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stress waves in solid overview

stress waves in solid overview

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STRUCTURES

1 INTRODUCTION

In classical mechanics, when a free body is acted upon by an external force, the whole body

is assumed to be affected by the force immediately, and moves with an acceleration, given by

Newton's Second Law (F = ma). Clearly, this is a simplification , since it is impossible for the

message that a load has been applied to travel throughout the body instantaneously, but it is

usually OK for the types of forces typically encountered in everyday civil engineering.

changing load, such as that caused by an impact or explosion. In these cases, part of the

structure close to the point of application of the load can be highly stressed, while a more

distant area is still unaware of any loading having occurred. The message that loading has

occurred is carried from the point of application to other parts of the structure by stress waves

and the purpose of this lecture is to take a look at some simple properties and uses of elastic

stress waves.

Consider a rapidly changing (or transient) force being applied axially, to the end of a long

thin homogenous straight bar (fig 1)

Force (F)

Time = (t)

Initially, the force is applied to the particles at the very end of the bar. These displace by a

tiny amount and hence disturb the next particles, etc., propagating a stress wave along the bar

Each particle moves only a tiny amount, as the pulse passes (e.g., if a lump of steel travelling

at 10 m/s impacts a long steel rod, the particle displacement caused by the passage of the

stress wave in the rod will be of the order of 0.4 mm), but, as we shall prove shortly, the stress

wave itself travels from particle to particle at very high speed.

Now consider an element (AB) of the bar, cross-sectional area (A o) length dx, at a distance

x from the front of the bar. As the stress wave passes, the element is displaced axially, changes

in length and becomes stressed (figure 2). Remember that we are talking about very rapidly

changing loads and deformations, so each side of the element may deform at a different rate.

Thus, if face A of the element is diplaced by a distance u (measuring displacement in the

direction of the wave as positive), and we define axial strain as the change of displacement over

1

u

the length of the element (tensile strain as positive), then the situation as the wave passes

x

over the element is as shown in figure 2.

A B

x dx

A' B'

u u + du/dx . dx

Figure 2 - Displacement of Element of Bar by Passage of Stress Wave

The element is displaced to the right and changes its length due to the passage of the stress

pulse. The new length of the element is

u u

dx u .dx u dx .dx

x x

So the axial strain in the element is given by the new length, minus the original length/ all

divided by the original length, so:

u

( dx .dx) dx

x u

x

dx x

as we had defined it abave.

Assuming that the element remains elastic, the stress in the element is simply:

x E. x (1)

u

x E.

x

The net axial force on AB is the force acting on face B, minus that acting on A:

x

( x dx) A0 x A0

x

x

.dx. A0

x

2

2u

The mass of the element is ( A0dx ) while the axial acceleration is .

t 2

x 2u

dx. A Adx 2

x t

2u E 2u (2)

t 2 x 2

This is a well know type of equation in physics, called the wave equation, and it can be

shown that it describes the motion of a wave passing through a body with velocity C0 , where:

E (3)

embed Equation C0

This is the velocity of an elastic wave travelling along a the rod under investigation.

(As an example of the magnitude of elastic waves, take mild steel, E 200 x109 N / m2 ,

200 x109

8000 kg / m3 gives C0 5000m / s!! ).

8000

It is very important to note that, as stress wave is passed by particles in the body nudging

each other along by small distances only. Thus, although a stress wave may move through a

body at a tremendous velocity, the actual velocity imparted to the particles in the body by the

stress wave is typically very small.

A direct correlation can be obtained, between the velocity of the displaced particles as a

stress pulse passes, and the magnitude of the stress, as shown below:

From eqn. 1:

u

x E.

x

E C0

Note: Strictly, the acceleration varies over the element and should be taken as the average of the second

2u 2 u

2 (u .dx)

derivatives w.r.t. time of the displacements at A and B, t 2

t x but the term

2

d 2 u

( .dx ) is negligible in the limit when dx is infinitesimally small.)

dt 2 x

3

so

u (4)

embed Equation embed Equation x C0 E. .

x

The stress wave velocity C0 is, of course, the speed at which the wave passes along the bar:

dx

embed Equation embed Equation C0

dt

and substituting back into eqn. 4:

dx u u

x E. . . E. .

embed Equation embed Equation dt x t

u

But, is the particle velocity, v , so:

t

Since, both embed Equation embed Equation & C0 are constants (or at least, very nearly

so for solids at elastic strain levels), there is a linear relation between magnitude of the axial

stress and the velocity imparted to the particles in the body as the stress wave passes over

them.

Equation 5 bears some resemblance to Ohm's law, with the stress and particle velocity

corresponding to the voltage and current in a circuit. In this analogy, the productembed

Equation embed Equation .C0 , corresponds to resistance, and is known as the acoustic

impedance of the body through which the stress wave is passing.

The behaviour of a stress wave in a bar which strikes a discontinuity can be determined by

considering equilibrium of forces and compatibility of particle velocities on either side of the

discontinuity.

Consider a bar, which at some point changes in point cross-sectional area and material (fig

3)

4

Figure 3 - Stress Wave Impinging on a Discontinuity

We assume that when the incident stress wave ( I ) is split into two parts when it hits the

discontinuity: a reflected wave ( R ) which passes back into the first part of the bar, and a

transmitted wave ( T ) which propagates into the second part.

A1 I R A2 T (6)

A1 R

T 1 I

A2 I

vI vR vT (7)

vR v

1 T

vI vI

but, since ( v and the reflected and incident waves are on the same side of the

C0

discontinuity and there have the same density and wave speed values,)

R v (8)

1 T

I vI

A1 v

T 1 1 T I

A2 vI

5

A1

T 2vI vT I

vI A2

and, substituting the stress values back for the particle velocities:

A1

T 2 1C01 I 2C02 T I

1C01 I A2

which, after some manipulation, gives the following equation for the transmitted stress

2C02 2 A1 (9)

T I

C02 2 A2 C01 1 A1

2 I 2 A1

I

I 2 A2 I 1 A1

A1

2

A2

I 1 A1 I

1

I 2 A2

R I

C02 2 A2 C01 1 A1

I 2 A2 I 1 A1

I

I 2 A2 I 1 A1

I 1 A1

1

I 2 A2

I 1 A1 I

1

I 2 A2

6

Figure 4 - Stress Wave Impinging on a Free Surface

The simplest case of discontinuity is a free surface. In this case, the acoustic impedance of

the material beyond the discontinuity 0 , and equations 9 and 10 yield:

T 0

&

R I

I.E.: The reflected wave is of equal magnitude and opposite sign to the incident wave. This

means that a compressive incident wave will be reflected from a free boundary as a tensile

wave and vice versa.

NOTE: If the incident wave in figure 4 is compressive, then as it passes from left-to-right,

particles will be pushed to the right. When it is reflected as a tensile wave, travelling from

right-to-left, it will pull particles to the right. If the bar has free boundaries at both ends, the

successive tensile and compressive reflections will always displace particles to the right, and

the whole body will move to the right in a series of jerks (figure 5). Note in particular, that

particles in the bar do not move either before the incident wave arrives, nor in the gap between

the passage of a wave and the arrival of the reflection. This corresponds to the behaviour

defined in eqn 5: a particle only moves when the stress wave passes over it, and is stationary

both before the arrival of the stress wave, and after it has passed.

7

Figure 5 - Displacement of Centre of a Free-Free Bar by Passage of Stress Wave and

Reflections

8

2.3.2 Rigid Surface

In this case, the acoustic impedance of the rigid body . The transmitted stress is

meaningless (since, by definition, a rigid body has an infinite Youngs Modulus), and, from eqn.

10, the reflected stress is:

R I

equal magnitude and sign.

In this case, the material stays the same, but the shape or size of the bar changes (

1C01 2 C02 A1 A2 ).

2 A1 2

T I

A2 A1 A2 I

1

A1

&

A2

1

A2 A1 A

R I 1

A2 A1 A2 I

1

A1

9

The terms in the brackets are known as the transmission and reflection coefficients

respectively, and the sign and magnitude of the transmitted and reflected waves are determined

solely by the ratio of the bar areas on either side of the discontinuity.

In this case, the material changes, but the shape or size of the bar remains constant (

1C01 2 C02 A1 A2 ).

2I2 2

T I

I 2 I1 I1 I

1

I2

&

I1

1

I 2 I1 I2

R I

I 2 I1 I1 I

1

I2

2.4 Practical Uses of One-Dimensional Stress Waves - The Split Hopkinson Pressure

Bar (SHPB)

Material properties are generally measured in tests in which the load is increased so slowly,

that the test is effectively static. However, many materials have properties which change with

loading rate. For example, the yield strength of aluminium increases with increasing load rate.

A common method of determining material properties at higher strain rates is to use the

Split Hopkinson bar: a piece of test equipment which has been used at Sheffield University for

many years. The equipment consists of two long thin cylindrical metal (usually steel, but

alumininium, titanium or others may be used) bars, with a thin sample of the specimen under

test (axial length L0 , and, we assume, the same cross-sectional area as the bars 1) sandwiched

between the ends of the bars (figure 7). The elastic modulus and wave speed of the material

which makes up the two bars are E and C0 respectively.

1

NB: When testing materials which undergo significant plastic deformation, there may be some

radial spread of the specimen during the loading. In these cases, it is advisable to make the specimen

somewhat smaller in diameter than the bars, making some allowance for the radial dilation and hence

ensuring that the whole end surface of the specimen is loaded throughout the test.

10

Figure 7 - Schematic Diagram of Split Hopkinson Bar Test

A stress wave is sent down the transmitter bar, either by striking or detonating explosive on

the end of the bar. This wave impinges upon the specimen, where some of it passes through into

the transmitter bar, and some reflects back into the incident bar. The incident, transmitted and

reflected strains ( I , T & R ) are recorded by placing strain gauges on the perimeter of the

two bars.

2.4.1 Calculations

From eqn. 5,

E E du

.v .

C0 C0 dt

and since

1 du

.

C0 dt

u C0 dt

11

Total Displacement of the ends of the bars, at time T after the start of the pulses

T T T

u1 C0 I dt C0 R dt C0 ( I R ) dt

0 0 0

T

u2 C0 T dt

0

T

u1 u2 C0

L0 0

s ( I R T ) dt

L0

. du C

s s 0 ( I R T )

dt L0

Load on face 2: P2 EA T

Where E, and A are the Youngs Modulus and cross-sectional area of the bars.

P1 P2 1 E

s . ( I R T )

2 A 2

We therefore have a comprehensive record of the stress and strain which the sample

experiences throughout the test, and can plot a stress/strain curve for the particular strain rate

Whilst the basic principle of the SPHB test is relatively simple, there are a number of

complicating factors which can adversely affect the quality of the results, and which are

often ignored. As a consequence, the test has been described as one of the most commonly

mis-interpreted procedures in experimental mechanics. Some of these factors, and the ways

of obviating the problems they cause:

All strain signals are recorded at some distance from the interface between the bars. It is

therefore necessary to time shift them so that they are overlaid at the time that they

would have co-incided at the interface. This requires a very accurate measurement of the

bar velocity, either by careful static measurement of the elastic modulus and density, and

use of equation (3), or, probably more conveniently, by careful analysis of the time of

passage of the stress wave between different strain gauge stations (but see section

2.4.2.2).

12

2.4.2.2 Wave dispersion

The whole of this article has been concenred with the one-dimensional propagation of

elastic waves. This essentially ignores any effects of the radial thickness of the bar. Any

stress pulse propagating along the bar may be decomposed into its frequency components

by means of a Fourier Transform. Each frequency component has a characterstic

wavelength, the length of which is inversely proportional to the frequency. If significant

amounts of the energy of the pulse is contained by frequency components whose wavelength

is similar to that of the bar radius, the pulse will disperse as it propagates. This is because

such frequency components have a propagation velocity lower than that given by (3).

Dispersive pulses significantly change their shape and magnitude as they propagate, as the

different frequency components take different times to travel between any two points.

Consequently, the pulse as read at a strain gauge station some distance from the interface

between the bars may not accurately represent the pulse which actually loads the specimen

between the bars. Additionally, dispersive frequency components produce non-uniform

distributions of stress and strain over the cross-section of the bar, further complicating the

interpretation of the SHPB results.

usually better and possible to design an experiment such that they do not have a significant

effect of the results. For a 10mm diameter steel bar, significant energy would have to be

contained at frequencies above about 3-500kHz for the pulse to be seriously affected by

dispersion. Such high frequencies are associated with sharp rising or falling edges of a

pulse. One way to ensure that dispersion is insignificant is to soften the loading on the front

face of the input bar, by placing some compliant material over the face. For loading from a

high velocity striker bar, a few sheets of paper will usually be adequate to sufficiently round

off the rising edge of the loading and effectively filter out the higher frequencies of the signal

at source. Alternatively, since the high frequencies travel with a slower velocity than the low

frequency components, they progressively lag further behind the head of the pulse. If the bar

is long enough, these frequency components are effectively filtered out of the main loading

pulse by the time that they reach the first recording station, and the pulse travels onwards

with no significant further dispersion. For a 200microsecond duration square loading pulse

for example, most of the highly dispersive frequencies will lag behind the main pulse after

propagating 2m or so.

It should be noted that dispersion implies another feature, even a perfectly square loading

pulse with instantaneous step changes of stress will automatically become rounded on its

rising and falling edges as it propagates along a bar and the high frequency components

progressively lag further and further behind the head of the pulse.

It is vital that both the specimen length and its diameter not be too great. The length should

be minimised so that the assumption of equilibrium of force along the specimen is

reasonably justified. The radius should be minimised to ensure that the effect of radial self-

confinement (which would manifest itself as an apparent increase in the dynamic material

strength, over and above any real strength increase due to dynamic effects) is limited.

13

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