges through the pressure
controller is gathered up by a compressor. The compression also heats the gas,
as will be understood by anyone who has pumped up a cycle tyre.

The hot gas is then led away from the room, to be cooled down. This is
often done on the roof or in a small enclosure which vibrates to the roar of the
fan blowing air over the fins of a condenser. The cooled, now liquid coolant is
piped back to the reservoir, ready for its next tour through the room air

The entire process described above is inefficient and uses electricity,

which is itself produced by inefficient conversion of heat energy. Such systems
are therefore confined to small places where the inefficiency is compensated by
the generally high reliability and freedom from maintenance.


A large air conditioning system functions much like that except that
chilled water is used to cool the air. Outside air is drawn in, filtered and heated
before it passes through the main air conditioning devices. The coloured lines in
the lower part of the diagram show the changes of temperature and of water
vapour concentration (not RH) as the air flows through the system.

The principle of operation is the same as that of the small system

described above except that the cooling fluid is usually water, which has itself
been cooled by the refrigeration system described above.

The air is circulated through ducts, with a portion of fresh air added.
There is therefore a pre-heater, because the outside air may be below zero and
will therefore freeze the water in the cooling coil. A humidifier and various


There are many variations on the basic design sketched in this article.
Most refinements are to save energy. The ratio of recycled air to fresh air can be
increased when the outside air has, by chance, the right water content and
temperature to push the room climate in the right direction. This is called
enthalpy control, to make common sense seem scientific.
The heat generated in the coolant condenser can be re-used in the heater,
fed by recirculation hot water. The amount of air circulating in the system is
vastly more than that required for the inhabitants to breath, to avoid carbon
dioxide narcosis and to avoid smelling each other. Air is mainly used to carry
heat and moisture to all corners of the building.

Since the heat capacity of air is rather small, quite large amounts are
needed to ensure the uniformity of temperature that is required by the
specification. Here is another example of the danger of specifying without
adequate understanding.

If the building is old and un insulated the heat loss through the outer
walls will force a large air circulation, which will in turn require large ducts or
make a lot of noise. A leaky building requires considerable moisture added in

The RH of the air leaving the humidifier will then be rather high, with a
risk that pathological microorganisms will thrive in remote corners of the ducts.
Fitting air conditioning into existing buildings is not easy.

Some refinements to the basic system compensate for the different heat
requirements of different rooms in the building. shows a complete system, with
two details that have not been mentioned yet: the outer zone, which loses more
heat in winter, has radiators to supplement the heat supply through the air

The inner zone has, in this example, an archive room that is not much
used and so is cooler, and drier, than the rooms with people, computers and
coffee machines. To keep the climate uniform throughout the building there is a
little local heater and humidifier placed just before the air reaches the room.

The main air supply is kept a little too cold and a little too dry. Any one of
these many local humidifiers can give trouble, with rapid over-humidification of
the room. Again, here is a dangerous detail that is provided by the engineer to
protect himself against complaints that the equipment does not achieve the
standard required.

I hope that I have persuaded the reader who ever finds herself having to
provide specifications for the climate in a building, that there is more to making
a sensible specification than stealing numbers from the standards, most of which
assume that the institution has piles of dollars and its employees are too dumb to
work out intelligent compromises that fit the needs of that particular building
and the materials and activities that it shelters.

An air conditioning system with variable fresh air mixer and dust and
pollutant filtration. Notice supplementary heating with radiators in the outer
rooms and individual mini heater and humidifier in the air stream to each room.

The components are arranged according to the Schematic diagram. The

cooling System contain refrigerant like water or glycol whose temperature
decreases as time passes. This refrigerant passes into the copper coil which
wounded on the front panel of the Exhaust fan with help of Aquarium pump.

In this process the air coming from the exhaust fan passes on the surface
of copper coil .The heat transfer takes place from low temperature to high
temperature that is copper coil absorb the heat from air and given to the
refrigerant which is flowing in the coil .

After that the heated refrigerant collected in the Cooling Chamber and
recalculated in the coil. The specification of cooling chamber is that the
temperature of refrigerant decreases with help of clay pots and sand.

The special sand is used that is 48 LB patio leveling sand whose property
is the decrease the temperature as time passes. In used of Indian rice will must
be produced cooling air subjected to middle level of tank. Will produce the high
level of cooling air.


how large your home is and how many windows it has

how much shade is on your home's windows, walls, and roof

how much insulation is in your home's ceiling and walls

how much air leaks into your home from the outside

how much heat the occupants and appliances in your home


In the past, the grass was a staple food of Native Americans, especially
when the maize crop failed. Seed of the ricegrass was gathered and ground into
meal or flour and made into bread.

Since 2000, the ricegrass has been cultivated in Montana and marketed
under the trade name Montina as a gluten-free grain. The Zuni people used the
ground seeds as a staple before the availability of corn.

Air conditioning is common in the US, with 88% of new single-family

homes constructed in 2011 including air conditioning, ranging from 99% in the
South to 62% in the West

In Europe, home air conditioning is generally less common. Southern

European countries such as Greece have seen a wide proliferation of home air-
conditioning units in recent years

In another southern European country, Malta, it is estimated that around

55% of households have an air conditioner installed. In India AC sales have
dropped by 40 due to higher costs and stricter energy efficiency regulations.

Various observations and results obtained from the project work tell that,
Suggested new design is more beneficial and it is good advancement in the
Conventional design of fan.

Observations of the psychometric chart shows that, after obtaining same

temperature drop by using conventional design and by homemade air
conditioner, increment in the cabins relative humidity is lesser in case of
homemade air conditioner.

That a type of air conditioner very useful and easily portable very hogh
cooling air is to be produced Increasing the number of data points available
would greatly clarify the conclusions of this report, particularly the
mathematical models describing heat removal capacity and efficiency.

Testing at a greater variety of flow rates and obtaining more results at

each flow rate are both suggested. Accuracy of the measurements could stand to
be improved greatly.

The principal limitation was that of measuring temperature. The

thermometer used for obtaining the data in this report was only able to report
results in steps of one degree.

This led to inaccuracy as the range of temperature values found was quite
small, which caused significant jumps in results if temperature readings
varied as little as one degree. It is recommended that more accurate
measurement instruments be used.

J.O.Olorunmaiye (2008). Evaporative Cooling of Water of in earthen pots

Professor Wasim Sama n;Dr. Frank Bruno;Ms. Ming
Liu(2009):Technical background Research on evaporative air Conditioners and
feasibility of Rating their water consumption berry.

GEOFFREY MILBURN(Sept 2005);Analysis of a Homemade Air

Conditioning Unit .

Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall]. 1: 40. 1818 [14 Jul 1818] "Plant Name
Details for Eriocoma cuspidata". IPNI. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
Notes: = Oryzopsis cuspidata

Dept. Agric. Special Rep. 63: 23. 1883 "Plant Name Details for
Oryzopsis cuspidata". IPNI. Retrieved December 2, 2009. nomenclatural
synonym: Poaceae Eriocoma cuspidata Nutt.

Phytologia 74(1): 7 (1993) "Plant Name Details for Achnatherum

hymenoides". IPNI. Retrieved December 2, 2009. Basionym: Stipa

Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam MacKay, 2nd Ed., p287

Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Achnatherum hymenoides. In: Fire Effects

Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory
(Producer). Retrieved on 2009-04-24.
Canyon Country Wildflowers, Damian Fagan, 2nd ed., 2012,
Morris Bush Publishing, LLC. in cooperation with Canyonlands Natural
History Association, ISBN 978-0-7627-7013-7

"The Montina Story". Amazing Grains. Retrieved March 30, 2010.