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SECTION 1

Health and safety in the automotive environment 2

PART 1 1
2
3
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA) 3
Specific acts and regulations 4
Risk assessment 5
4 Initial induction to health and safety requirements 5

INTRODUCTION 5 Reporting to the health and safety executive 6

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6 Accident recording 6
7 Reporting safety concerns 7
8 Causes of accidents 7
9 Safety signs 7
10 Personal protective equipment (PPE) 8

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11 Hazardous substances 11
12 Electrical safety 12
13 Flammable liquids and gases 13
14 Firefighting equipment 15
15 Fire prevention and control 16
16 First aid 17
USE THIS SPACE FOR LEARNER NOTES
17 Garage workshop hazards 18
18 Workshop plan 19
19 Movement of loads 21

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21
Lifting 22
Roadside recovery 24

SECTION 2
Good housekeeping 27
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1 Vehicle protection 28
2 Good housekeeping 28
3 Healthy and safety 30
4 Emergency cleaning 31
5 Disposing of dangerous waste material 31
6 Using resources economically 32
7 Recycling waste materials 33

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
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Learning objectives

SECTION 1 After studying this section, you should be able to:

List the main legislation relating to automotive environment health and safety and
describe the general legal duties of employers and employees.

Identify

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key hazards and risks and describe policies and procedures for reporting
them.

Identify key warning signs and their characteristics.


Explain the importance of wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Health and safety State the meaning of common product warning labels.

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Identify
used on.
fire extinguishers in common use and which types of fire they should be

in the automotive State procedures that need to be taken with tools, equipment and materials.
Describe vehicle and personal safety considerations when working at the roadside.

environment Key terms

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This unit relates to QCF unit G0102K which is
mapped to the IMI National Occupational
Match the definition using the terms at the bottom of the page.

Cancer forming. Carcinogenic


Likelihood or chance of harm being caused. Risk
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Poisonous, likely to cause injury or death (often chemical). Toxic
Standards NOS G2 Reduce Risks to
Something likely to cause harm or loss a source of danger. Hazard
Health and Safety in the Motor Vehicle Substance likely to catch fire. Flammable/inflammable
Environment. An unplanned event that results in injury, ill-health or damage. Accident
Substance that can destroy tissue, usually strong acid or alkali. Corrosive
Substance that can cause ill-health or injury. Harmful
This is an introductory chapter to health and
Evaporates readily can cause fire or explosion, e.g. petrol. Volatile
safety and attempts to ensure that you are Hazard, Risk, Accident, Carcinogenic, Flammable/inflammable, Volatile, Toxic,
aware of all the basic commonsense rules Harmful, Corrosive

relating to personal and workshop safety.

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Health and safety starter HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ACT 1974 (HASAWA)
Try your hand at this word search to become familiar with some of the terms in this chapter.
The Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) covers all people at work whatever their
occupation and sets out employers and employees duties regarding health and safety in the
T N B A T W E W C W X B H N R workplace. The workplace could include anywhere that people are employed such as garages,
N L O K X H Q O K M B R D X E colleges or training providers, therefore it affects you!
A D W I R P R I O V E O M I G

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T D Z N T R P K F H Y D I Z U The Act is enforced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which has inspectors who give
I P B N O C H C S H T J W Y L advice to employers, check workplaces, and investigate accidents.
R B R S W L U I H A Z A R D A
R G I O E Q U D Y L Q C D Z T Employers must display a Health and Safety Law poster or provide employees with a booklet,
I V I N H G H J N V F T Z H I which is available from the HSE website.

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E C O R N I S K R I J S Y M O
V Z F I R E B L A N K E T Z N
B R T L L E M I P W F Q O C L
P X I G C Y R O T A D N A M H
E R G S V T K H I I M F I B V
M O U D K P L I O N O K F R I
G X I T X R R X Z G A N Z R P

ACTS
CORROSIVE
EXTINGUISHER
FIREBLANKET
GOGGLES
HAZARD
INDUCTION
IRRITANT
MANDATORY
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SA
PROHIBITION
REGULATION
RISK

New poster

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Find your Health and Safety Law poster or visit the HSE website to view a Health and Safety Law
pocket card and list at least four employer duties from the list of ten. Look back at the Health and Safety poster for your responsibilities.

1 carry out risk assessments on anything that could cause harm and determine

precautions to prevent harm

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2 tell you in a way you can understand how risks will be controlled and who is responsible for SPECIFIC ACTS AND REGULATIONS
this Below is a list of various Regulations which mostly apply to special situations. The Regulations
add further depth and detail to the Acts. They are made as the need arises and carry as much
3 provide health and safety training legal authority as the Act to which they relate. New or amended Regulations therefore keep the

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Acts up-to-date.
4 provide necessary equipment or protective clothing free of charge and ensure it is
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
properly looked after.
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER)
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)
Health and safety regulations are updated frequently. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
Check www.hse.gov.uk for the latest regulations. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH)

Enforcement
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A body called The Health and Safety Executive Inspectorate enforces the HASAWA. Its inspectors
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002
Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (amended 2002)
Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
Employers Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
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have various powers and penalties at their disposal.
Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000
Describe the two main types of enforcement that the HSE inspectorate may take.
State which Regulation would be relevant to each of the following situations.
1 improvement notice this gives the employer at least 21 days to put safety matters
1 Removing a road wheel from a heavy-duty four-wheel drive off-road car.
right Manual Handling Regulations 1992

2 prohibition notice this is where an activity involves serious risk or injury and must stop until 2 Cleaning the dust from rear drum brakes.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH)
remedial action has been taken.
3 Draining petrol from a fuel tank.
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002

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4 Using a bench grinder to sharpen a cold chisel. Decide who might be harmed and how.
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions change process, modify or PPE.
5 Lifting an engine/gearbox assembly from a vehicle using chains and an engine hoist. Record findings and implement (communicate to employees training may be
required).

Review assessments and update if necessary.


Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)

6 Using a mains electricity power washer to clean a vehicle exterior.


Who would be likely to carry out a risk assessment in the workplace?

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Electricity at Work Regulations 1989

7 Carrying out a major routine service on a car. garage owner, service or workshop manager or nominated company safety representative

Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 Here are, for example, some garage hazards that require a risk assessment:
8 Working on a rolling road with performance vehicles.
draining vehicle fuel tanks.

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Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
handling vehicle air bags.
9 Working using a computer for 5 hours a day. using mains electrical equipment.
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Suggest three hazards in your workshop that would require a risk assessment.
10 Removing a steering wheel with an air bag fitted.
1 hazardous substances e.g. draining engine oil, degreasant tank, anti-freeze, exhaust fumes
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002
2 raising vehicles (hoists and jacks)

industry.

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The HSE website now has a dedicated motor vehicle repair section dealing with our
3 compressed air.

The motor vehicle repair section of the HSE website gives good examples of
hazards.
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RISK ASSESSMENT
In 1992 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations were created which gave
more detail to the general requirements of the HASAWA.
INITIAL INDUCTION TO HEALTH
In general, employers have to carry out risk assessments where specific hazards have been
identified.
AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
This is the suggested method from the HSE: When new members of staff start at the garage they will need to receive an in-company health
and safety induction. This is important to ensure new staff members are aware of safe procedures
Identify the hazards. and processes.

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over-three-day injuries where an employee or self-employed person is away from work or


You are the supervisor in a large dealership running the light vehicle maintenance
and repair workshop. You have a new trainee starting next week. unable to perform their normal work duties for more than 3 consecutive days

In your group discuss what should be covered in a good company initial induction
for a 16-year-old trainee.
injuries to members of the public or people not at work where they are taken from the
scene of an accident to hospital

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a tour of the premises and introduction to key staff
some work-related diseases
the trainees legal responsibilities to themselves and others make them aware
of the Health and Safety Law poster
dangerous occurrences where something happens that does not result in an injury, but

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could have done.
the companys health and safety policy, organization and arrangements How is it reported?
supervision arrangements who do they report to for help
telephone Incident Contact Centre 0845 300 99 23
significant risks and the control measures (processes, machinery or products)
that are prohibited at this stage or need supervision.
online (HSE website)
email
post.
REPORTING TO THE HEALTH
AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE
M Dangerous occurrence
Even if no one was injured, incidents such as hydraulic failure of lifting equipment including jacks
or engine hoists are reportable.
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The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) ACCIDENT RECORDING
Certain situations at work require employers to report by various methods to the HSE, to identify If you have an accident at work, which types of injuries have to be reported to your employer?
where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents.
all injuries should be reported
Find information on the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurences Regulations
(RIDDOR) and state what should be reported. Injuries are recorded and records held for 3 years.

deaths Most companies use an accident book, which must contain the following:

major injuries, e.g. fractured bone and dislocation of joints Injured persons personal details Name, age (DOB), job description.

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Details of the injury Nature of the injury and how it occurred. 2 lack of routine maintenance on workshop equipment

When the accident happened Date, time and location. 3 lack of training, resulting in lack of skills and knowledge
Who can fill out the accident book?
4 lack of adequate supervision
anyone although it is often the first aider
5 untidy or dirty workplace

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6 poor safety culture (lack of employer commitment, e.g. no safety policy).
REPORTING SAFETY CONCERNS

You have a legal responsibility to protect yourself and others; therefore, if you find a potential
hazard then it is your duty to report it to your supervisor. SAFETY SIGNS

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Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited
Why should you report a hydraulic jack that is leaking?
There are four types of safety signs, identify each of the following:
because the seal could fail and cause the jack to

come down unexpectedly

In your organization there may be a procedure of prohibition sign warning sign mandatory sign safe condition sign
labelling faulty equipment to prevent use until action is
taken. Contrasting colours make the sign more conspicuous.

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
Generally speaking, accidents are caused by:

Human
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Black is used with Yellow. White is used with Red, Blue or Green.

Prohibition signs
State the meaning of prohibition.
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1 Ignorance of the dangers involved. 1 Unguarded or faulty machinery. do not do, stop, not permitted, forbidden

2 Failure to take adequate precautions. 2 Incorrect or faulty tools. State what prohibition is indicated in the following signs:

3 Tiredness, causing lack of concentration. 3 Inadequate ventilation.

4 Fooling about. 4 Badly-lit workshops.


HSE

State six other causes of accidents in the workplace:


no naked flames no pedestrians do not extinguish with not drinking water no smoking
1 effects of drink or drugs water

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Warning signs Safe condition


State the risk that each sign indicates: State what each sign indicates:

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HSE
risk of danger fire electric shock corrosive substance
first aid box safety shower eyewash station emergency exit proceed forward to fire exit

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
HSE

mind your head toxic hazard explosion fork-lifts operating


All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in use at work should carry the CE mark and where
appropriate should comply with a European Norm (EN) standard.

Mandatory signs
Which parts of the body do the following items
State the meaning of mandatory you must do!

State the type of protection that must be worn:

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Overalls body from loose clothing and a barrier from harmful substances

Steel toecapped boots or shoes toes from crushing, sole from oil and grease
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Safety goggles eyes from swarf and dust
wear eye protection safety helmets must be wear ear protectors safety boots must be worn
worn
Welding mask eyes and face from infrared rays and bright light

Hard hat head from falling objects

Gloves hands from chemicals, burns and cuts from sharp objects
HSE

Ear defenders and plugs ears from sudden or prolonged loud noise
safety gloves must be safety overalls must be face protection respirators must be worn
worn worn must be worn Dust mask or respirator lungs from damage

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Eye protection Give two examples of where hearing protection may be needed in a garage environment.

Give examples of where the following eye protection may be worn in a garage environment. 1 use of compressed air tools such as air chisel or impact guns (air ratchet)

2 prolonged use of an angle grinder


Face mask using degreasant parts washer
high speed grinding Head protection

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Three types of head protection may be used in a garage workshop.

Describe what the following head wear protects.


Darkened face mask electric arc welding
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MIG welding 1 Bump cap Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

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protects the head from grease, dirt and minor cuts
Clear goggles or safety glasses drilling
grinding 2 Hair net cap
using mechanical or hydraulic press
prevents long-haired workers from getting their hair caught up in revolving machinery
removing hub bearings
working under vehicles (rusty exhaust) 3 Bump cap or hard hat Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited
chiselling
best protection when working under vehicles against bruising and cuts
working with chemicals

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Darkened goggles oxy-acetylene welding
general heating using naked flames
Skin protection
Thoroughly cleaning the skin, particularly hands, face and neck, is extremely important. How
should hands be protected?
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Hearing protection use of barrier cream before starting work
use hand cleanser after completing work
Draper Tools Limited
Pictures supplied by
Draper Tools Limited
Pictures supplied by

do not use solvents such as petrol, thinners


or brake cleaners to clean hands as they

Ear defenders (ear muffs) Disposable ear plugs


remove natural skin oils.

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Hand protection
If during servicing or repair activities hypodermic needles are found, inform your
Give examples of where these gloves could be used to protect your hands. supervisor to organise for specialist removal.
Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

Special gloves, which cannot be penetrated, are required for this procedure.
Heavy-duty leather glove

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when welding

removing hot exhaust components Protection of lungs


removing hot engine cooling components
Dust masks may be worn to protect your lungs from dust.

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Latex glove Give an example where dust masks would be used.

Draper Tools Limited


Pictures supplied by
general work with oil or grease

Draper Tools Limited


Pictures supplied by
changing engine oil
working with brake fluid

rubbing down filler on bodywork


Latex gloves can cause an allergic reaction on those sensitive to latex. Vinyl or nitrile
may be an alternative.

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sanding and grinding


Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

Nitrile gloves Care of Personal Protective Equipment


using parts washer (degreasant)
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Report any faults with PPE to your supervisor immediately.
using solvents such as brake cleaner
State what you would check for on each of following items of PPE:

Safety goggles lens is clean and not cracked or elastic strap is not stretched
Rigger gloves
Overalls clean, no rips or tears and a correct fit with fasteners in good condition
handling sharp body panels
Safety boots steel toe-cap in place, sole not cracked or worn and laces in place
removing gearboxes with sharp machined facing

removing rusty parts Gloves no tears or rips and leather gloves not contaminated with fluid

removal of broken glass Ear defenders foam seals not split and adjuster working to hold pads firmly on ears

Dust masks contamination (dirty filter) or valve working (if fitted) and straps secure

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A new system of marking hazardous substances is to be fully in place by 1 June 2015. The table
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES below gives the new symbols under Classification Labelling and Packaging Regulations,
abbreviated to CLP.
Under COSHH, or the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, all persons
at work need to know the safety precautions to take so as not to endanger themselves or others You will see more use of these symbols before this date.
through exposure to substances hazardous to health.
Example of hazard Example of
statement precautionary
Using the table below explain the meaning of the symbols and state the likely effects caused by

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statement
exposure to a substance that is labelled with each symbol.
Heating may cause an explosion Keep away from heat/
sparks/open flames/
Symbol Meaning Effect hot surfaces no
smoking
toxic may cause serious health risk or even death if inhaled,

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Heating may cause a fire Keep only in original
ingested or if it penetrates the skin container

harmful may cause limited health risk if inhaled or ingested or if May intensify fire; oxidizer Take any precaution
to avoid mixing with
it penetrates the skin
combustibles
irritant may cause inflammation or irritation on immediate or Causes serious eye damage Wear eye protection

prolonged contact with the skin or if inhaled

corrosive may on contact cause destruction of living tissue or severe Toxic if swallowed Do not eat, drink or

highly flammable

explosive
burns

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would catch fire easily, low flash point

risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of


Toxic to the aquatic life, with long
lasting effects

New pictogram, reflects serious


smoke when using
this product

Avoid release to the


environment

In case of inadequate
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longer-term health hazards such ventilation, wear
ignition as carcinogenicity and respiratory respiratory protection
sensitization e.g. may cause allergy
dangerous for the very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term or asthma symptoms or breathing
HSE

difficulties if inhaled
environment effects in aquatic environment
New pictogram, refers to less Contaminated work
serious health hazards such as skin clothing should not
irritancy/sensitisation and replaces be allowed out of the
the CHIP symbol e.g. may cause workplace
http://www.hse.gov.uk an allergic skin reaction
http://www.onsafelines.com/ New pictogram, used when the None
containers hold gas under pressure
HSE

e.g. may explode when heated

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The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Hazardous actions Hazard Suitable precautions
Regulations 2002 (COSHH) data sheets Engine tuning exhaust fumes: pipe gases outside, adequate
carbon monoxide ventilation, use of extractor fans, gas
All hazardous substances supplied must have either a paper-based or web-based Material Safety not aimed into confined space
Data Sheet (MSDS) available.
Welding harmful fumes when welding use of extractor fans and taking

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galvanized metals care not to inhale fumes
Harmful substances
Degreasing parts fluid can dry out the skin gloves and goggles to be worn
washer
Certain activities in a motor vehicle repair premises present particular health hazards. The hazards Contaminated fluid can be do not eat or drink near the tank

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may, for example, be due to breathing in polluted air or coming into contact with harmful
substances. (See COSHH Regulations.) carcinogenic

Battery charging sulphuric acid and hydrogen gas wear goggles and gloves and

ventilate area well


List three toxic gases or substances likely to be present in a motor vehicle repair
workshop:

carbon monoxide (exhaust fumes)


antifreeze ELECTRICAL SAFETY
sulphuric acid.

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fire possibly caused by an electric circuit overheating


or a burst bulb igniting fuel

electric shock as a result of someone coming into

Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited


http://www.commaoil.com/ contact with a live circuit.
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http://www.autoglym.co.uk (Car cleaning) For safety reasons hand-held electrically operated
Or use a search engine to find companies MSDS equipment and hand lamps should use reduced voltage.

To further reduce the risk of fire and electrocution many


garages use battery-operated hand-held equipment.

Group activity What could cause a circuit to overheat?


overloading an electrical socket
Discuss the hazardous actions in the table below. Identify the potential hazards and agree on
precautions which can be taken to reduce the risk of each hazard occurring. using a number of plugs with adaptors

using an incorrect sized cable for circuit

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Checks on mains electrical equipment FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS AND GASES
Checks that should be made on the body of the power tool are given below. Complete the table
stating the checks that should be completed on the cable and the plug. Many flammable substances are used in garages. List five other examples below.

1 petrol

Checks on the body of the power tool


make sure the tool is free from dirt or 2 brake cleaner

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grease and vents are clear

check for cracks 3 paint

check the tool has a label to show that it


passed a portable appliance test (PAT)
4 degreasant
Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

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and is in date 5 thinners
check for correct operation of the switch. 6 acetylene.
Checks on the cable Check the cable for:

cuts in the insulation Some liquids are volatile. What is meant by this and what particular hazards can this present
during the normal course of repair work?
worn insulation (chaffed) volatile liquids readily vaporize at room temperature (20C)

burnt insulation as volatile liquids are normally lighter than air, vapours can be moved by air currents to a source of

exposed wires
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Checks on the plug

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check for unprofessional repairs (taped).
Check that the plug:

is clean and dry


ignition

Draining a fuel tank


You are about to drain the petrol from a vehicles tank.
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the pins are in place and not loose or Describe how to safely complete the procedure in the form of
bent a bullet point list. Use the image to help you.

plug casing is not cracked Ensure there are no naked flames or sparks in the
the flex is clamped in the plug. local area and make sure there is good ventilation.

Advisable to disconnect vehicle battery.

Sealey Group
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Use an appropriate fuel tank drainer close to the fuel filler cap. 2 What could happen if you disconnected the battery charger from the battery terminals while
the charger is still operating?
Connect earth strap to the vehicle ensuring good electrical connection. could cause the hydrogen given off to
Connect second earth strap to a good earth (ramp bolts are good). explode, blowing the top off the battery
Using the pump, remove all fuel from the tank.

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and acid could get into your eyes and
Close off valves to prevent escape of fumes. on your skin
Remove to a safe position (away from sources of combustion or physical damage).

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http://www.hartleige.com (Fuel retrievers)

Look at the scenarios below and answer these questions relating to garage situations where
flammable substances or gases are involved.

1 Why should petrol not be drained near this vehicle


inspection pit?

petrol fumes are heavier than air and may gather

in the bottom of the pit, causing a potential fire

hazard if a spark occurs


M 3 What could happen if the fuel pressure was not relieved?

excess fuel coming out could be ignited by a spark


SA

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FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Look at the TYPES OF FIRE under the Classification of Fire Risk, and TICK in the
grid which type of FIRE extinguisher would be suitable.
Liquids or chemicals that are highly combustible are commonly found in motor vehicle workshops
such as petrol, cleaning solvents, paints, etc. It is therefore important that everyone tries to
Classification
prevent a fire and has a working knowledge of how to use the correct type of fire extinguisher of Fire Risk
required to eliminate a fire.

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Complete the triangle to show:

POWDER
CO2 GAS
WATER

FOAM
The three elements needed to start a fire.
One action needed to stop each element and stop the fire. Class A

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Paper, wood,
textiles
Class B
Flammable
liquids
Class C
Flammable gases,
liquids
ve

Co
mo

Electrical
HE

ol
EL

hazards
Re

AT
FU

OXYGEN

Cut out (smother)


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Fires are classified by their type and a letter is used to identify which fire extinguisher will put out
Which extinguishers must not be used on mains electrical fires?
water and foam both contain water and could conduct high voltage electricity

Colour coding for fire extinguishers


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each type of fire. Since January 1997 the British standard for fire extinguishers has been BS EN 3. This standard
states that all fire extinguishers must be red, although 5 per cent may be colour coded using the
former colours.
Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers sold before January 1997 which are painted in the old colours are still allowed
There are four main types of fire extinguishers available in garages which are suitable for different providing they are in good condition and recharged correctly.
types of fire.
State which of the three elements the extinguisher removes.

Briefly state how to use the extinguisher (found on the side of the extinguisher).

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Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited


Foam
Also known as AFFF (Aqueous Film-Forming Foam). Only hold the insulated horn and handle of a CO gas extinguisher as the brass
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fittings get extremely cold and could cause freeze burns to the skin.
Removes oxygen Only use where there is adequate ventilation.
How to use using the spray action, lay the foam
There is little cooling effect, therefore a fire may reignite once the gas is no

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longer present.

over the burning liquid, starting at the nearest point

working away from yourself Foam fire extinguisher


Dry powder (multi-purpose)

Pictures supplied by Draper


Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

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Removes oxygen
Water
How to use point the jet at the base of the flames
Removes heat

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and, with a rapid sweeping motion, drive the fire
How to use point the jet of water at the base of the
towards the far edge until all the flames are out
flames and keep it moving across the area of the fire Dry powder fire extinguisher

M Water fire extinguisher

Do not use a water fire extinguisher on burning liquids as it spreads the fire.
Dry powder fire extinguishers are effective but do leave a powder residue which
may damage equipment and cause corrosion of electrical connections.

Fire blankets can be used to smother a fire or wrap


around a person if their clothes on fire.
SA
Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited

CO2 gas (carbon dioxide)


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Draper Tools Limited
Removes oxygen and heat
Fire blanket
How to use the discharge horn should be directed

at the base of the flames and the jet kept moving


FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
across the area of the fire

Doors and passages must be kept clear and a positive routine established, to be followed in the
CO2 fire extinguisher event of a fire.

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3 If you are not a trained first aider, call for a first aider or telephone for an
Briefly describe the procedure to be followed in the event of a fire in the workshop: ambulance.

1 Raise the alarm (shout or press emergency button).

2 If the fire is serious call the fire brigade.

3 If possible get assistance.

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4 If safe to do so use the appropriate extinguisher to extinguish the fire.

5 Leave by the nearest fire exit in an orderly manner, closing doors behind you 4 Stay with the person to assist the first aider, or if no first aider to reassure the person that help
is on the way. Do not attempt to move the person unless they are in immediate

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and assemble at the designated assembly point. danger .

6 Do not return to the building until instructed to do so by the incident control officer.
Basic first aid
First aid is best left to personnel trained to carry out this role. If you wish to become first aid
trained then talk to your employer about enrolling on a local course.

FIRST AID Useful contacts are:

The garage industry is classed as a higher hazard and therefore


arrangements for first aid need to be put in place.

Complete the statements using the word bank below:


M
Employers have to assess the first aid requirements of their business.
https://www.sja.org.uk
http://www.hse.org.uk

http://www.redcross.org.uk
SA
telephone remove assessment move danger call

What to do if you are first on the scene of an accident at work:

1 Make an assessment of the situation; ensure that you are not endangering yourself. (Two
casualties are not helpful!)
2 If possible remove the cause of injury e.g., turn off electricity, turn off machines.

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Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
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1 shelf not strong enough for heavy containers


GARAGE WORKSHOP HAZARDS
2 barrel not chocked or stood up
Examine the drawing of the garage workshop below. Circle the hazards you can find on the 3 reaching too high, not able to see contents
drawing and list them in the table opposite. You should be able to circle and list at least 20
hazards. 4 tyre stack too high and close to door

E
5 long hair not tied or covered
2 3
6 jewellery hanging
1 7 loose rag in pocket

PL
8 coat too close to electric fire
4
9 fire unguarded and sitting on a shelf

8 10 electrical socket overloaded


5
7
10 11 hammer on edge of shelf, could be knocked
6 9
12 person smoking in workshop, near flammable liquids
12
11 13 spanner could fall from ramp
15

19
24

13
M 14
16

17
14 tool box could be crushed under the ramp

15 standing on tip toe on unsafe box

16 no goggles when welding

17 hand too near welding, burn hazard


SA
20
18 petrol near naked flame
21 18
19 mains electric cable under ramp

20 fire extinguisher not mounted correctly


23
22 21 oil spill on floor

22 drill on floor

23 inappropriate footwear sandals

24 unbuttoned overall

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
WORKSHOP PLAN Workshop plan

Workshop safety familiarization


Draw a plan of your college, training centre or company workshop, identifying the following items
on your drawing:

E
Fire exits.
Fire alarm points (if fitted).
Position of fire extinguishers and types.
Vehicle hoists.

PL
Bench grinder.
Bench or pillar drill.
Statutory notices (Acts or Regulations e.g., Health and Safety Law or Electricity at
Work Regulations).

First aid box.


Hydraulic or mechanical press.
Location of accident book.
Power isolation points.
Exhaust extraction.
Safe use of machinery and equipment
M
Many accidents in garages are caused either by the employee not taking adequate precautions or
SA
by faulty equipment.

If you were asked to work on the vehicle shown below, what TWO precautions would you take
before starting?

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Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
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1 axle stands must be positioned correctly under the vehicle Compressed air
2 the rear wheels must be chocked. Most garages have a compressor to enable air tools and equipment to be used. The storage tank
will have the safe working pressure (SWP) marked on the tank. Compressors can often work at
State TWO other precautions that should be observed: 150 PSI (approximately 10 bar).

1 the vehicle should be on flat level ground

E
2 the jack must have suitable safe working load (SWL).

State precautions, other than those shown, that are necessary when working on a vehicle raised

Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited


by a ramp (hoist):

PL
Vehicle central on hoist

Wheel
chocked COMPRESSED AIR CAN KILL!

No one working
above mechanic

1 do not exceed safe working load M Area free


of equipment
Serious, sometimes fatal, injuries can be caused by compressed air being injected into the body
through the skin or into a body opening, such as your mouth, ear or rectum.

What precautions should be taken when using compressed air equipment?

never direct a jet of air to any part of the body


SA
ensure quick release couplings are fully engaged before use
2 when raising ensure that aerial, bonnet and boot or tailgate are lowered to prevent contact

do not use the air blow gun to clean brake dust from brake components.
with roof or lights

3 before lowering lift ensure area is clear of people and equipment.


State what PPE should be worn when using a compressed air blow gun.

Only trained staff deemed competent can change the grindstone. goggles

Good posters can still be found in workshops under Abrasive Wheels Regulation nitrile gloves
(now superseded by PUWER).
overalls

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Below is a wheeled bench. When would this bench be good for moving loads in a workshop?
MOVEMENT OF LOADS
a cylinder head could be removed from the vehicle and placed on the bench for dismantling and
Any heavy object which requires moving manually or by mechanical lifting equipment is
considered to be a load. In a large garage or parts department, heavy loads may be transported transported to the degreasant tank (parts washer)
in the manners shown. Name each method of transport.

E
PL
Sealey Group
1. Fork-lift truck 2. Hand tuck 3. Flat trailer

Which of the above units is loaded correctly? Flat trailer

Manual handling of loads


When using a sack barrow:

ensure you walk on level ground


More than one-third of all over-three-day injuries (an injury which causes the injured person to be

lean forward slightly


away from work for more than three days) reported each year to the HSE and local authorities are
caused by manual handling the transporting or supporting of loads by hand or by bodily force.
put your foot on the axle when lowering.

M The pie chart shows the pattern for over-three-day injuries reported in 2001/02.

Other (20%)
Falls (4%)

Trips (23%)
SA
Hit by moving vehicle (2%)

Handling (38%)

HSE
Hit by moving, falling object (13%)

Under the Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (amended 2002) employers must:
AVOID the need for hazardous manual handling, so far as is reasonably practicable.
ASSESS the risk of injury from any hazardous manual handling that cant be avoided.
REDUCE the risk of injury from hazardous manual handling, so far as is reasonably
practicable.

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Starting with 1, arrange the following statements in order to give a good team lift procedure.
LIFTING
Chose one person to call Move smoothly and
One person lift (squat lift) the signals. in unison.

E
2 4
6

4
2 1 3

3 5
Work with someone of a Lift from the hips at the

PL
1
similar build and height same time then raise the
if possible. load to the desired height.

When turning while holding a load move your feet, do not twist your body.

Pushing and pulling safely

Whenever possible use lifting equipment.

Team lifts M
When the lift is awkward always ask for assistance. When pushing a car it is better to start the push with your back to the car.
SA
Now we
turn

Keep the strain off your back and let your body weight and leg muscles do the work.

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations 1998 (LOLER)
What does Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
(LOLER) do?
Generally, the Regulations require that lifting equipment provided for use at work is:

E
Strong and stable enough for the particular use and marked to indicate safe
working loads.

Equipment is checked every 6 months by a competent person.

PL
In your garage, college or training workshop there is likely to be lifting equipment which is
covered by these Regulations.

Lifting devices

Paul Rapson/Alamy
Vehicle hoists (ramp)
State three checks that should be made before using
a 4-post ramp to raise a vehicle.

1 check SWL is suitable to lift the vehicle

2 ensure chocks are in place

M What would you check before raising a vehicle on a wheel-free or 2-post hoist?

check SWL is above vehicle weight


ensure vehicle is positioned so that the centre of weight of the vehicle is in line with the
Chris Howes/Wild Places Photography/Alamy

3 ensure vehicle is positioned centrally.


posts
SA
ensure arms lock out when raised slightly.
Rear engine vehicles usually need to be reversed on to a hoist or ramp to keep the
centre of weight in-line with the posts.

Take care when removing front engine power units as the rear may overbalance.

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24

Trolley jack Position of chains and slings

Pictures supplied by Draper Tools Limited


Before using a jack check for: Which is the correct way to lift an engine using a chain sling as shown below?

hydraulic fluid leaks


wheels move freely and are not damaged.

E
Give two more checks that should be carried out:

1 jack handle stays up

2 suitable SWL for vehicle to be lifted.

PL
Please circle Please circle
X X

The SWL does not need to be above the vehicle weight as only one end or side of Slings and chains should be checked for wear at least once every 6 months
the vehicle is lifted by the jack.
The angle made by the slings is very important.

What is the maximum recommended angle between the slings? 90

Engine hoist
State four checks to be made before using an
engine hoist:

1 suitable SWL marked on hoist M If the angle were to be substantially increased, what would be the effect of the pull on the slings?

each sling could carry a load equal to the weight of the engine

ROADSIDE RECOVERY
SA
2 checks wheels and castors move freely Before recovering a vehicle from the roadside you need to have suitable training. Here is a
Sealey Group

suggested procedure.
3 check for fluid leaks
During a vehicle recovery or breakdown follow a safe system of working:
4 check lifting hook for signs of damage
On arrival switch on hazard warning lights and flashing amber beacon.
As a general rule any load over 20 Kg requires some form of powered lifting gear to support or
Keep back from the broken-down vehicle by at least 10 m.
move it.
Turn wheels of the recovery vehicle to the kerb once stationary.
Wear hi-visibility clothing (Hi-Viz).
If the light is poor then carry a switched on torch.

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Stay close to the kerb. Abbreviation buster
Make sure everyone is out of the broken-down vehicle and are safely positioned well
back from the kerb on the verge. Using your knowledge, complete the following health and safety related abbreviations. They are all
contained in this chapter.

HASAWA Health And Safety At Work Act

E
PPE Personal Protective Equipment

COSHH Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health


What position should
the wheels on this PUWER Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations

PL
breakdown vehicle
be pointing?
LOLER Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations

kelvin wakefield. iStock image


turned in towards
the kerb

RIDDOR Reporting of Injuries and Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations

HSE Health and Safety Executive

SWL Safe Working Load

PAT Portable Appliance Test

M
Read the procedure above and answer the following questions.

1 What would be required at the roadside if the light is poor?


Hi-Viz clothing and a torch switched on

2 How far should you park from the broken-down vehicle?


SWP Safe Working Pressure

MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet

Multiple choice questions


SA
at least 10 m
Choose the correct answer from a), b) or c) and place a tick [] after your answer.

1 The Health and Safety at Work Act 2 What type of safety sign is shown:
http://www.avrouk.com applies to: a) prohibition []
a) employees only [ ] b) mandatory [ ]
b) employers only [ ] c) warning. [ ]
c) all people at work. []

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Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
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3 The best type of fire extinguisher to 7 If you discover someone who has
be used on an electrical fire is: suffered an electric shock, what is
a) water [ ] the first thing you would do?
b) foam [ ] a) rush over and drag them out of the
c) carbon dioxide. [] workshop [ ]

E
b) turn off the power []
4 What does the abbreviation COSHH c) hit the fire alarm button. [ ]
stand for?
a) Control of Substances Harmless to 8 When attending a broken-down
Health [ ] vehicle on the motorway when it is

PL
dusk you should:
b) Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health [] a) wear light-coloured overalls and
c) Carrying of Substances Hazardous carry a torch [ ]
to Health [ ] b) wear Hi-Viz clothing and carry a
switched on torch []
5 What should be done when c) use a flashing red torch. [ ]
hazardous products are being used
in a workplace? 9 All employers must have a written
a) manufacturers data sheets obtained health and safety policy. True or
from supplier [ ]
b) risk assessments carried out for
products used [ ]
c) all the above. []

6 What will happen if compressed air is


M
false?
a) true [ ]
b) false. []

10 On inspection of a mains electric


drill, you notice the coloured wires
SA
forced through the skin? showing as the flex leaves the plug.
You should:
a) death if air is forced into the
bloodstream [] a) carry on using it as the coloured
b) skin irritation [ ] wires are insulated [ ]
c) come out in a rash. [ ] b) not use the drill and report to your
supervisor []
c) wrap some insulation tape
around it. [ ]

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Learning objectives

SECTION 2 After studying this section, you should be able to:

Identify vehicle protective equipment for a range of repair activities.


Describe why the automotive environment should be properly cleaned and
maintained.

E
Describe requirements and systems which may be put in place to ensure a clean
automotive environment using appropriate procedures and precautions.

Describe
Good procedures for starting and ending the working day which ensure effective
housekeeping practices are followed.

Describe how to minimize waste when using utilities and consumables.

PL
Describe the selection and use of cleaning equipment when dealing with general

housekeeping cleaning, spillages and leaks.

Describe procedures for correct disposal of waste materials.

USE THIS SPACE FOR LEARNER NOTES Key terms

M EPA Environmental Protection Act.


Detergent Chemical used for cleaning, usually diluted with water.
Solvents Chemicals used to clean and remove oil or grease that are often highly
flammable.
VPE Vehicle Protective Equipment.
SA
COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health.

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Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
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VEHICLE PROTECTION heavy duty durable seat cover, initially more costly but can be used many times as it does
not tear or split, can normally be washed periodically.
To keep the vehicle clean during servicing and repair work, several types of protection are available.
Give three more types of vehicle protection.

Seat covers 1 floor mats

E
2 steering wheel cover
State why seat covers should always be used in service and repair work.

to protect the seat fabric from oil or grease that may be present on overalls or clothing
3 wing cover.

PL
State four consequences of not using appropriate vehicle protection when carrying out a major
routine service.

1 seats soiled by oil and grease

2 customers getting oil or grease on their clothes

3 customers very unhappy with the care provided for their vehicle and may not return or may

even tell others of their bad experience

M 4 vehicle carpets marked with oil or grease.


Sealey Group

Sealey Group

GOOD HOUSEKEEPING
SA
Maintaining a clean and tidy work area
What types of seat cover are available and give advantages/disadvantages for each.
We are all impressed when we see a clean and shiny car, even though we know it would work
disposable type cheap initially but cannot be used many times, causing environmental just as well dirty. In the same way customers will be impressed if you keep your workshop clean
and tidy.
issues

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Identify ten housekeeping issues in this garage workshop scenario. 4 tools lying on the floor

5 general clutter boxes lying about the floor

6 batteries on the floor

7 tyres stacked high

E
8 old exhaust laying on the floor

9 dirty overalls

10 tool board with lots of empty spaces.

PL
Slips, trips and falls
Poor housekeeping accounts for many of these types of accidents in garages.

Which of the following scenarios are a possible cause of slips, trips and falls?

Complete the true or false table.

M Garage scenario

Air lines lying across the floor

Using a bench grinder

Using an impact gun to remove wheel nuts


True


False


SA
Oil left on the floor following a vehicle routine service

Using an angle grinder with a long extension lead trailing across the floor

Cleaning a trolley jack

1 oil on the floor Removing a cooling system pressure cap

2 air lines and cables lying about Using a ladder to gain access to tyres on a high shelf

Working near an open vehicle pit


3 exhaust gas extraction not used

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Housekeeping routines
If you need to use a hazardous cleaning material, read the label on the container.
Using coloured lines, match the housekeeping routine to each part of the working day. This will tell you how to use it safely, and what to do if you do have an accident
for example, if the cleaning material touches your eyes or skin.
Blue for opening Black for during the day Red for closing

E
Keep the lift and the floor clean.
Opening Different materials are used for cleaning and are usually classified as:
Switch off power to equipment.
Check that all tools and equipment
are clean and tidy. solvents
After use, put special tools back
where they are normally kept.
detergents.

PL
Check that any customers vehicles
are secure. Solvents
Check the special workshop tools
and equipment such as the air line, What are the dangers when using solvents to clean workshop equipment?
the tyre remover and the wheel
balancer are working. may be flammable
During the day
Put away neatly all special tools.
Make sure that items such as wheels
and removed tyres do not obstruct Detergents
work areas or pathways.

Closing
M
Check that the lifts and floor area are
clean and free from obstructions.
Clean and tidy the work area.
Move parked vehicles away from the
work areas.
Lock up your personal toolbox.
These are often mixed with water to dilute before use.

Find a detergent that is used in your workshop and suggest the PPE that should be used with the
product.

rubber or nitrile gloves.


SA
Cleaning Barrier cream used on your hands can reduce the risk of industrial dermatitis.

Cleaning equipment should be kept in a separate store, as many chemicals are highly
concentrated.

Always read the instructions on the labels before using them (see COSHH Regulations in HEALTHY AND SAFETY
Section 1). If specialized cleaning is required, your employer will provide protective clothing.
What information does the supplier of the cleaning material have to provide when requested?
When you have finished cleaning, put the cleaning equipment and unused chemicals back in
the store. material safety data sheet (MSDS)

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
Why can this be useful?
EMERGENCY CLEANING
it gives first aid measures and chemical composition, which should be given to any casualty of a
Breakages and spillages must be cleaned up immediately.
chemical injury, when seeking medical attention
If this is not done, someone may be injured. The firm could also be in breach of the Health and
Safety at Work Act (see Section 1 Health and Safety). If an accident happens, the firm may be
This sign is typically found on cleaning products. fined.

E
Suggest at least three items of garage equipment that require regular cleaning:

vehicle hoists (lifts or ramps)

PL
trolley jacks
wheel balancing.

Lyroky/Alamy
While cleaning, place cones and notices to warn others. Section off areas that
could be dangerous, such as slippery floors.
Oil spillages are best dealt with using absorbent granules that soak up the oil and can be swept
away.

M
State a number of areas of the workshop that require regular cleaning:

floor
walls
Give two dangers of leaving oil on the floor:

1 people may slip and fall, causing injury

2 moving vehicles may skid out of control, which could result in human injury or damage to
SA
vehicles and equipment.

car bays.
DISPOSING OF DANGEROUS WASTE MATERIAL
All workshops produce dangerous waste materials, which must be disposed of correctly by a
licensed contractor.

Waste management is covered by the Environmental Protection Act 1990.

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Items must be disposed of in different ways. Usually this is decided by the local council who pass Water
by-laws. Refuse disposal requirements differ from place to place.
report dripping taps and leaking hoses
Some types of dangerous material must be kept separate. They will be collected by specialist
agencies, or taken to the local refuse collection point.
Telephone
State six products which are encountered in a service and repair workshop that have to be

E
disposed of correctly: plan calls and be precise to reduce time on the telephone

1 used engine oil


Consumables
2 oil and fuel filters

PL
Paper towelling
3 anti-freeze
use sparingly and only the required amount. Use the entire sheet before disposing
4 batteries
in the bin
5 tyres

6 brake fluid. Lubricants


use the correct amount according to manufacturers specifications

USING RESOURCES ECONOMICALLY


How can the following resources be used economically?

Utilities
M Cleaning materials
use as directed by the manufacturer

Fasteners
SA
Electricity return any unused nuts, bolts and washers to storage

turn off lights when they are not needed

Heating
keep workshop doors shut, to keep heat in

Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA
RECYCLING WASTE MATERIALS Multiple choice questions
Choose the correct answer from a), b) or c) and place a tick [] after your answer.

1 You have been asked to collect a car 3 Which of the following must be taken
from a customers home while away by a licensed contractor?
wearing overalls and boots. What

E
a) paper air filters [ ]
vehicle protection must you take with
b) coolant hoses [ ]
you?
sweetym. iStock image

c) used anti-freeze. []
a) seat cover and wing cover [ ]
b) seat cover and floor mat [] 4 How could electricity be saved in a

PL
c) floor mat and steering wheel garage environment?
cover. [ ] a) use rechargeable battery operated
equipment [ ]
2 How could efficiency and
Vehicle manufacturers are producing vehicles that have an increasing amount of components that b) remove some of the light bulbs in the
productivity in a vehicle workshop
can be reused or recycled and are working towards the use of sustainable materials during workshop [ ]
be improved?
manufacture. c) turn off lights and other electrical
a) ensure tools are put back straight equipment when not required. []
What are the advantages of recycling? away on a shadow board []
b) buy extra tools in case one cannot 5 What housekeeping tasks should be
reducing cost of producing new components

List six items that are designed to be recycled:

1 plastic bumpers

2 glass M be found [ ]
c) leave any cleaning up of spills to the
end of the day. [ ]
carried out during the working day?
a) remove all vehicles from the
workshop [ ]
b) after use, put special tools back
where they are normally kept []
c) switch off power to equipment. [ ]
SA
3 batteries

4 engine castings

5 tyres

6 steel bodies.

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Hamilton Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Level 2 first proofs 2011 Cengage Learning EMEA