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Volumetric Efficiency- The amount of air that is pulled into a cylinder compared to the theoretical

volume of the cylinder

Brake Horse Power- The actual amount of USEABLE power an engine produces after you factor is
friction and pumping losses.

Torque- A rotational force acting around a fixed point.

Brake Thermal Efficency- A measure of the brake horsepower of an engine compared to its fuel
consumption. Easily shows how much of the input chemical energy (fuel) is converted to mechanical
energy (Brake HP)

Specific Fuel Consumpion- Ratio of fuel consumed compared to the power produced by the engine.

A 4 stroke engine operates 4 consecutive stages (AKA Strokes). Starting from TDC (0 degrees), the
crank rotates, causing the piston to lower in the cylinder, creating a vacuum, this motion is known as
the Intake Stroke. As this occurs, the camshaft lobes have acted through the follower, push rod, and
rocker arm since 5 degrees BTDC to open the intake valve, and closes the exhaust valve roughly 10
degrees ATDC. Due to the vacuum in the cylinder, air is drawn in, filling the cylinder as the piston
continues to lower. Slightly ABDC (20 degrees past) the intake valve closes, and the piston begins
rising in the cylinder. This rising action cause the volume of the cylinder decreases, due to both valves
being closed, the air trapped in the cylinder is compressed and increases in tempature and turbulence,
this motion is called the Compression Stroke. Just BTDC (5 degrees) fuel injection occurs. The finely
atomized fuel mixes well in with the turbulent air and becomes hot enough to combust. The rapidly
expanding/burning gases force the piston down, this energy begins the power stroke. The piston
continues to fall and roughly 30 degrees BBDC the exhaust valve is opened in the same manner as the
intake valve was opened. The a good portion of the expanding gases leave the exhaust valve and as the
piston reaches BDC and begins to rise, it pushes out the remaining gases. Slightly prior to the piston
reaching TDC, the intake valve opens. The intake and exhaust valves are have overlapping opens
periods because the considerable velocity of the exhaust gases leaving assists in charging in a fresh
charge and can help to increase Volumetric efficiency. The piston then repeats the intake stroke and the
cycle begins again.