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Handout No.

5 - Practice Questions for Ventilation


Detailed answers follow questions (which often contain new or explanatory information).

1. The primary purpose of a local exhaust ventilation system is to:

a. prevent reentrainment of air contaminants at a stack


b. contain, control, capture, and/or remove contaminants at their source
c. provide dilution ventilation of volatile substances
d. provide protective ventilation of micro-organisms

2. At a point upstream from the fan in an exhaust system, the velocity pressure is VP = 2.00 w.g. and the static
pressure is SP = -3.50 w.g. What is the total pressure, TP?

a. 1.50 inches of water c. 5.50 inches of water


b. -1.50 inches of water d. -5.50 inches of water

3. At an open doorway the air flows out of a room at a rate of Q = 2300 cfm.
The open area is 3' x 7'. What is the average velocity of the air through the doorway?

a. 48,300 fpm
b. 2300 fpm
c. 110 fpm
d. 913 cfm

4. Room air at STP enters 10 oven doors (2 x 2) at a rate of 100 cfm per oven. The air temperature then rises to
600F before leaving each oven and recombining in a 16 exhaust duct. The exhaust duct is insulated with 3
of fiber insulation and runs 75 to the fan housing inlet, 14 inches in diameter. What actual volume flowrate of
air must the fan be capable of handling?

a. 4000 acfm at standard conditions


b. 2000 acfm at 600F
c. 1000 scfm
d. 1000 acfm at 600F

5. The hood static pressure downstream from a grinder hood ( measured using a pitot tube) = SPh = -1.69" wg.
The connecting duct diameter is 6" and the hood shape is that of a standard grinder hood having a coefficient
of entry of Ce = 0.78. What air flowrate would this hood static pressure suggest? (Assume non-STP; df =
0.95)

a. 410 scfm c. 1200 acfm


b. 820 acfm d. 1600 scfm

6. Round ducts on the suction side of a fan are considered better than square ducts because:

a. they resist collapsing better


b. the use less material for the same cross-sectional area
c. they provide better conditions for consistent particle transport
d. all of the above

7. Someone adjusts the slot width on a side-draft hood from 2 inches to 1 inch (without any other modifications
to the ventilation system). This action would have the following effect:

a. increase capture velocities in front of the hood


b. reduce air flow through the hood
c. reduce the hood entry loss
d. no effect

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 1
8. A fan is rated in a manufacturer's catalog as delivering 10,500 scfm when FTP = 3.0 inch w.g., and the fan
speed is n = 400 rpm. The drive motor requires 6.2 shaft horsepower at these conditions. If the fan speed is
increased to 500 rpm, determine the new Q, FTP, and shp.

a. Q = 14,250 scfm; FTP = 6.2 in. of water; shp = 13.6


b. Q = 13,125 scfm; FTP = 4.7 in. of water; shp = 12.1
c. Q = 12,253 scfm; FTP = 4.3 in. of water; shp = 11.6
d. Q = 11,158 scfm; FTP = 3.7 in. of water; shp = 10.4

9. For all practical purposes, use of a pitot tube is limited to velocities greater than:

a. 200-300 fpm c. 800-1000 fpm


b. 400-600 fpm d. >1600 fpm

10. The sash of a non-bypass lab fume hood is lowered, reducing the air flowrate through the hood. After
lowering the sash, the absolute value of the hood static pressure, SPh, will:

a. increase c. stay the same


b. decrease d. there is no way to know.

11. The velocity of air in a duct can be estimated by measuring the velocity pressure. What instrument is best-
suited for obtaining this pressure measurement?

a. a vaned anemometer c. a thermal anemometer


b. a pitot tube d. a balometer

12. Toluene is used in a glove box at the rate of 0.5 lb/hr. Assuming the air density correction factor,
df = 0.88, how much air flow is needed to reduce the concentration to 10% of the LEL?
(LEL = 1.27%, MW = 92, assume perfect mixing.)

a. 31.4 acfm c. 58.1 acfm


b. 45.6 acfm d. 91.6 acfm

13. Which of the following statements concerning various types of air pressure is NOT True?

a. velocity pressure may be a positive or a negative number according to the ACGIH convention for assigning
signs
b. total pressure is generally negative on the upstream side of a fan
c. hood static pressure is always greater (numerically) than the velocity pressure measured at the same
location
d. VP = SP + TP

14. A hood has a coefficient of entry Ce = 0.72. If the duct area is A = 0.1964 square feet and
Q = 730 scfm flows through the hood, the hood static pressure just downstream from the hood would be
measured as:

a. -1.65 inches of water c. -1.25 inches of water


b. -0.65 inches of water d. -1.00 inches of water

15. Which hood is most appropriate for a molten solder holding pot? No one works over the pot.

a. A side draft hood


b. A low canopy hood
c. A high canopy hood with high face velocity
d. A canopy hood with sides baffles

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 2
16. What is the actual density of duct air if the air temperature is 140F and the barometric pressure is 720 mm Hg?

a. 0.84 lbs/cubic foot


b. 0.062 lbs/cubic foot
c. 0.473 lbs/cubic foot
d. 0.075 lbs/cubic foot

17. The centerline velocity pressure of the air in a long straight uninterrupted duct is measured using a pitot tube. it
was reported, VPcl = 0.90" w.g. What is the approximate average velocity in the duct? (Assume STP, df = 1.)

a. 3800 fpm
b. 3100 fpm
c. 4000 fpm
d. 3400 fpm

18. What is the average concentration of toluene vapor in a lab fume hood exhaust duct if the evaporation rate of
toluene into the exhaust air is 0.11 lbs/hour? Lab fume hood exhaust rate = 1100 scfm. (Assume STP, df = 1;
MW = 92; assume perfect mixing in the exhaust duct.)

a. 10 ppm
b. 387 ppm
c. 7.0 ppm
d. 1.2 mg/cubic meter

19. What is the capture velocity about 6" in front of a six-inch "plain" hood when the exhaust volume flowrate is
600 acfm? (Assume df = 0.90; use the ABIH Chart (from ACGIH) for hood equations.)

a. 220 fpm
b. 100 fpm
c. 240 fpm at STP
d. 1.7 fpm

20. What is the actual static pressure loss through a duct fitting if the actual average air velocity = 2000 fpm and the
fitting loss factor = 1.2? Assume df = 0.85.

a. 1.20" w.g.
b. 0.30" w.g.
c. 0.26" w.g.
d. 0.22" w.g.

21. Which of the following pressures is closest to the recognized air "standard pressure" used in ventilation?

a. 760 mm w.g.
b. 407 inch w.g.
c. 29.92 mm Hg
d. 760 bar

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 3
Best Answers
1. b most appropriate answer. Evaluation: All answers are correct in some circumstances, but the key word is
primary. Answer b is the primary purpose, and thus the best answer.
2. b most appropriate answer. Evaluation: You should look for an equation that has TP, SP and VP.
The relevant equation is TP = SP + VP. In order to be sure to obtain the correct answer, you should carry
all signs and units along in the calculation.

Total pressure = static pressure + velocity pressure


1.50wg = (3.50wg) + 2.00wg

Note that any of the multiple choice answers might be obtained if you dont carry the correct sign in your
calculation work.

3. c most appropriate answer. Use Q = VA. Evaluation: Note that the question provides Q (flow rate) and
dimensions for A (area) plus it asks for V (velocity.)

Using the equation. You should look for an equation that has Q and V (velocity) and A (area). In order to
obtain the correct answer quickly, you should carry all signs and units along in the calculation. Write your
work on a sheet of scratch paper.

You will have to first estimate A = b x h = 3 ft x 7 ft = 21 ft2 (A not uncommon practice in these types of
questions is to require multiple calculations.)

Then, solving for V in the equation: V = Q / A = 2300 ft3 /min / 21 ft2 = 109.5238 ft/min

Note that the final units are in ft/min, units for velocity. Look for your answer among the multiple choices.
Note that answer c has your answer and follows the rules of significant figures.

Using Unit analysis. Suppose you cant find or think of the proper equation. You should look at the input
units and desired answer units. The input units are ft2 and ft3 /min. The desired units are ft/min (velocity). What
can you do to the input units to obtain ft/min? The only way to obtain the desired output units are to divide
ft3 /min by ft2 . 2300 ft3 /min / 21 ft2 = 109.5 ft/min

A few extra thoughts: If you hadnt carried along the units you might have incorrectly estimated
Q x A = 48,300 cfm (which is one of the possible answers). Finally, Note that since air density is not
mentioned, you should assume STP. (Although it is not needed in this question.)

4. b most appropriate answer. Calculate df = 0.50 from ideal gas law; Q2 = Q 1 df; Q1 = 10 Q enc
Evaluation: Because the question mentions a temperature increase from STP, it likely will require an
adjustment for air density. Note also that more information is given than is necessary (door size, 3 of
insulation, 75 of 16 duct, fan 14 inlet) to find the desired answer (the actual volume flowrate flowing
through the fan).

If you dont remember the density correction equation, or how to manipulate the Ideal Gas Law (which could
take many minutes), you could try to reason yourself to an answer. You will note that some answers have
acfm and some scfm. The question asks for the actual volume flowrate of air that will be hot. This
means that answers a and c cannot be correct because they are in scfm, air flow at standard
conditions. That narrows your choices to b and d.

Additionally, you know that 1000 cfm enters the ovens and must expand to some higher volume flowrate
because it is heated. The means that answer d cannot be correct because no expansion is taken into account.
The only answer left, b must be the correct answer!

The actual math is this: The absolute temperature ratio (in degrees R) = df = 1060/530 = 2.
Therefore, Qstp x 2 = 2000 cfm at 600F.

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 4
5. b most appropriate answer. Use Q = 4005 A Ce (SPh/df)1/2
Evaluation: Remember to use the absolute value of SPh in this equation.

Q = 4005 C e A (SPh/df)1/2
Q = 4005 0.78 0.1964 (1.69/0.95)1/2 = 818.314 acfm (or rounded, Q = 820 scfm)

Reasoning your way to the answer: Note that answers a and d cannot be correct because the units are
scfm. That leaves 2 possible answers.

If you cant remember where df goes in the STP equation, perform the calculation without df using the
more-common STP equation:

Q = 4005 C e A (SPh)1/2
Q = 4005 0.78 0.1964 (1.69)1/2 = 797.6 scfm or rounded, Q = 800 scfm)

Now, look at the density correction factor, df, provided in the question. It suggests about a 5% difference from
standard conditions. Which of the two remaining answers, b or c, is more probable? Answer c is about 33%
different and Answer b is about 3% different.
The best choice would be Answer b.

6. d most appropriate answer. Evaluation: From geometric principles alone, we know that answers a and
b are true. Even if we dont know the status of answer c, and because at least two of the answers are
correct, d must be the best answer.

7. b most appropriate answer. VP in slots would increase which would increase the slot loss (where Loss =
1.78VP); SPh would be converted to loss instead of VP, resulting in less flow.
Evaluation: Suppose you dont know the answer to this question. Flag it and come back later.

A little later you run across Question 10. (See Question 10 now.) Note that the action is similar (narrowing the
hood opening). It states that the effect will be to reduce flowrate. Yahoo! Theres your answer.

8. b most appropriate answer. Evaluation: Note that this question requires you to make multiple
calculationsmaybe up to 12 calculations! Talk about time consuming!

However, note that if any one result in the multiple answers in a-d is wrong, then that entire answer is wrong.
Also, if any one result is correct, the entire answer is correct. Therefore, you need only make one calculation:
new Q = 13,125 scfm, which is answer b.

Note also that scfm indicates STP conditions. Note also that in this question, the rules of significant figures
were not followed. A better answer would have been Q = 13,000 scfm.

9. b most appropriate answer. Evaluation: The velocity pressure, VP, at 400 fpm = 0.01 w.g. Anything less
than that is virtually impossible to read using typical testing and monitoring equipment. You could use
Bernoullis equation but this is a question that actually relies more on your experience and reason than on your
ability to perform calculations.

10. a is best answer. Evaluation: If the sash were closed entirely, SPh would be at a maximum. Again, watch the
sign of SP. Absolute means the positive value of what is a negative number according the ventilation sign
convention. (Note that the question provides the answer for Question No. 8.)

11 b is best answer. Evaluation: The question relies solely on your knowledge and experience. But you could
reason it out. Anemometers measure velocity and are secondary instruments. The velocity pressure could
then be estimated from the measured velocity (using Bernoullis Equation) but that is a lot of work and
probably doesnt fit the definition of best-suited. (Be sure read the question carefully!) So answers a
and c are suspect. A balometer measures flowrate, with the same problems of anemometers. The most likely,
best-suited answer is b because the pitot tube is a primary instrument and measures VP directly.

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 5
12. a most appropriate answer. Use q = 387 lbs/(MW min df); and Q = (q 106 Kmix)/ppm; 10% LEL =
1270 ppm; Kmix = 1 for perfect mixing.

13. a most appropriate answer. Velocity pressure is a measure of the kinetic energy in the system and is thus
considered positive.

14. c most appropriate answer. Use several equations and multiple calculations: V = Q/A; VP = (V/4005)2 ; SPh =
VP/Ce2

15. d is the best answer. All the hoods would find use in special circumstances, e.g, if someone worked over the
pot then a side draft hood would likely be best. Given the limited data, the best choice is always to enclose as
much as possible.

16. Best answer: b. The equation is (actual density = standard density x df) where df = Tstandard/Tactual x
Pactual/Pstandard, where T must be in absolute terms, R. So, df = (70+460)/(140+460) x 720/760 = 0.837.
The standard air density = 0.075 lbs/cubic foot. So, actual air density = 0.075 x 0.837 = 0.062 lbs/cubic foot
(rounded).

If you don't remember the equation, remember that the change in air density is directly proportional to change
in temperature and pressure. Figure the ratios this way: increasing temperature decreases density, so the
temperature ratio must be less than 1; similarly with pressure: when the pressure does down, the volume goes
up and the density goes down. So, also the pressure ratio must be less than 1. You must remember the standard
air density: 0.075 lbs/cubic foot. Memorize it now.

17. Best answer: d. The average VP in a duct is about 81% of the centerline VP. The average velocity in a duct is
about 90% of the centerline velocity. The measurement must be in long straight duct, not near any fitting. This
shortcut estimator must be memorized.

18. Best answer: c. The evaporation rate is: q = (387 x 0.11)/(92 x 60) = 0.00771 scfm. The concentration =
0.00769 scfm/1100 scfm = 7.01 x 10-6 = or = 7.0 ppm.

19. Best answer: a. The ACGIH hood flow equation for a "plain hood" is Q = V(10X^2 + A); solve for V. V =
600/(10[0.5']^2 + 0.1963] = 220 fpm (actual velocity). Air density is not necessary to the evaluation. Be sure
to carry units and signs. 6" must converted to 0.5 feet. Answer rounded for significant figures.

20. Best answer: c. Use Bernoulli's equation to estimate actual VP: VP = (2000/4000)2 x 0.85 = 0.2125" w.g.
Then, Loss = K x VPactual = 1.2 x 0.2125 = 0.26: w.g. (Don't correct twice with df.)

21. Best answer: b. 407" w.g. = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 psia = 29.92" Hg = 1.01 bar = 760 torr.

2010 D. Jeff Burton Excerpt from Industrial Hygiene Workbook - Section 26 Page 6