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TEXT 1

Jumping spiders
A For a stalking predator, the element of surprise is crucial. And for jumping spiders
that sneak onto other spiders' webs to prey on their owners, it can be the difference
between having lunch and becoming it. Now zoologists have discovered the secret
of these spiders' tactics: creeping forward when their prey's web is vibrating.

B The fifteen known species of Portia jumping spiders are relatively small, with
adults being about two centimeters long (that's smaller than the cap on most pens).
They habitually stay in the webs of other spiders, and in an area of these webs that
is as out-of-the-way as possible. Portia spiders live mostly in tropical forests, where
the climate is hot and humid. They hunt a range of other spiders, some of which
could easily turn the tables on them. 'They will attack something about twice their
own size if they are really hungry,' says Stimson Wilcox of Binghamton University in
New York State. Wilcox and his colleague, Kristen Gentile of the University of
Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, wanted to find out how Portia spiders
keep the upper hand.

C All jumping spiders have large eyes that look like binocular lenses, and they
function pretty much the same way. Most jumping spiders locate their prey visually,
and then jump and capture from one centimeter to over ten centimeters away. Only a
few species of jumping spiders invade the webs of other spiders, and the Portia
spider is among them. Jumping spiders, including Portia spiders, prey on insects and
other arthropods by stalking. Sometimes the spiders lure their victims by vibrating
the web to mimic the struggles of a trapped insect. But many web-weaving spiders
appear to be wise to these tricks, so stalking is often a better strategy. Sometimes,
the researchers found, Portia spiders take advantage of the vibrations created in the
web by a gentle breeze. But if necessary, they will make their own vibrations.

D The researchers allowed various prey spiders to spin webs in the laboratory and
then introduced Portia spiders. To simulate the shaking effect of a breeze the
zoologists used either a model aircraft propeller or attached a tiny magnet to the
centre of the web which could be vibrated by applying a varying electrical field. The
researchers noticed that the stalking Portia spiders moved more when the webs
were shaking than when they were stilt and they were more likely to capture their
prey during tests in which the webs were penorncally shaken than in those where the
webs were undisturbed. If the spiders were placed onto unoccupied webs, they
would make no attempt to change their movements.

E It is the Portia spider's tactic of making its victims' webs shake that has most
intrigued the researchers, they noticed that the spiders would sometimes shake their
quarry's web violently, then creep forwards up to five millimeters before the vibrations
died down. 'They'd make a big pluck with one of their hind legs,' says Wilcox. These
twangs were much more powerful than the gentler vibrations Portia spiders use to
mimic a trapped insect, and the researchers were initially surprised that the prey
spiders did not respond to them in any way. But they have since discovered that the
violent twanging produces a pattern of vibrations that match those caused by a twig
falling onto the web.

F Other predators make use of natural 'smokescreens' or disguises to hide from their
prey: lions hunting at night, for example, move in on their prey when clouds obscure
the moon. 'But this is the first example of an animal making its own smokescreen
that we know of,' says Wilcox. 'Portia spiders are clearly intelligent and they often
learn from their prey as they are trying to capture it. They do this by making different
signals on the web of their prey until the prey spider makes a movement. In general,
Portia spiders adjust their stalking strategy according to their prey and what the prey
is doing. Thus, Portia spiders use trial-and-error learning in stalking. Sometimes they
will even take an indirect route to reach a prey spider they can see from a distance.
This can sometimes take one to two hours following a predetermined route. When it
does this, the Portia spider is actually solving problems and thinking ahead about its
actions.'

MAIN IDEA
Paragraph A :
Zoologists have discovered the secret of jumping spiders' tactics: creeping forward
when their prey's web is vibrating.

Paragraph B :
They habitually stay in the webs of other spiders, and in an area of these webs that
is as out-of-the-way as possible.

Paragraph C :
Most jumping spiders locate their prey visually, and then jump and capture from one
centimeter to over ten centimeters away.

Paragraph D :
The researchers allowed various prey spiders to spin webs in the laboratory and
then introduced Portia spiders.

Paragraph E :
It is the Portia spider's tactic of making its victims' webs shake that has most
intrigued the researchers, They noticed that the spiders would sometimes shake
their quarry's web violently, then creep forwards up to five millimeters before the
vibrations died down.

Paragraph F :
In general, Portia spiders adjust their stalking strategy according to their prey and
what the prey is doing.
TEXT 2
RISING SEA

Paragraph 1
The average air temperature at the surface of the earth has risen this century, as
has the temperature of ocean surface waters. Because water expands as it heats, a
warmer ocean means higher sea levels. We cannot say definitely that the
temperature rises are due to the greenhouse effect; the heating may be part of a
natural variability over a long time - scale that we have not yet recognized in our
short 100 years of recording. However, assuming the build up of greenhouse gases
is responsible, and that the warming will continue, scientists and inhabitants of low-
lying coastal areas would like to know the extent of future sea level rises.

Paragraph 2
Calculating this is not easy. Models used for the purpose have treated the ocean
as passive, stationary and one -dimensional. Scientists have assumed that heat
simply diffused into the sea from the atmosphere. Using basic physical laws, they
then predict how much a known volume of water would expand for a given increase
in temperature. But the oceans are not one-dimensional, and recent work by
oceanographers, using a new model which takes into account a number of subtle
facets of the sea including vast and complex ocean currents suggests that the rise
in sea level may be less than some earlier estimates had predicted.

Paragraph 3
An international forum on climate change, in 1986, produced figures for likely
sea-level rises of 20 cms and 1.4 m, corresponding to atmospheric temperature
increases of 1.5 and 4.5C respectively. Some scientists estimate that the ocean
warming resulting from those temperature increases by the year 2050 would raise
the sea level by between 10 cms and 40 cms. This model only takes into account the
temperature effect on the oceans; it does not consider changes in sea level brought
about by the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and changes in groundwater
storage. When we add on estimates of these, we arrive at figures for total sea-level
rises of 15 cm and 70 cm respectively.

Paragraph 4
Its not easy trying to model accurately the enormous complexities of the ever-
changing oceans, with their great volume, massive currents and sensitively to the
influence of land masses and the atmosphere. For example, consider how heat
enters the ocean. Does it just diffuse from the warmer air vertically into the water,
and heat only the surface layer of the sea? (Warm water is less dense than cold, so
it would not spread downwards). Conventional models of sea-level rise have
considered that this the only method, but measurements have shown that the rate of
heat transfer into the ocean by vertical diffusion is far lower in practice than the
figures that many modelers have adopted.
Paragraph 5
Much of the early work, for simplicity, ignored the fact that water in the oceans
moves in three dimensions. By movement, of course, scientists dont mean waves,
which are too small individually to consider, but rather movement of vast volumes of
water in huge currents. To understand the importance of this, we now need to
consider another process advection. Imagine smoke rising from a chimney. On a
still day it will slowly spread out in all directions by means of diffusion. With a strong
directional wind, however, it will all shift downwind, this process is advection the
transport of properties (notably heat and salinity in the ocean) by the movement of
bodies of air or water, rather than by conduction or diffusion.

Paragraph 6
Massive ocean currents called gyres do the moving. These currents have far
more capacity to store heat than does the atmosphere. Indeed, just the top 3 m of
the ocean contains more heat than the whole of the atmosphere. The origin of gyres
lies in the fact that more heat from the Sun reaches the Equator than the Poles, and
naturally heat tends to move from the former to the latter. Warm air rises at the
Equator, and draws more air beneath it in the form of winds (the Trade Winds) that,
together with other air movements, provide the main force driving the ocean
currents.

Paragraph 7
Water itself is heated at the Equator and moves poleward, twisted by the Earths
rotation and affected by the positions of the continents. The resultant broadly circular
movements between about 10 and 40 North and South are clockwise in the
Southern Hemisphere. They flow towards the east at mid latitudes in the equatorial
region. They then flow towards the Poles, along the eastern sides of continents, as
warm currents. When two different masses of water meet, one will move beneath the
other, depending on their relative densities in the subduction process.The densities
are determined by temperature and salinity. the convergence of water of different
densities from the Equator and the Poles deep in the oceans causes continuous
subduction. This means that water moves vertically as well as horizontally. Cold
water from the Poles travels as depth it is denser than warm water until it
emerges at the surface in another part of the world in the form of a cold current.

Paragraph 8
Ocean currents, in three dimensions, form a giant conveyor belt, distributing
heat from the thin surface layer into the interior of the oceans and around the globe.
Water may take decades to circulate in these 3-D gyres in the lop kilometer of the
ocean, and centuries in the deep water. With the increased atmospheric
temperatures due to the greenhouse effect, the oceans conveyor belt will carry more
heat into the interior. This subduction moves heat around far more effectively than
simple diffusion. Because warm water expands more than cold when it is heated,
scientists had presumed that the sea level would rise unevenly around the globe. It is
now believed that these inequalities cannot persist, as winds will act to continuously
spread out the water expansion. Of course, of global warming changes the strength
and distribution of the winds, then this evening-out process may not occur, and the
sea level could rise more in some areas than others.

MAIN IDEA

Paragraph 1
The average air temperature at the surface of the earth has risen this century, as
has the temperature of ocean surface waters.

Paragraph 2
Estimated figures. Models used for the purpose calculating this have treated the
ocean as passive, stationary and one -dimensional.

Paragraph 3
The diffusion models. An international forum on climate change, in 1986,
produced figures for likely sea-level rises of 20 cms and 1.4 m, corresponding to
atmospheric temperature increases of 1.5 and 4.5C respectively.

Paragraph 4
The advection principle. Conventional models of sea-level rise have considered
that this the only method, but measurements have shown that the rate of heat
transfer into the ocean by vertical diffusion is far lower in practice than the figures
that many modelers have adopted.

Paragraph 5
The gyre principle. To understand the importance of this, we now need to
consider another process advection.

Paragraph 6
How the ocean waters move. Massive ocean currents called gyres do the
moving.

Paragraph 7
How the ocean waters move. Water itself is heated at the Equator and moves
poleward, twisted by the Earths rotation and affected by the positions of the
continents.

Paragraph 8
How the green house effect will change ocean temperatures. Ocean currents, in
three dimensions, form a giant conveyor belt, distributing heat from the thin surface
layer into the interior of the oceans and around the globe.
TEXT 3
The Nature and Aims of Archaeology

Paragraph 1
Archaeology is partly the discovery of treasures of the past, partly the work of the
scientific analyst, partly the exercise of the creative imagination. It is toiling in the sun
on an excavation in the Middle East, it is working with living Inuit in the snows of
Alaska, and it is investigating the sewers of Roman Britain. But it is also the
painstaking task of interpretation, so that we come to understand what these things
mean for the human story. And it is the conservation of the worlds cultural heritage
against looting and careless harm.

Paragraph 2
Archaeology, then, is both a physical activity out in the field, and an intellectual
pursuit in the study or laboratory. That is part of its great attraction. The rich mixture
of danger and detective work has also made it the perfect vehicle for fiction writers
and film-makers, from Agatha Christie with Murder in Mesopotamia to Stephen
Spielberg with Indiana Jones. However far from reality such portrayals are, they
capture the essential truth that archaeology is an exciting quest the quest for
knowledge about ourselves and our past.

Paragraph 3
But how does archaeology relate to other disciplines such as anthropology and
history that are also concerned with the human story? Is archaeology itself a
science? And what are the responsibilities of the archaeologist in todays world?

Paragraph 4
Anthropology, at its broadest, is the study of humanity- our physical
characteristics as animals and our unique non-biological characteristics that we call
culture. Culture in this sense includes what the anthropologist, Edward Tylor,
summarised in 1871 as knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, custom and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Anthropologists
also use the term culture in a more restricted sense when they refer to the culture
of a particular society, meaning the non-biological characteristics unique to that
society, which distinguish it from other societies. Anthropology is thus a broad
discipline so broad that it is generally broken down into three smaller disciplines:
physical anthropology, cultural anthropology and archaeology.

Paragraph 5
Physical anthropology, or biological anthropology as it is called, concerns the
study of human biological or physical characteristics and how they evolved. Cultural
anthropology or social anthropology analyses human culture and society. Two of
its branches are ethnography (the study at first hand of individual living cultures) and
ethnology (which sets out to compare cultures using ethnographic evidence to derive
general principles about human society).

Paragraph 6
Nevertheless, one of the most important tasks for the archaeologist today is to
know how to interpret material culture in human terms. How were those pots used?
Why are some dwellings round and others square. Here the methods of archaeology
and ethnography overlap. Archaeologists in recent decades have developed
ethnoarchaeology where, like ethnographers, they live among contemporary
communities, but with the specific purpose of learning how such societies use
material culture how they make their tools and weapons, why they build their
settlements where they do, and so on. Moreover, archaeology has a role to play in
the field of conservation. Heritage studies constitute a developing field, where it is
realised that the worlds cultural heritage is a diminishing resource which holds
different meanings for different people.

Paragraph 7
If, then, archaeology deals with the past, in what way does it differ from history?
In the broadest sense, just as archaeology is an aspect of anthropology, so too is it a
part of history where we mean the whole history of humankind from its beginnings
over three million years ago. Indeed, for more than ninety-nine percent of that huge
span of time, archaeology the study of past material culture is the only significant
source of information. Conventional historical sources begin only with the
introduction of written records around 3,000 BC in western Asia, and much later in
most other parts in the world.

Paragraph 8
A commonly drawn distinction is between pre-history, i.e. the period before
written records - and history in the narrow sense, meaning the study of the past
using written evidence. To archaeology, which studies all cultures and periods,
whether with or without writing, the distinction between history and pre-history is a
convenient dividing line that recognises the importance of the written word, but in no
way lessens the importance of the useful information contained in oral histories.

Paragraph 9
Since the aim of archaeology is the understanding of humankind, it is a
humanistic study, and since it deals with the human past, it is a historical discipline.
But is differs from the study of written history in a fundamental way. The material the
archaeologist finds does not tell us directly what to think. Historical records make
statements, offer opinions and pass judgements. The objects the archaeologists
discover, on the other hand, tell us nothing directly in themselves. In this respect, the
practice of the archaeologist is rather like that of the scientist, who collects data,
conducts experiments, formulates a hypothesis tests the hypothesis against more
data, and then, in conclusion, devises a model that seems best to summarise the
pattern observed in the data. The archaeologist has to develop a picture of the past,
just as the scientist has to develop a coherent view of the natural world.

MAIN IDEA
Paragraph 1
Archaeology is partly the discovery of treasures of the past, partly the work of the
scientific analyst, partly the exercise of the creative imagination.

Paragraph 2
Archaeology, then, is both a physical activity out in the field, and an intellectual
pursuit in the study or laboratory.

Paragraph 3
But how does archaeology relate to other disciplines such as anthropology and
history that are also concerned with the human story?

Paragraph 4
Anthropology, at its broadest, is the study of humanity- our physical
characteristics as animals and our unique non-biological characteristics that we call
culture.

Paragraph 5
Physical anthropology, or biological anthropology as it is called, concerns the
study of human biological or physical characteristics and how they evolved.

Paragraph 6
Nevertheless, one of the most important tasks for the archaeologist today is to
know how to interpret material culture in human terms.

Paragraph 7
In the broadest sense, just as archaeology is an aspect of anthropology, so too is
it a part of history where we mean the whole history of humankind from its
beginnings over three million years ago.

Paragraph 8
A commonly drawn distinction is between pre-history, i.e. the period before
written records - and history in the narrow sense, meaning the study of the past
using written evidence.

Paragraph 9
Since the aim of archaeology is the understanding of humankind, it is a
humanistic study, and since it deals with the human past, it is a historical discipline.
VOCABULARIES
TEXT 1
Binocular: using two eyes or viewpionts; especially, using two eyes or
viewpoitns to ascertain distance.
Prey: anything as goods, etc. Taken by force from an enemy in war; spoil; booty;
plunder.
Invade: to move into.
Lure: something that tempts or attracts, especially one with a promise of reward
or pleasure
Stilt: a tall pillar or post used to support some structure; often above water.
Unoccupied: a house. Not inhabited especially by a tenant.
Quarry: a site for meaning stone, limestone or slate.

TEXT 2
Diffused: to spread over or through as in the air, water, or other matter,
especially by fluid motion or passive means.
Subtle: hard to garsp; not obvious or easily understood; barely noticeable.
Enormous: deviating from the norm; unusual; extraordinary.

TEXT 3
Archaeology: the study of the past by excavation and analysis of its material
remains.
Portrayals: the result of portraying; a representation, description, or portrait.
Diminishing: become smaller.
SOURCES
http://www.ielts-mentor.com/reading-sample/academic-reading/888-ielts-
academic-reading-sample-166-jumping-spiders

http://www.ielts-mentor.com/reading-sample/academic-reading/1219-ielts-
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http://www.ielts-mentor.com/reading-sample/academic-reading/838-ielts-
academic-reading-sample-164-the-nature-and-aims-of-archaeology