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WORLD

REFERENCE
EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT OUR PLANET TODAY
WORLD

REFERENCE
ATLAS
London New York Melbourne Munich Delhi

WORLD

REFERENCE
ATLAS
LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, DELHI

FOR THE NINTH EDITION

Publisher Jonathan Metcalf Art DirectorPhilip Ormerod Associate PublisherLiz Wheeler


Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford Cartographers Encompass Graphics Ltd, Brighton, UK
Index database David RobertsJacket Designer Mark Cavanagh
Production Controller Charlotte Cade Producer Rebekah Parsons-King

General Geographical Consultants


Physical Geography Denys Brunsden, Emeritus Professor, Department of Geography, Kings College, London
Human Geography Professor J Malcolm Wagstaff, Department of Geography, University of Southampton
Place Names Caroline Burgess, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, London
Boundaries International Boundaries Research Unit, Mountjoy Research Centre, University of Durham

Digital Mapping Consultants


DK Cartopia developed by George Galfalvi and XMap Ltd, London
Professor Jan-Peter Muller, Department of Photogrammetry and Surveying, University College, London
Cover globes, planets and information on the Solar System provided by Philip Eales and Kevin Tildsley, Planetary Visions Ltd, London

Regional Consultants
North America Dr David Green, Department of Geography, Kings College, London Jim Walsh, Head of Reference, Wessell Library, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts
South America Dr David Preston, School of Geography, University of Leeds Europe Dr Edward M Yates, formerly of the Department of Geography, Kings College, London
Africa Dr Philip Amis, Development Administration Group, University of Birmingham Dr Ieuan Ll Grifths, Department of Geography, University of Sussex
Dr Tony Binns, Department of Geography, University of Sussex
Central Asia Dr David Turnock, Department of Geography, University of Leicester South and East Asia Dr Jonathan Rigg, Department of Geography, University of Durham
Australasia and Oceania Dr Robert Allison, Department of Geography, University of Durham

Acknowledgments
Digital terrain data created by Eros Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Processed by GVS Images Inc, California, USA and Planetary Visions Ltd, London, UK
Cambridge International Reference on Current Affairs (CIRCA), Cambridge, UK Digitization by Robertson Research International, Swanley, UK Peter Clark
British Isles maps generated from a dataset supplied by Map Marketing Ltd/European Map Graphics Ltd in combination with DK Cartopia copyright data

DORLING KINDERSLEY CARTOGRAPHY


Editor-in-Chief Andrew Heritage Managing CartographerDavid Roberts Senior Cartographic Editor Roger Bullen
Editorial Direction Louise Cavanagh Database Manager Simon Lewis Art Direction Chez Picthall

Cartographers
Pamela Alford James Anderson Caroline Bowie Dale Buckton Tony Chambers Jan Clark Bob Croser Martin Darlison Damien Demaj Claire Ellam Sally Gable
Jeremy Hepworth Geraldine Horner Chris Jackson Christine Johnston Julia Lunn Michael Martin Ed Merritt James Mills-Hicks Simon Mumford John Plumer
John Scott Ann Stephenson Gail Townsley Julie Turner Sarah Vaughan Jane Voss Scott Wallace Iorwerth Watkins Bryony Webb Alan Whitaker Peter Wineld

Digital Maps Created in DK Cartopia by Placenames Database Team


Tom Coulson Thomas Robertshaw Natalie Clarkson Ruth Duxbury Caroline Falce John Featherstone Dan Gardiner
Philip Rowles Rob Stokes Cirn Hynes Margaret Hynes Helen Rudkin Margaret Stevenson Annie Wilson
Managing Editor Senior Managing Art Editor
Lisa Thomas Philip Lord
Editors Designers
Thomas Heath Wim Jenkins Jane Oliver Scott David Carol Ann Davis David Douglas Rhonda Fisher
Siobhan Ryan Elizabeth Wyse Karen Gregory Nicola Liddiard Paul Williams
Editorial Research Illustrations
Helen Dangereld Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave Cirn Hughes Advanced Illustration, Congleton, UK
Additional Editorial Assistance Picture Research
Debra Clapson Robert Damon Ailsa Heritage Melissa Albany James Clarke Anna Lord
Constance Novis Jayne Parsons Chris Whitwell Christine Rista Sarah Moule Louise Thomas

First American edition, 1997. Previous editions of this book published as World Atlas. This revised edition, 2013.
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Introduction
EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT OUR PLANET TODAY

For many, the outstanding legacy of the twentieth century was the way in which the Earth shrank.
In the third millennium, it is increasingly important for us to have a clear vision of the world in which
we live. The human population has increased fourfold since 1900. The last scraps of terra incognita
the polar regions and ocean depthshave been penetrated and mapped. New regions have been
colonized and previously hostile realms claimed for habitation. The growth of air transportation
and mass tourism allows many of us to travel further, faster, and more frequently than ever before.
In doing so we are given a birds-eye view of the Earths surface denied to our forebears.

At the same time, the amount of information about our world has grown enormously. Our multi-
media environment hurls uninterrupted streams of data at us, on the printed page, through the
airwaves and across our television, computer, and phone screens; events from all corners of the
globe reach us instantaneously, and are witnessed as they unfold. Our sense of stability and
certainty has been eroded; instead, we are aware that the world is in a constant state of ux
and change. Natural disasters, man-made cataclysms, and conicts between nations remind us daily
of the enormity and fragility of our domain. The ongoing threat of international terrorism throws
into very stark relief the difculties that arise when trying to "know" or "understand" our planet
and its many cultures.

The current crisis in our "global" culture has made the need greater than ever before for everyone
to possess an atlas. DK's REFERENCE WORLD ATLAS has been conceived to meet this need.
At its core, like all atlases, it seeks to dene where places are, to describe their main characteristics,
and to locate them in relation to other places. Every attempt has been made to make the
information on the maps as clear, accurate, and accessible as possible using the latest digital
cartographic techniques. In addition, each page of the atlas provides a wealth of further
information, bringing the maps to life. Using photographs, diagrams, at-a-glance maps, introductory
texts, and captions, the atlas builds up a detailed portrait of those featurescultural, political,
economic, and geomorphologicalthat make each region unique, and which are also the main
agents of change.

This ninth edition of the REFERENCE WORLD ATLAS incorporates hundreds of revisions and
updates affecting every map and every page, distilling the burgeoning mass of information available
through modern technology into an extraordinarily detailed and reliable view of our world.
The Caribbean .....................................................................4445

CONTENTS
Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas,
Barbados, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands,
Cayman Islands, Cuba, Curaao, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti,
Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Navassa Island,
Puerto Rico, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent &
Introduction ........................................................................................ v
ATLAS OF THE WORLD the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Trinidad & Tobago,
Turks & Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands (US)
Contents........................................................................................ vivii

How to use this Atlas................................................. viiiix North America South America

THE WORLD

NORTH AMERICA ................................................................... 1 SOUTH AMERICA ..................................................... 46 47


PHYSICAL NORTH AMERICA ................................ 23 PHYSICAL SOUTH AMERICA ............................. 48 49
POLITICAL NORTH AMERICA ..............................45 POLITICAL SOUTH AMERICA ..............................5051
The solar system.................................................................... xxi NORTH AMERICAN RESOURCES ......................67 SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES .................... 5253

The physical world........................................................ xiixiii Canada ................................................................................................. 89 Northern South America ...................................... 5455
Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana,
Canada: Western Provinces .................................. 1011 Suriname, Venezuela
Structure of the Earth ............................................. xivxv Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Western South America ......................................... 5657
Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
Shaping the landscape ......................................... xvixvii Canada: Eastern Provinces...................................... 1213
New Brunswick, Newfoundland & Labrador, Brazil ................................................................................................. 5859
Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
The worlds oceans .................................................. xviiixix Qubec, St Pierre & Miquelon Eastern South America ............................................ 6061
Southeast Brazil, Northeast Argentina, Uruguay
Southeastern Canada .................................................. 1415
The global climate ....................................................... xxxxi
Southern Ontario, Southern Qubec Southern South America ...................................... 6263
Argentina, Chile, Paraguay
United States of America ....................................... 1617
Life on Earth ................................................................... xxiixxiii The Atlantic Ocean ...................................................... 6465
USA: Northeastern States ...................................... 1819
Population and settlement ......................... xxivxxv Connecticut, Maine, Massachussetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont
Africa
The economic system ..................................... xxvixxvii
USA: Mid-Eastern States ......................................... 2021
Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky,
The political world ............................................. xxviiixxix Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia
States and boundaries ....................................... xxxxxxi
USA: Southern States .................................................. 2223
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi AFRICA .............................................................................................. 6667
International disputes.................................................... xxxii PHYSICAL AFRICA ............................................................. 6869
USA: Texas ..................................................................................2425
POLITICAL AFRICA ..............................................................7071
USA: South Midwestern States....................... 2627
Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma AFRICAN RESOURCES ................................................... 7273
USA: Upper Plains States ........................................ 2829 North Africa ............................................................................ 7475
Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia,
Western Sahara
USA: Great Lakes States ...........................................3031
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin West Africa .............................................................................. 7677
Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
USA: North Mountain States ............................ 3233 Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania,
Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

USA: California & Nevada ......................................3435 Central Africa ........................................................................ 7879


Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
USA: South Mountain States ............................3637 Dem. Rep. Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon,
Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah Sao Tome & Principe

USA: Hawaii & Alaska .................................................. 3839 East Africa ................................................................................. 8081
Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda,
Mexico ............................................................................................4041 Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

Central America................................................................ 4243 Southern Africa.................................................................. 8283


Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

vi
Europe Asia Australasia
& Oceania

EUROPE .............................................................................................8485 ASIA .................................................................................................... 128129

PHYSICAL EUROPE ........................................................... 8687 PHYSICAL ASIA .....................................................................130131 AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA ................................174175

POLITICAL EUROPE ......................................................... 8889 POLITICAL ASIA ..................................................................132133 POLITICAL AUSTRALASIA


& OCEANIA .................................................................. 176177
EUROPEAN RESOURCES ............................................. 9091 ASIAN RESOURCES ........................................................134135

Turkey & the Caucasus ......................................... 136137 AUSTRALASIAN &


Scandinavia, Finland & Iceland ....................... 9293
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Svalbard, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey OCEANIAN RESOURCES ............................ 178179
Sweden
The Near East ................................................................... 138139
Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria
Australia ....................................................................................180181
Southern Scandinavia ................................................9495
Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Southern Norway, The Arabian Peninsula ............................................ 140141 Southeast Australia................................................... 182183
Southern Sweden New South Wales, South Australia,
Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
United Arab Emirates, Yemen Tasmania, Victoria
The British Isles...................................................................9697
Channel Islands, Ireland, Isle of Man, Iran & the Gulf States ............................................. 142143 New Zealand ......................................................................184185
United Kingdom Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates
Melanesia ...............................................................................186187
The Low Countries ....................................................... 9899 Kazakhstan ............................................................................ 144145 Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Central Asia ......................................................................... 146147
Germany .................................................................................. 100101 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Micronesia............................................................................ 188189
Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru,
France .......................................................................................... 102103 Afghanistan & Pakistan .........................................148149 Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Wake Island
France, Monaco
South Asia .............................................................................. 150151 Polynesia...................................................................................190191
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal,
The Iberian Peninsula ............................................ 104105 Cook Islands, Easter Island, French Polynesia,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain Kiribati, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu,
Wallis & Futuna
Northern India & the
The Italian Peninsula ............................................... 106107
Italy, San Marino, Vatican City
Himalayan States ................................................ 152153 The Pacic Ocean ........................................................192193
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Northern India

The Alpine States ....................................................... 108109 Antarctica .............................................................................. 194195


Southern India & Sri Lanka ............................. 154155
Austria, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Switzerland
The Arctic ..............................................................................196197
Mainland East Asia ..................................................... 156157
Central Europe ....................................................................110111 China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan
Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia
Western China ................................................................. 158159
Southeast Europe .......................................................... 112113 Eastern China ..................................................................... 160161 INDEXGAZETTEER
Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo,
Eastern China, Taiwan
Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Northeastern China, Geographical comparisons ............................ 198199
Bulgaria & Greece ..........................................................114115
(including European Turkey) Mongolia & Korea ..............................................162163
Mongolia, Northeastern China, North Korea, Countries of the world
South Korea
Romania, Moldova & Ukraine ........................116117 including The time zones .................... 200207
Japan ........................................................................................... 164165
The Baltic States & Belarus ............................... 118119 Geographical glossary ......................................... 208210
Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Mainland Southeast Asia ...................................166167
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Paracel Islands, Geographical names ............................................................. 211
The Mediterranean ......................................................120121 Thailand, Vietnam
Index .............................................................................................212349
West Maritime Southeast Asia ................ 168169
The Russian Federation ........................................ 122123 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore
Acknowledgements ............................................................. 350
Northern European Russia ............................... 124125 East Maritime Southeast Asia ...................... 170171
East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines

Southern European Russia................................126127 The Indian Ocean ......................................................... 172173

vii
INTRODUCTION

Key to maps How to use


Regional
Physical features Communications Typographic key
this Atlas
The atlas is organized by continent, moving eastward from the
elevation motorway / highway International Date Line. The opening section describes the worlds
Physical features structure, systems, and its main features. The Atlas of the World which
motorway / highway
6000m / 19,686ft (under construction)
landscape features Namib Desert follows, is a continent-by-continent guide to todays world, starting with
4000m / 13,124ft major road Massif Central a comprehensive insight into the physical, political, and economic
3000m / 9843ft minor road ANDES structure of each continent, followed by integrated mapping and
2000m / 6562ft tunnel (road)
headland Nordkapp descriptions of each region or country.
main railroad
1000m / 3281ft

500m / 1640ft
minor railroad elevation /
volcano / pass Mount Meru
4556 m
The world
tunnel (railroad)
250m / 820ft
drainage features Lake Geneva
The introductory section of the Atlas deals with every aspect of the
international airport planet, from physical structure to human geography, providing an
100m / 328ft
rivers / canals overall picture of the world we live in. Complex topics such as the
sea level spring / well /
waterhole / oasis / landscape of the Earth, climate, oceans, population, and economic
below sea level Borders waterfall /
rapids / dam Mekong
patterns are clearly explained with the aid of maps and diagrams
elevation above sea level full international drawn from the latest information.
(mountain height) border
ice features Vatnajkull
volcano undefined THE WOR LD THE WOR LDS OCE ANS

international border sea features Golfe de Lion


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

The worlds oceans


1
The great oceans Deposition Sediment accumulates at
head of underwater canyon
Continental
shelf Rocks and
1
Other debris,
There are ve oceans on Earth: the Pacic, of sediment Recently-
deposited
ow from

pass
Atlantic, Indian and Southern oceans, and the

Diagrams
Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic shelf to

Andaman Sea
sediments
much smaller Arctic Ocean. These ve ocean activity trigger underwater currents overlay
ocean oor
Two-thirds of the Earths surface is covered by the oceans. The landscape of the ocean oor, basins are relatively young, having evolved within older rocks
known as turbidity currents which
like the surface of the land, has been shaped by movements of the Earths crust over millions the last 80 million years. One of the most recent scour sand and gravel from the
2 2
of years to form volcanic mountain ranges, deep trenches, basins and plateaux. Ocean plate collisions, between the Eurasian and African Deep sea
The Indian Ocean accounts for Currents in the Southern Ocean The Pacic Ocean is the The Atlantic Ocean was formed continental shelf, creating
plates, created the present-day arrangement of turbidity
approximately 20% of the total are driven by some of the worlds worlds largest and deepest ocean, when the landmasses of the eastern underwater canyons. These strong
currents constantly redistribute warm and cold water around the world. A major warm continents and oceans. area of the worlds oceans. ercest winds, including the Roaring covering over one-third of the and western hemispheres began to
ow
currents pick up material deposited
current, such as El Nio in the Pacic Ocean, can increase surface temperature by up to Forties, Furious Fifties and surface of the Earth. drift apart 180 million years ago.

disputed de facto Shrieking Sixties. at river mouths and deltas, and

INDIAN
10F (8C), causing changes in weather patterns which can lead to both droughts and ooding. How sediment is deposited on the ocean oor
carry it across the continental shelf

elevation below sea level


3 and through the underwater 3

Sea level Gre


enl
canyons, where it is eventually laid
down on the ocean oor in the

border
an
If the inuence of tides, winds, currents and variations in d Se
Baren
gravity were ignored, the surface of the Earths oceans would
Arctic Circle Sea ts Kara
Sea
Laptev Sea ARCTI C OC EAN Baffin Bay a
Arctic Circle
form of fans.
Dav

(depression depth)
East Siberian Beaufort Sea
closely follow the topography of the ocean oor, with an Sea Chukchi is S
Sea tra
4 i
underwater ridge 3000 ft (915 m) high producing a rise of up to Se a Hudson Strai t 4
rth Se a t
3 ft (1 m) in the level of the surface water. No Baltic Hudson Labrador Satellite image of the Yangtze
Bay Sea (Chang Jiang) Delta, in which the

Photographs
Depressed sea level over Sea of Bering
trough in ocean oor E U R O Okhotsk Sea Gulf of
n c h Alaska M
land appears red. The river
P E

OCEAN
Tr e id deposits immense quantities of
Elevated sea ian -A
level over Aleut t
silt into the East China Sea, much

Se a
A S I

Emperor Seamou
Black nc of which will eventually reach the
A

h
5

la
ridge in re Newfoundland 5

Se a
Sea

c
deep ocean oor.

iati
eT
NORTH
Base level of

nt
ocean oor Basin
Med ril

ian
dr
the sea surface ite Ku

ic Ridge
A

a sp
Actual relief Sea of
at 0 ft (0 m) c t ure Zon e
AMERICA

rra
C

ch
Japan
c ino Fra Surface water

disputed territorial
ea Northwest

Tren
of ocean
Me n d o

n
nS (East Sea)
oor ea Yellow
Pacific
North Ocean currents move warm water away from the Equator towards

an
Basin Zone

nts
Sea

ap
J
How surface waters reect the c t ure American the poles, while cold water is, in turn, moved towards the Equator.
East yF ra

Per G u
Mur ra
6 Basin
C 6

Explanatory captions
relief of the ocean oor
A T L A N T ICanary
ia China This is the main way in which the Earth distributes surface heat and
Gulf

s
Tropic of Cancer lf n Sea Tropic of Cancer is a major climatic control. Approximately 4000 million years ago,
one

it
sand desert
of Mexico

claim border
ure Z

tra
Sargasso Sea
Haw act Basin

nS
Mi ai i a ai F r the Earth was dominated by oceans and there was no land to

Red Sea
d-P

iwa
Arabian nR M olok Yucatan
ac i i dg interrupt the ow of the currents, which would have owed as

Ta
fic M e M Basin
Sea ne
o untains re Zo id straight lines, simply inuenced by the Earths rotation.
Bay nF rac tu dl
e A Barracud
C lar io m Caribbean Sea a Fracture Z

ench
7 of Bengal eric 7
Philippine a T one

ve Plateau

Tr
r
AFRICA P A C I F I C en

Barracuda Fracture Zone


Sea a

undersea features
Marian ch

Tha
South

Gul iland
Guate mala

Car
China one
ure Z

f of
ra c t B a sin

lsb

Str
Sunda Sea t on F

-Laccadi

ait
erg
Gulf of Shelf Celebes Central C li pper

of
Sea

Rid
a

M
Guinea Pacific Equator
8

lac
8

e
indication of country
Equator Melanesian Basin
I N D I A N

ca
Chagos
Somali

e
The low relief of many small Pacic islands such Bismarck Basin

is
lava flow
as these atolls at Huahine in French Polynesia Basin Sea

R
SOUTH

Mid-I
makes them vulnerable to changes in sea level. Mid-Indian Solomon

c
Ninety
Arafura Brazil

fi
Sea
Basin
AMERICA
Sea

Mozambique Channel
Idealized globe showing the

Global mapping
Angola

ndian R

ci
Timor

Pe r u
Basin
Ocean structure Sea Per u

extent (Pacific only)


Basin movement of water around

ga Trench

Pa
9 Coral Basin 9

M al a t e a u
a landless Earth.

-C
P

e
east
The continental shelf is a shallow, at sea-bed Sea

dg
hi
scarene

idge

Gr

st

Ri

l e Tr e n c h
ea
O C E A N

Ton
Ocean currents

tB
surrounding the Earths continents. It extends to

ca
Ea

az
arr
N Chile

Rid

ier
the continental slope, which falls to the ocean South Basin Tropic of Capricorn Surface currents are driven by the prevailing winds and by the

Re
Tropic of Capricorn AUSTRALIA Sala y Gomez Ridge

ef
oor. Here, the at abyssal plains are interrupted

Global information is
Fiji spinning motion of the Earth, which drives the currents into

ge
Madagascar

Wal

Mo
10 Basin Perth Basin
by vast, underwater mountain ranges, the mid- circulating whirlpools, or gyres. Deep sea currents, over 10

vis R
Rio

zam

se
O C E A N

ge
Basin

ge
idge
ocean ridges, and ocean trenches which plunge to Grande 330 ft (100 m) below the surface, are driven by differences in

biq

Rid

Ri
Cape

id
coastline
South

ue
Southwest Rise water temperature and salinity, which have an impact on the
depths of 35,828 ft (10,920 m). Tasman

R
Basin

Pla
O C E A N
Australian

dian

c
Bass Strait Pacific density of deep water and on its movement.

c
Sea

tea

fi

ti
Regions
Basin

indication of
Basin

n
ci
Abyssal Oceanic

la
shown in a variety of

est In
Trench Seamount plain ridge Sou Argentine t

a
Volcanic thea
11 ll -A Sur face temperature and current s 11

P
Flat-topped island Agulhas st In be Basin
dia n Ridge mp u id

st
guyot Basin Ke Ca tea M
rgu

thw
Continental Arctic

a
ele Pla E Circle
shelf Ocean depth nP
ge

dependent territory

ou
lat
S ea n tic Rid
Sea level u South Indian Basi tarc
c-An Scotia Sea Tropic of
200m / 656ft
Enderby SOUTHERN Pacifi OCEAN Cancer

ich
S o u t h e a s t Pa c i f i c

projections to give the


ARMENIA
12 1000m / 3281ft dw
Plain Basin San h 12
2000m / 6562ft South Trenc Equator
3000m / 9843ft Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen

ANTA RC TIC A
e Ross Antarctic
t ic Circl Sea Circle
Ant a rc Tropic of

extent (Pacific only)


4000m / 13,124ft Sea Weddell

reef
5000m / 16,400ft Capricorn
Typical sea-oor features Sea
6000m / 19,686ft
Antarctic

country
Circle

Black smokers
These vents in the ocean
oor disgorge hot, sulphur-
rich water from deep in the
Earths crust. Despite the
Arctic
Circle
Ages of the ocean floor Tides and waves
Tides are created by the pull of the Sun and Moons gravity on
the surface of the oceans. The levels of high and low tides are
inuenced by the position of the Moon in relation to the Earth
High and low tides
The highest tides occur when the Earth, the Moon and
the Sun are aligned (below left). The lowest tides are
experienced when the Sun and Moon align at right
angles to one another (below right).
Surface temperature and currents
Ice-shelf (below 0C / 32F)
Sea-ice* (average) below -2C / 28F
Sea-water -20C / 2832F
* Sea-water freezes at -1.9C / 28.4F
010C / 3250F
1020C / 5068F
2030C / 6886F
warm current
cold current
13

reader a clear overview of


great depths, a variety of and Sun. Waves are formed by wind blowing over the surface of

each topic.
lifeforms have adapted to the water. 14
the chemical-rich
environment which Highest Lowest
Tidal range and wave environment s Deep sea temperature and current s

atoll
Tropic of high tides
surrounds black smokers. Cancer high tides

dependent territory
Arctic Earth Arctic
Circle Circle
Equator
Surtsey, near Iceland, is a 15

demarcation/
Sun
A black smoker in the volcanic island lying directly over Tropic of Tropic of Moon Tropic of

NIUE (to NZ)


Atlantic Ocean. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was Capricorn Cancer Cancer
formed in the 1960s following
Equator Equator

Supporting maps
intense volcanic activity nearby.

with parent state


Plume of hot Tropic of Tropic of
Chimney mineral laden water Ocean oors Capricorn Capricorn

cease fire line


16 Antarctic
Mid-ocean ridges are formed by Circle 16
lava which erupts beneath the sea Antarctic Antarctic
Circle Circle
and cools to form solid rock. This
Water
Ocean oor process mirrors the creation of Tidal bulge
percolates Jurassic Tertiary (Paleogene) Jurassic
Tidal range and wave environments created by
into the volcanoes from cooled lava on the Cretaceous Quaternary Cretaceous Deep sea temperature and currents
Water heated gravitational pull

sea depth
sea oor land. The ages of sea oor rocks less than 2m / 7ft east coast swell tropical cyclone ice-shelf
by hot basalt Age uncertain Ice-shelf (below 0C / 32F) Primary currents
17 increase in parallel bands outwards 208 145 65 23 0 23 65 145 208 Continental shelf 24m / 713ft west coast swell storm wave Sea-water -20C / 2832F (below 5000m / 16,400ft) Secondary currents 17
Formation of black smokers from central ocean ridges. million years old Tertiary (Neogene) million years old and island arcs greater than 4m / 13ft Sea-water 05C / 3241F (below 4000m / 13,120ft)

region outside
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

xviii xix

autonomous /
sea level
federal region border feature area ANGOLA
-250m / -820ft autonomous /
other 1st order internal
-500m / -1640ft administrative border federal region MINAS GERAIS The political continent
other 1st order
-1000m / -3281ft 2nd order internal
internal administrative
The political portrait of the continent is a vital reference point for every
administrative border
-2000m / -6562ft region MINSKAYA continental section, showing the position of countries relative to one another,
VOBLASTS and the relationship between human settlement and geographic location. The
-3000m / -9843ft
Settlements 2nd order internal complex mosaic of languages spoken in each continent is mapped, as is the
administrative
region Vaucluse effect of communications networks on the pattern of settlement.
seamount / guyot symbol

undersea spot depth


built up area cultural region New England EUROPE POLITICAL EUROPE
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

Overcoming
1

Political Europe natural barriers, the


Brenner Autobahn,
Transport 1

settlement population symbols


one of the main major roads and motorways

Locator map
routes across the major railways
Alps, links Innsbruck international borders Vorkuta
The political boundaries of Europe have changed many times, especially during the 20th in Austria with transport intersections
Reykjavk major international airports
century in the aftermath of two world wars, the break-up of the empires of Austria- Verona in Italy. major ports
Murmansk
2
Hungary, Nazi Germany and, towards the end of the century, the collapse of
communism in eastern Europe. The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has again altered the
Novaya

Introductory text political map of Europe, highlighting a trend towards nationalism and devolution. In contrast, economic Archangel
Zemlya
federalism is growing. In 1958, the formation of the European Economic Community (now the European Trondheim

Settlements
3 Union or EU) started a move towards economic and political union and increasing internal migration. Perm
3
Kara

Drainage features
The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is a potent Bergen

more than 5 million


symbol of German reunication. From 1961, the road Sea Oslo Helsinki
Population trait
beneath it ended in a wall, built to stop the ow of St Petersburg Vologda Kirov

k S
refugees to the West. It was opened again in 1989 Aberdeen
Stockholm Tallinn
Grangemouth
ar
Europe is a densely populated, urbanized when the wall was destroyed and East and West Gothenburg Nizhniy Novgorod
Germany were reunited. Newcastle upon Tyne
Dublin
4 continent; in Belgium over 90% of people live m Vorkuta Middlesbrough
Copenhagen Helsingborg
Rga
Moscow Samara
le
n

in urban areas. The highest population Arc Circ Liverpool

Communications map
De

tic tic Birmingham Kaliningrad Vilnius


Circ Arc Gdask
densities are found in an area stretching east

U
le Amsterdam Hamburg
London
Minsk
from southern Britain and northern France, REYKJAVK B are nts Southampton Rotterdam
Antwerp
Berlin
Warsaw
into Germany. The northern fringes are only ICELAND S ea le Havre Brussels Pozna

r
Frankfurt Brest
5 am Main Kharkiv Volgograd
sparsely populated. Paris Prague 5

1 million to 5 million Y St-Nazaire Kiev

BEIJING
Murmansk

a
Demand for space in densely populated Strasbourg Nuremberg
Rostov-na-Donu Astrakhan
European cities like London has led to A Corua Bern Vienna Bratislava
Munich
Bordeaux Budapest
the development of high-rise ofces and

capital city
Bilbao Innsbruck

l
main river
urban sprawl. Lyon
A

Milan Trieste Ljubljana Odesa


Zagreb
N

Genoa Verona
Novorossiysk
6 Bologna Bucharest 6
Lisbon Marseille Belgrade Constana
N o r w e g i a n White
R U S S I A N Madrid
Barcelona
W

Sea Sofia Varna


S e a Arkhangelsk
E

Faeroe Islands Valencia Rome


Istanbul

M
Population map
(to Denmark) Cdiz Naples
Salonica
or Gibraltar
N

ther

500,000 to 1 million
n Dvin
N

o
7 a
R

7
ni
D

Trondheim Piraeus Athens


th
Bo
A

u
secondary river
Valletta
of

dependent territory
Lake
Shetland Islands
FINLAND Perm
E

Onega
E
O

Gulf

n
Outer Orkney Islands Bergen Tampere F E D E R AT I O N Transport
C

Hebrides Lake 8

t
Kirov
Ladoga
OSLO Turku HELSINKI
land Despite its fragmented geography and many natural frontiers,
W

FORT-DE-FRANCE
O

Vologda

a
Uppsala
N

Stavanger

capital city Aberdeen rebro TALLINN


St Petersburg
Ufa communications in Europe are well developed. Extensive motorway links

100,000 to 500,000
SCOTLAND Vnern STOCKHOLM
Dundee allow rapid road transport, while high-speed rail connections like Frances

i
Yaroslavl
Glasgow
Nor th Kristiansand
ESTONIA Kazan
TGV (Train Grande Vitesse), and the Channel Tunnel have improved rail
NORTHERN Edinburgh
e a

9 Population density Vttern


9
C

tertiary river
S

IRELAND S ea

n
Gothenburg travel. Outdated communication infrastructures in parts of eastern
(people per sq km) Belfast Nizhniy Novgorod
Gotland
S

Aalborg Jnkping
I R E L A N D ofIsle
Newcastle upon Tyne Ventspils Europe, and insufcient transport links across the Alps, however, remain
below 49 L AT V I A
I

s
Man
5099 DUBLIN (to UK) UNI TED DE NMA RK RGA We
stern MOSCOW
Ulyanovsk Tolyatti
Orenburg
weak parts of the network.
c

100149
Liverpool
Leeds Helsingborg i Liepja D Samara
lt
T

COPENHAGEN

Political map
150199 na
vi

Manchester Sheffield Malm

Chicago
200299 Odense a
10 above 300 K I NG D OM B RUSS. FED. LIT HUA NIA
Vitsyebsk Tula
10
N

WA L E S Birmingham (Kaliningrad) Kaunas


h s t a n
a k

other settlements
E N G L A N D Kaliningrad

50,000 to 100,000
Cardiff Groningen VILNIUS
Th

Hamburg Gdask
z

m es MINSK
Languages
a

AMSTERDAM NETH. El b Saratov


A

K a
O de r

LONDON THE HAGUE Bremen e

minor river
Southampton

All the countries in each


Rotterdam Hannover Bydgoszcz Babruysk
Nijmegen Vi There are three main European language groups: Germanic languages
Voronezh
11 Channel English Channel Antwerp BERLIN st ul a B E L A RU S 11
L

Islands BELG Dsseldorf Pozna WARSAW Homyel predominate in central and northern Europe; Romance languages in
(to UK)
GERM ANY d Brest
IUM

le Havre BRUSSELS western and Mediterranean Europe and Romania; while Slavic languages
Bonn
P OL A N D

Adana
Se Lige Leipzig
A T

Rh

are spoken in eastern Europe and the Russian Federation. Isolated pockets
in

Dresden
e

ine

Rennes LUXEMBOURG Frankfurt Wrocaw Volgograd


Kharkiv
PARIS LUXEMBOURG am Main PRAGUE KIEV
of local languages, such as Basque and Gaelic, persist and frequently

continent are shown, with


Vol
St-Nazaire Nantes Krakw ga provide a focus for national identity.
12 Loir
e
Orlans
Strasbourg
Nuremberg CZECH
Lviv
U K R A I N E 12

10,000 to 50,000
Stuttgart REPUBLIC Dnipropetrovsk Astrakhan
C a s p i a n

Bay of
Traditional lifestyles still persist FR A NC E Da Rostov-na-Donu

main seasonal river


Munich S L O VA K I A Donetsk
in many remote and rural parts of A Corua Biscay n
Salzburg ube
Dn

S
BRATISLAVA Chernivtsi iester
Limoges Zrich VIENNA MO
Europe, especially in the south, east, BERN T

I
Innsbruck
Gyr Miskolc LD ICELANDIC
and in the far north. Bordeaux Geneva SWITZERLAND O E
s

their political capitals and


er

l p LIECHTENSTEIN
AU S T R I A I)

Tizi Ozou
M
ie p

Lyon BUDAPEST Sea of (SA N


VA

13
Cluj-Napoca CHIINU Dn Stavropol 13

M
LAPPISH E
Map key
Bilbao
A Milan HUNG A RY Odesa Azov N F
N
Porto Py LJUBLJANA A
ne

ROMANIA Language groups

A
Groznyy I
NI

KAR
Toulouse Novorossiysk
re
Rh

SLOVE
S

O
e
AL

D ue Turin Verona
Caucasus

N
Population Simferopol
G
Valladolid Venice Trieste
ro ne Po ZAGREB a

H
FAEROESE
Eb

ELIA
Genoa

N
Braov Turkic E
es

H
ro

C ROAT IA

S
above 5 million Bologna

I S
R W

DIS
UG

Marseille Nice Albanian

K
BELGRADE
I

N
ANDORRA BOS.

SWE
Florence
SH

1 million to 5 million Tagus MONACO Finno-Ugric/Samoyed


Ad

an

most populous cities.


LA VELLA ANDORRA D

H
C

fewer than 10,000


Constana LI
LI

LISBON Zaragoza SAN BUCHAREST G e org i a


N O

14 MADRID Pisa & HERZ. Germanic G


j 14
I

EN
RT

500,000 to 1 million
ai
VEPS

secondary seasonal river


S W E

S
GA

Da e a
ri

MARINO UDMURT
Corsica SARAJEVO SER B IA nube c k Slavic
R
l a Azerb
Setbal ISH
S P A I N
at

100,000 to 500,000 Mostar Ruse Romance SWED


PO

c B U
T

Barcelona
E

MARI
i

Basque

Yonezawa
Varna H ESTONI A N
50,000 to 100,000 Se T A R
N G

BULGARIA A R
H
S

KOSOVO Baltic
IRI

CHUVASH
LIS

VATICAN BASHKIR
10,000 to 50,000 a MONTENEGRO (disputed) Burgas
KARELIAN T
ENG

Celtic IN
A

Valencia CITY L AT VI A N

S
SOFIA DA N
DV
L I S H

Seville Crdoba Mallorca ROME PRISTINA Stara Zagora Greek


Country capital
L PODGORICA IS LITHUANIAN MOR

S
Ibiza Menorca Caucasian SIAN
RI
H

SKOPJE
SH
Palma TIRANA WELSH RUSSIAN
Sardinia
Ty

15 Borders Bari Iranian LI 15


nds
F

Cdiz Murcia MACEDONIA Istanbul

I
PO
T
H

Gibraltar Mlaga Isla Naples Mongol


C
rr

T
Balearic
Y

full international DU BELORUSSIAN

A
(to UK) Salonica POLISH
border en ALBANIA u GERMAN
h

Ceuta Cagliari BRETON FRENCH


(to Spain) ia

N
n r C
F

R ZE
Aegean
Lrisa CH U K R A I N I A N KA

Languages map
Se Cosenza
Melilla
M e k E LM

canal
d i t a e O VA K

Farnham
(to Spain) N SL YK
G REEC E S ea y GA C H

country/dependent territory
16 e r Palermo Messina
LIC
IAN
G E R M A N
HUNGARIAN KABARDIAN 16
I T

KUMYK
N

Scale 1:15,500,000 r Sicily ATHENS E BASQUE SLOVENE ADYGHE


A

I CHECHEN
ES

a Piraeus CROATIAN R OMAN KARACHAY AVAR


A
GU

Catania
n LEZGHIAN
L

S PA N I S H
TU

AN

Km BOSNIAN OSSETIAN
Ionian TALAN
e
I

BALKAR
BI
P OR

CA
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 R
A