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Comparison that shows the differences between a PFD and P&ID :

PFD P&ID

Used during construction? No Yes*


Shows all process and service piping? No Yes
Indicates presence of all controls? No Yes
Shows all motors? No Yes
Shows thermal insulation? No Yes
Shows major equipment? Yes Yes
Shows flow quantities? Yes No
Shows stream compositions? Yes No

This the most revealing distinction. The P&ID on a job site is probably one of the
most used documents. Everyone working on piping has one in pocket, and it is
constantly spread out during discussions. PFDs, on the other hand, are never seen
on a job site. They are available, in the files, but not used.

The PFD is a drawing needed early in the project. Indeed, the PFD is the most important
drawing while the mass balance is being prepared. Later, the PFD guides the
preparation of the P&ID. Finally the P&ID supplants the PFD, totally eclipsing it.
Both PFDs and P&Ids can be characterized as

Communication tools
Records
Aids to thought processes
FLOW DIAGRAMS

1.0 TYPES OF FLOW DIAGRAMS


There are four main types of flow diagrams
- Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
- Process Piping and Instrument Flow Diagram (P&ID)
- Utility Balance Diagram
- Utility Piping and Instrument Flow Diagram (UFD)
2.0 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
2.1 The PFD is meant be a description of the process. It serves the following
functions :
- Shows the basic processing scheme
- Shows the basic control concept
- Shows process information from which equipment can specified and
designed
- Provides the basis for development of the P&ID
- Serves as a guide for the operation of the plant
2.2 The PFD includes the following information :
- Material balance data (sometimes on separate sheets)
- Flow scheme and direction of flow
- Basic control instrumentation
- Temperatures
- Pressures
- Vessel dimensions
- Heat exchanger and fired heater duties
2.2 contd
Not all equipment is shown; spares and parallel equipment are often omitted.
However, the are indicated by equipment numbering procedure
2.3 The information is presented as follows :
2.3.1 Some equipment is shown using standard symbols regardless of actual
type. Examples :
- Pumps and drivers
- Compressors and drovers
- Heat Exchangers
- Filters
2.3.2 Other equipment is shown in elevation in a simplified rendering of the
actual arrangement. Examples :
- Heaters
- Towers and columns
- Reactors
- Vessels and tanks
- Dryers
2.3.3 Instruments are indication showing location of variable being controlled
and location of acting device, usually a control valve. Variable type is
indicated in the bubble (such as FC for Flow controller) but r or I
for recorder or indicator read-out is not shown, nor is the instrument
number. Details are left to be shown on the P&I.
2.0 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS
2.3 cont d
2.3.4 Valuing is generally omitted. A valve is only shown where it can
clarify understanding of intermittent or alternate flows such as dryer
regeneration or system bypass.
3.0 PROCESS PIPING AND INSTRUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM
3.1 The P&I provides a detailed definition of piping, instrumentation, and
equipment. It serves the following functions:
- Describes equipment
- Shows all instrumentation
- Shows piping and valuing
- Defines the job scope
- Provides the basis for detailed design
- Shows relationship of vendor supplied terms to contractors work
- Used to train personnel
- Aids in trouble shooting during startup and operation.

3.0 PROCESS PIPING AND INSTRUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM con d


3.2 The P&I includes the following information :
- All equipment with item number
- Titles of towers, reactors, thanks and package equipment
- Dimensions of tower, vessels and tanks
- Vessel elevations
- Pumps, compressors and their drivers according to equipment type
- All piping with line numbers, sizes and specification. Indicate whether
traced or buried
- All valves shows according to type
- All packaged equipment with tie-ins to lummus piping or instrumentation
- Sample connections
- All instrumentation with numbers function types and whether electronic or
pneumatic
- In-line instrument sizes
- Control valve sizes and action on air failure
- Relief values with size and set pressure
3.3 The information is presented as follows :
3.3.1 Tower, reactors, drums, tank and heaters are generally shown in line in
the upper half of the P&I in approximately their relative proportions.
3.3.2 Pumps and compressor are shown in line in the lower quarter of the
drawing
3.3.3 Other equipment should be located to represent as well as possible the
actual physical relationships, such as overhead condenser above the
reflux drum or reboilers adjacent to a tower.
3.0 PROCESS PIPING AND INSTRUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM
3.3 con d
3.3.4 Allow an ample amount of space for package systems equipment such
as heaters and compressor so that the auxiliary equipment and
instrumentation normally associated with such equipment can be
properly shown.
3.3.5 Process lines generally enter and leave at the bottom of the drawing.
3.3.6 Utility lines enter and leave the drawing adjacent to the equipment they
service.
3.3.7 A sheet is developed for each job showing legend, symbols and
general notes. The P&I should be consistent with this sheet. Additional
symbols added to the master sheet where no suitable symbols exist.
4.0 UTILITY BALANCE DIAGRAMS
4.1 The Utility Balance Diagram is s diagrammatic summary of a utility. It serves the
following functions :
- Shows utility usage for each piece of equipment serviced
- Shows total usage so generating system can be specified
- Allows related streams to be established (i.e blowdown, makeup, chemical
treatment).
- Shows interrelationships of various levels of the utility (i.e. high pressure
and medium pressure steam).
4.2 Utility Balance Diagrams are generally made only for the more complex
systems. For example :
- Steam and condensate
- Cooling Water
- Fuel gas/oil
- Effluent systems
4.0 UTILTY BALANCE DIAGRAMS con d
4.3 The Utility Balance Diagram includes the following information :
- Utility usage for each item of equipment. Two or more cases may be shown
but one should be denoted as the design case.
- Total usage. This means simultaneous usage and may be less than the
arithmetic total due to interactions or phasing of the operation.
- Control concept for maintaining the relationship between different level of the
utility. (i.e letdown control for steam systems).
4.4 The information is presented as follows :
- Consumers are shown by item number in block arranged according to utility
level
- Actual physical layout is ignored ; in fact, it is generally undetermined when
these drawing are begun.
- The generating system portion shown in the manner of a PFD.

5.0 UTILITY PIPING AND INSTRUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM


5.1 The UFD defines the utility service system in much the same way a P&I defines
a process system. The two types of UFDs are :
- System UFD shows production of the utility (i.e., cooling tower, steam
generator).
- Distribution UFD shows headers, subheaders, utility stations, etc.

5.2 The UFD includes the same information a utility as a P&I does for the process.
NOT OIL TO COOLING WATER FLARE GAS
(FROM E-2) TO (FROM E-1) FROM V-1

TI2
TI2

19 & CW 10 "
TI2
15A-2"
18 & CW 10 "

16A- 6" IH

17-6" IH

18ACW=10"
19ACW=10"

15A-2"

20 AIA = 1 1/2 "


21 AUA = 1 1/2
"
22 AIA = 1 1/2 "

23A5 = 2" IM

5.0 UTLITY PIPING AND INSTRUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM Con 'd


5.3 The information is presented as follows
5.3.1 For a system UFD, the presentation is the same as for a P &I.
5.3.2 For a distribution UFD, the piping is shown as if super shown schematically in the
same sequence as the actual piping.
5.3.3 More than one utility system can be shown on single drawing if space permits.
Systems frequently combined are.
- Cooling water, quench water, utility and other miscellaneous water system
- Plant air, instrument air, nitrogen or other miscellaneous gases
- fuel systems
5.3.4 Utility generating systems and their distribution pipe may be shown on the same UFD
when space permits.