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Steel Stacks

Reproduced By IHS
With The Permission Of ASME
Under Royalty Agreement


Date of lssuance: April 26, 2011

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2014. There will be no addenda
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Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. iv Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . v Correspondence With the Steel Stacks
Committee....................................... vi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . vii
MechanicalDesign .......................................................... . 1
Materials ................................................................... . 4
linings and Coatings ........................................................ . 7
Structurat Design ............................................................ . 12
Dynamic Wind loads ........................................................ . 20
Access and Safety ..... ; ..................................................... . 23
Electrical. ................................................................... . 29
Fabrication and Erection ..................................................... . 29
lnspection and Maintenance ................................................. . 31
References .................................................................. . 33
Figures Example of the General Construction of Cages .............................. . 24
6.2.6-1 Mnimum Ladder Clearances ............................................... . 25
6.2.6-2 Ladder Dimensions, Support Spacing, and Side Clearances .................. . 26
6.3.6-1 Landing Platform Dimensions .............................................. . 27
Factors of Safety ........................................................... . 16
Mnimum Fabricated Plate Thickness and Maximum Stiffener Spacing ....... . 16
4.4.7-1 Cable Selection Criteria .................................................... . 18
Representative Structural Damping Values (/35) 21

Mandatory Appendix
I Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmandatory Appendices
A Mechanical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B Materials for Ambient and Elevated Temperature Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
C Linings and Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E Example Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary to SI (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
In early 1978, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was approached by a group
interested in formulating a standard for the design, fabrication, and erection of steel stacks and
their appurtenances. They felt there was a need for such a code to establish a better level of
standardization in the industry and for safeguarding the community. Because of the particular
nature of stacks and their susceptibility to failures dueto wind and seismic-induced vibrations,
along with corrosion and erosion, the design process is a complex one. Additionally, recent
regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning emissions have placed a strong
emphasis on the mechanical design of stacks. In the last several decades, much research has been
done and many papers written on the subject. While investigation and research continued, it
was the feeling of these persons that sorne formal guidelines needed to be established. Therefore,
in April of 1979, a group composed of stack users, researchers, designers, fabricators, and erectors
convened at the United Engineering Center in New York City under the auspices of the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers to formulate such acode.
With the above in mind, the group subdivided and began gathering information to formulate
guidelines for mechanical design, material selection, the use of linings and coatings, structural
design, vibration considerations, access and safety, electrical requirements, and fabrication and
construction. When these were established, a section on maintenance and inspection was added.
The following is a result of their work and investigation. The initial document was approved as
an American National Standard in August 1986 and published as ASME/ ANSI STS-1-1986 in
May 1988.
During the next 3 yr, the committee received comments from the public at large and from its
own membership regarding the Standard's content. Several formulas needed correction, and
soe of the symbols needed clarification. Section 6.3.3 regarding Earthquake Response was also
reviewed and revised to allow for static rather than dynamic analysis in certain cases and to
correlate it with ASCE STD-7-88 (formerly ANSI A58-1). These changes were then submittedto
the general membership and approved.
In 1994, the committee was reorganized to further review and update this steel stack Standard.
Emphasis was given to the Structural Design and Vibrations chapters. Chapter 4, "Structural
Design," was rewritten to be more compatible with the nomenclature, formulae, and symbols
used in the Manual of Steel Construction- Allowable Stress Design (ASD), 9th Edition and
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), 1st Edition. Chapter 5, "Vibrations," was revised to
be more "user friendly." These and other chapters were updated to include the latest recognized
applicable codes and standards.
The 2006 edition included changes and improvements to the Environmental Protection Agency
regulation concerning emissions that have created a strong emphasis on the mechanical design
of steel stacks, made necessary changes found through practica!experience with the previous
edition, expanded formulas as necessary, and provided both revised and new sections for steel
stack design, fabrication, and erection. It revised sections on appurtenances to meet today's
requirements for these items. A new section provided the fundamental concepts for guyed stacks.
Revisions to the section on the physical properties of steel at elevated temperatures were made
to match information available through a comprehensive review of current technicalliterature.
Sections on vibration included minor changes but yielded a more workable standard. Also, a
detailed example was included to provide a method for determining the magnitude of across
wind loads. One method was included to address fatigue due to vibration. Fatigue can be a
significant issue in steel stack design and needs to be considered in the design. Methods to
determine across wind load and seismic loads were provided in the nonmandatory appendices.
If fatigue requires close examination, the engineer is cautioned to review this issue with other
design standards if necessary. There are several standards among them that can be helpful: AISC,
The last standard was approved as an American National Standard on March 21, 2006 and
reissued as STS-1-2006. This revised standard was approved asan American National Standard
on March 11, 2011.
Steel Stacks
(The following is the raster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard.)


J. C. Sowizal, Chair
W. C. Rosencutter, Vice Chair
L. T. Powers, Secretary


A. K. Bhowmik, Hamon Custodis S. l. Reid, Alternate, Industrial Environment Systems, lnc.
K. Scott, Alternate, Hamon Custodis l. l. Rodrigues, lvan Lippi Eng. Associados
j. J. Carty, R and P Industrial Chimney Co. W. C. Rosencutter, Meca Enterprises, lnc.
M. J. Gault, Consultant R. Ruiz, JLJ Industria Comercio E Servicos Ltda.
R. K. Simonetti, Worley Parsons
D. C. Mattes, Hoffmann, lnc.
R. l. Schneider, Alternate, Worley Parsons
A. C. Olson, Wolf MHS/Hoffmann, lnc. R. S. Slay, Warren Environment, lnc.
T. Oswald, jr., Sauereisen Co. J. C. Sowizal, Industrial Chimney Engineering Co.
l. T. Powers, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers l. A. Yadav, Consultant
C. B. Reid, Industrial Environment Systems, lnc. N. Zarrabi, Assoc. Engineering Resources, lnc.


General. ASME Standards are developed and maintained with the intent to represent the
consensus of concerned interests. As such, users of this Standard may interact with the Committee
by requesting interpretations, proposing revisions, and attending Committee meetings. Corre
spondence should be addressed to:
Secretary, Steel Stacks Standards Committee
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Three Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
http:/ 1go.asme.org/Inquiry

Proposing Revisions. Revisions are made periodically to the Steel Stacks Standard to incorporate
changes that appear necessary or desirable, as demonstrated by the experience gained from the
application of the Standard. Approved revisions will be published periodically.
The Committee welcomes proposals for revisions to this Standard. Such proposals should be
as specific as possible, citing the paragraph number(s), the proposed wording, and a detailed
description of the reasons for the proposals, including any pertinent documentation.
lnterpretations. Upon request, the Committee will render an interpretation of any requirement
of the Standard. Interpretations can only be rendered in response to a written request sent to the
Secretary of the Steel Stacks Standards Committee.
The request for interpretation should be clear and unambiguous. It is further recommended
that the inquirer submit his request in the following format:
Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) and concise description.
Cite the applicable edition of the Standard for which the interpretation is
being requested.
Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of a specific requirement
suitable for general understanding and use, not as a request for an approval
of a proprietary design or situation. The inquirer may also include any plans
or drawings, which are necessary to explain the question; however, they
should not contain proprietary names or information.
Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten in this format by the Committee prior
to being answered, which may inadvertently change the intent of the original request.
ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any interpretation when or if additional
information that might affect an interpretation is available. Further, persons aggrieved by an
interpretation may appeal to the cognizant ASME Committee or Subcommittee. ASME does not
"approve," "certify," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.
Attending Committee Meetings. The Steel Stacks Standards Committee regularly holds meet ings,
which are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend any meeting should contact the
Secretary of the Steel Stacks Standards Committee.

The following Standard applies to steel stacks; i.e., those stacks where the primary supporting
shell is made of steel. It applies to both single- and multiple-walled steel stacks, either of which
can be lined or unlined. It also applies to steel stacks that are guyed or to certain aspects of tower
stacks. The stack may be supported on a foundation or from another structure.
This Standard covers many facets of the design of steel stacks. It outlines the consideration
that must be made for both the mechanical and structural design. It emphasizes what consideration
must be taken for wind- and seismic-induced vibrations. It gives guidelines for the selection of
material, linings, and coatings. It gives the requirements for lighting and lightning protection
based upon existing building and federal codes. It gives the requirements for climbing and
access based upon current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. It
emphasizes the important areas regarding fabrication and construction. It outlines areas requiring
maintenance and inspection following initial operation.
Although many of the tapies within these guidelines may be used for all stacks, this Standard
is intended to provide design guidelines for stacks containing nonflammable gases, such as
combustion exhaust gases at low internal pressures. For stacks containing combustible gases
under pressure, such as fiare stacks and flammable vents, additional design considerations must
be addressed, including design for interna!pressure, design for interna!deflagration pressure,
and compatibility with adjoining piping design that is in accordance with piping and/ or vessel
design codes, such as ASME B31.3 and Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
(BPVC). In addition, the materials of construction referenced in this Standard may not be allowed
for use with flammable gases under pressure per ASME B31.3 and Section VIII of the ASME
BPVC; materials suitable for pressure containment of flammable gases are listed in these codes.
No attempt is made within this Standard to define the need or the methods to be used to consider
these additional design considerations.
principies utilizing state-of-the-art information. It is intended for general information. While
every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy, the information should not be relied upon for
any specific application without the consultation of a competent, licensed professional engineer
to determine its suitability. It is therefore recommended that Engineering/Design drawings of
the stack bear the Professional Engineer Seal, signature, and date.
Nothing in the Standard shall be construed to alter or subvert the requirements of any existing
code or authority having jurisdiction over the facility. Furthermore, alternate methods and materi
als to those herein indicated may be used, provided that the engineer can demonstrate their
suitability to all affected agencies and authorities.

ASME STS-1-2011


1 MECHANICAL DESIGN (e) The draft requirement of the process to be vented

may establish stack height. Formulas to calculate avail
1.1 Scope able draft are presented in subsequent paragraphs.
Mechanical design includes sizing of the gas passage, (d) The effective height of a stack considering plume
both in diameter and height, and the drop in gas temper rise may be increased by installing a nozzle or truncated
ature as heat is transferred through the stack wall. Meth cone at the top to increase the exit velocity of the gases.
ods for calculating draft, draft losses, and heat losses Several plume rise formulas are available, but in actual
are given. Differential expansion of stack components practice, plume rise can be essentially negated by high
is discussed. Desig'n considerations for stack appurte wind velocities, low temperatures, and site conditions.
nances are established.
1.3.2 Diameters. The stack diameter may be set by
one or more factors.
1.2 General
(a) Gas passage diameter is usually established by
The purpose of a stack is to vent process exhaust gases the volume of process gas flowing and available draft
to the atmosphere. The mechanical design of stacks is (natural draft minus draft losses). Velocities in a round
now controlled in part by air pollution rules and regula stack between 2AOO ft/min and 3,600 ft/min are most
tions. Heights and diameters are set by a balance common. Stacks venting saturated gases sometimes
between structural stability and function, while at the limit maximum stack velocities between 1,800 ft/ min
same time meeting the requirements for air pollution and 2AOO ft/ min to reduce entrained or condensed mois
control dispersion of the gases to the atmosphere. The ture from leaving the stack exit. Tests by EPRI give differ
heights of steel stacks have increased to satisfy ambient ent ranges for each type of inner surface (see EPRI Wet
air quality, and stack inlet gas temperatures have Stack Design Guide TR-107099-1996).
decreased as more heat energy is recovered. The impor (b) Stack shell diameters may be controlled by trans
tance of attention to stack heat losses has therefore portation shipping limitations. Caution should be taken
increased. Stack mnimum metal temperature should be to ensure that mechanical performance and structural
held above the acid dew point of the vented gases, if stability are maintained.
possible. Stacks are being designed with many appurte (e) Structural stability may control a stack shell diam
nances to monitor the gases and make stack inspections. eter selection, and therefore, any size selection based on
mechanical criteria must be maintained as tentative until
1.3 Size Selection (Height, Diameter, and Shape) a structural analysis can confirm its acceptability.
(d) Future increases in stack gas volume should be
1.3.1 Height. Stack height may be set by one or
more factors. considered as well as future changes in process gas tem
peratures and gas quality in the diameter selection.
(a) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regula
(e) EPA regulations may set stack exit diameter
tions may set the required stack height for downwash
due to local terrain or adjacent structures or to disperse because of plume rise considerations. EPA requirements
pollutants at a mnimum height above the site. Refer have sometimes set stack diameters in the test zone to
provide optimum velocities for testing.
proposed stack location and purposes to the proper EPA
authorities for the mnimum height requirement under 1.3.3 Shape. The shape of the stack vares with
controlling air pollution control regulations. See Federal designers' preferences.
register part II, EPA 40CFR, part 51, Stack Height (a) Stacks generally are cylindrical in shape for effi
Regulation (July 8, 1985). ciency in structural stability and economy in fabrication.
(b) The National Pire Protection Association (NFPA) Cylindrical shapes may vary in diameter throughout the
sets mnimum height of high-temperature stacks above height of the stack; however, diameter changes shall
building roofs and structures for fire protection and occur at an angle not exceeding 30 deg from the vertical.
human safety. Local codes are often more stringent and (b) Other geometrical shapes, such as octagonal, tri
must be followed. A mnimum of 8 ft of height above angular, etc., must be considered special and particular
a roof surface or roof-mounted structure within 25 ft of attention given to dynamic stability as well as mechani
a stack emitting gases above 200F (93C) should be cal design. Unusual shapes for aesthetic appearance
maintained. should be treated both structurally and mechanically as
unusual and basic engineering design standards should (d) Total loss
be followed.
FLtotal = FLen + FLr + FLex water gage, in. (1-5)
1.4 Available Draft
The available draft without fan assistance equals the Consideration should be given to the possible gas
natural draft minus draft losses. expansion or compression draft loss in large or unusu
ally shaped entrances. Consideration should also be
1.4.1 NaturalDraft. The approximate natural draft
given to stack draft losses caused by stack-mounted
of a stack is calculated from the following equation:
sound attenuators, stack dampers, or stack caps.
1 1) B 1.4.3 Approximate Stack Draft losses and Size. See
TA-Te 3o (1-1)
DRN = 7.57 HE ( Nonmandatory Appendix Figs. A-10 through A-13.

1.5 Heat loss (See Nonmandatory Appendix A,

barometric pressure -mercury absolute, in. Figs. A-2 Through A-9)
stack natural draft water gage, in.
stack height above centerline inlet, ft 1.5.1 Ambient Conditions. Since the heat loss
absolute temperature of atmosphere, 0R through the walls of a stack varies with ambient condi
average absolute temperature of gas, oR tions, it is necessary to establish the desired design crite
ria. The low ambient temperature expected should be
Differences in gas absolute density dueto composition specified, as well as an average normal wind speed.
and moisture have been neglected.
1.5.2 lnsulation and linings. Insulation and linings
1.4.2 Draft losses. Stack draft losses are entrance, affect total heat loss.
friction, and exit losses. Draft losses are calculated from (a) Insulation is applied to outer surface of the stack
the following formula: or between the shells of a dual wall stack. A thickness
(a) Entrance loss is selected to reduce the stack heat loss to the desired
level or to provide a maximum stack exterior surface
FLen = 0.003 KdV
temperature. Insulation should be selected for the maxi
mum temperature to which it will be exposed. Insulation
(b) Friction loss
should be held to the stack shell as recommended by

FLf = 2.76 (F) (Tg ) (HE)

( )2
s (1-3)
the insulation manufacturer for the job conditions. When
thicknesses over 1>2. in. are used, two layers should be
specified so that joints can be staggered. An appropriate
(e) Exit loss outer surface weather protection should be specified for
external applied insulation. Metal lagging should be
(1-4) secured with metal bands on maximum 24-in. centers.
(b) Stack linings are used for either heat loss reduc
tion, as a protective coating, or both. A thickness is
selected for the job conditions. Specify a service temper
B barometric pressure -mercury absolute, in. ature range. Lining reinforcing and attachments to stack
D inside diameter(s) of stack section, ft shell should be per manufacturer 's. recommendation.
Dt inside diameter of stack at outlet, ft (e) Stack surface cladding, either interna!or externa!,
d gas density, lb1ft3 will affect heat loss and should be considered in heat
F friction factor based on Reynolds number loss calculations.
(see Fig. A-1 in Nonmandatory Appendix A)
stack exit loss -water gage, in. 1.5.3 Film Coefficients.' Internal and external film
stack entrance loss -water gage, in. coefficients affect heat loss.
stack friction loss-water gage, in. stack (a) The internal stack surface film coefficient varies
height above centerline of inlet, ft breeching with gas velocity, gas temperature, stack diameter, and
K inlet angle factor (see surface roughness. The effect of both maximum and
Nonmandatory Appendix A, Table A-1) mnimum gas flow velocity on film coefficients should
average absolute temperature of gas, 0R be studied in heat loss calculations. Therefore, the range
gas velocity at inlet, ft/sec of expected gas flow should be specified.
mass flow rate of gas, lb /hr (b) The external stack surface film coefficient vares
with ambient wind speed and stack diameter. A wind
speed of 15 mph is suggested for establishing a maxi
The total of the calculated losses comprises the total mum heat loss unless field data can prove higher or
stack draft loss. lower average velocities.
1.5.4 Heat loss Calculations. Heat loss through the should be well drained and of a shape to prevent solids
wall(s) of a stack can be calculated with the following buildup.
formula: (b) Since ambient air winds will enter the top of the
stack, especially at low stack flow velocities, and hence
Heat transferred through the stack wall
cause low exit metal temperatures, sorne provision
Q = U X A X ts (1-6) should be made to reduce the resulting top-of-stack cor
rosion problems. The top of the stack may be fabricated
Heat loss in flowing gas entering versus leaving of corrosion-resisting alloys or a truncated discharge
cone utilized to increase stack exit velocities.
1.6 Thermal Expansion
Combining eqs. (1-6) and (1-7) Differential expansion between components Of a stack
should be carefully studied in areas to include
(1-8) (a) between external and internal shells of a dual wall
or multiflue stack
(b) at breeching openings
tin + tout)
ts = (--2- - tamb (1-9)
(e) at test and instrument ports
(d) at test platform, catwalk, and ladder attachment
(1-10) brackets
U A tamb
tin + tout)
- (e) at building braces and guide lugs
2 (j) at roof flashing and counterflashing
- (g) at stack tops and truncated cone

=W X Cp X (tn- tout) (1-11)

(h) between stack shells and external insulation

1 1 1 1 1 1 (1-12)
- = -+-+-+-+ (i) at weld joints between dissimilar metals
u h ha hins h ha
1.7 Appurtenances
Heat loss through the stack wall section
Attachments to a stack may include the following:
Q/A =U X t5 (1-13) (a) Access doors of an appropriate size should be
located for access to inspect the inside bottom base of
Heat loss through each component of the stack wall the stack and at other selected locations for inspection
section and maintenance.
(b) False bottoms located just below the lower stack.
Q/A =h X th (1-14)
inlet are recommended.
(e) Drains in false bottoms and 1 or foundations
should be installed to direct water away from the stack
A stack mean surface area, ff
base and anchor bolts.
Cp specific heat of gas, Btu/lb, op
(d) Test and instrument ports should be located and
ha airspace coefficient Btu/hr-ft2 ,op
h internal film coefficient Btu/hr-ft2 ,op sized for each specific application.

hins insulation coefficient Btu/hr-ft2 ,op (e) Consideration should be given to providing
h lining coefficient Btu/hr-ff, op inspection ports spaced appropriately over the height
ha external film coefficient Btu/hr-ft2, op of the stack.
tg gas temperature entering minus gas tempera (j) An access ladder and test platforms should be
ture leaving, op selected for job conditions with the required size of the
temperature drop through the h component of test platforms in the width specified.
the stack wall, op (g) A painter's track and trolley may be specified on
average gas temperature minus ambient tem painted stacks. If test platforms and lighting access plat
perature, op forms are specified, consideration should be given to
u overall heat transfer coefficient the use and location of multiple painter's trolleys and
w gas flow, lb /hr tracks. See section 6.
1.5.5 Other Heat loss Considerations That Affed prevent gas temperatures below the dew point in
Minimum MetalTemperatures the nonactive lower part of the stack. This false
(a) When gases entera stack above the base, consider bottom
ation should be given to the use of a false bottom to
(h) Lighting requirements are established by Federal ( i) Rain caps are generally not required on full-time
Aviation Administration (FAA) directives. Access plat active stacks. When specified, a diameter of two times
forms to service lights are recommended for corrosion
resistant construction. See sections 6 and 7.
ASME STS-1-2011

the stack diameter anda clear height of one stack diame 1.9 Mechanical Section Definitions
ter is recommended.
appurtenances: stack specialty design items apart from
(j) Stack spark-arresting screens of stainless steel
shell and structural members.
material a mnimum of two stack diameters high may
be specified when needed. cladding: thin metal overlaid over the base metal metal
(k) Metal stacks require no lightning protection other lurgically and integrally bonded to the base metal.
than proper grounding at the base per NFPA require EPA: Environmental Protection Agency (may be Federal,
ments. See section 7. State, or local) government regulatory authority.
(l) Stack interna!shutoff dampers and stack cap
EPRI: Electric Power Research Institute.
dampers demand special consideration when specified.
(m) Straightening vanes to distribute flowing gas for false bottom: a cone or plate located just below the
effective testing should be specified as required. breeching opening to prevent gases from entering the
(n) Splitter baffles are sometimes used when two lower section of stack.
stack inlets enter the stack opposite each other to reduce NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.
back pressure in the event that isolation dampers are
test zone: section of stack designed for testing. The loca
not used.
tion of test ports in relationship to upstream and down
(o) Gin pole or davit lifts are sometimes specified for
stream flow pattern disturbances is well documented in
hoisting instruments to the test platform.
Federal and State air quality rules and regulations.
(p) Top-of-stack roofs for multiple flue stacks and
dual wall stacks should provide proper weather protec truncated cone: a converging section reducing the exit
tion for the inside surfaces, while at the same time pro diameter located at the top of the stack.
viding for expected differential expansion between flt1es
and the stack outer shell. Consideration should be given 2 MATERIALS
to the effect of the buildup of ash on any flat surfaces.
(q) Noise pollution control may require acoustical 2.1 Scope
suppressing sound attenuators within the stack. Material specifications are intended to cover single
1.8 Mechanical Section Symbols or double wall stacks that are free-standing and self
supporting, guy or cable supported, or supported by
A stack mean surface area, in.2 structural steel braces or framework. Reference is made
B barometric pressure-mercury absolute, in. to the 1975 edition of Design and Construction of Steel
CP specific heat of gas Btu/lb, F Chimney Liners, published by the American Society of
D inside diameter(s) of stack sections, ft Civil Engineers.
Dt inside diameter of stack at outlet, ft
DRN = stack natural draft-water gage, in. 2.2 Materials
d density of gas, lb1ft2 The Materials listed in the following sections are sug
F friction factor based on Reynolds number gested for use based on their ability to meet the physical,
FLen stack entrance loss water gage, in. mechanical, chemical, and environmental requirements
FLex stack exit loss-water gage, in. of a given application. Acceptance of a material for a
FLr stack friction loss-water gage, in. specific application must be based on service experience
H stack height above centerline inlet, ft or independent verification of its suitability.
ha airspace coefficient Btu/hr-ff, oF
h internal film coefficient Btu/hr-ff, oF 2.2.1 General Considerations
hins insulation coefficient Btu/hr-ft2 , F (a) Materials shall conform to the applicable require
h lining coefficient Btu/hr-ft2 ,F ments in the sections hereinafter detailed.
ho externa!film coefficient Btu/hr-ft 2, F (b) The contractor shall submit one copy of the chemi
K constant for breeching inlet angle cal-composition and mechanical-property mili test
TA absolute temperature of atmosphere, R
reports for all steels used to the owner for approval prior
TG average absolute temperature of gas, 0R to construction unless otherwise indicated.
tg gas temperature entering minus gas tempera (e) When required for testing purposes, the contractor
ture leaving, F will furnish the owner with identified scrap samples of
t temperature drop through the h component of the shell plates.
the stack wall (d) This section does not apply to linings and coatings
ts average gas temperature minus ambient tem- of stacks. See section 3.
perature, F (e) Corrosion allowances shall be considered (typi
U overall heat transfer coefficient X
cally 6 in. to Ys in.) where carbon, high-strength, low
V gas velocity at stack inlet, ft/ sec alloy, and alloy steels are used. Experience or the results
W mass flow rate of gas, lb /hr of tests should be used when selecting an allowance.

2.2.2 SheU and Base Plates. For more information (b) Protection may be required against corrosion for
on this subject, see Tables B-1 through B-11 in components exterior to the shell and against corrosion
Nonmandatory Appendix B. and/ or oxidation for components on the shell interior.
(a) Shell and base plates typically may be of one or Section 3 should be consulted and utilized as
more of the following structural quality materials: appropriate.
(1) carbon steels conforming to the ASTM A 36,
A 283, orA 529 Specifications 2.2.4 Guy Wires, Cables, or Fittings
(2) high-strength, low-alloy steels conforming to
(a) Guy wires and cables typically may be of one
the ASTM A 242, A 572, or A 588 Specifications or more of the following materials, and consideration
(3) stainless steels conforming to the ASTM A 666
should be given to the initial stretch of the material:
(1) aluminum-coated steel wire strand conforming
(4) stainless chromium-nickel steel dad plate con to the ASTM A 474 Specification
forming to ASTM A 264 and nickel-base alloy dad steel (2) zinc-coated (galvanized) steel wire strand con
conforming to ASTM A 265 may be considered for use forming to the ASTM A 475 and A 586 Specifications
as shell plate (3) zinc-coated (galvanized) steel wire rope con
(5) metals listed in Materials Appendix (i.e., forming to the ASTM A 603 Specification
Nonmandatory Appendix B), Table B-9 may be used not (4) stainless steel wire strand conforming to the
only as sheet linings and dadding but also as solid plate ASTM A 368 Specification
for shell plates (b) Fittings for guys and cables should comply with
(b) Pressure vessel quality carbon steels such as manufacturers' standards and be of aluminum-coated,
ASTM A 285, A 515, and A 516; alloy steels such as zinc-coated (galvanized), or stainless steel as appro
ASTM A 387; and stainless steels such as ASTM A 240 priate. Aluminum and zinc coating weights and stain
may be substituted for structural quality materials as less steel grade should match those of the guys or cables
appropriate. on which they are used.
(e) Carbon steels such as ASTM A 516, Grades 55
2.2.5 Anchor Bolts, Washers, and Nuts
through 70 and low-alloy steels such as ASTM A 517,
(a) Anchor bolts may be of threaded bolt and stud
Grades A through T and ASTM A 537 are usually speci
stock normally used as connectors or of round stock
fied for service temperatures as low as -50F (-46C).
of structural material that may be threaded. They are
Nickel-containing alloy steels such as ASTM A 203,
typically one of the following specifications:
Grades A and B are usually used for service tempera
(1) carbon steel-threaded fasteners conforming to
tures as low as -75F (-59C), and ASTM Grades D, E,
the ASTM A 307 Specification
and F are often used for service temperatures of -150F
(2) carbon steel bolts for general applications con
(-101oc). Nickel-containing alloy steels and nickel stain
forming to the ASTM A 449 Specification
less steels are used for even lower temperatures. Suppli
(3) alloy steel bolts, studs, and threaded fasteners
ers of structural quality steels will provide data on notch
toughness when specified. conforming to the ASTM A 354 Specification
(d) Protection against corrosion and/ or oxidation (4) alloy steel bolts and studs with enhanced impact
may be required on interior and/ or exterior surfaces properties conforming to the ASTM A 687 Specification
depending on the materials utilized and the conditions (5) carbon steel conforming to the ASTM A 36
encountered. Section 3 should be consulted and utilized Specification
as appropriate. (6) high-strength, low-alloy steels conforming to
(e) Creep rupture tensile stresses for sustained load the ASTM A 572 or A 588 Specification
ing and high-temperature service conditions must be (b) Material for washers shall conform to the
considered as given in para. 4.4.8. ASTM F 436 Specification and correspond to the anchor
bolt material.
2.2.3 Stiffeners and Structural Braces and/ or
(e) Material for nuts shall conform to the ASTM A 563
Specification and correspond to the anchor bolt material.
(a) Stiffeners and structural braces and/ or framework
(d) Protection against corrosion may be required.
typically may be of one or more of the following
Section 3 should be consulted and utilized as
(1) carbon steels conforming to the ASTM A 36,
(e) Double nutting oran appropriate locking device
A 283, orA 529 Specifications
is recommended.
(2) high-strength, low-alloy steels conforming to
the ASTM A 242, A 572, or A 588 Specifications 2.2.6 Bolts, Washers, and Nuts
(3) stainless steels conforming to the ASTM A 240 (a) Unless otherwise specified, carbon and high
orA 666 Specifications or nickel-containing alloys hav strength steel bolts conforming to the ASTM A 307,
ing compositions similar to those of the shell plate A 325, orA 449 Specification will be utilized.
ASME STS-1-2011

(b) High-strength alloy steel bolts may be required, para. 2.2.3, provided suitable corrosion protection is
and these should conform to the ASTM A 354 or A 490 applied.
Specification. (2) Ring also may be of a material such as Type 304
(e) For high-temperature applications, bolt material or Type 316 stainless steel conforming to the ASTM A 240
should conform to the ASTM A 193 B7 Specification orA 666 Specification. Adequate structural supports are
covering alloy and stainless steels. Stainless steel bolts to be provided.
are also covered under the ASTM F 593 Specification. (j) Stack rain caps
(d) Unless otherwise specified, nuts should conform (1) Unless otherwise specified, stack rain caps shall
to the ASTM A 563 Specification. Stainless/ be of the same composition as the stack shell.
heat-resisting nuts shall be of a material corresponding (2) Because of potential corrosion problems, stain
to that of the bolt unless galling/ seizing considerations less steel conforming to the ASTM A 240 Specification
dictate otherwise. or higher alloyed, corrosion-resistant materials should
(e) Washers shall conform to the ASTM F 436 be considered.
Specification. Stainless/heat-resisting washers shall be (g) Drain Systems. A system should be provided for
of a material corresponding to that of the bolt. collecting and routing rain and condensate from the
(j) Protection from corrosion may be required. interior of the stack to a single collection point at grade
Section 3 should be consul ted and u tilized as level2. Drain pipe shall be of corrosion-resistant material
appropriate. such as Type 304 or Type 316 stainless steel conforming
2.2.7 Appurtenances to the ASTM A 240 or A 666 Specification, nickel alloy,
(a) Ladders, cages, and stairs may be constructed of or plastic.
one or more of the following materials: 2.2.8 Welding Electrodes
(1) structural steels and stainless steels conforming (a) AWS 01.1, Structural Welding Code Steel is usu
to the standards under para. 2.2.2(a) ally specified for structural welding of steel stacks. As
(2) carbon steel sheet and strip conforming to the an alternative, ASME BPVC, Section IX, Qualification
ASTM A 569 and A 570 Specifications Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures, Welders,
(3) high-strength, low-alloy sheet and strip con Brazers, and Welding and Brazing Operations may be
forming to the ASTM A 606 and A 607 Specifications specified.
(b) Platforms and grating may be constructed of one (b) Welding electrodes with a mnimum tensile
or more of the following materials: strength of 70 ksi are to be used for carbon steel applica
(1) materials under para. 2.2.7(a). tions in steel stack construction. The type of electrode
(2) stainless steels conforming to the ASTM A 666 specified is a function of the welding process to be used.
Specification. (e) For high-temperature applications, above 750F
(3) aluminum conforming to the ASTM B 221 (400C), using high-strength, low-alloy steels, welding
Specification. Reference is made to the National electrodes with a mnimum tensile strength of 80 ksi are
Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers to be used.
(NAAMM) Manual for metal bar grating and stair (d) For steel stack construction using alloy steels, such
treads. as ASTM A 335 and A 387, E8018-B2L electrode with
(e) Handrails, toe plates, etc. typically are made of welding procedures conforming to AWS 010.8,
one of the following materials: Recommended Practice for Welding of Chromium
(1) carbon structural steel conforming to the Molybdenum Steel Piping and Tubing should be used.
ASTM A 36 orA 20 Specification (e) When stainless steels and nickel alloys are used as
(2) high-strength, low-alloy steel conforming to the plate, sheet, oras dad plate, the following specifications
ASTM A 242, A 588, orA 618 Specification apply:
(3) aluminurn conforming to the ASTM B 221 (1) ANSI/ AWS A5.4, Specification for Stainless
Specification Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Are Welding
(4) stainless steels conforming to the ASTM A 666 (2) ANSI/ AWS A5.9, Specification for Bare
andA 554 Specifications Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods
(d) Access doors and instrument and sampling ports (3) ANSI/ AWS A5.11, Specification for Nickel and
(1) Access doors shall be of a material matching Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Are
the shell plates or cast iron. Welding
(2) Instrument and sampling ports shall be of a (4) ANSI/ AWS A5.14, Specification of Nickel and
material of matching or higher alloy content than the Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Eleetrodes and Rods
shell plates. (5) ANSI/ AWS A5.1, Specifieation for Covered
(e) Painter's trolley and ring Carbon Steel Are Welding Electrodes
(1) A painter's trolley and ring may be of carbon (6) ANSI/ AWS A5.18, Specification for Carbon
steel or high-strength, low-alloy steels as specified under Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Are Welding

(7) ANSI/ AWS A5.20, Specification for Carbon situation. External insulation can be used to maintain
Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Are Welding stack surface temperature at least 50F (10C) above the
(j) When welds are made between dissimilar metals, flue gas dew point. If metal temperatures are exceeded,
the type of electrode to be used should be based on the internallinings may be used to provide a solution.
higher grade material being welded. (a) 120F (49C). This is the water dew point, the con
(g) As with the design of the stack metal, proper con densation point of nitric, hydrofluoric, and sulfurous
sideration must be given to the reduction in weld metal acids.
strength when exposed to high temperatures. The tem (b) 145F (63C). This is the temperature at which
perature-based strength reductions for the weld metal hydrochloric acid condenses. Chlorides are found in
should be assumed to be the same as that for the base most coals.
metal. (e) 275F (135C). This is the sulfuric acid dew point
of No. 2 fuel oil having a 0.6% sulfur content.
3 UNINGS ANO COATINGS (d) 320F (160C). The sulfuric acid dew point of No. 6
fuel oil having a 2% to 8% sulfur content.
3.1 Scope (e) 400F (204C). The maximum theoretical acid dew
Section 3 will provide the designer with information point, assuming all sulfur present was converted into
that will help him to determine whether or not an inte sulfur trioxide.
rior lining and/ or an exterior coating should be used (j) 800F ( 427C). Temperatures above this point
on the stack, the types of linings and coatings that may induce structural changes that render nonstabilized
be considered, and the general chemical and thermal grades of stainless steel susceptible to intergranular cor
limitations associated with each type. Considerations rosion. The temperature range for this effect is 800F
with respect to the use of insulating linings and exterior (427C) to 1,650F (899C).
insulation also are presented.
3.2.2 Other Critical Temperatures
3.2 linings (a) 160F (71C). It has been found that irreversible
damage takes place when skin is in contact with material
(a) Linings for the interior of steel stacks may be
at 160F (71C) for 1 sec. Reversible injury occurs at
required to provide resistance to corrosive gases, vapors,
154F (68C) for 1 sec, and the threshold of pain is about
or condensates; to provide resistance to heat; and to
140F (60C) for 1-sec contact.
maintain stack surface temperatures for the prevention
(b) 400F (204C). Average coefficients of linear ther
of condensate corrosion.
mal expansion for carbon, alloy, stainless steels, and
(b) To determine whether a lining should be used, a
nickel alloys are shown in Nonmandatory Appendix B,
complete thermal analysis of the entire system from
Table B-1. These coefficients are of interest when welding
heat source to stack outlet should be performed giving
carbon and alloy steels to stainless steels for service at
primary consideration to the stack surface temperature.
temperatures of 400F (204oc) and above.
A complete chemical and physical analysis of the flue
(e) 750F (400C). For carbon steel such as
gas should also be performed to determine the presence
ASTM A 36, creep becomes a design consideration at
of chemically corrosive constituents and the characteris
temperatures above 750F (400C). Creep is defined as
tics of particulate loading.
the time-dependent permanent deformation that occurs
3.2.1 Temperature/Corrosion. The metal surface after the application of a load toa metal in or above the
temperatures of uninsulated, unlined steel stacks may creep temperature range. ASTM A 242 and A 588 high
fall below flue gas dew points within the stack or at the strength,low-alloy steels may be used where steels with
stack outlet. oxidation resistance and creep rupture properties supe
The most commonly quoted stack temperature is the rior to that of carbon steel are required. ASTM A 242 is
flue temperature at the stack inlet. It is also the most the more resistant of the two and may be used at a
misleading because it is the metal surface temperature temperature about 100F higher than that of carbon steel
that is of importance. Uninsulated unlined steel stacks (850F or 455C). Care should be exercised if using
can have metal surface temperatures 60% or more below ASTM A 588 at 800F (427C) and above because of
the flue temperatures at the stack inlet, whereas stacks relatively low ductility.
with external insulation often will have metal surface (d) 850F (455C). The temperature at which creep
temperatures that are only slightly lower than the inlet becomes important for alloy steels.
flue gas temperature. (e) 1,050F (565C). The temperature at which creep
Critical corrosion temperatures are not absolute val becomes important for chromium-nickel austenitic
ues covering all situations but present focal points for stainless steels.
more detailed study, i.e., if stack surface temperatures (j) 1,150F (620C) to 2,000F (1 093C). The tempera
fall below acid condensation dew points, external insula ture range over which the stainless steels, depending on
tion and/ or higher flue gas velocities could correct the their alloy content, provide useful resistance to scaling.
ASME STS-1-2011

Refer to Nonmandatory Appendix B, Table B-17 for on natural or synthetic polymers that, at room tempera
information on maximum temperatures for alloy and ture, return rapidly to their approximate initial dimen
stainless steels to avoid excessive scaling. sion and shape after substantial deformation by a weak
stress and subsequent release of that stress. Application
3.2.3 Environmental Severity levels. See is in sheet or liquid form.
Nonmandatory Appendix e, Table e-1. Due to the great number of variations of formulations
(a) Chemical Environment. eonstituents within the by manufacturers of organic linings, this document will
flue gas that will affect the corrosivity of the environment not be more specific in this regard. There are ASTM
and thereby the suitability of linings include oxides of standards that can be used to evaluate certain properties
sulfur (SOx), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), chlorides (el), of organic linings, and where standards do not exist or
and fluorides (F). when further information is needed regarding specific
(1) Mild. Flue surface temperatures above acid products, their performance, and recommended usages
dew points (pH = 4 to 8). are required, the linings manufacturers should be
(2) Moderate. Flue surface temperatures below acid contacted.
dew points on an intermittent basis but normally above lnorganic linings
the acid dew points (pH = 2 to 4). (a) Inorganic Cementitious Concrete Monolithics. These
(3) Severe. Flue surface temperatures below the linings are comprised of materials other than hydrocar
acid dew points for all operating cycles (pH = less bons and their derivatives. These protective barriers are
than 2). comprised of inert mixtures of chemically ine:tt, solid
(b) Temperature Envronments. Temperature levels also aggregate fillers and a cementing agent. The cementing
contribute to the severity of the environment, particu agent may be an acid-setting agent contained in the
larly as they relate to the suitability of organic linings. powder and a silicate binder, which subsequently hard
Temperatures that remain constant or steady may be ens by the chemical reaction between the setting agent
less of a problem than those that are cyclic. and the silicate binder ora high alumina cement binder
(1) Mild. Temperatures up to, but not exceeding, that hardens by hydration. Application is by troweling,
200F (93e). casting, or Guniting. Refractory installation quality con
(2) Moderate. Temperatures from 200F (93e) to trol guidelines, monolithic refractory linings inspection
350F (177t). and testing, and materials used shall be in accordance
with API RP 936. Included are the following:
(3) Severe. Temperatures greater than 350F
(1) Acid-Resistant Concrete. These linings are based
on silicate chemical setting cements and utilize chemi
3.2.4 Classifications of linings. See Nonmandatory cally inert fillers. They are particularly suited for severe
Appendix e, Tables e-1 and e-2. chemical environments and mild/moderate tempera
ture environments. Organic linings. Most acid-resistant (2) Acid-Alkali-Resistant Concrete. These linings are
organic linings fail or lose their flexibility and ability to generally based on a combined silicate, chemically resis
resist liquid or vapor penetration at temperatures over tant cement, with inert aggregate fillers. They are partic
300F (149e). Sorne manufacturers claim that their ularly suited under moderate chemical environments
products can perform up to 500F (260e). Oftentimes, and mild/moderate temperature environments.
. the combination of the chemical environment, together (3) Refractory Concrete. These linings are typically
with the temperature environment, will be synergistic based on high alumina, hydraulically setting cement
in nature and require more careful selection of a lining. binders, utilizing inert refractory-type aggregate fillers.
Before choosing a particular lining, the designer should They are suitable for mild chemical environments and
contad the manufacturer to ensure the suitability of the severe temperature environments.
product for the requirements at hand. ( 4) Insulating Concrete for Temperatures to 650F
(a) Organic Resin. Polyester, novolac phenolic epoxy, (899C). Typical formulations include expanded clay,
novolac epoxy, epoxy, vinyl ester, etc. linings are com slag, or fuel ash, combined with a high alumina hydrau
prised of chemical resinous compounds based on carbon lic cement binder; a calcined diatomite aggregate filler
and high alumina cement; anda perlite or vermiculite
chains or rings and also contain hydrogen with or with
aggregate filler combined with a high alumina cement
out oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. The formula
binder. They are suited for application where tempera
tions incorporate hardening agents to cure the resins
ture is the main environmental condition to be
and usually fillers or reinforcement to provide desirable
physical properties. Application is in liquid form (solu (5) Insulating Concrete for Temperatures up to 2,200F
tion, dispersion, etc.) using spray, roller, or trowel. (1 204C). Linings are based on high-temperature insu
(b) Organic Elastomers. Fluoropolymer, natural rub lating aggregate fillers utilizing a high alumina hydrau
ber, butyl rubber, urethane asphalt, etc. linings are based lic setting cement binder. They are particularly suited

where the temperature environment and insulation of sorne of the alloying elements may be helpful. Chro
characteristics of the lining are important. mium (Cr) is most important from the standpoint of
(b) Inorganic Masonry. These linings are comprised of de:veloping the passive or protective film that forms on
nonmetallic, chemically inert masonry units, such as the surface of the alloy in air or oxidizing environments.
brick or foamed, closed, cellular glass block, bonded Nickel (Ni) is important in that it helps to expand the
together with a mortar having adequate adhesion to passivity limits of the alloy, thereby contributing to
the units, and possessing suitable chemical and thermal improved corrosion resistance. It also is responsible for
resistance for the anticipated exposure. Included are the the maintenance of the desirable austenitic microstruc
following: ture, which provides good ductility, fabricability, and
(1) Foamed, Closed,Cellular Glass Block. Linings con weldability. Molybdenum (Mo) is the most important
structed of this unit are highly insulative. Borosilicate element for providing pitting and crevice corrosion
type glass compositions are most suited for withstand resistance, and nitrogen (N) and tungsten (W) are help
ing severe chemical and temperature environments as ful in this regard. Nitrogen also increases the strength
defined by this Standard. of the alloy and helps to maintain the austenitic micro
(2) Firebrick. Linings of brick having appropriate structure. ASTM G 48 offers standard test methods for
alumina content to be chemically and physically stable evaluating pitting and crevice corrosion resistance in
at high temperatures, and installed with a suitable chloride environments.
refractory mortar, may be used to temperatures of The most important element for increasing oxidation
2,200F (1 204C). (corrosion) resistance of steels at temperatures of 1,000F
(3) Acid-Resistant Brick. These linings are con (538C) and above is chromium. Other elements such
structed of chemically resistant bricks, which are nor as silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), and the rare earth ele
mally laid in chemical-resistant mortar for use where ments such as cerium (Ce) also increase oxidation resist
there are severe chemical and thermal environments. ance, particularly when added to alloys containing
The acid-resisting brick should be specified in accor chromium.
dance with either ASTM C 279 or C 980. To avoid intergranular corrosion in certain acidic envi
( 4) Insulating Firebrick Linings. These linings are ronments, intergranular carbide precipitation (ICP)
comprised of lightweight, porous refractory brick hav
resulting from welding must be prevented. ICP can be
ing much lower thermal conductivity and heat storage
prevented by the use of low-carbon (L) grades (less than
capacity than firebrick and installed with high
0.03 C) or the addition of stabilizing elements such as
temperature refractory mortars and used in very high
titanium (Ti) and columbium (Cb).
temperature environments where insulation quality is
3.3 Coatings Metallic Unings and Cladding. See
Nonmandatory Appendix C, Table C-1. (a) The terms paint and coating are sometimes difficult
Metallic linings and cladding should be considered for to differentiate. The term coating is a more generic classi
use whenever resistance to corrosion and/ or elevated fication that includes paint. While the primary function
temperature is a concern. High-performance metals and of a coating is to provide protection, a paint may have
alloys including stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, and the additional function of color along with protection.
titanium are available for use as linings oras cladding The color properties of a paint may be more important
on carbon-steel plate. Usually, the metallic linings are than the protective properties. In this Standard, the word
1;6 in. (1.6 mm) thick, although thickness of % in. coating will also mean paint.
(3.2 mm) also are used. Cladding thickness can range Stacks that are constructed of carbon steel may require
from 5% to 50% of the total plate thickness, but for light coatings to protect the steel from corrosion by the atmo
gafe, -in. (6.4 mm) carbon steel, the preferred thickness spheres to which it is exposed, to provide an aesthetically
is Y6 in. (1.6 mm) or 25% of the total plate thickness. pleasing structure, and to be in accordance with under
Metallic linings are applied to the substrate and welded writer codes and government regulations pertaining to
together by the overlap joint method as described in aviation safety. Sorne low-alloy steels, such as
NACE Standard Recommended Practice RP0292-98. ASTM A 242 and A 588, exhibit superior atmospheric
Metal cladding is applied to carbon steel plate by either corrosion resistance to carbon steels and may not require
the hot, sandwich-rolling process or the explosive bond an exterior coating depending on the corrosivity of the
ing process. The roll-bonded, clad-plate product with atmosphere. Stacks that are constructed of stainless steel
the cladding metallurgically bonded to the carbon steel or higher alloys should be resistant to atmospheric
is available from the mill. Clad plate may be installed corrosion.
as described in NACE Standard Recommended Practice (b) Since a stack is subjected to outdoor exposure,
RP0199-99. careful consideration for sunlight and weathering must
When selecting stainless steels and nickel alloys for be given, together with an awareness of discoloration,
corrosive applications, a brief description of the effects fading, brittleness, etc.
(e) In assessing the corrosive effects of the environ resistance to exposure to chemical fumes. It requires
ment, careful consideration should be given to the top an SSPC-SP#10 minimum surface preparation with a
portion of the stack where washdown may create a more surface profile of 1 mil to 2 mil in order to obtain total
severe condition. adhesion.
(d) The type of coating required will depend upon (h) Epoxy Coating System. This coating provides good
the color, pigmentation, maximum temperature reached resistance to industrial fumes and marine atmosphere
by the steel skin, and the duration of the higher exposures. These coatings exhibit good flexibility, hard
temperatures. ness, and toughness and are of a high solids content.
(e) The majority of heat-resistant coatings use heat Although they tend to chalk quickly under weathering,
resistant pigments, either inorganic or metallic. they retain excellent chemical resistance.
(j) In coating steel stacks, water-based paints or emul (i) Novolac Epoxy System. This coating provides excel
sions have not shown good performance and tend to lent resistance to industrial fumes and marine atmo
exhibit bleeding. sphere exposures. These coatings exhibit good flexibility,
3.3.1 Classification of Coatings. See Nonmandatory hardness, and toughness and are of 100% solids content.
Appendix C, Table C-2. They have a higher temperature resistance than an
(a) Oil-Based Coating System. Such a coating system epoxy system and better chemical resistance.
(j) Novolac Phenolic Epoxy System. This coating pro
is suitable for providing excellent protection when sub
jected to outside rural weather conditions but only pro vides excellent resistance to industrial fumes and marine
tects against very mild industrial fumes arid mild marine atmosphere exposures. These coatings exhibit flexibility,
envirortments. This coating system is not recommended hardness, and excellent toughness and are of 100% solids
for corrosive environments. It tends to exhibit very slow content. They. have a higher temperature resistance than
drying characteristics in curing and embrittles and yel novolac epoxy systems and better chemical resistance.
lows with aging. (k) Chlorinated Rubber. This coating is similar to a
(b) Alkyd Coating System. This type of coating shows vinyl and provides a good tough film, which has good
excellent resistance to weathering in rural environments. abrasion resistance and possesses excellent weathering
It shows poor acid chemical resistance and only fair characteristics. It also shows excellent resistance to min
performance in marine salt environments. This system eral acids and marine environments in salt water. It is
is easy to apply, exhibits good color retention and gloss, normally limited to 160F (71C) performance
is economical, and is easy to recoat. However, it is very temperature.
(l) Silicones. Silicones provide excellent heat resist
limited in its usage.
(e)' Phenolic Coating System. This system is excellent in ance and may be used up to 1,200F (649C). They have
moderate/severe chemical corrosive atmospheres and superior exterior weathering; minimurh film erosion, as
exhibits good weathering resista:ri.ce. It shows excellent shown by chalking resistance; gloss retention; and color
resistance in very humid environments. retention. They show good resistance to mild chemical
exposure. The properties depend upon the amount of
(d) Vinyl Coatings. These coatings are normally used
silicone resin present and the type of modified agent
in severe chemical environments and not usually used
used. Pure silicone, together with aluminum pigment,
as stack coatings because they are expensive. However,
provides an excellent durable coating resistant to high
these coatings do exhibit excellent resistance to weather
temperature and is also expensive.
ing and provide a good degree of flexibility.
(m) Two-Component Urethane System. A two
(e) One-Coat Shop Painting for Structural Steel. This
component, catalyzed, cured aliphatic urethane pro
type of coating is not for protecting steel exposed to
vides a hard, tough, and abrasion-resistant coating,
weathering for greater than a 6-mo period, even in nor
which shows excellent weathering characteristics and
mal rural or mild industrial environments or marine
gloss retention. It also possesses good chemical resist
ance to mild acids and alkalis and shows excellent adhe
(j) Coa[-Tar Epoxy Coating. This coating is used exten
sion to steel. However, during application, it tends to be
sively in marine and chemical environments. These coat
moisture-sensitive, yet, upon curing, it exhibits excellent
ings have a tendency to embrittle during early years of
resistance to humidity, marine environments, and mild
exposure and, hence, require relatively rigid substrate
corrosive environments.
to show good performance. They are less expensive than
(n) Acrylics. These coatings show excellent color and
the two-component epoxies, are normally black in color,
gloss retention for outdoor application. However, they
and require an SSPC-PC#S surface preparation.
are very limited in their chemical resistance. They are
(g) Zinc-Rich Painting Systems (Inorganic). This coat economical and provide satisfactory performance in
ing provides excellent protection to the steel from weath rural environments, where there are nothing more than
ering and is suited for high humidity and marine very mild fume conditions. They do not exhibit proper
atmospheres. It is not particularly suited for acid resist ties as good as vinyl or chlorinated rubbers with respect
ance. However, when it is top coated, it provides good to chemical resistance.
3.3.2 lmportant Coating Considerations (j) Back-to-back angles.
(a) environment (rural, industrial, and marine) (g) Effective separation of faces of dissimilar metals.
(b) exposure to temperature (h) Separation materials of suitable shape and thick-
(e) weathering ness (gaskets, butyl tape, etc.).
(d) aesthetic color retention (i) Structural materials, guy wires, cables, fittings,
(e) durability bolts, nuts, washers, ladders, cages, grating, and other
(j) surface preparation accessories may be protected from atmospheric corro
(g) cost sion by the use of hot-dip galvanized coatings. These
(h) coating manufacturer's recommendation should be applied in accordance with the ASTM A 153
Specification and should involve the appropriate coating
3.3.3 Curing Methods weight, Classes A, B, and C, which are in order of increas
(a) air oxidation (alkyds and epoxy) ing zinc coating weight.
(b) solvent evaporation (vinyls, chlorinated rubber, (j) Hot-dip galvanized coatings should not be used on
coal-tar, and acrylics) material in contact with unpainted A 242 or A 588 steel.
(e) chemical reaction (epoxies, polyurethanes, vinyl (k) Because of potential corrosion problems with stack
esters, and inorganic zincs) rain-caps, stainless steels conforming to the ASTM A 240
(d) heat cure (silicones and high-bake phenolics) Specification or higher alloy, corrosion-resistant materi
3.3.4 Primer als should be considered in their construction.
(a) The primer is the most critica!element in most ([) Galvanizing of such items as hand rails, ladders,
coating systems because it is responsible for preserving and other items of suitable size and shape affords
the metallic state of the substrate, and it must anchor long-term protection in nonaggressive atmospheric
the total coating system to the steel. Surface preparation environments.
(m) Silicone coatings have been well known for sorne
is very important.
(b) In general, the more severe the environment, or
time for their good color and gloss retention when
the longer the requirement for protection, the greater exposed to exterior weathering. Unmodified silicones
the coating dry-film thickness will be. Care should be are expensive and must cure at 400F to 500F (204C
taken, however, in the application of high-build systems to 260C). Air-drying properties, lower cost, and hard
to thin-walled structures and other dimensionally unsta ness in adhesion are obtained by copolymerizing sili
ble substrates. Thick films, particularly those of rigid cones with organic polymers. The copolymers show
thermal sets, are less able to provide the necessary flexi practically no film erosion and, therefore, are very slow
bility to substrate movements (expansion and contrac to chalk.
( n) Inorganic zinc-pigmented coatings, when prop
tion) than are thin films and can easily undergo adhesive
and cohesive failure leading to subsequent erly applied to blast-cleaned surfaces, show good resist
disbondment. ance to atmospheric exposure.
(e) It is to be noted that temperatures are to refer 3.3.6 Variations of Formulations. Due to the great
to the exterior steel surfaces and not to the flue gas number of variations of formulations by coating manu
temperatures within the stacks. facturers, this Standard will not be more specific in this
(d) For external steel surface temperatures between regard. When standards do not exist or when further
450F (232C) and 900F (482C), two coats of aluminum information is needed regarding specific products, their
pigmented, silicone resin-based coatings have been performance, and recommended usages, the coating
shown to provide excellent performance. manufacturers should be contacted.
(e) For external steel surface temperatures between
3.4 Corrosion
450F (232C) and 900F (482C), a zinc primer, followed
by a top-finished coat of a modified silicone, has shown 3.4.1 Attack Dueto Sulfur Oxides [From the Model
excellent performance. Code on SteelChimneys (CICIND)]
(j) All coatings should be applied in strict accordance (a) The most common form of internal chemical attack
with the manufacturer's instructions, observing mni is due to acids formed by the condensation of sulfur
mum application temperatures, catalyst, type, addition oxides in the flue gas. Sulfur is found in all solid and
rates and thinners, and the amounts allowed. liquid fuels to varying degrees and can also be found
in gaseous fuels. During the combustion process, nearly
3.3.5 Design Considerations all sulfur in the fuel is oxidized to sulfur dioxide (502),
(a) Edges.
which is absorbed by condensing water vapor to form
(b) Deep, square corners.
sulfurous acid.
(e) Discontinuous areas (bolt heads, corners, etc.).
(b) A small quantity of sulfur dioxide (502) is oxi
(d) Weld and weld spatter.
dized to sulfur trioxide (503). The quantity depends in
(e) Skip welds. a complex manner upon the sulfur content of the fuel,
the amount of excess air available during combustion, necessitating the use of the most corrosion-resistant
temperature in the combustion chamber, and the pres materials.
ence of catalysts such as iron oxides. This small concen (b) Hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, and free
tration of 503 (usually measured in parts per million) chlorine in flue gases also become corrosive in their
gives rise to most of the acid corrosion problems encoun vapor stage. 5tainless steels are attacked at temperatures
tered in chimneys. This is because on condensation, the above 600F (316C). Fluoride vapors are corrosive to
503 ions combine with water vapor to form sulfuric stainless steels at temperatures above 480F (249C).
acid, whose concentration can be as high as 85%.
(e) Condensation of these acids takes place when the 3.4.3 limited Acid Corrosion Exposure. Limited
temperature of the flue gas falls below their acid dew exposure to acid corrosion conditions can be permitted
point or when the flue gas comes into contact with a in stacks, which, for most of the time, are safe from
surface at or below the relevant acid dew point chemical attack, provided the flue gas does not contain
temperature. halogens (chlorine, chlorides, fluorides, etc.).
(d) The acid dew point temperature of sulfuric acid 3.4.4 CriticalCorrosion Factors
depends upon the concentration of 503 in the flue gas. (a) air leaks
Provided the temperature of the surfaces with which (b) fin cooling of flanges, spoilers, or other
the flue gas can come into contact is maintained at least attachments
50F (10C) above the acid dew point estimated in (e) cooling through support points
Fig. C-1 in Nonmandatory Appendix C,there is no dan (d) downdraft effects at top of the chimney
ger of acid corrosion due to this cause. An adiabatic (1) Presence of chlorides or fluorides in the flue gas
saturation curve showing sulfuric acid concentrations condensate can radically increase corrosion rates.
for various temperatures and operating conditions
(2) Regardless of temperatures, corrosion can occur
together with suggested material is shown in Fig. C-2 if halogen concentrations exceed the following limits:
in Nonmandatory Appendix C.
(a) hydrogen fluoride: 0.025% by weight
(e) The acid dew point of sulfurous acid is about 120F
(300 mg/m3 at 20C and 1 bar pressure)
(49C), a little above the water dew point. If the fuel is
(b) elementary chlorine: 0.1% by weight
contaminated, other acids, such as hydrochloric and
(1 300 mg/m 3 at 20C and 1 bar pressure)
nitric acids, can be expected to condense in the same
(e) hydrogen chloride: 0.1% by weight
temperature range. Thus, even if fuel and combustion
processes are chosen to minimize production of 503, or (1 300 mg/m 3 at 20C and 1 bar pressure)
if flue gases are scrubbed to remove most of the 503 3.5 lnsulation, Jacketing, and Strapping
and 502,severe corrosion can be expected if the
tempera tures of the flue gas, or the surfaces with 3.5.1 lnsulation
(a) Insulation may be required on the stack exterior
which it can come into contact, fall below 149F (65C)
or the acid dew point temperature relevant to the and/ or interior or between the walls of a dual wall stack.
reduced 503 con centration, if this is higher. Again, a (b) Insulating linings are covered in para.
safety margin of (e) There are numerous A5TM standards covering
50F (10C) above the acid dew point is determined from thermal insulating materials and their properties. These
Figs. C-1 and C-2 in Nonmandatory Appendix C. standards should be consulted and utilized in conjunc
tion with the manufacturers' recommendations to meet
3.4.2 Attack Due to Chlorine, Chlorides, and the application requirements.
3.5.2 Jacketing and Strapping
(a) Chlorides and fluorides may be found in all solid
(a) Jacketing may be of a material selected from one
fuels, including refuse, and in many liquid fuels. Upon
of the following A5TM 5pecifications:
combustion, chlorides and fluorides are transformed
(1) aluminum-coated steel conforming toA 463
into free chloride and fluoride ions, respectively, which,
(2) galvanized steel conforming to A 527
on contact with water vapor, are transformed into hydro
chloric and hydrofluoric acids. The highest condensation (3) stainless steel conforming toA 666
temperature at which hydrochloric acid has been found (4) aluminum conforming to B 209
is 140F (60C). The condensation temperature for (b) 5trapping may be of the same material as the jack
hydrofluoric acid can be even lower. Thus, when any eting, but stainless steel is usually preferred.
flue surface falls below this acid dew point, very serious
corrosion will occur. This dew point is close to that of 4 STRUCTURADl ESIGN
the water and sulfurous acid dew points. Therefore, even
very small amounts of chlorides and fluorides, if allowed 4.1 Scope
to concentrate such as under deposits, can cause serious 5ection 4 includes currently acceptable methods for
corrosion problems. For example, chloride levels under establishing structural configuration of steel stacks and
deposits have been found to be as high as 100,000 ppm,
stack elements to resist all external and interna!loads The velocity pressure, q2, shall be calculated by
imposed by the geography and topography of the site
and by operating conditions.
4.2 General
where the basic wind speed, V, is based on a 3-sec gust
4.2.1 limitations. The design recommendations velocity and is selected in accordance with the provi
made in the Standard are applicable primarily to circular sions of paras. through, the importance
steel stacks. factor, I, is set forth in Tables I-2 and I-3 of Mandatory
4.2.2 location. The stack design and construction Appendix I, and the velocity pressure exposure coeffi
shall be appropriate to the specific site, with particular cient, KZI is given in Table I-4 of Mandatory Appendix I
consideration to local wind and seismic conditions, air in accordance with the provisions of paras. and
craft traffic, operating conditions, and locallaws. The provisions of para. shall be used to
determine Kzt where applicable, but Kzt shall not be less
4.2.3 Drawings and Computations. Design draw
than 1.0. The numerical coefficient 0.00256 shall be used,
ings of the stack and all appurtenances shall be prepared
except where sufficient climatic data are available to
showing all elements and details necessary for satisfac
justify the selection of a different value of this factor
tory fabrication and erection of the stack. Computations
shall be prepared and submitted. All means of connec for a specific design application. Values for the force
tion of material shall be specifically detailed with proper
coefficient, c1, can be found in Table I-5 of
differentiation between shop and field connections. Mandatory
Appendix I. Interference effects on the force coefficient,
4.3 Applied loading C, described in para. shall be considered.
4.3.1 Dead load. The dead load shall consist of the The basic wind speed, V, used in the determination
weight of steel stack, coatings, internalliner, insulation, of design wind loads is given in Fig. I-1 of Mandatory
cladding, and all permanent accessories such as ladders, Appendix I, except as provided in paras. through
platforms, and gas-sampling equipment. For dead load,
the full plate thickness shall be used. The corroded plate
area shall be used for stress calculations. For stacks pos Special Wind Regions. The basic wind
sessing refractory lining, the applied weight of the speed shall be increased where records or experience
refractory material shall be used to calculate dead load indicate that the wind speeds are higher than those
stresses. reflected in Fig. I-1of Mandatory Appendix I. Mountain
ous terrain, gorges, and special regions shown in Fig. I-1
4.3.2 Uve load. The mnimum live load of 50 psf shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. The
shall be included for platforms and walkways. This load authority having jurisdiction shall, if necessary, adjust
need not be considered for wind or earthquake combina the values given in Fig. I-1 to account for higher local
tions. Consideration shall be given for accumulated ash wind speeds. Such adjustment shall be based on meteo
loads, and moisture in the case of wet gases, on the stack rological information andan estmate of the basic wind
walls and floors. False bottom plates shall be designed speed obtained in accordance with the provisions of
for a minimum live load of 150 psf. para.
4.3.3 Wind load. The wind load shall be calculated
in accordance with procedures outlined in this section. Estimation of Basic Wind Speeds From
It is the designer's responsibility to calculate any appli Regional Climatic Data. Regional climatic data shall
cable wind load not specified in this section, including only be used in lieu of the basic wind speeds given in
Fig. I-1 when
all externa!attachments. The design shall also consider
(a) approved extreme-value statistical-analysis proce
wind loads due to interference effects as stated in
para. dures have been employed in reducing the data
(b) the length of record, sampling error, averaging Design Wind Force. The design load distri time, anemometer height, data quality, and terrain expo
bution is given by
sure have been taken into account Exposure Categories. An exposure cate
w(z) = i(z) + Wo(z) (4-1) gory that adequately reflects the characteristics of
where ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the
site at which the building or structure is to be con
structed. Account shall be taken of variations in ground
surface roughness that arises from natural topography
and and vegetation, as well as from constructed features.
The exposure in which a specific building or other struc
w 0(z) = 3zMo [
3- G (1 + 6.8[z)
(4-3) ture is sited shall be assessed as being one of the follow
h ing categories:
(a) Exposure A. This includes large city centers with . distance of 3 diameter or less, an increase in the force
at least 50% of the buildings having a height in excess coefficient value of 20% is suggested in the absence of
of 70 ft. Use of this exposure category shall be limited model wind tunnel testing or existing full-scale data.
to those areas for which terrain representative of
Exposure A prevails in the upwind direction for a dis 4.3.4 Seismic Load. Lateral seismic forces shall be
tance of at least 0.5 mi or ten times the height of the considered in accordance with the guidelines described
steel stack, whichever is greater. Possible channeling in this Section. The procedure provided shall be followed
effects or increased velocity pressures due to the steel in the U.S. as a mnimum requirement. It has been found
stack being located in the wake of adjacent buildings that, due to the low mass of steel stacks, those only in
shall be taken into account. high seismic areas or containing high mass distribution
(b) Exposure B. This includes urban and suburban are governed by seismic loads.
areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous 4.3.5 Earthquake Response. The steel stack
dosely spaced structures having the size of single-family response to earthquakes can be determined using the
dwellings or larger. Use ofthis exposure category shall response spectrum method by using a horizontal
be limited to those areas for which terrain representative response spectrum based upon a maximum ground
of Exposure B prevails in the upwind direction for a acceleration of l.Og with a damping value of 0.05, which
distance of at least 1,500 ft or ten times the height of is scaled to the specific site. The value of the acceleration,
the building or other structure, whichever is greater. Av, related to the effective peak velocity, shall be deter
(e) Expos.ure C. This includes open terrain with scat mined using Table D-2 in Nonmandatory Appendix D
tered obstructions having heights generally less than or the published value for the location. Using the value
30 ft. This category includes flat, open country and of Av , the response spectrum scaling ratio is found in
grasslands. Table D-2 in Nonmandatory Appendix D. Linear inter
(d) Exposure D. This includes flat, unobstructed areas polation may be used in between published values of
exposed to wind flowing over open water for a distance Av . The modal moment, shear, and deflection response
of at least 1 mi. This exposure shall apply only to those of each mode is scaled with the scaling ratio for the
steel stacks exposed to the wind coming from over the specific frequency of each mode. Modal responses for
water. Exposure D extends .inland from the shoreline a each mode are then added using the SRSS method (tak
distance of 1,500 ft or ten times the height of the stack, ing the square root of the sum of the squares of modal
whichever is greater. moment, shear deflection responses). In lieu of the
response spectrum method, a static equivalent method Wind Speed Over Hills and Escarpments.
The provisions of this paragraph shall apply to isolated may be used.
The mathematical model of the steel stack used in the
hills or estarpments located in Exposure B, e, or D
analysis shall be sufficiently detailed to represent the
where the upwind terrain is free of such topographic
steel stack, liner or coating, lateral support and founda
features for a distance equal to 50HH or 1mi, whichever is
tion property, and support conditions. A mnimum of
smaller, as measured from the point at which HH is
ten elements and five modes of vibration should be
determined. Wind speed-up over isolated hills and
escarpments that constitute abrupt changes in the
An example of the mathematical calculation of modal
general topography shall be considered for steel stacks
sited on the upper half of hills and ridges or near the properties and response spectrum earthquake response
is shown in Nonmandatory Appendix D.
edges of escarpments, illustrated in Fig. I-2 of Mandatory
Appendix I, by using factor Kzt . 4.3.6 Thermal Loads. Nonuniform distribution of
flue gas across the steel stack or steel stack liner may
cause differential temperatures. Unless the temperature
distribution is uniform or linearly varying across the
where K 1,K 2, and K3 are given in Fig. I-2 of Mandatory stack/liner diameter, thermal stresses will be induced
in both longitudinal and circumferential directions. In
Appendix I. The effect of wind speed-up shall not be
addition, longitudinal bending stresses and shear
required to be considered when HH/Lh < 0.2 or when
stresses will be produced if the stack shell or liner that
HH <15ft for Exposure D, 30ft for Exposure e, or <60ft
is subjected to nonuniform temperatures along its height
for all other exposures.
is restrained from lateral movements. The thermal Gust Effect Factor. The gust effect factor, stresses should be considered in applicable stack and
G, for main wind force-resisting systems of steel stacks liner designs. Refer to 1975 ASeE Publication, Design
shall be calculated in accordance with the equations and eonstruction of Steel ehimney Liners, for more
shown in Mandatory Appendix I. discussion of thermal effects.
For stacks to be subjected to high-temperature Force Coefficient lnterference Effect. For
(>500F) and/ or fast plant startup or shutdown, such
grouped or clustered stacks having a center-to-center
as cyclic operation of combustion turbine, design and
consid eration should be given to minimize the Y=1
nonuniform thermal differentials that may exist
between shell and stiffeners or other structural
elements. Localized thermal stresses induced in the when
inner plates and stiffeners can be substantial and must !:.:. :::; 60
be considered in the design.
4.3.7 Construction loads. Consideration shall be
given in the design for applied construction loads in and Fy::::; 50 ksi
combination with wind and seismic loads that may rea
sonably be expected to occur during construction.
4.3.8 Other loads. Where applicable, additional and
loading, such as expansion joint thrusts, pressure loads,
y = 21_:_,6_0_0_
impact, transportation, or other loads unique to the spe
cific case, shall be considered in the design.
18,000 +( )'
4.4 Allowable Stresses
The following formulas for determining allowable when
stresses are applicable for circular stacks and liners pro -> 60
vided that eq. (4-6) is satisfied:

t lOFy
D- E
-<- (4-6)

An increase in allowable shell stresses due to wind or Fy:::; 50 ksi

seismic loads shall not be allowed.
All other steel members shall comply with the require
ments of the American Institute of Steel Construction 10Fy _ !._
(AISC) specification for the design, fabrication, and erec E D
tion of structural steel for buildings, AISC Manual of 7.2Fy
Steel Construction, latest edition, with the exception that E
an increase in allowable shell stresses due to wind or
seismic loads shall not be allowed. For stacks and liners
4.4.2 Case 2,longitudinalCompression and Bending
meeting the requirements of eq. (4-6), the following four
Combination. The combined longitudinal compressive
load cases must be satisfied.
and bending stress in cylindrical stacks and liners shall
4.4.1 Case 1, longitudinalCompression. The longi not exceed the allowable stress, sbl
tudinal compressive stress in cylindrical stacks and lin
ers (P1A) shall not exceed the allowable limit, Scl. P MD
-+--:::;sbt (4-10)
A 2Isection
A:::;sc/ (4-7) where Sbz (=Se) is given in eqs. ( 4-8) and ( 4-9) of
para. 4.4.1.
where NOTE: Y= 1 for compression due to bending.
EtY 4.4.3 Case 3,CircumferentialStress. The circumfer
Sc1 = 4D (F.S.) (4-8)
ential stress, fu in the shell dueto external wind pressure,
when q2, between stiffeners spaced at distance, [ 8 , shall be
determined using
t 2.8Fy
D- E
-<- (4-11)

The circumferential stress shall be less than the allowable
(4-9) stress, Sw calculated as
t )1.5
Scc = (F.S.)( )
when Table 4.4.6-1 Factors of Safety
t 2.8Fy
oD -E-, K = 1 Load Combination F.S.

Dead + Live + Other + Thermal + Along or Across Wind 1.50

Dead + Live + Other + Thermal + Seismic 1.50
Dead + Live + Other + Abnormal Thermal + Along Wind/4 1.33
when Construction 1.33

2.8Fy t 10Fy
-E-<D E'
Table 4.4.7-1 Minimum Fabricated Plate
K = 1.68 FEyDt + 0.465 - 0.0232Et Thickness and Maximum Stiffener Spacing

lnside Diameter, Mnimum Fabricated Maximum Stiffener

where O, Plate Thickness, Spacing, ft
ft in. [Note (1)]
qz external wind pressure on stack shell at eleva
tion under consideration, psf o 3.5 0.125 50
3.5 <o 8.5 0.1875 30
C 1.0 8.5<0 18.0 0.1875 20
4.4.4 Case 4, Combined Longitudinal and Circumfer o>in18.0
which 1 is the moment
0.25 of
inertia of the1%0
a band of shell plate. The band of shell plate shall not
ential Compressive Stress. The combined longitudinal
exceed the 8 X t projection beyond the stiffener.
and circumferential compressive stress in cylindrical
stacks and liners may be determined using the following

4.4.5 Circumferential Compression In Stiffeners.

The size of stiffeners shall satisfy the following three
(a) The stiffener and plate section shall have a
moment of inertia equal to or greater than that deter
mined by the following equation:

qlsD3 (F.S.)
ls+P 3456E

q = external wind pressure, qz, or stack draft pres
sure, qp

(b) The stiffener and plate section shall have an area

equal to or greater than that determined by the following


Circumferential compression in the stiffeners shall not


Sces _- [ D2 (-1)(-
El ] As + p F.S .
4.4.7 Minimum Fabricated Plate Thickness and
(1) Or greater if the requirements of paras. 4.3.7 and 4.4.5 are
Maximum Stiffener Spacing. Table 4.4.7-1 shows the
satisfied. minimum plate thickness to be used in the fabrication of
steel stacks and liners and maximum stiffener spacing.
False bottom plates shall be a minimum of in. thick
prior to any corrosion consideration.
(e) The stiffener and plate section shall have a section
modulus equal to or greater than that determined by 4.4.8 Creep Rupture Tensile Stress. For sustained
the following equation: loading and high-temperature service above 750F,
depending on the steel chemistry, the creep-rupture
(4-16) strength of the steel becomes a significant factor in
determining the allowable design tension stress.
(a) Because of their nature, allowable creep stresses
are only used to limit tension stresses or tensile bending
where stresses from loading combinations that will be sus
qz = external wind pressure tained at elevated temperatures. Creep and creep
4.4.6 Factors of Safety. The stack sha.ll be designed
rupture are very dependent on the exact chemistry of
for minimum factor of safety, F.S., for the loading consid the steel. Sorne carbon steels, such as ASTM A 36, are
erations given in Table 4.4.6-1. very susceptible to creep and creep rupture, while others
are almost creep resistant. The exact chemical composi 4.6 StructuralShell Discontinuities
tion of the steel is necessary to quantify its creep and
creep rupture properties. 4.6.1 Discontinuities. Openings in the shell shall
be designed to maintain the mnimum factors of safety
(b) The design creep life should be selected based on
specified for the loading conditions.
the expected service life and conditions. Design for creep
(a) The top and bottom of the breeching opening shall
is typically based on creep and rupture properties corres
be adequately reinforced to transfer the discontinuities
ponding toa creep life of 100,000 hrThis creep design
of shell stress back to the full circumference of the shell.
life is the duration presented in Section II of the ASME
(b) The sides of breeching openings shall actas col
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A shorter or longer
creep design life may be appropriate depending on the umns or tension members to withstand the end reactions
expected service life of the stack. of the assumed horizontal girders above and below the
opening. The strength of aplane cut through the opening
(e) The maximum allowable creep tensile design
stress, as taken from Section I of the ASME Boiler and at any elevation shall be adequate to withstand all
applied loads on the section.
Pressure Vessel Code, Rules for Construction of Power
(e) The breeching opening reinforcement may serve
Boilers, should not exceed the lowest of the following
two values: as a means of connecting the breeching to the liner or
shell. The applicable corrosion allowance shall be
(1) the average stress to produce a creep rate of 1%
applied to the reinforcement if exposed to the flue gas.
within 100,000 hr with a factor of safety of 1
(2) the average stress to cause creep rupture after 4.6.2 Flanged SheU and/or Uner Connections. For
100,000 hr with a factor of safety of 1.5 information on flanged shell and/ or liner connections,
(d) Selected allowable creep tensile design stresses for see CICIND or SMACNA publications in section 10.
various steels used in ductwork and steel stacks are
4.7 Base
presented for reference (see Nonmandatory
Appendix D) from the American Society of Civil The base ring and anchor bolts shall be designed to
Engineers (ASCE) 1995 publication, The Structural transfer the steel stack shear, compression, and tensile
Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and forces to the supporting structure or foundation in accor
Industrial Boiler Applications, Section 3. The values pre dance with proven design methods. No strength increase
sented in this book are intended to be used only as a will be permitted for wind or seismic loads.
reference. Creep rupture allowable tensile design stress 4.8 Anchor Bolts
used in stack design should be obtained from test data
reflecting the precise chemical composition of the steel 4.8.1 Anchor Bolt Tension. Anchor bolts shall be
to be used in the stack fabrication. designed to transfer all tension and shear forces to the
foundation unless other methods are incorporated to
4.5 Deflections accomplish this purpose. The maximum anchor bolt
tension, F b, may be determined from the following rela
4.5.1 lateral Deftedion. The maximum deflection tion for circular sections sufficiently away from
under the static design loading shall be calculated, and discontinuities:
the foundation rotation or movement shall be consid
4Mb p
ered in evaluating deflection. There is no practicallimit Fb = ---
NDbc N
placed on the maximum deflection a stack can experi
ence; however, for large deflections, the resulting sec 4.8.2 Anchor Bolt Material. All anchor bolt material
ondary stresses caused by PLl should be considered. shall conform to section 2.
The calculated maximum deflection shall also be consid
4.8.3 Anchor Bolt loading. Anchor bolt capacities
ered in evaluating the suitability of equipment anchored
for tension and/ or shear shall not exceed those given
to the stack.
for size of bolt and material indicated in AISC, latest
4.5.2 DualWaU or Multiftue Stacks. The forces due edition. No load increase in bolts will be permitted for
to contad between liners and the shell of dual wall or wind or seismic loading.
multiflue steel stacks due to any velocity wind-up to 4.8.4 load Transfers Between Anchor Bolts and
the design velocity shall be considered at all elevations SheU. Transfer of loads between anchor bolts and shell
of the shell and liners. Once the deflected outer shell shall accommodate allloads and eccentricities. An
makes contad to the plumbed liners due to wind load, increase in allowable shell stresses due to wind or seis
both the outer shell and liners deflect together as a com mic loads shall not be allowed.
bined section. The outer stack shall be designed to carry
all the stresses without any help from liners. However, 4.9 Foundation
the liners shall be designed to carry the stresses caused The foundation shall transfer all moment and shear
by lateral deflection. loads (static and dynamic) to the supporting soil or piles.
Table Cable Selection Criteria
Thermal Expansion Construction
Cable Type Lateral Deflection

Structural bridge strand Due to high stiffness, Dueto high stiffness, thermal Requires guy fittings for both
offers good resistance to expansion introduces large ends to be installed in
lateral movement stresses into the cables, shop. Consequently, length
stack, and foundation adjustment in the field is
limited to turnbuckle allow
Wire rope Relatively high flexibility Flexibility is more forgiving for Flexibility allows cable to be
leads to larger thermal expansion, offering supplied longer than
deflection less stress in cables, stack, required and field adjusted
and foundation

Concrete and steel reinforcement design shall comply procedure for pretensioning shall be established by the
with the latest edition of ACI 318 and ACI 301. A quali designer. To avoid stretching of the cables during con
fied geotechnical engineer shall review soil boring and struction, which may alter the design condition, use of
pile capacity test results. The combined dead load of prestretched cable is recommended. In the case of hot
the stack plus the foundation weight times the distance stacks (over 400F), the pretension is usually less so that
from the center of the weight to the toe shall be at least the cable is more forgiving as the stack grows. However,
1.5 times the design moment. the lateral deflection of the stack will increase due to
this reduction in pretension. Consequently, the guyed
4.10 Guyed Stacks
stack must be analyzed in both hot and cold conditions.
In a guyed stack, externally applied loads (wind, seis A turnbuckle or take-up, typically provided at the guy
mic forces, etc.) are carried by the stack shell as well as wire-to-dead-man connection, allows adjustment to the
by guys in tension. The term "guy wire" refers to wire cable to set the pretension. The effect of temperature
rope or structural bridge strand. Sometimes it is also causing differential thermal expansion in stack and guys
referred to as a 11 stay." shall be considered. The effect of ice on guys shall also be
4.10.1 Guy Wire. In design and selection of guy considered. Refer to ASCE 7, Section 10.0 for additional
wires, the factors as stated in paras. through information. The breaking strength (B.S.) of the cables . should be considered. should be based on a minimum factor of safety of 3.
The efficiency of the fittings shall also be considered. Guy Wire Spacing and Position. Guy For detailed information, such as material, size, and
wires are to be equally spaced in plan. . A stack may strength, refer to the cable manufacturer.
be guyed at one or more levels through its height. A
minimum of three cables (at 120 deg from each other Guy Wire lnspection and Maintenance.
around the circurnference) is recommended at each level. The guy wires should be inspected frequently. This may
An angle of 45 deg to 60 deg between the guy and comprise visual inspection of the cable or electromag
horizontal axis of the stack is typical. netic measurement, which estimates the lost metal thick
ness. For inspection frequency, refer topara. 9.4.1. The Guy Wire Anchorage. Guy cables shall be
pretension of the cables should also be periodically
attached to a fixed and stable structure or foundation
checked and verified. It is recommended that the guy
often referred to as a dead man. Each set of guy wire
anchors should be at the same relative elevation above wires be lubricated and tension verified every 5 yr.
ground. 4.10.2 Analysis of Guy Wire Stacks. After height Guy Wire Material. Guy wires shall be and stability considerations, the guy wire levels as well
galvanized or protected from corrosion by other suitable as the number and angle of the guy wires shall be estab
means, such as plastic coating or using stainless steel lished by the designer. Analysis of a multilevel guy wire
cable strands. The fittings required in the assembly of stack is very cornplex due to many variable support
guy wires shall be galvanized. See Table for conditions. Therefore, timesaving computer modeling
cable selection criteria, and refer topara. 2.2.4 for more for structural analysis is essential. In computer model
details. ing, the following parameters must be considered:
(a) nonlinear cable effects Guy Wire Pretensioning/Site Tensioning.
Guyed stacks move laterally dueto wind. With adequate (b) wind/ seismic loads in different directions
initial tension in the guys (pretensioning), this move (e) thermal expansion of the stack
ment is reduced. The pretension force as well as the (d) vortex shedding of guyed stacks
4.10.3 Guy Wire Attachment to Stack. Commercial to wind or seismic reaction at bracing level.
rated capacity of the cable shall be used for design of
guy wire attachment assembly, including the lug. The Stacks Supported by Other Structures.
stack shell shall be reinforced at the attachment level by Stacks may be laterally supported by other structures,
using continuous ring and stiffeners as needed. such as towers and buildings. No credit for shielding
provided by the bracing building shall be considered
4.11 Braced and Tower-Supported Stacks when computing design wind. The bracing assembly
should allow vertical movement due to thermal expan
In addition to freestanding stacks on typical ground
sion. Stacks may also be vertically supported by other
based foundation or guyed stacks, a stack may also be
structures. For proper analysis, structural interaction
supported vertically or laterally at different elevations
between the stack and its supporting structure should
due to structural reasons surrounding physical con
be considered.
straints and even safety reasons. Understanding advan
tages and structural characteristics of stack support Stacks Supported on Top of Other
options are prerequisites for analysis and design of Structures. Sometimes short and light stacks are sup
braced or tower-supported stacks. ported on top of equipment directly below them. In this
4.11.1 Types of Supports. There are two types of case, special attention shall be given to ensure proper
stack supports: vertical and lateral or braced. Vertical base attachment and load transfer to the supporting
supports may be above ground. Examples of this kind equipment. When possible, the designer may consider
of support would be a stack supported on a steel frame placement of an independent structural frame to support
within a structural tower or a stack supported on a the stack and using an expansion joint under the stack
floor or on top of a building. Considerations for stacks to connect the stack to the equipment without any load
supported on other structures are discussed in para. transfer between them. Where feasible, a stack may also Examples of a laterally supported stack would be supported on a building roof or supported on a floor
be a stack braced against a building or by a structural penetrating, and braced at, the roof. In either case, the
tower. A stack may be braced at more than one location. base support condition shall be evaluated.
Design considerations for this type of stack are discussed
4.12 Section 4 Symbols and Deflnitions
in para. It is very important that any catwalk
connecting any building to a stack be of a sliding connec A cross-sectional area of stack plate, in.2
tion type, where it does not permit any horizontal load As+p area of stack stiffener and plate sec
transfer between the stack and connecting structure. tion, in.2
Otherwise, redistribution of forces and stresses shall be Av effective peak velocity-related
considered in modeling and analysis of the stack. Refer acceleration
to para. 4.11.3 for further discussion on analysis. B stack diameter (used only in Mandatory
Appendix I, Gust Factor Calculation), ft
4.11.2 Advantages of VerticaUy Supported and
B.S. breaking strength
Braced Stacks. Stacks supported above ground usually
have the option of receiving exhaust duct attachment b coefficient given in Table I-1 of
from below, as well as from the sides. A braced stack Mandatory Appendix I
will require a smaller foundation as compared with a C force coefficient given in Table I-5 of
free-standing stack with the same height, since sorne of Mandatory Appendix I
the wind load will be transferred to the adjacent bracing e coefficient given in Table I-1 of
structure. Dueto the same load transfer, a braced stack Mandatory Appendix I
also has fewer shell stresses as compared with a free D diameter of stack at elevation under
standing stack, therefore requiring thinner shell or consideration, in.
smaller diameter. For multiplatform and tall stacks, Dbc diameter of anchor bolt circle, in.
sometimes access to the platform can be provided by E modulus of elasticity at mean shell tem
catwalks from the adjacent building rather than a ladder perature, psi
from ground level. In the case of the tower-supported Fb anchor bolt tension force, lbf
stacks, the tower also has the advantage of providing F.S. factor of safety
an easy and safe framework for staircases and test Fy yield strength at mean shell tempera
platforms. ture, psi
fe circumferential stress in the shell due to
4.11.3 Analysis. The stack should be analyzed externa!wind pressure, psi
based on a model considering rigidity of the supporting G gust effect factor
structure and connecting component between the stack HH height of hill or escarpment given in
and supporting structure. Stiffeners are required around Fig. I-2 of Mandatory Appendix I, ft
the perimeter of the stack to resist the local stresses due h height of stack, ft
I importance factor given in Table I-3 of allowable combined longitudinal com
Mandatory Appendix I pressive and bending stress, psi
moment of inertia of stack section, in. 4 allowable circumferential compressive
ls+p stress in shell, psi
moment of inertia of stack stiffener and
plate section,in. 4 allowable circumferential compressive
intensity of turbulence at height :Z stress in stiffeners and band of shell
circumferential stress coeffecient plate, psi
velocity pressure exposure coefficient allowable longitudinal compressive
evaluted at height z stress in shell, psi
topographic factor for along wind pres section modulus of stack stiffener and
sure calculation t plate section, in.3
topographic multipliers given in Fig. I-2 V stack shell or liner wall thickness, in.
of Mandatory Appendix I basic wind speed corresponding to a 3-
two times the overall. stack height for sec gust speed at 33ft above ground in
cantilever stacks or two times cantilever exposure category C, associated with
portion or height for guided stacks for an annual probability of 0.02 of being
stresses in that cantilevered section or equalled or exceeded (50-yr mean recur
the distance between lateral supports, rence interval), mph
for stresses in the section between lat mean hourly wind speed, ft/sec
eral supports, in. coefficient used to calculate longitudi
distance upwind of hill crest or escarp z nal compressive stress
ment inFig.I-2ofMandatory Appendix z elevation under consideration, ft
I to where the difference in ground ele a equivalent height of stack, ft
vation is half the height of hill or escarp coefficients given in Table I-1 of
ment, ft f3 Mandatory Appendix I
integrallength scale of turbulence at the E total damping value
equivalent height, ft coefficients given in Table I-1 of
spacing between circumferential stif Mandatory Appendix I
r w(
feners, determined as the sum of half coefficient used to calculate the reso
of the distance to adjacent stiffeners on nant response factor
z) total along-wind load on stack per unit
either side of the stiffener under consid
eration, in. height, lbf/ ft
w(z) mean along-wind load on stack per unit
M moment in stack at elevation under con
sideration due to wind or earthquake length, lbf 1ft
loads, lbf-in.
Wo(z) fluctuating along-wind load on stack
moment at the base of the stack due to per unit height, lbf/ ft
wind or earthquake loads, lbf-in.

Mo moment at the base of the stack due to 5 DYNAMIC WIND LOADS

w (z) loading, lbf-ft 5.1 Scope
number of anchor bolts
coefficient used to calculate the reso Section 5 considers the dynamic wind load effects on
nant response factor steel stacks. Since steel stacks are lightweight, flexible
first natural frequency of the stack, Hz structures with low inherent structural damping, the
dead load of stack above elevation dynamic effects of wind shall be considered in the
under consideration, lb design.
background response factor 5.2 Dynamic Responses
stack draft pressure, psf
external wind pressure on stack shell at 5.2.1 Dynamic Characteristics. The dynamic charac
elevation under consideration, psf teristics of natural frequencies, corresponding mode
resonant response factor shapes, and damping shall be considered in wind load
resonance response factors used in ing. All modes of vibration that could occur based upon
the wind loads considered in the design shall be
Mandatory Appendix I
value obtained from equation in
Mandatory Appendix I Frequencies. Stack frequencies and corres
r weighted mean radius of gyration for ponding mode shapes are a function of the stack configu
elevation under consideration, in. ration and the vertical and lateral support conditions.
Table Representative Structural Aerodynamic Damping. Aerodynamic
Damping Values (Ps) damping shall also be considered. The aerodynamic
Damping Value damping valuef3a, is calculated as follows:
Support (a) For along wind response
Rigid Support Elastic Support
Type Welded Stack Cp DV 2 (5-1)
[Note (1)] [Note (2)] f3a = -'---
Unlined 0.002 0.004 4'ITmanl
Lined 0.003 0.006 where
[Note (3)]

NOTES: ma = mass per unit length of the top one-third of the

(1) Foundations on bedrock, end-bearing pites, or other rigid stack
base support conditions. (b) For a crosswind motion response, the effects of the
(2) For foundations with friction piles or mat foundations on soil aerodynamic damping are included in the procedures
or other e!astic base support conditions. described in Nonmandatory Appendix E.
(3) Lining must consist of a mnimum 2 in. thick, nominally The total damping shall be as follows:
100 pcf density liner material for stack to be considered
!ined for the use of this table. f3 = f3s + f3a (5-2)

5.2.2 Wind Responses

The frequencies and mode shapes shall be calculated (a) Vortex Shedding. Across wind loads for plumb or
using a suitable mathematical modeling method. nearly plumb (less than 10% diameter variation over Mathematical Modeling. Appropriate the top one-third) stacks, the mean hourly speed at five
detailed calculation methods shall be used for dynamic sixth height above ground, V 2 (ft/sec), shall be used
analysis of more complex configurations. These for evaluating the critical vorteshedding velocity. The
configurations include stacks with variable diameters value of Vzcr shall be calculated as follows:
and thickness, inner liners, stacks with interna!coatings, (5-3)
guyed or laterally supported stacks, derrick-supported
stacks, or stacks with flexible foundations. The finite
element analysis techniques shall be used in these cases.
However, for simple stack configurations, simpler mod The critica!wind speed for vortex shedding (ft/sec) for
els can be used if justification can be provided. any mode of vibration is given by
(a) For steel stacks supported on rock or firm soil
and/ or supported on end-bearing piles, a fixed-base
modeling approach is acceptable. For steel stacks sup
ported on buildings, the interaction effects of the build (1) Vortex shedding loads shall be calculated for
ing shall be included. For steel stacks supported with all modes of vibration where Ve< Vz . The procedure
shallow foundations on soil or friction piles, appropriate in Nonmandatory Appendix E may be used. Fatigue
methods of analysis shall be used to account for interac analysis must be considered. The vortex shedding loads
tion effects. Parametric studies may be necessary to need not be combined with long wind loads.
account for the uncertainty of soil properties. (2) Vortex shedding loads shall be calculated for
Consideration should be given in the design to the all modes of vibration where Vz < Ve < 1.2V2 The pro
corrosion or erosion of the stack or liner, which could cedure in Nonmandatory Appe dix E may b rused. The
affect the frequency. resulting loads may be reduced by the factor

v :r)2. Fatigue analysis need

(b) Damping. Steel stacks have relatively low inherent V z
structural damping. Additional damping may be gained ( not be considered.
from the inclusion of a brick or refractory lining, founda (3) If Ve> 1.2Vzc/ then response vortex shedding
tion system, or aerodynamic methods that disrupt vor can be ignored.
tex formation, although the last may, in fact, reduce the For variable diameter stacks, a range of critical speeds
damping. must be considered. The procedure in Nonmandatory
For wind loads, the structural damping values, {35, Appendix E may be used for variable diameter stacks.
shown in Table have been observed for steel (b) Ovalling. The intermediate application of vortex
stacks. Damping values other than those shown in forces on the stack could cause ovalling resonance. The
Table may be used for support conditions that lined stack is more resistant to ovalling because the lin
have inherently large damping or utilize the damping ing contributes toa high natural frequency and increased
methods of para. 5.3.2, when justified by results of test damping for the elastic ring; therefore, ovalling need
ing or analysis. Consideration should be given to stacks not be considered for lined stacks. The unlined stack
supported on steel frames.
ASME STS-1-2011
possesses very little damping to restrict ovalling and
may experience excessive stresses and deflections at the

critical ovalling wind velocity. For unlined steel stacks, 5.3.1 Aerodynamic Methods. Aerodynamic meth
the ovalling natural frequency is calculated as follows: ods disrupt the formation of vortices on the sides of the
stack and limit the source of vibration.
(5-5) Helical Strakes. A three-start set of
curved-plate helical strakes 120 deg apart on the stack
circumference may be attached to the outer surface of
and the critical wind velocity for ova1ling is the stack with the strake plate approximately perpendic
ular to the stack surface at all points. The pitch of the
helix should be five times the aerodynamic diameter,
and the strake should project one-tenth diameter from
the aerodynamic diameter. Strakes of adequate struc
If the Veo is less than V2, the unlined stack should be tural thickness should be provided on the top one-third
reinforced with ring stiffeners meeting the requirements of the stack height. Each strake is to be aerodynamically
ofTable 4.4.7-1. The required mnimum sectionmodulus continuous except at specific locations where cuts may
of stiffener, Ss (in.3 ) , with respect to the neutral axis of be necessary to clear ring stiffeners or other attachments.
its cross section parallel to the longitudinal axis of the The maximum gap allowed between the stack shell and
stack is helical strake shall be equal to 0.1 x strake width. The
presence of strakes significantly increases the drag
forces, and a drag force coefficient of 1.4 used in conjunc
tion with the outside diameter (including insulation and
where CTa shall be 0.6 Fy . lagging) of the stack is recommended. Segments of flat
In the area where helical strakes are attached to the vertical strakes at helical locations are not acceptable
stack, ring stiffeners may be omitted if it can be proven methods for disrupting vortices.
that the helical strakes provide adequate stiffness. Shrouds. Stability against lateral vibration
(e) Interfe'rence Effects. A stack downwind of another can also be achieved by mounting a perforated cylindri
stack may experience larger vortex shedding loads than cal shroud that covers the upper 30% of the stack length.
an unobstructed stack. When the distance between The gap between shroud and stack should be 6% to 12%
stacks, A, divided by the diameter, D, of the obstructed of the stack diameter, and the perforations should be
stack is less than 15, the Strouhal number, S, shall be circular holes measuring 5% to 7% of the stack diameter
determined from eq. (5-8). The resulting increase in vor on the side and should comprise a mnimum of 30% of .
tex shedding velocity and resulting loads shall be con the shroud surface area. Values stated are minimums
sidered. This increase may result in increasing the critical and may be modified if proven by testing.
velocity beyond the design consideration value of
1.2Vz for wind directions near the line of the stacks. 5.3.2 Damping Methods. The second category con
() For A/D:::; 15 sists of attachments and auxiliary structures that absorb

S = 0.16 + 3 0 ( - 3) (5-8) dynamic energy from the moving stack. Mass Damper. The mass damper repre
(2) For A/D > 15 sents a secondary mass-spring system attached to the
top of the stack. The mass ratio of the secondary system .
S = 0.20 to the equivalent mass of a stack at the attachment loca
tion is normally not more than 5%. This method has
(3) For all stacks that are identical and have center demonstrated the capability to provide a damping value
to-center distances of less than three mean diameters of up to approximately 0.05.
or for stacks that are not identical, interference effects
shall be established by reference to model test or other Preformed Fabric Pads. The control of
studies of similar arrangements. damping in a stack is obtained by installing a preformed
fabric pad at the base of the stack. The placement of the
5.3 Prevention of Excessive Vibrations fabric pads shall be such asto ensure that all stress paths
between the stack and its support are through segments
Many methods have been used to prevent excessive
of the fabric pads. This will require the addition of a
vibrations in stack designs. It is not the purpose of this
preformed fabric pad (washer) and steel backing plate
Standard to determine the exact method to be used in
beneath each anchor bolt nut. This method has been
the design of stacks but rather to indicate sorne methods
demonstrated to provide a damping value up to
that have been successfully used. One or more of the
approximately 0.03.
following methods have been shown to prevent or
diminish resonant vibrations: aerodynamic, damping, Other Devices. Other devices such as
and stiffening methods. hanging chains or impact damping between the lining
and the shell (of dual wall or multiflue stacks) have been f3a aerodynamic damping value
pro en to increase damping in a stack system during f3s structural damping value
vibration. The damping values provided shall be docu 1T pi (3.141593)
mented by design or testing. p density of air, lbm/ ft3
O"a allowable tensile stress in stack stiffener, psi
5.3.3 Stiffness Methods. The response to vortex
shedding can be significantly affected by changing the
critical diameter, stack height, mass distribution, or add 6 ACCESS AND SAFETY
ing lateral supports or guy wires to the stack system.
Changes to these factors can be used to increase the 6.1 Scope
critical velocity beyond 1.2V2 or lower the critical veloc Section 6 applies to the design and construction of
ity to an acceptable level. cr permanently installed equipment commonly used for
accessing steel stacks. Equipment used in the construc
5.4 Sedion 5 Symbols and Definitions tion, inspection, and demolition of steel stacks is not
A horizontal distance between stacks center included.
lines, ft
coefficient given in Table I-1 of Mandatory 6.2 General
Appendix I 6.2.1 Purpose. The access safety option of the
force coefficient given in Table I-5 of Mandatory Standard has the purpose of protecting persons by estab
Appendix I lishing mnimum standards for the design, installation,
D diameter of stack at elevation under consider and maintenance of equipment used to provide access
ation, ft to steel stacks.
I5 mean diameter for the segment z 1 to z2 or for
stacks 10% variation over the top one-third the 6.2.2 Limitations. Access to a steel stack shall be
value of I5 is the average over the top one provided and used only when required for inspection,
third, ft testing, and maintenance. Access shall not be provided
fo ovalling natural frequency of the stack, Hz when prohibited by government regulations,locallaws,
I Importance Factor from Table I-3 or ordinances.
spacing between circumferential stiffeners,
6.2.3 Maintenance of Equipment. All equipment
determined as the sum of half the distance to
used in providing access to steel stacks shall be main
adjacent stiffeners on either side of the stiffener
tained in a serviceable condition at all times. Inspection
under consideration, ft
of ladders, platforms, and other equipment used to
mass per unit length of upper one-third of stack,
access steel stacks shall be made on a regular basis,
preferably once each year.
natural frequency for mode being considered,
Hz 6.2.4 Welding. All welding shall be in accordance
S Strouhal number, usually used as 0.2 for single with the Structural Welding Code, Steel, AWS D1.1 (lat
stacks and may vary due to Reynolds numbers est edition) published by the American Welding Society,
and multiple stacks or Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
mnimum section modulus of stack stiffeners, Code, Welding and Brazing Qualifications.
t stack shell or liner wall thickness, in. 6.2.5 OSHA. Ladders, platforms, and other equip
ment used to access steel stacks must conform to the
V basic wind speed corresponding to a 3-sec gust
OSHA Standard (29 CFR 1910).
speed at 33ft above ground in exposure cate-
gory C, associated with an annual probability 6.2.6 Definitions
of 0.02 of being equalled or exceeded (50-yr
mean recurrence interval), mph
cage (also known as cage guard or basket guard): a barrier
that is an enclosure. mounted on the siderails of the
critica!wind speed for vortex shedding, ft/ sec
fixed ladder or fastened to the structure to endose the
reference design speed, which is V factored by
hourly windfactor JI,
V ft/sec
speed, mph
climbing space of the ladder (see Fig. 6.2.6-1).
climbing protection device: a vertical support system other
mean hourly wind speed at Zm ft/sec
than a cage, used in conjunction with a ladder, which
ovalling critical wind velocity, ft/ sec
will limit a person's fall from a ladder without having
elevation equal to five-sixth stack height, ft
to continuously manipulate the device.
coefficients given in Table I-1 of Mandatory
Appendix I grab bar: an individual handhold placed adjacent to, or
total damping value as an extension above, a ladder for the purpose of pro
viding safe access/ egress for a user of the ladder.
Fig. 6.2.6-1 Example of the GeneralConstruction of Cages

\ ! 2 x -in. horizontal b7nds

\ 1 1 1 .
15-in. min.-'--t---J----.-1 \ 12 x -m.

20-in. max.f- vertical bars

J Ll 1 1 .J. 1

V 1
-+-- 27- n. min.

e 1
cb t?"t?/
- 'l//////



- LJ,r- '--
x xca _ _


6 ;=
.t:' 4-in. fiare

- 1
31-in. min.
31-in. min.
34-in. max. .:::.::: .:::.::: 34-n. max.
r:.o:, r-!-cb

Access Through Access Laterally

Ladder From Ladder

ladder: a device incorporated or employing steps or total vertical distance is determined by including all
rungs on which a person may step ascending or descend spaces between all ladder steps or rungs and all other
ing and siderails or grab bars for holding.
ladder, sde step: a ladder that requires a person acessing
or egressing to or from the ladder to step sideways.
ladder, step through: a ladder that requires a person
accessing or egressing at the top to step between the
ladder support: a device for attaching a ladder toa struc
ture, building, or equipment.
landing or rest platform: a surface that is used when trans
ferring from one section of a ladder to another or for
length of climb: the total vertical distance a person could
climb in traveling between the extreme points of access1
egress for a fixed ladder, whether the ladder is of an
unbroken length or consists of multiple sections. This
vertical intervening spaces between the extreme points
of access/ egress. siderail: the side members of fixed ladder joined at inter
vals by either rungs or steps.
pitch: the included angle between the horizontal and
ladder, which is measured on the opposite (back) side toeboard: a barrier erected along the exposed edge of a
of the ladder from the climbing side (see Fig. 6.2.6-2). platform to prevent objects from falling, which could
create hazards to persons below.
plaiform: a surface that is used for working, standing,
or transferring from one ladder section to another. well: a walled enclosure around a fixed ladder, which
provides the person climbing the ladder with protection
serviceable: capable of performing its intended function similar to a cage.
within its design parameters.
Fig. 6.2.6-2 Minimum ladder Clearances

30-in. min.

24-in. min.

90-deg max. Reduced Clearance
Deflector Plate for
Normal Clearance Head Hazards

6.3 Fixed ladders 6.3.4 Dead loads. The weight of the ladder and
6.3.1 Apptication. This Section applies to new fixed attached appurtenances shall be considered simultane
ladders on new or existing steel stacks. Ladders used ously with the live loads in the design of siderails, sup
for steel stack access must conform to ANSI A14.3 (latest ports, and fastenings.
edition) Safety Code for Fixed Ladders. 6.3.5 Pitch. The pitch of a fixed ladder shall never
6.3.2 Materials of Construction. Refer to section 2 exceed 90 deg nor be less than 75 deg from the hori
of this Standard for materials of construction. z.ont l. The pitch shall not be such that a person's posi
hon 1s below the ladder when climbing. (See definition
6.3.3 live loads of pitch in para. 6.2.6 and Fig. 6.2.6-2.)
(a) Live Loads Imposed by Persons
(1) The mnimum design live load shall be two
6.3.6 Clearances. The distance from the centerline
loads of 250 lb each concentrated between any two con of the rungs to the nearest permanent object on the
secutive ladder supports. Each step or rung in the ladder climbing side of the ladder shall not be less than 36 in.
shall be designed for a single concentrated live load of for a pitch of 75 deg and 30 in. (see Fig. 6.2.6-2).
(a) The distance from the centerline of the rungs to
250-lb mnimum.
(2) The number and position of additional concen
the nearest permanent object on the opposite (back) side
trated live load units of 250 lb each, determined from shall not be less than 7 in. (see Fig. 6.2.6-2).
anticipated usage of the ladder, shall be considered in (b) A clear side-to-side width of at least 15 in. shall

the design. be provided each way from the centerline of the ladder
(b) Other Live Loads. The following live load shall be in the climbing space, except when cages are used (see
considered in the design, where applicable: Fig. 6.3.6-1).
(1) ice on parts of the ladder and appurtenances (e) The distance from the centerline of a grab bar to

(2) maximum anticipated wind or seismic loading

the nearest permanent object in the back of the grab bar
on all parts of the ladder shall not be less than 4 in. The grab bars shall not pro
(3) anticipated impact loads resulting from the use
trude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the
ladder that they serve.
of climbing protection devices
(e) Live Load Coneentraton. Alllive loads shall be con 6.3.7 landing Platforms. When caged ladders are
sidered to be concentrated at a point or points that will used. to a cend to heights exceeding 50 ft (except as
cause the maximum stress in the structural member prov1ded m para. 6.3.10), landing platforms shall be
being considered. spaced at intervals of 50 ft or less. Where installation
ASME STS-1-2011

Fig. 6.3.6-1 Ladder Dimensions, Support Spacing, and Side Clearances

D 0-------- --------

t 12-in. max. centers,

16-in. clear width
between side rails

10-ft, O-in. nominal

max. spacing of

++-"---+i-,. ,'-++- -+-- Min. clearance to

any permanent
obstruction for
ladder without
cage or well

Support Spacing,Ladder Side Clearances

Dimensions, and Side Clearances for Side-Step Ladders

conditions (even for a short, unbroken length) require regular rung beyond or above the 42-in. mnimum men
that adjacent sections be offset, landing platforms shall tioned above. Side-step ladders at the point of access/
be provided at each offset. The total depth of platform egress toa platform shall have a step-across distance of
shall provide a mnimum space of 30 in. from the ladder 15-in. mnimum and 20-in. maximum from the centerline
on the climbing side. The width of the platform shall of the ladder. For side-step landings, the platform shall
not be less than 30 in. The grating and straight require be located at the same level as one of the rungs.
ments for landing platforms shall be the same as work
platforms (see para. 6.4.3). 6.3.9 Safety Cages. Except as provided in para.
6.3.8 Access/Egress. The siderails of step-through 6.3.10, safety cages shall be provided for allladders to
. and side-step fixed ladders shall extend at least 42 in. a maximum unbroken length of 50ft (see para. 6.3.7).
above the roof, parapet, or landing platform, preferably (a) Cages shall extend toa mnimum of 3 in. to 6 in.
being gooseneck, unless other convenient and secure above the top of a landing unless other acceptable pro
handholds (grab bars) are fixed at such places. tection is provided.
(a) For step-through ladders, the rungs shall be omit (b) Cages shall extend clown the ladder to a point not
ted from this extension. For step-through ladders, the less than 7 ft or more than 8 ft above the base of the
step-across distance from the centerline of the rung to ladder with the bottom flared Ii.ot less than 4 in., or the
the nearest edge of the structure, building, or equipment portion of the cage opposite the ladder shall be carried
shall not be less than 7 in. or more than 12 in. If the to the base.
normal step-across distance exceeds 12 in., a landing (e) Cages shall not extend less than 27 in. or more
platform shall be provided to reduce the distance to than 30 in. from the centerline of the rungs of the ladder.
between 7 in. and 12 in. For these step-through ladders, Cages shall not be less than 27 in. in width. The inside
the same rung spacing used on the ladder shall be used shall be clear of projections. Vertical bars shall be located
from the landing platform to the first rung below the at maximum spacing of 40 deg around the circumference
landing (see Fig. 6.3.8-1). of the cage. This will give a maximum spacing of approx
(b) For side-step or offset fixed ladder sections at land imately 9in. center-to-center of the vertical bars. There
ings, the siderails and rungs shall be carried to the next shall be seven vertical bars located inside the hoops.

Fig. 6.3.8-1 landing Platform Dimensions

24-in. min., 30-in. max.1

except 3-ft, O-in. max.
] where LSD is used Grind smooth

3-ft, 6-in.
Top of rung flush
with top of floor
or platform Floor or
platform line

16-in. clear Anchor straps

Steps or rungs ---J

12-in. OC max.

7-in. min.

Floor or
platform line

Elevation SideView

(d) Hoop bars shall bein. x 2 in. steel mnimum

6.3.12 Siderails. The siderails shall be of flat bar
with a maximum spacing of 4 ft on centers. stock and not be less than 2Yz in. to% in. If siderails of
other cross sections are desired, they shall be at least
(e) Vertical bars shall be sized 6 in. to 1 Yz
in. mni
equal in strength to the above-sized steel bar.
mum. Vertical bars shall be welded or bolted together
(a) Rails shall be spaced a mnimum of 16 in. (inside)
and to the hoops with bolt heads countersunk on the
inside. anda maximum of 24 in. (inside) apart.
(j) Where a caged ladder is so located that it could (b) All splices shall provide smooth transitions with
be ascended on the uncased side, a sheet steel baffle the main siderails so asto afford mnimum interference
shall be erected extending from the ground or floor level with the gripping surface for the hands of the person
toa height of at least 8 ft to prevent access to the uncased using the ladder. Sharp or extensive projections shall
side of the ladder. not be permitted.
(g) Climbing protection devices may be used in com (e) Provisions for expansion dueto thermal changes
bination with cages if additional protection is desired. shall be made at the siderail splices, if these provisions
are required to prevent buckling or the buildup of
6.3.10 Climbing Protection Devices. Climbing pro stresses in the siderails.
tection devices may be used on ladders in lieu of cage
(d) For ladders subject to unusually corrosive atmo
protection. Landing platforms shall be provided at a
maximum of 150-ft intervals in these cases. Climbing spheric conditions, corrosion-resistant steel of increased
protection devices that incorporate friction brakes and thickness should be used. The extent of increased thick
sliding attachments shall meet the requirements of ness should be determined from experience with
ANSI A14.3. Special consideration shall be given to corrosion.
increased possibility of corrosion at the top of stacks (e) Bolt heads shall be countersunk or the button type.
resulting from the action of stack gases. The heads shall be on the inside of the siderails. Bolts
shall not be less than o/s in. in diameter.
6.3.11 Short ladders. All stack ladders over 10 ft
(j) With the bolted siderail joints, a mnimum of two
in height shall be caged or have a safety device, unless
bolts shall be provided on each side.
the ladder extends less than 15 ft above ground.
(g) Welded siderail splices shall be full penetration 6.4.5 Toe Boards. Toe boards shall be at least 4-in.
butt welds between the rungs and staggered at least nominal vertical height from the top edge to the level
12 in. of the platform. They shall be securely fastened in place
6.3.13 Rungs. Rungs shall not be less than% in. in with not more than -in. clearance above the platform.
diameter. For ladders exposed to unusually corrosive They should be made of steel.
atmospheres, rungs shall be of at least 1-in. solid bars. 6.4.6 Access
Spacing of rungs shall not exceed 12 in. center-to-center (a) Access openings to work platforms shall be
and shall be spaced uniformly throughout the length of guarded.
the ladder. Rungs shall be inserted through holes in the (b) Where access to work platforms is through the
siderails and shall be welded completely around the floor, trap doors shall be provided. Access doors shall
circumference of the rung to the outside of the siderails. remain closed except when persons are accessing or
6.3.14 ladder Support. Ladder supports shall be leaving the platform. Access doors and hatches should
of steel at least equivalent to the siderails in strength. be designed as self closing.
Ladder supports may be bolted or welded to the siderails (e) Where access to work platforms is by way of side
but must be welded to the stack shell. Ladder supports step ladders, the opening shall be guarded by self
shall not be more than 10ft apart. Anchorage of ladders closing gates.
must account for the thermal growth of the stack. 6.5 Scaffolding and Hoists Used for Construction of
6.4 Work Platforms SteelStacks

6.4.1 Where Required. Work platforms shall be pro 6.5.1 General. Scaffolding shall meet the applicable
vided wherever duties require an employee to work at requirements of the current revision of ANSI A10.8,
elevations above grade or building floors adjacent to Safety Requirements for Scaffolding.
the stack. 6.5.2 lifelines. Lifelines and body belts, or har
6.4.2 Strength Requirements. Work platforms shall nesses and their anchorages, shall be used as specified
be designed to support the expected loads, including the in the current revision of ANSI A10.14, Requirements for
possible attachment of gin poles, davits, and suspended Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards, Lifelines, and Drop
inspection and maintenance scaffolding. Lines for Construction and Industrial Use.
6.5.3 Anchorage Points. When scaffolds and hoists
6.4.3 Surfaces. The flooring should be of the grat
are to be used to provide access to steel stacks, appro
ing type. The space in the grating bars should be such
that any one opening is not greater than will permita priate anchorage points shall be provided. Attachments
ball1in. in diameter to pass through. The grating should for suspending scaffolds, hoists, and lifelines shall not
be of sufficient strength to withstand a live floor loading be bolted or riveted through the stack plate (see
para. 6.3.14).
of 100 lb1ft2 over the entire platform area. The mnimum
size of the platform should be the same as the size for 6.5.4 PersonnelHoists. Personnel hoists shall meet
landing platforms, as indicated in para. 6.3.7. the requirements of the current revision of ANSI A10.4,
Safety Requirements of Personnel Hoists.
6.4.4 Railings. Railings shall be used on all work
platforms and shall be of steel construction (see para. 6.5.5 Painter's TroUeys. Painter's trolleys should
6.3.2). A standard railing shall consist of top ral, inter not be used for hoisting, lowering, or supporting person
mediate ral, and posts and shall have a vertical height nel. Painter's trolleys should be used for hoisting
of 42 in. nominal from upper surface of top ral through materials only.
out the length of the railing. The intermediate railing
shall be approximately halfway between the top ral and 6.6 ThermalProtection
platform. The spacing of the horizontal rails shall be 6.6.1 Hot Surfaces. Surface of steel stacks (when
such that a 21-in. diameter ball will not pass between exposed to personnel) shall be limited toa maximum
the rails. The ends of the ral shall not ov rhang the temperature of 140F.
terminal posts, except where such an overhang does not
constitute a projection hazard. 6.6.2 Where to Protect. Areas that should be pro-
(a) The railings shall be of pipe or tubing with mni
tected are as follows:
(a) 2ft width-fulllength of ladders
mum 1 -in. outside diameter or other cross sections of
equivalent strength with the vertical posts spaced not (b) platform grating to 8ft above grating

more than 6 ft on centers. (e) stack base to 8 ft above base, if hot

(b) The top and intermediate railings shall be capable 6.6.3 How to Protect. Protection may be provided
of withstanding a force of 200 lb in any direction and by insulation and cladding and/ or stand-off mesh. Mesh
at any location on the railing. shall be no larger than 2 in. x 2 in.
6.6.4 Materials. Materials used for anchorage, clad heights below 500 ft. The light system intensity must be
ding, and mesh shall be corrosion resistant and designed controlled. The FAA current Advisory Circular
to resist wind pressures. AC 70/7460 sets the number and locations. On small
diameter stacks, the FAA frequently will allow only two
lights, since their light rays are omnidirectional.
(d) High Intensity White Obstruction Lights. IfFAA uni
7.1 Scope directional high intensity white obstruction lights are
Provisions of section 7 shall apply to permanent elec required, they should be mounted on the stack at partic
trical items as related to the stack. They shall not apply ular elevations and specific positions around the circum
to items used during construction or demolition of steel ference as required by the FAA current Advisory
stacks. Circular AC 70/7460. This type of system is used with
a light sensitive control device, which faces the north
7.2 General sky to control intensity.
(e) Dual Lighting With Red/Medum Intensity White
7.2.1 Purpose. The purpose of this section is to Obstruction Lights. This lighting system is a combination
identify the electrical items commonly used with stacks of the red-and-white lighting systems defined in
and establish a standard as it relates to such items. paras. 7.3.2(b) and (e). A duallighting system is most
commonly used in populated areas where the use of
7.3 Aviation Obstruction light System
less conspicuous red lights at night is preferred. Utilizing
7.3.1 FAA Requirements. It is recommended, imme white lights during daylight hours negates the need to
diately following the determination of the location and paint the stack with obstruction markings.
height of the proposed stack, that the Federal Aviation
7.3.3 System Access Location. Access to lights for
Administration (FAA) be contacted to determine the
maintenance may be by ladders and platform or by a
FAA's specific requirements for lighting and marking.
lowering device that brings the light fixture toan accessi
Aviation warning lighting will be required for stack
ble location. Because of stack gas downwash, the loca
heights 200 ft and higher and sometimes for shorter
tion of the access and lights should be as low as the
stacks, when the stack is near an airport, heliport, or
FAA allows.
Sometimes, however, modifications to the marking/
7.4 lightning Protection
lighting rules are logical and can be acceptable to the
FAA. This is generally true in the case of cluster stacks, The lightning protection requirement for metal stacks
stacks in line, stacks in a large industrial complex where as covered in the ANSI/NFPA 78, Lightning Protection
other tall structures or other stacks are present, etc. The Code requires two ground terminals located on oq osite
FAA will investigate and rule on the most appropriate sides of a stack having a metal thickness of /]_ 6 in.
marking and/ or lighting for each such case u pon (4.8 mm) or greater. No air terminals or down conductors
request. are required. On guyed stacks, metal guy wires are to
be grounded at their lower ends if anchored in concrete
7.3.2 System Components. When required, an or to a masonry building or other nonconductive
obstruction-marking light system shall conform to the support.
requirements of the FAA current Advisory Circular
AC 70/7460. A light system may consist of the following: 7.5 Convenience Lighting
(a) Flood Lghts. Flood lights located at or near the
Convenience or area lighting on test platforms, moni
base of the stack are considered nonstandard but may
tor platforms, access systems, annular space, etc. may
be utilized on short stacks with FAA approval.
be considered and specified as applicable.
(b) Aviation Red Obstruction Lights. Aviation red
obstruction lights mounted on the stack at required ele 7.6 Convenience Power Outlets
vations and specific positions around the circumference
should be as required by the FAA Advisory Circular Convenience power outlets are generally useful dur
AC 70/7460. All red obstruction lighting should be ing stack testing and maintenance of monitoring
exhibited from sunset to sunrise. When the red light equipment.
system is used, it usually is necessary to paint the stack
with an aviation orange-and-white color pattern for day 7.7 lnstrumentation: Sampling
time obstruction marking. Instrumentation for monitoring or sampling of stack
(e) Medium Intensity White Obstructon Lights. Omni emissions, based on current Federal EPA regulations,
directional medium intensity obstruction lights are rec CFR Part 60, shall be mounted on the external surface
ommended for most steel stacks, since the high intensity of the steel stack protected from excessive heat and
lights are not normally recommended on structures with providing for thermal and other stack movement.
8 FABRICATION ANO ERECTION of the specific job, and the standards of acceptance shall
be according to ASME or AWS Codes.
8.1 Purpose
(a) Radiographie Inspeetion. This procedure can be per
Section 8 is designed to establish a good level of fabri formed in the shop on full penetration butt welds.
cation and erection quality to create a high degree of (b) Visual Inspection. This procedure is to be per
public safety and confidence in these structures. It estab formed on all shop and field welds.
lishes the welding requirements for the fabrication and (e) Magnetie Particle Inspeetion. This procedure can be
erection of welded steel stacks. used on all ferromagnetic material welds.
(d) Ultrasonie Inspeetion. This procedure can be used
8.2 Scope
on all shop butt welds 6 in.
This section covers the recommended guidelines (e) Dye Penetrant Inspeetion. This procedure shall be
applying to the fabrication and erection of steel stacks. used as required to supplement the visual inspection.
It includes, but is not limited to, single-wall, dual-wall, The standard metho.ds set forth in ANSI/ AWS D1.1 (lat
and multiflue steel stacks and applies to stacks that are est edition) shall be used for dye penetrant inspection,
free standing, self supported, guy or cable supported, and the standard acceptance shall be according to ASME
or supported by structural steel braces or framework. or AWS Codes.
These guidelines also pertain to shop or field fabrication
and to field erection. 8.5 Tolerances
Unless otherwise specified, the following shall be used
8.3 Welding as acceptable tolerances:
The American Welding Society Structural Welding (a) Misalignment between plates at any buttjoint shall
Code ANSI/ AWS D1.1 (latest edition) or ASME BPVC, not exceed the following limits:
Section IX shall be used for all welding provisions, work Plate Thickness, in. Maximum Offset
manship, techniques, welder and inspector qualifica
Up to% (t)
tions, and inspections. All structural butt welds shall be [Note (1)]
full penetration welds. % to 1 6in.

8.4 Welding lnspection and Nondestructive Testing
(1) t = normal thickness of the thinner plate at the joint in inches.
Welding inspection shall be performed to the extent
(b) Peaking is a localized deviation of stack cylindrical
specified with mnimum requirements as follows:
section contour from a true circle at junctions. Peaking
8.4.1 Minimum Weld lnspection of joints and seams shall not exceed -in. (6-mm) maxi
Visual inspections shall be made for all welds dur
. (a) mum as measured from an 18-in. (450-mm) -long tem
ing the welding operation and again after the work plate centered at the weld and cut to the prescribed
is completed to determine that thorough fusion exists radius.
between adjacent layers of weld metal and between the . (e) At the time of erection, the stack shall be true and
weld and . base metals. After the welding is completed, plumb to within 2 in. (50 mm) in 100 ft (30 m).
slag shall . be removed from all welds. The weld and (d) The difference between the maximum and mni
adjacent weld metal shall be cleaned by brushing or mum inside diameters at any cylindrical shell cross sec
other suitable means. The inspector shall pay particular tion along the height shall not exceed 1% of the diameter.
attention to surface 'cracking, surface porosity, surface (e) Local dents in plates shall be no deeper than one
slag inclusion, undercut, overlap, gas pockets, and size half the plate thickness.
of welds. Defective welding shall be corrected according
to ASME or AWS Code requirements. 8.6 Shop Fabrication and Field Erection
(b) A mnimum of one radiograph per each three shop 8.6.1 During the assembly of bolted connections
circumferential seams on the stack structural shell shall (a) drifting, if required, shall not enlarge the holes or
be made, preferably at the vertical weld intersection. . distort the members. Holes that must be enlarged shall
The inner or outer shell shall be considered structural be reamed.
when it is designed to resist the controlling wind or (b) bolts shall be tightened using one of the following:
seismic load. (1) turn-of-the-nut method
(e) All structural full penetration field welds should (2) load-indicating washers
be visually inspected. Radiographs of shell or flue field (3) calibrated wrenches
splice welds are not usually feasible due to the design (4) other approved method
of the field splices.
8.6.2 Any required straightening of material shall
8.4.2 Types of Welding lnspection. The procedure be done by procedures that will result in the mnimum
and technique shall be in accordance with specifications residual stress to the steel.
8.6.3 Anchor bolt straightening or bending by 8.8 Handling and Storage
heating is prohibited.
8.8.1 Handling during unloading, erecting, or
8.6.4 All vertical shop and field plate or panel butt moving any section using a crane, lift, hoist, or man
weld seams are to be staggered a mnimum of 20 deg. All power should be safely planned.
welded cylindrical sections joined to other cylindrical
sections by circumferential welds shall have their verti 8.8.2 Protective shipping coverings, if provided,
cal seams staggered from each other a minim um of shall remain on their respective stack section areas or
20 deg. locations as long as possible. Components to be set down
prior to erection shall be kept off the ground and prop
8.6.5 Dimensions and weights of stack sections erly positioned and braced to prevent damage.
shall be accurately calculated and compared with crane
8.8.3 All erection aids such as slings, hooks, chok
capabilities at the working radii of cranes to be used
ers, beams, lifting lugs, etc. shall be of adequate strength
during erection. Crane capacities and working radii shall
to handle all sections and parts in a safe manner.
not be exceeded.
8.8.4 The followng storage conditions shall be
8.6.6 Lifting clips, lugs, dogs, brackets, and other met:
items welded to the stack sections, or other parts of
(a) All parts shall be stored in a manner to preclude
the permanent structure and used for erection or fit-up
being kinked, dented, bent, misshapen, or otherwise
purposes, if not left in place, shall be removed without
damaging the base material. Any portion of the weld
(b) All parts shall be stored above ground and so
remaining on the internal surface of the stack subjected
positioned asto minimize water-holding pockets, soil
to flue gas shall be made flush and ground smooth. If
ing, contamination, or deterioration of the coating or
backing is used for welding purposes, they need not be
(e) Items that could deteriorate or become damaged
8.6.7 Erection and scaffolding, ladders, etc. shall be due to the influence of the elements shall be properly
in accordance with the latest applicable and/ or specified protected.

8.6.8 Anchor bolts should be retightened 30 days 9 INSPECTION ANO MAINTENANCE

after stack erection. 9.1 Purpose

8.7 Grouting The purpose of this section is to identify problems

that occur during the service life of steel stacks and to
Grouting of the stack base ring is recommended when outline the measures for counteracting such problems
the stack is supported by a concrete foundation or ele through regular inspections and maintenance.
vated concrete pad. For a database systematic inspection procedure and
technique, the reader is referred to ASCE "Chimney and
8.7.1 After the stack is completely erected plumb
Stack Inspection Guidelines/' Section 10.
and the anchor bolts have been torqued, the space
between the bottom of the base plate and top of the 9.2 Scope
foundation shall be grouted. The grout shall be a non
shrink type and shall harden free of bleeding or drying The inspection and maintenance provisions of this
shrinkage when mixed and placed at any consistency section apply to the stack shell, flue liners, and
(fluid, flowable, plastic, or damp-pack). Steel shims used appurtenances.
for plumbing the stack during erection may be best left
in place. 9.3 Common Problems
(a) atmospheric corrosion and weatherng on exterior
8.7.2 Surface areas to be grouted shall be free of surface
all foreign matter and thoroughly wetted down prior to (b) corrosion due to acid condensation in flue gases
grouting. on internal surfaces
8.7.3 The temperatures of the grout, base plate, (e) fly ash or partculate collection at the base, false

and foundation during grouting shall be in accordance bottom, or roof cap of the stack
with the grout manufacturer's recommendations. (d) moisture condensate at the base of the stack
(e) acid/moisture infiltration of insulation
8.7.4 If anchor bolts are set in open sleeves, care (j) deformation due to thermal or other loading
must be taken to ensure complete filling with grout of (g) corrosion of anchor bolts
sleeve cavity. (h) fatigue cracks
(i) loss or d.eterioration of insulation, coating, or stack, one shell thickness reading for each portian of
linings the stack height equal to the stack diameter is recom
(j) loosening of anchor bolts mended. A record of the results shall be maintained for
monitoring corrosion of the steel.
9.4 lnspection (2) Lining. This component of the stack is the most
For early detection of the commonly occurring prob critical in terms of wear, cracks, spells, and other defi
lems, it is recornmended that the stack be inspected ciencies. Such deficiencies are often hidden by overlay
periodically to enable the user of the stack to take appro ing particulate deposits, and, therefore, proper care shall
priate rneasures to counteract such problems. be exercised to detect deficiencies. It is recommended
that pH readings be taken throughout. pH readings may
9.4.1 Frequency of lnspection. The frequency of be taken using litmus paper or reagent(s) or by chemical
inspections should be based upon climate, construction analysis of representative samples of scrapings from lin-
matedals, type of construction, and the nature of use ing surfaces.
(e.g., fuel type, operating temperature, and operating
(3) Partieulate Aeeumulation. Accumulation of par
schedule). This rnay be specified by the stack manufac
ticulates such as combustion residue, fly ash, etc. on the
turer; however, in the absence of such inforrnation, it is stack wall and at the base of the stack provides a matrix
recomrnended that the stacks be inspected annually for for acid condensate.
the first 3 yr. The results of these inspections should
(e) General Items. Deformation of any component of
then determine the frequency of future inspections.
the stack due to thermal or other loading shall be noted
9.4.2 ltems of lnspection to include stack cap, expansion joints, and test and
(a) Exterior Inspeetion instrument ports.
(1) Shell Thickness. Ultrasonic devices for nonde 9.4.3 lnspection Procedure
structive thickness testing or core samples and drill tests (a) For thorough inspections, the stack shall be rigged
for destructive testing may be used to measure the shell with equipment allowing the inspector to traverse the
thickness. Depending upon the condition of the stack, entire height on the interior and exterior of the chimney.
one shell thickness reading for each portion of the stack All rigging and scaffolding shall be in compliance with
height equal to the stack diameter is recommended. A OSHA regulations.
record of the re.sults shall be maintained for rnonitoring (b) The full height of the stack shall be traversed,
corrosion of the steel shell. photographing general interior conditions at regular
(2) Finish. Damage, wear, and discontinuity in the intervals with specific attention to defective areas.
exterior finish shall be inspected, and all deficiencies (1) It is recommended that color photographs be
should be recorded. taken for use in the report. Instant photographs may be
(3) Aeeess System. All ladders, ladder anchors, taken as backups. .
cages, safety climb devices, platforms, painter's trolleys, (2) Defective areas that may be found shall be
and trolley rails shall be inspected to ensure their integ charted and noted.
rity and safety. (e) The integrity of the lining shall be judged on a
( 4) Lightning Proteetion System. All components of visual basis, supplemented by routine probing to deter
the lightning protection system, including the ground mine hardness, soundness, and/ or general conditions.
ing connection, shall be inspected for electrical (d) Unlined steel stacks shall receive either nonde
. continuity. structive thickness testing using an acceptable ultrasonic
(5) Support System. Any brace, guy wire anchors, device or destructive thickness testing using drilling or
guy cables, guy fittings, and other similar items shall core sampling.
be checked. All deficiencies shall be noted and analyzed. (e) The exterior inspection shall also include a thor
(6) Anchor bolts shall be inspected. ough examination of all appurtenance items, such as
(7) Eleetrieal System. The presence of any moisture anchor bolts, cleanout door, ladder, caps, lightning pro
condensation on the inside of the conduit and fittings tection system, and any other hardware items.
shall be noted. Corrosion of fittings and conduits shall 9.4.4 lnspection Report. The scope of inspection
also be noted. Burned-out lamps must be replaced. work shall be specified by the stack owner. In the absence
(8) Insulation. Soaking of insulation due to infiltra of such specifications, it is recommended that the stack
tion of acid in insulated stacks is possible. Wet and acid inspection report have the following items:
saturated insulation rapidly accelerates corrosion of the (a) identification and brief description of the stack.
shell, leading to major structural damage. (b) description of the inspection procedures.
(b) Interior Inspeetion (e) color photographs showing typical conditions as
(1) Shell Thickness. Ultrasonic devices for nonde well as problem areas. Each photograph must be identi
structive thickness testing may be used to measure the fied as to the location of the photograph as well as the
shell thickness. Depending upon the condition of the description of what is shown in the photograph.
(d) drawings and/ or location charts defining shell ASME Technical Paper, 65WA/FU5
thickness, pH readings, and deficiencies. Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical
(e) analysis of deficiencies and problems noted during Engineers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York,
the inspection. NY 10016-5990; Order Department: 22 Law Drive, P.O.
(j) maintenance and/ or repair recommendations. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007-2900 (www.asme.org)
9.5 Maintenance Coatings and Linings Handbook
Publisher: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
9.5.1 Exterior Surface. All wear, corrosion, and
(NACE International), 1440 South Creek Drive,
other deficiencies in the exterior surfaces shall be
Houston, TX 77084-4906 (www.nace.org)
repaired as required.
Chimney Coatings Manual, 1995
9.5.2 Interior Surface. Periodic removal of particle
Model Code For Steel Chimneys, 1988
deposits on the interior surfaces using high-pressure
wash or other effective and practica!methods is recom Publisher: International Committee on Industrial
mended, and other deficiencies in the lining should be Chimneys (CICIND), Preussenstrasse 11, D-40883
repaired. Ratingen, Germany (www.cicind.org)
Code of Federal Regulations
9.5.3 Anchor Bolts. Areas around the anchor bolts
shall be kept clean and free of particle deposits and Publisher:Occupational Safety & Health Administration
moisture. Periodic retightening of anchor bolts is (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution
recommended. Avenue, Washington, DC 20210 (www.osha.gov)

9.5.4 Drains. All drains and false bottom floors shall Design and Evaluation Guidelines For Department of
be kept clean through periodic maintenance. Energy Facilities Subjected to Natural Phenomena
Hazards, UCRL-15910, 1990
9.5.5 Appurtenance. All appurtenances shall be Publisher: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safety
repaired as necessary for safety and intended use. Appraisals, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20585 (www.doe.gov)
1O REFERENCES Entrainment in Wet Stacks, CS-2520, 1982
The following is a list of publications referenced in this Publisher: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420
Standard. Unless otherwise specified, the latest edition Hillview Avenue, P.O. Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94304
shall apply. (www.epri.com)

ACI 307, Standard Practice for the Design and FAA Advisory Circular, Obstruction Marking and
Construction of Cast-In-Place Reinforced Concrete Lighting, AC 70/7460-1H
Chimneys Publisher: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New
Publisher: American Concrete Institute (ACI), 38800 Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590
Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331
(www.concrete.org) Formulas for Stress and Strain, 1965, 5th ed.
Mechanical Vibrations, 1948, 3rd ed.
ANSI/NFPA 78, Lightning Protection Code
Structural Engineering Handbook
Publisher: American National Standards Institute Wind Effects on Structures, 1978
(ANSI), 25 West 43rd Street, New York, NY 10036
Publisher: McGraw Hill Co., P.O. Box 182604, Columbus,
OH 43272 (www.mcgrawhill.com)
ASCE 7-98, Mnimum Design Loads for Buildings and Good Painting Practice, Steel Structures Painting
Other Structures, 1998 Manual, Vol. 1
ASCE Chimney and Stack Inspection Guidelines: Design Systems and Specifications, Steel Structures Painting
and Construction of Steel Chimney Liners, 1975 Manual, Vol. 2
The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts, 1995
Publisher: Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC), 40
Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 24th Street, 6th Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15222
1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Restan, VA 20191 (www.sspc.org)
Guide For Steel Stack and Duct Design Construction
ASHRAE Handbook, latest edition Publisher: Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Publisher: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating Contractors' National Association (SMACNA), 4201
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), 1791 Lafayette Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151
Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (www.ashrae.org) (www.smacna.org)
National Building Code P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
Publisher: Building Officials and Code Administrators (www.astm.org)
(BOCA), 4051W. Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills,
Stack Height Regulation, 40 CRF Part 51, 1983
IL 60478 (www.iccsafe.org)
Publisher: Federal Register, Environmental Protection
National Building Code Of Canada Agency (EPA), Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania
Publisher: National Research Council of Canada Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20004 (www.epa.gov)
(NRCC), 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-58, Ottawa,
ON, KlA OR6 Canada (www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca) Steam
Publisher: The Babcock & Wilcox Co., 20 S. Van
NEC 96, National Electrical Code Buren Avenue, Barberton, OH 44203-0351
Publisher: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), (www.babcock.com)
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169
(www.nfpa.org) UL 96A, UL Standard for Safety Installation Require
ments for Lightning Protection Systems
Permanence of Organic Coatings (STP-1) Publisher: Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL), 333
Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
(ASTM International), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, (www.ul.com)
Gust Effect Factor Calculation

The gust effect factor is given by The factors gQ and gv may be taken equal to 3.4. Vis
the 3-sec gust speed in exposure e at the reference height
(obtained from Figs. I-1 and I-1a through I-1c).
- (1 + 1.71:: JgQ2 Q 2 + gR2 R2)
G - 0.925 ?I-
1 + 1 z gv

where R, the resonant response factor, is given by

R= where
e given in Table I-1
----=---- Iz the intensity of turbulence at height z
Rn = (1 + 10.3Nd)l3 Q the background response
z the equivalent height of the structure (0.6h but
n1L:: not less than Zmin) listed for each exposure in
Nl =-=
Table I-1

R =- - 1
(1 - e-2r) for r > O
Q is given by
r 2 7]2

1 for r =O 1
(l = h, B, d) 1 + 0.63 (B Zz hr63
R1 = Rh setting, r = 4.6n1h/V:z
= RB setting, r = 4.6n 1B/V:z where
= Rd setting, r = 15.4n1d/V:z B stack diameter
f3 = damping ratio _ h stack height
L:z the integral length scale of turbulence at the
- - ( z)a (22)
V-;z = b 33 V 15 equivalent height

where banda are listed in Table I-1.

Lz = l(z/33)

in which l and - are as listed in Table I-1.

ASME STS-1-2011

Fig. l-1 Basic Wind Speed


-148 -142

Fig. 1-1 Basic Wind Speed (Cont'd)


Special Wind Region

location Vmph (m/s)

Hawaii 105 (47)
Puerto Rico 145 (65)
Guam 170 (76)
Virgin lslands 145 (65)
American Samoa 125 (56)

(a) Values are nominal design 3-sec gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) above ground for Exposure C category.
(b) Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.
(e) lslands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.
(d) Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.
Fig.1-la Basic Wind Speed - Western Gulf of Mexico Hurricane Coastline

Special Wind Region

100 (45) 130 (58)

110 (49) 120 (54)

(a) Values are nominal design 3-sec gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) above ground for Exposure C category.
(b) Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. '
(e) lslands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.
(d) Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.
Fig. 1-lb Basic Wind Speed- Eastern Gulf of Mexico and Southeastem U.S. Hurricane Coastline

140 (63)

Special Wind Region

90 (40)

100 (45)

110 (49)
120 (54)
130 (58)

(a) Values are nominal design 3-sec gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) above ground for Exposure C category.
(b) Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.
(e) lslands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.
(d) Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.
Fig. l-1c Basic Wind Speed - Mid and Northern Atlantic Hurricane Coastline

100 (45)

Special Wind Region

(a) Values are nominal design 3-sec gust wind speeds in miles per hour (m/s) at 33 ft (10 m) above ground for Exposure C category.
(b) Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.
(e) lslands and coastaal reas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.
(d) Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.
Fig. 1-2 Topographic Factor, zt


Escarpment 2-D Ridge or 3-D Axisymmetrical Hill

Topographic Multipliers for Exposure C [Note (1)]

K1 Multiplier [Note (2)] K2 Multiplier [Note (2)] K3 Multiplier [Note (2}]

H/Lh 2-0 2-0 3-0 x/Lh 2-0 All z/Lh 2-0 2-0 3-D
[Note (3)] Ridge Escarp. Axisym. Hill [Note (3)] Escarp. Other Cases [Note (3)] Ridge Escarp. Axisym. Hill

0.20 0.29 0.17 0.21 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.25 0.36 0.21 0.26 0.50 0.88 0.67 0.10 0.74 0.78 0.67
0.30 0.43 0.26 0.32 1.00 0.75 0.33 0.20 0.55 0.61 0.45
0.35 0.51 0.30 0.37 1.50 0.63 0.00 0.30 0.41 0.47 0.30
0.40 0.58 0.34 0.42 2.00 0.50 0.00 0.40 0.30 0.37 0.20
0.45 0.65 0.38 0.47 2.50 0.38 0.00 0.50 0.22 0.29 0.14
0.50 0.72 0.43 0.53 3.00 0.25 0.00 0.60 0.17 0.22 0.09
3.50 0.13 0.00 0.70 0.12 0.17 0.06
4.00 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.09 0.14 0.04
0.90 0.07 0.11 0.03
1.00 0.05 0.08 0.02
1.50 0.01 0.02 0.00
2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

H height of hill or escarpment relative to the upwind terrain, ft (m)
K1 factor to account for shape of topographic feature and maximum speed-up effect
K2 factor to account for reduction in speed-up with distance upwind or downwind of crest
K3 factor to account for reduction in speed-up with height above local terrain
Lh distance upwind of crest to where the difference in ground elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment, ft (m)
x distance (upwind or downwind) from the crest to the building site, ft (m)
z height above local ground leve!, ft (m)
fJ. horizontal attenuation factor
y height attenuation factor
(1) Multipliers are based on the assumption that wind approaches the hill or escarpment along the direction of maximum slope.
(2) For H/Lh > 0.5, assume H/Lh = 0.5 for evaluating K1o and substitute 2H for Lh for evaluating K2 and K 3
(3) For values of H/Lh, x/Lh, and z/Lh, other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
fig. 1-2 Topographic factor, Kzt (Cont'd)

K1 determned from table below


Parameters for Speed-Up Over Hills and Escarpments


Exposure Upwind Downwind

of Crest of Crest
HiU Shape B e D y

1.30 1.45 1.55 3 1.5 1.5

Two-dimensional ridges [or valleys
with negative H in K1/(H/Lh)]

Two-dimensional escarpments 0.75 0.85 0.95 2.5 1.5 4

Three-dimensional axisymmetrical hill 0.95 1.05 1.15 4 1.5 1.5

Table 1-1 Terrain Exposure Constants

Zmin (ft)
Exposure a Z9 (ft) a b a b l (ft) [Note (1)]

A 5.0 1500 1/5 0.64 1/3.0 0.30 0.45 180 1/2.0 60

B 7.0 1200 1/7 0.84 1/4.0 0.45 0.30 320 1/3.0 30
e 9.5 900 1/9.5 1.00 1/6.5 0.65 0.20 500 1/5.0 15
D 11.5 700 1/11.5 1.07 1/9.0 0.80 0.15 650 1/8.0 7

(1) Zmin = mnimum height used to ensure that the equivalent height z s greater of 0.6h or Zmin For
stacks with h ::::; Zmin shall be taken at Zmin
Table 1-2 Classification of Buildings and Other Structures for Flood, Wind, Snow, and Earthquake loads
Nature of Occupancy Category

Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure including, but not
limited to
Agricultura! facilities
Certain temporary facilities
Minor storage facilities

All buildings and other structures except those Usted in Categories 1, 111, and IV 11

Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure including, 111
but not limited to
Buildings and other structures where more than 300 people congregate in one area
Buildings and other structures with daycare facilities with capacity greater than 150
Buildings and other structures with elementary or secondary school facilities with capacity greater than 150
Buildings and other structures with a capacity greater than 500 for colleges or adult education facilities
Health care facilities with a capacity of 50 or more resident patients but not having surgery or
emergency treatment facilities
]ails and detention facilities
Power-generating stations and other public utility facilities not included in Category IV

Buildings and other structures containing sufficient quantities of toxic, explosive, or other hazardous substances
to be dangerous to the public if released including, but not limited to
Petrochemical facilities
Fuel storage facilities
Manufacturing or storage facilities for hazardous chemicals
Manufacturing or storage facilities for explosives

Buildings and other structures that are equipped with secondary containment of toxic, explosive, or other hazard IV
ous substances (including, but not limited to, double wall tank, dike of sufficient size to contain a spill, or other
means to contain a spill or a blast within the property boundary of the facility and prevent release of harmful
quantities of contaminants to the air, soil, ground water, or surface water) or atmosphere (where appropriate)
shall be eligible for classification as a Category 11 structure.

In hurricane-prone regions, buildings and other structures that contain toxc, explosive, or other hazard

Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities including, but not limited to
Hospitals and other healthcare facilities having surgery or emergency treatment facilities
Fire, rescue, and police stations and emergency vehicle garages
Designated earthquake, hurricane, or other emergency shelters
Communications centers and other facilities required for emergency response
Power-generating stations and other public utility facilities required in an emergency
Ancillary structures (including, but not limited to, communication towers, fue! storage tanks, cooling towers,
electrical substation structures, fire water storage tanks, or other structures housing or supporting water or
other fire-suppression material or equipment) required for operation of Category IV structures during an
Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers, and emergency aircraft hangars
Water storage facilities and pump structures required to maintain water pressure for fire suppression
Buildings and other structures having critica! national defense functions
Table 1-3 lmportance Factor, 1 (Wind loads)
Nonhurricane-Prone Regions
and Hurricane-Prone Regions Hurricane-Prone Regions
with V 85-100 mph with V> 100 mph
Category and Alaska

0.87 0.77
1.00 1.00
11 1.15 1.15
111 1.15 1.15

GENERAL NOTE: The building and structure classification categories

are Usted in Table 1-2.

Table 1-4 Velodty Pressure Exposure Coefficients,

Height Above
Ground level, z,
ft (m) [Note (1)] A B e D

0-15 (0-4.6) 0.32 0.57 0.85 1.03

20 (6.1) 0.36 0.62 0.90 1.08
25 (7.6) 0.39 0.66 0.94 1.12
30 (9.1) 0.42 0.70 0.98 1.16
40 (12.2) 0.47 0.76 1.04 1.22

50 (15.2) 0.52 0.81 1.09 1.27

60 (18) 0.55 0.85 1.13 1.31
70 (21.3) 0.59 0.89 1.17 1.34
80 (24.4) 0.62 0.93 1.21 1.38
90 (27.4) 0.65 0.96 1.24 1.40

100 (30.5) 0.68 0.99 1.26 1.43

120 (36.6) 0.73 1.04 1.31 1.48
140 (42.7) 0.78 1.09 1.36 1.52
160 (48.8) 0.82 1.13 1.39 1.55
180 (54.9) 0.86 1.17 1.43 1.58
200 (61.0) 0.90 1.20 1.46 1.61

250 (76.2) 0.98 1.28 1.53 1.68

300 (91.4) 1.05 1.35 1.59 1.73
350 (106.7) 1.12 1.41 1.64 1.78
400 (121.9) 1.18 1.47 1.69 1.82
450 (137.2) 1.24 1.52 1.73 1.86
500 (152.4) 1.29 1.56 1.77 1.89

GENERAL NOTE: Exposure categories are defined in para.

(1) Linear interpolation for intermediate values of height Z is
Table 1-5 Force Coeffidents,

Cross Section Type of Surface 1 7 25

Square (wind normal to face) All 1.3 1.4 2.0

Square (wind along diagonal) All 1.0 1.1 1.5

Hexagonal or octagonal All 1.0 1.2 1.4

Round (DJCiz > 2.5) Moderately smooth 0.5 0.6 0.7

(D/iz > 5.3, D in m, qz in N/m ) Rough (D' / D = 0.02) 0.7 0.8 0.9
Very rough (D' 1D = 0.08) 0.8 1.0 1.2

Round (DJCiz::;; 2.5)

2 AH 0.7 0.8 1.2
::;; 5.3, D in m, qz in N/m )

(a) The design wind force shall be calculated based on the area of the structure projected on a plane normal to the wind direction. The
force shall be assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.
(b) Linear interpolation is permitted for h/D values other than shown.
(e) Nomenclature:
D = diameter of circular cross section and least horizontal dimension of square, hexagonal, or octagonal cross sections at elevation
under consideration, in ft (m)
D' = depth of protruding elements such as ribs, corrugated jackets, or other surface irregularities that affect the roughness of the
stack, in ft (m)
h = height of structure, in ft (m)
qz = velocity pressure evaluated at height z above ground, in psf (N/m 2)

See Figs. A-1 through A-13 and Table A-1.

Fig. A-1 Friction Factor, f, as Related to Reynolds Number and Stack Diameter

0.020 l---"'iih::-+...::00.....::-----+---------l
;.t 0.015 F----+--=-=::::::..::.... s....,.:::::+--= - ---

o.o 1o l..-1-L.... -. ...1----'---'---'---'--'-'-'-'--'-'------'----'---'--'--'-L..J....L....J

5 105 2
N Re= Reynolds Number
Fig. A-2 ExternalHeat Transfer Coefficient for Forced and NaturalConvection

Diameter, ft
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


8.0 \ 1\ ---- Natural convection

1 1
Forrd cnvectlion

. 1 1 1 1 1

1\\ ""'
Ambtent Air-Free Temperatura: 60F



LL. 1 -.............


t--- r-- -r-- 50 mph
"' -r--.......
""' r--


r-- 45 mph

-........... r--

r---r--.... --
1\'"" -------
.... 40 mph

8 5.0

r-- r-- t--

-.._ 35 mph

r--r---r-- 30
" r--..... r--r--t---r--
\ ...,_
25 mph


--- --
20 mph
t--- -
2. o
"'-... r--r----.... 15 mph

t::- ------
10 mph
-.._ r---
-- r--- ----- 1-----
7 mph
1. o
r=:.:..: ....._
K ,-' t--.
5 mph
3 mph
2 mph
o. o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600
8, Temperatura Difference Between Externa! Surface
and Ambient Air-Free Stream, F
Fig. A-3 Effect of a Change in the Ambient Air-Free
Stream Temperature on the External Heat Transfer
Coefficient for Forced Convection
8u V


8 1.0 ---
- --
...-- ---

03 0.9
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 o -10
Ambient Air-Free Stream Temperature, T( F)
hr (h6o"F) (Temperature Correction Factor)r where
hr the externa! heat transfer coefficient for forced con
vection when the ambient air-free stream tempera
ture is T( 0 F)
h6o"F the externa! heat transfer coefficient for forced con
vection for a T( 0 F) of 60F (see Fig. A-2)
Fig. A-4 Heat Transfer Coefficient for the Air Gap Between Two WaUs of a Double-WaUed MetalChimney

- 1

L\T = 200F
Mean temperature = 400F
L\T = 150F
L\T = 100F
L\T = 50F
L\T = 10F




Mean tempe

- L\T = 200F
L\T = 150F
- L\T = 100F
L\T = 10F

'Z 2.6
ci. 2.4 r--- Mean temperature 200F

2.2 = 200F

..... L\T 150F
L\T = 100F
:; 2.0
!E L\T = 50F
o = 10F

u,_ 1.8
e: 1.6
: :
O) 1.4







o 2 3 4 5 6
Air Gap, in.
Fig. A-5 Heat Transfer Coefficient for the Air Gap Between Two WaUs of a Double-WaUed MetalChimney





7.2 Mean temperature = 600F

T =
7.0 200F fiT =

- 150F fiT =
6.8 - - f1T=50F
fiT = 10F

N 6.6
" ' 6.4
.... 6.2
1E 5.8

- Ci.i

- = 500F
ro Mean temperature
-m 5.4
(1) T= 200F
I fiT 150F
5.2 100F
T= 50F
5.0 .- T = 10F





4.0 o 2 3 4 5 6

Air Gap, in.

Fig. A-6 lnternalHeat Transfer Coefficient (Btu/hr-ft 0
F} vs. Velocity (ft/sec) Film Temperature: 200F
12.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

11.0 ----+-----+-----4-----4----- ---- -----+-----+-----+--

9.0 3ft


8.0 6ft
..:: 8ft


::::: 10ft
05 7.0
"(3 15ft
u 6.0
(; Interna! diameter
IJ) of cylindrical

smoke stack, ft


Film temperature: 200F


O.OL----- ---- ---- ---- -----L-----L---- ---- ---- ----

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Velocity, ft/sec
Fig. A-7 lnternal Heat Transfer Coeffident (Btu/hr-ftl 0 F} vs. Velocity (ft/ sec) Film Temperature: 300F
12.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

11.0 ----+-----+-----4-----4----- ---- -----+-----+-----4----


9.0 2ft


::J 6ft
c 7.0
e 8ft
'u 10ft
Q) 12ft
u 6.0 15ft
ro Interna! diameter
.:: of cylindrical
5.0 smoke stack, ft

Film temperature: 300F


O.OL-----L----- ---- ---- -----L-----L-----L---- ---- ----

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Velocity, ft/sec
Fig. A-8 lnternalHeat Transfer Coefficient (Btu/hr-ftl 0 F) vs. Velodty (ft/sec) Film Temperature: 500F
12.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

11.0 ---- ----+-----+-----4----- ---- ---- -----+-----+-----4

10.0 ----+-----+----- ----,_---- -----r-----+-----+-----+----

9.0 ---- ----+-----+----- ---- ---- -----r-----+-----+-----41ft

=E. 3ft

i5 7.0
u 6.0 8ft
. 10ft
e: 15ft


e: Interna! diameter
of cylindrical
smoke stack,ft

Film temperature: 500F

O.OL----- ---- ---- -----L-----L---- ---- ---- ---- ----

o 1o 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Fig. A-9 lnternalHeat Transfer Coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2 F) vs. Velocity (ft/sec) Film Temperature: 1,000F




ro 7.0

...... 1 ft
(; 6.0 / 2ft
co 3ft
...... 4ft
Q) 5.0

-roe 6ft

// 0
(; 8ft
E 10ft
4.0 15ft
of cylindrical
/ smoke stack, ft

- Film terr perature 1,000F

0.0o 10 100
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Velocity, ft/sec
Fig. A-10 Flue Size




100 :::=:

q cci
--,_---.r- 7--- - -T -;--,_----r----+----,_-- 80 o.....
(/) :;;:
co L.U





Example: Gas flow = 200,000 lb/hr; gas temp. = 500 F, gas velocity in flue = 50 ft/sec. Flue size =70ft.
(1) For square or rectangular flues, use equal cross-sectional areas.
Fig. A-11 NaturalDraft


1200r- ---r -r +- ---4 -- -- -- -- -- -- r--- --


J 100 1---'----t----+-t-+--+r---r


1000 ---t-----

600 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Example: TAG= 600 F; H= 150 ftr O in.; "fAMa= 60 F. Natural draft= 1.124 in.
fig. A-12 frktion loss
Gas velocity V (ft/sec) --+-
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70




Example: D = 5 ft, O in.; TAVG = 500 F; V= 50 ft/sec.

Friction loss for 100ft, .F = 0.11 (in. of water).
Fig. A-13 Exit loss and Entrance



4? 1.35 (J) (1)

e: .e:

e:; 50.0 e:
o 1.50

1.65 ;:,
:::::. (J)



30.0 2.10


0.00 _ ...._ _._L _._ . _,_ . _._ __ ....._ _.J_ _ , 3.00

Example: V= 80 ft/sec; T = 500 F; 10-ft exit cone; pressure drop !lp0.986 in.
Table A-1 K Factors for Breeching Entrance Angle
K = factor depending on breeching entrance angle from vertical
1.0 for 90 deg
0.75 for 60 deg
0.5 for 45 deg
0.2 for 30 deg
0.85 for 45-deg slope on top only

See Tables B-1 through B-17.

Table B-1 ASTM A 36 Carbon Steel

A - ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.35 max.

Manganese 0.29/1.06
Phosphorus 0.048 max.
Sulfur 0.058 max.
Silicon 0.10 min.

B - TypicalAnnealed Properties
Mnimum Yield, Minimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
oF (oc)

36.0 (248.0) 58.0 (399.6) 29,676 (204 471)

-20 (-29)
100 (38) 36.0 (248.0) 58.0 (399.6) 29,062 (200 234)
150 (66) 33.8 (232.9) 58.0 (399.6) 28,831 (198 644)
200 (93) 33.0 (227.4) 58.0 (399.6) 28,600 (197 054)
250 (121) 32.4 (223.2) 58.0 (399.6) 28,350 (195 332)
300 (149) 31.8 (219.1) 58.0 (399.6) 28,100 (193 609)
400 (204) 30.8 (212.2) 58.0 (399.6) 27,700 (190 853)
500 (260) 29.3 (201.9) 58.0 (399.6) 27,100 (186 719)
600 (316) 27.6 (190.2) 58.0 (399.6) 26,400 (181 896)
650 (343) 26.7 (184.0) 58.0 (399.6) 25,850 (178 106)
700 (371) 25.8 (177.8) 58.0 (399.6) 25,300 (174 317)
750 (399) 24.9 (171.6) 57.3 (394.8) 24,650 (169 838)
800 (427) 24.1 (166.0) 53.3 (367.2) 24,000 (165 360)
850 (454) 23.4 (161.2) 48.5 (334.2) 23,150 (159 503)
900 (482) 22.8 (157.1) 43.3 (298.3) 22,300 (153 647)
950 (510) 22.1 (152.3) 38.0 (261.8) 21,250 (146 413)
1,000 (538) 21.4 (147.4) 33.4 (230.1) 20,200 (139 178)

(a) Properties taken from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-2 ASTM A 387 GR 11 Steel
A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %
0.15 max.
Carbon 0.30/0.61
Manganese 0.045 max.
Phosphorus 0.045 max.
Sulfur 0.50 max.
Silicon 0.80/1.25
Chromium 0.44/0.65

B - Typical Annealed Properties (Class/Cond/Temper = 1)

Temperature, Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 35.0 (241.2) 60.0 (413.4) 30,076 (207 227)

100 (38) 35.0 (241.2) 60.0 (413.4) 29,462 (202 990)
150 (66) 33.3 (229.4) 60.0 (413.4) 29,231 (201 400)
200 (93) 32.3 (222.5) 60.0 (413.4) 29,000 (199 810)
250 (121) 31.5 (217.0) 60.0 (413.4) 28,750 (198 088)
300 (149) 30.7 (211.5) 60.0 (413.4) 28,500 (196 365)
400 (204) 29.5 (203.3) 60.0 (413.4) 28,000 (192 920)
500 (260) 28.4 (195.7) 60.0 (413.4) 27,400 (188 786)
600 (316) 27.4 (188.8) 60.0 (413.4) 26,900 (185 341)
650 (343) 26.9 (185.3) 60.0 (413.4) 26,550 (182 929)
700 (371) 26.4 (181.9) 60.0 (413.4) 26,200 (180 518)
750 (399) 25.9 (178.5) 60.0 (413.4) 25,900 (178 451)
800 (427) 25.2 (173.6) 60.0 (413.4) 25,600 (176 384)
850 (454) 24.5 (168.8) 58.3 (401.7) 25,200 (173 628)
900 (482) 23.8 (164.0) 55.8 (384.5) 24,800 (170 872)
950 (510) 22.9 (157.8) 52.6 (362.4) 24,350 (167 771)
1,000 (538) 21.9 (150.9) 48.8 (336.2) 23,900 (164 671)

C- TypicalNormalized and Tempered Properties (Class/Cond/Temper = 2)

Minimum Mnimum
Temperature, Yield, Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
oF (oc) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 45.0 (310.1) 75.0 (516.8) 30,076 (207 227)

100 (38) 45.0 (310.1) 75.0 (516.8) 29,462 (202 990)
150 (66) 42.8 (294.9) 75.0 (516.8) 29,231 (201 400)
200 (93) 41.5 (285.9) 75.0 (516.8) 29,000 (199 810)
250 (121) 40.5 (279.0) 75.0 (516.8) 28,750 (198 088)
300 (149) 39.5 (272.2) 75.0 (516.8) 28,500 (196 365)
400 (204) 37.9 (261.1) 75.0 (516.8) 28,000 (192 920)
500 (260) 36.5 (251.5) 75.0 (516.8) 27,400 (188 786)
600 (316) 35.3 (243.2) 75.0 (516.8) 26,900 (185 341)
650 (343) 34.6 (238.4) 75.0 (516.8) 26,550 (182 929)
700 (371) 34.0 (234.3) 75.0 (516.8) 26,200 (180 518)
750 (399) 33.2 (228.7) 75.0 (516.8) 25,900 (178 451)
800 (427) 32.5 (223.9) 75.0 (516.8) 25,600 (176 384)
850 (454) 31.6 (217.7) 72.8 (501.6) 25,200 (173 628)
900 (482) 30.6 (210.8) 69.7 (480.2) 24,800 (170 872)
950 (510) 29.4 (202.6) 65.7 (452.7) 24,350 (167 771)
1,000 (538) 28.4 (195.7) 61.0 (420.3) 23,900 (164 671)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-3 ASTM A 387 GR 12 Steel

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.15 max.

Manganese 0.30/0.61
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.045 max.
Silicon 0.50/1.00
Chromium 1.00/1.50
Molybdenum 0.44/0.65

B - TypicalAnnealed Properties (Class/Cond/Temper = 1)

Minimum Yield, Minimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
Of (OC)

33.0 (227.4) 55.0 (379.0) 30,076 (207 227)

-20 (-29)
100 (38) 33.0 (227.4) 55.0 (379.0) 29,462 (202 990)
150 (66) 31.0 (213.6) 55.0 (379.0) 29,231 (201 400)
200 (93) 29.8 (205.3) 54.0 (372.1) 29,000 (199 810)
250 (121) 28.9 (199.1) 53.5 (368.3) 28,750 (198 088)
300 (149) 28.1 (193.6) 52.9 (364.5) . 28,500 (196 365)
400 (204) 26.8 (184.7) 52.9 (364.5) 28,000 (192 920)
500 (260) 25.9 (178.5) 52.9 (364.5) 27,400 (188 786)
600 (316) 25.1 (172.9) 52.9 (364.5) 26,900 (185 341)
650 (343) 24.8 (170.9) 52.9 (364.5) 26,550 (182 929)
700 (371) 24.4 (168.1) 52.9 (364.5) 26,200 (180 518)
750 (399) 24.0 (165.4) 52.9 (364.5) 25,900 (178 451)
800 (427) 23.6 (162.6) 52.9 (364.5) 25,600 (176 384)
850 (454) 23.1 (159.2) 52.9 (364.5) 25,200 (173 628)
900 (482) 22.5 (155.0) 51.4 (354.1) 24,800 (170 872)
950 (510) 21.7 (149.5) 48.9 (336.9) 24,350 (167 771)
1,000 (538) 20.9 (144.0) 45.8 (315.6) 23,900 (164 671)

C- TypicalNormalized and Tempered Properties (Ctass/Cond/Temper = 2)

Minimum Yield, Minimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
Of (OC)

40.0 (275.6) 65.0 (447.9) 30,076 (207 227)

-20 (-29)
100 (38) 40.0 (275.6) 63.8 (439.6) 29,462 (202 990)
150 (66) 37.5 (258.4) 62.5 (430.6) 29,231 (201 400)
200 (93) 36.2 (249.4) 62.5 (430.6) 29,000 (199 810)
250 (121) 35.0 (241.2) 62.5 (430.6) 28,750 (198 088)
300 (149) 34.0 (234.3) 62.5 (430.6) 28,500 (196 365)
400 (204) 32.5 (223.9) 62.5 (430.6) 28,000 (192 920)
500 (260) 31.4 (216.3) 62.5 (430.6) 27,400 (188 786)
600 (316) 30.5 (210.1) 62.5 (430.6) 26,900 (185 341)
650 (343) 30.1 (207.4) 62.5 (430.6) 26,550 (182 929)
700 (371) 29.6 (203.9) 62.5 (430.6) 26,200 (180 518)
750 (399) 29.1 (200.5) 62.5 (430.6) 25,900 (178 451)
800 (427) 28.6 (197.1) 62.5 (430.6) 25,600 (176 384)
850 (454) 28.0 (192.9) 62.5 (430.6) 25,200 (173 628)
900 (482) 27.2 (187.4) 60.8 (418.9) 24,800 (170 872)
950 (510) 26.3 (181.2) 57.8 (398.2) 24,350 (167 771)
1,000 (538) 25.3 (174.3) 54.2 (373.4) 23,900 (164 671)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-4 ASTM A 242 Type 1/A 606 Type 4 (Corten A)

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.12 max.

Manganese 0.20/0.50
Phosphorus 0.07/0.15
Sulfur 0.05 max.
Silicon 0.25/0.75
Copper 0.25/0.55
Chromium 0.50/1.25
Vanadium 0.65 max.

GENERAL NOTE: Reprinted with permission from USS Steels for Ele
vated Temperature Service, 1976 revision.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
Of (OC)

-20 (-29) 54.1 (372.7) 81.3 (560.2) 30,000 (206 700)

80 (27) 54.1 (372.7) 81.3 (560.2) 30,000 (206 700)
200 (93) 50.8 (350.0) 76.2 (525.0) 29,000 (199 810)
400 (204) 47.6 (328.0) 76.4 (526.4) 28,000 (192 920)
600 (316) 41.1 (283.2) 81.3 (560.2) 26,900 (185 341)
800 (427) 39.9 (274.9) 76.4 (526.4) 25,600 (176 384)
1,000 (538) 35.2 (242.5) 52.8 (363.8) 23,900 (164 671)
1,200 (649) 20.5 (141.2) 27.6 (190.2) 21,800 (150 202)
1,400 (760) 20.5 (141.2) 10.6 (73.0) 18,900 (130 221)

(a) Considerable deviation from the listed properties may occur as a result of the relatively broad chemical composition range shown.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
(e) Values taken from USS Steels for Elevated Temperature Service.
(d) Reprinted with permission from USS Steels for Elevated Temperature Service, 1976 revision.
Table B-5 ASTM A 588 GR A/A 709 (Corten B)
A- Chemical Composition of Elements
Elements Chemicat Composition, %

Carbon 0.10/0.19
Manganese 0.90/1.25
Phosphorus 0.04 max.
Sulfur 0.05 max.
Silicon 0.15/0.30
Copper 0.25/0.40
Chromium 0.40/0.65
Vanadium 0.02/0.10

GENERAL NOTE: Reprinted with permission from USS Steels for Ele
vated Temperature Service, 1976 revision.

B - Typical Tensile Properties

Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
Of (OC)

-20 (-29) 55.0 (379.0) 86.7 (597.4) 30,000 (206 700)

80 (27) 55.0 (379.0) 86.7 (597.4) 30,000 (206 700)
200 (93) 51.7 (356.2) 81.4 (560.8) 29,000 (199 810)
400 (204) 48.4 (333.5) 79.8 (549.8) 28,000 (192 920)
600 (316) 46.7 (321.8) 75.5 (520.2) 26,900 (185 341)
800 (427) 45.1 (310.7) 71.1 (489.9) 2 5,600 (176 384)
1,000 (538) 35.8 (246.7) 52.0 (358.3) 23,900 (164 671)
1,200 (649) 20.0 (137.8) 30.3 (208.8) 21,800 (150 202)
1,400 (760) 9.4 (64.8) 11.3 (77.9) 18,900 (130 221)

(a) Considerable deviation from the Usted properties may occur as a result of the relatively broad chemical composition range shown.
(b) This material should not be used above 800F for load-bearing structures because of possible loss of ductility.
(e) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
(d) Values taken from USS Steels for Elevated Temperature Service.
(e) Reprinted with permission from USS Steels for Elevated Temperature Service, 1976 revision.
Table B-6 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel 410

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.15
Manganese 1.00
Phosphorus 0.04
Sulfur 0.03
Silicon 1.00
Chromium 11.50/13.50
lron Bal.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Temperature, Minimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 30.0 (206.7) 65.0 (447.9) 29,729 (204 836)

100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 65.0 (447.9) 29,015 (199 916)
150 (66) 28.4 (195.7) 65.0 (447.9) 28,708 (197 796)
200 (93) 27.6 (190.2) 65.0 (447.9) 28.400 (195 676)
250 (121) 27.0 (186.0) 64.4 (443.4) 28,150 (193 953)
300 (149) 26.6 (183.3) 63.7 (438.9) 27,900 (192 231)
400 (204) 26.2 (180.5) 62.6 (431.3) 27,300 (188 097)
500 (260) 25.8 (177.8) 61.6 (424.4) 26,800 (184 652)
600 (316) 25.3 (174.3) 60.1 (414.1) 26,200 (180 518)
650 (343) 24.8 (170.9) 59.0 (406.5) 25,850 (178 107)
700 (371) 24.3 (167.4) 57.5 (396.2) 25,500 (175 695)
750 (399) 23.6 (162.6) 55.6 (383.1) 25,000 (172 250)
800 (427) 22.7 (156.4) 53.4 (367.9) 24,500 (168 805)
850 (454) 21.6 (148.8) 50.7 (349.3) 23,850 (164 327)
900 (482) 20.3 (139.9) 47.7 (328.7) 23,200 (159 848)
950 (510) 18.9 (130.2) 44.2 (304.5) 22,350 (153 992)
1,000 (538) 17.2 (118.5) 40.3 (277.7) 21,500 (148 135)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-7 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel 304
A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %
Carbon 2.00
Manganese 0.045
Phosphorus 0.030
Sulfur 0.75
Silicon 18.0/12.00
Chromium 8.0/10.5
Nickel Bal.
B - TypicalTensile Properties
Temperature, Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,776 (198 270)

100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 26.7 (184.0) 73.0 (503.0) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 25.0 (172.3) 71.0 (489.2) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 23.6 (162.6) 68.6 (472.7) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 22.4 (154.3) 66.2 (456.1) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 20.7 (142.6) 64.0 (441.0) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 19.4 (133.7) 63.4 (436.8) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 18.4 (126.8) 63.4 (436.8) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 18.0 (124.0) 63.4 (436.8) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 17.6 (121.3) 63.4 (436.8) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 17.2 (118.5) 63.4 (436.8) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 16.9 (116.4) 62.8 (432.7) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 16.5 (113.7) 62.0 (427.2) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 16.2 (111.6) 60.8 (418.9) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 15.9 (109.6) 59.3 (408.6) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 15.5 (106.8) 57.4 (395.5) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-8 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel Type 316
A- Chemical Composition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.08
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 16.0/18.00
Nickel 10.0/14.0
!ron Bal.

B - Typical Tensile Properties

Temperature, Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,776 (198 270)

100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 27.4 (188.8) 75.0 (516.8) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 25.9 (178.5) 75.0 (516.8) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 24.6 (169.5) 72.9 (502.3) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 23.4 (161.2) 71.9 (495.4) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 21.4 (147.4) 71.8 (494.7) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 20.0 (137.8) 71.8 (494.7) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 18.9 (130.2) 71.8 (494.7) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 18.5 (127.5) 71.8 (494.7) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 18.2 (125.4) 71.8 (494.7) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 17.9 (123.3) 71.5 (492.6) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 17.7 (122.0) 70.8 (487.8) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 17.5 (120.6) 69.7 (480.2) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 17.3 (119.2) 68.3 (470.6) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 17.1 (117.8) 66.5 (458.2) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 17.0 (117.1) 64.3 (443.0) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
ASME STS-1-2011

Table B-9 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel Type 304l

A- Chemical Composition of Elements
Elements Chemcal Compositon, %

Carbon 0.03
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 18.0/20.00
Nickel 8.0/12
lron Bal.

B - Typical Tensile Properties

Temperature, Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) ' 25.0 (172.3) 70.0 (482.3) 28,776 (198 270)
100 (38) 25.0 (172.3) 70.0 (482.3) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 22.7 (156.4) 68.1 (468.9) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 21.4 (147.4) 66.1 (455.4) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 20.26 (139.2) 63.7 (438.5) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 19.2 (132.3) 61.2 (421.7) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 17.5 (120.6) 58.7 (404.4) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 16.4 (113.0) 57.5 (396.2) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 15.5 (106.8) 56.9 (392.0) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 15.2 (104.7) 56.7 (390.7) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 15.0 (103.4) 56.4 (388.6) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 14.7 (101.3) 56.0 (385.8) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 14.5 (99.9) 55.4 (381.7) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 14.3 (98.5) 54.6 (376.2) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 14.0 (96.5) 53.6 (369.3) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 13.7 (94.4) 52.3 (360.3) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 13.3 (91.6) 50.7 (349.3) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-10 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel 316l
A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composton, %

Carbon 0.03
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 16.0/18.00
Nickel 10.0/14.0
lron Bal.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elastcity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
ksi (MPa)

25.0 (172.3) 70.0 (482.3) 28,776 (198 270)

-20 (-29)
100 (38) 2 5.0 (172.3) 70.0 (482.3) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 22.7 (156.4) 69.1 (475.8) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 21.3 (146.8) 68.1 (469.2) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 20.1 (138.5) 66.1 (455.1) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 19.0 (130.9) 64.0 (441.0) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 17.5 (120.6) 62.2 (428.6) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 16.4 (113.0) 61.8 (425.8) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 15.6 (107.5) 61.7 (425.1) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 15.3 (105.4) 61.6 (424.4) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 15.0 (103.4) 61.5 (423.7) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 14.7 (101.3) 61.1 (421.0) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 14.4 (99.2) 60.5 (416.8) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 14.1 (97.1) 59.7 (411.3) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 13.8 (95.1) 58.6 (403.8) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 13.5 (93.0) 57.1 (393.4) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 13.2 (90.9) 55.4 (381.7) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section !1.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
ASME STS-1-2011

Table B-70 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel Type 317

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.08
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 18.0/20.0
Nickel 11.0/15.0
lron Bal.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa} ksi (MPa)
oF (oc)

-20 (-29) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,776 (198 270)

100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 27.4 (188.8) 75.0 (516.8) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 25.9 (178.5) 75.0 (516.8) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 24.6 (169.5) 72.9 (502.3) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 23.4 (161.2) 71.9 (495.4) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 21.4 (147.4) 71.8 (494.7) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 20.0 (137.8) 71.8 (494.7) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 18.9 (130.2) 71.8 (494.7) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 18.5 (127.5) 71.8 (494.7) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 18.2 (125.4) 71.8 (494.7) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 17.9 (123.3) 71.5 (492.6) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 17.7 (122.0) 70.8 (487.8) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 17.5 (120.6) 69.7 (480.2) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 17.3' (119.2) 68.3 (470.6) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 17.1 (117.8) 66.5 (458.2) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 17.0 (117.1) 64.3 (443.0) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.

Table B-12 ASTM A 516 Grade 70

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.28
Manganese 0.85/1.20
Phosphorus 0.035
Sulfur 0.035
Silicon 0.15/0.40

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Mnimum Yield, Minimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
or (oc)

-20 (-29) 38.0 (261.8) 70.0 (482.3) 29,876 (205 849)

100 (38) 38.0 (261.8) 70.0 (482.3) 29,262 (201 612)
150 (66) 35.7 (246.0) 70.0 (482.3) 29,031 (200 022)
200 (93) 34.8 (239.8) 70.0 (482.3) 28,800 (198 432)
250 (121) 34.2 (235.6) 70.0 (482.3) 28,550 (196 709)
300 (149) 33.6 (231.5) 70.0 (482.3) 28,300 (194 987)
400 (204) 32.5 (223.9) 70.0 (482.3) 27,900 (192 231)
500 (260) 31.0 (213.6) 70.0 (482.3) 27,300 (188 097)
600 (316) 29.1 (200.5) 70.0 (482.3) 26,500 (182 585)
650 (343) 28.2 (194.3) 70.0 (482.3) 26,000 (179 140)
700 (371) 27.2 (187.4) 70.0 (482.3) 25,500 (175 695)
750 (399) 26.3 (181.2) 69.1 (476.1) 24,850 (171 217)
800 (427) 25.5 (175.7) 64.3 (443.0) 24,200 (166 738)
850 (454) 24.7 (170.2) 58.6 (403.8) 23,350 (160 882)
900 (482) 24.0 (165.4) 52.3 (360.3) 22,500 (155 025)
950 (510) 23.3 (160.5) 45.9 (316.3) 21,450 (147 791)
1,000 (538) 22.6 (155.7) 40.4 (278.4) 20,400 (140 556)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
ASME STS-1-2011

Table B-13 ASTM A 240 Stainless SteelType 309

A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.08
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 22/24
Nickel 12/15
lron Bal.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Minimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Temperature, ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)
Of (OC)

30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,776 (198 270)

-20 (-29)
100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 27.6 (190.2) 75.0 (516.8) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 26.3 (181.2) 75.0 (516.8) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 25.1 (172.9) 74.9 (515.7) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 24.2 (166.7) 74.7 (514.7) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 22.7 (156.4) 73.2 (504.0) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 21.6 (148.8) 71.6 (493.3) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 20.8 (143.3) 70.2 (483.7) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 20.5 (141.2) 69.3 (477.5) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 20.2 (139.2) 68.3 (470.6) 24,00 (170 872)
750 (399) 20.0 (137.8) 67.2 (463.0) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 19.7 (135.7) 65.8 (453.4) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 19.4 (133.7) 64.2 (442.3) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 19.1 (131.6) 62.5 (430.6) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 18.8 (129.5) 60.4 (416.2) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 18.4 (126.8) 58.2 (401.0) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.
Table B-14 ASTM A 240 Stainless Steel 310
A- ChemicalComposition of Elements
Elements Chemical Composition, %

Carbon 0.08
Manganese 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045
Sulfur 0.030
Silicon 0.75
Chromium 24/26
Nickel 19/22
lron Bal.

B - TypicalTensile Properties
Temperature, Mnimum Yield, Mnimum Tensile, Modulus of Elasticity,
Of (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

-20 (-29) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,776 (198 270)

100 (38) 30.0 (206.7) 75.0 (516.8) 28,115 (193 715)
150 (66) 27.9 (192.2) 74.6 (514.0) 27,808 (191 595)
200 (93) 26.5 (182.6) 74.2 (511.2) 27,500 (189 475)
250 (121) 25.3 (174.3) 72.5 (499.5) 27,250 (187 753)
300 (149) 24.2 (166.7) 70.8 (487.8) 27,000 (186 030)
400 (204) 22.6 (155.7) 69.6 (479.5) 26,400 (181 896)
500 (260) 21.4 (147.4) 69.5 (478.9) 25,900 (178 451)
600 (316) 20.6 (141.9) 69.5 (478.9) 25,300 (174 317)
650 (343) 20.2 (139.2) 69.5 (478.9) 25,050 (172 594)
700 (371) 19.9 (137.1) 69.3 (477.5) 24,800 (170 872)
750 (399) 19.6 (135.0) 68.8 (474.0) 24,450 (168 461)
800 (427) 19.4 (133.7) 68.0 (468.5) 24,100 (166 049)
850 (454) 19.1 (131.6) 66.9 (460.9) 23,800 (163 982)
900 (482) 18.8 (129.5) 65.5 (451.3) 23,500 (161 915)
950 (510) 18.5 (127.5) 63.8 (439.6) 23,150 (159 503)
1,000 (538) 18.2 (125.4) 61.6 (424.4) 22,800 (157 092)

(a) Properties taken from ASME BPVC, Section 11.
(b) Properties are "typical," unless otherwise indicated, and should not be taken as guaranteed properties.

Table B-15 Other Stainless Steels, NickelAlloys, and Titanium Used for Stacks and Chimney liners
Designations Nominal Chemical Composition (% Weight)
Alto y UNS ASTM e Cr Ni Mo Cu N Ti Fe Other

409 540900 A 240 0.08 11 0.5 BaL 0.75 max.

317L 531703 A 240 0.03 19 13.0 3.25 Bal.
317LM 531725 A 240 0.03 19 16.0 4.25 BaL
317LMN 531726 A 240 0.03 19 16.0 4.0 0.15 Bal.
2205 531803 A 240 0.03 22 5.0 3.0 0.15 Bal.
255 532550 A 240 0.03 25 6.0 3.0 2.0 0.15 Bal.
6% Mo [Note (1)] A 240 0.02 20/24 18/25 6/7.3 0/1 0.2/0.5 Bal.
B 688
625 N06625 B 443 0.05 22 Bal. 9.0 Cb+Ta
276 N10276 B 575 0.02 16 Bal. 16.0 w
22, 622 N06022 B 575 0.02 22 Bal. 13.0 w
59 N06059 B 575 0.02 23 59.0 16.0
686 N06686 B 575 0.01 21 57.0 16.0 w
Titanium B 265 0.08 Sal. 0.12 Residuals

(1) Because the 6% molybdenum super-austenitic stainless steels are proprietary, it is necessary to show a range of compositions.
Table B-16 ThermalCoeffidents of Expansion
From 32F
Average Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (in./in./F x 10- )

ASTM AUoy 400F 600F 800F 1,000F 1,200F

Designation (204C) (316C) (427C) (538() (649C)

ASTM A 36 6.8 7.2 7.7 8.0 8.2

ASTM A 242 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.5 7.6
ASTM A 588 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.5 7.6
ASTM A 387, GR 11, 12 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.1
ASTM A 176, Type 409 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.8
ASTM A 176, Type 410 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.8
ASTM A 240, Type 304 9.6 9.8 10.1 10.3 10.5
ASTM A 240, Type 316 9.6 9.8 10.1 10.3 10.5
ASTM A 240, Type 309 8.8 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.9
ASTM A 240, Type 310 8.1 8.3 6.7 9.0 9.0
ASTM B 686, 6% Mo 8.9 9.3 9.8 10.0
ASTM B 443, Alloy 625 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2
ASTM B 575, Alloy C-276 6.2 6.7 7.3 7.4 7.8

Table B-17 Maximum Nonscaling Temperature

Maximum Temperature,
ASTM Type or Grade OF (OC)

A 36 800F (427C)
A 242, Type 1 950F (510C)
A 387, Gr. 11, 12 1,050F (566C)
A 176, Type 409 1,300F (704()
A 176, Type 410 1,300F (704C)
A 240, Type 304 1,650F (899()
A 240, Type 316 1,650F (899()
A 240, Type 317 1,650F (899C)
A 240, Type 309 1,900F (1 038()
A 240, Type 310 2,000F (1 038C)

(1) Manufacturers of types or grades not listed should be con
sulted for recommendations.

See Figs. C-1 and C-2 and Tables C-1 and C-2.
Fig. C-1 Dewpoint in Stack Gases
V 1000
10- /
1 /
V /
a. 10% H 20 from oil 1 /
b. 6% H2 0 from coal 17 7
1 1
V [7


:::: b. 6% H 20 :H,0O%by volume
c <.9
<.9 10-2 100 e:
c:: Q)
' O

1 x
"O 1 o

: 1 /10 ; ....


1 1 1 1

U) V#- 1

1 1

1 1/
1 1
v E


1/ V
c e:
c::1o-4 1

1 1
ox 1 1 ...
6% H20 bh a. 10% H 20
by volume ::::

1 U)


10- 1
/ a. 10% H 2 0 from oil
b. 6% H 20 from coal
1 1 1

90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Dewpoint, oc
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
130 140 150 160 170 180
Dewpoint, oc
Dewpoint Versus Sulfur Trioxide Concentration 190
Fig. C-2 Sutfuric Acid Saturation Curve
Operating eonditions
80 e 135 e
55 e 65 e
1 1 Mixed 1 gaSI
e 1 gas
gases 400
Bass 0.020 py 1:Raw
200 max. corroson
rate oxdzng :1
condtons 300

Bolng pont


OL----L---- -L-- L--- -- -L-- -- ---- -- o

o 1o 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Sulfuric Acid eoncentration, wt,%

Table C-1 Suggested Suitability of Unings for Steel Stacks to Withstand Chemical and Temperature
Environments of Flue Gases
Chemical Environment Thermal Environment

UNS No. Type (ASTM) Mild Moderate Severe Mild Moderate Severe

Organic Polyester X X X
Resin Novolac phenolic epoxy [Note (1)] X X X X X X [Note (2)]
Novolac epoxy [Note (1)] X X X X X
Epoxy X X X
Vinyl ester X X X X
Urethanes X X X
Organic Natural rubber X X X
Elastomers Neoprene X X X
Chlorobutyl X X X
Fluoroelastomer X X X X X
lnorganic Potassium Silicate X X X X X X
Monolitic Calcium Aluminate X X X X X
Concrete Refractory X X X X
lnsulating X X X
lnorganic Borosilicate glass block X X X X X X
Masonry Firebrick and refractory mortar X X X X X
Acid-resistant brick and chemically X X X X X X
resistant mortar
lnsulating brick and refractory X X X
UNS 40900 Stainless steel (A 240) [Note (3)] X X X X
UNS 41000 Stainless steel (A 240) [Note (3)] X X X X
UNS 30403 Stainless steel (A 240) [Note (3)] X X X X X
UNS 531603 Stainless steel (A 240) [Note (3)] X X X X X
UNS 531703 Stainless steel (A 240) X X X X X
UNS 531725 Stainless steel (A 240) X X X X X
UNS 531726 Stainless steel (A 240) X X X X X
UNS 531803 Staintess steel (A 240) X X X X X X
UNS 532550 Staintess steet (A 240) X X X X X X
6% Mo Stainless steel (A 240) X X X X X X
UNS N06625 Nickel-based alloy (B 443) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X
UNS N10276 Nickel-based alloy (B 575) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X
UNS N06022 Nickel-based alloy (B 575) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X
UNS N06059 Nicket-based alloy (B 575) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X
UNS N06686 Nickel-based alloy (B 575) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X
UNS R50250 Titanium (B 246) X X XX [Note (4)] X X X

GENERAL NOTE: Materials suppliers shall be consulted with respect to specific recommendations on usage.
(1) Can be used in very severe chemical environments.
(2) Coating may darken surface and convert to organic carbon at higher temperatures.
(3) There is usually no significant price advantage to the use of these alloys as linings in place of salid aUoys.
(4) Most resistant of the alloys.
Table C-2 Suggested Stack Coating Characteristics and Classifications
Maximum Cure
Type Mechanism Acid Salt Weather Dry Heat

Alkyd Air oxidation Poor Fair Excellent 250F (121C)

Chlorinated Solvent Excellent Excellent Good 150F (66C)

rubber evaporation

Catalyzed Chemical Excellent Excellent Good 2 50F-300F

epoxy crosslinking (121C-149C)

Novolac phenolic Chemical Excellent Excellent Excellent 325F (163C)

epoxy crosslinking

Novolae Chemical Excellent Excellent Excellent 2 50F-300F

epoxy crosslinking (121C-149C)

Aliphatic Chemical Very good Excellent Excellent 180F-250F

polyurethane crosslinking (82C-121C)

Aluminum Solvent/heat Poor Good Good 1,000F (538C)


Coal-tar Solvent Very good Excellent Poor 160F-250F

epoxy evaporation (71C-121C)

Vinyl Solvent Excellent Excellent Very good 150F (66C)


lnorganic Hydrolysis Excellent Excellent Excellent 750F-1,000F

zinc [Note (1)] (399C-538C)
[Note (2)]

Organic Chemical Very good Very good Very good 300F (149C)
zinc-rich crosslinking [Note (1)] [Note (2)]

lnorganic Chemical Very good Excellent Excellent

silicate reaction

(1) lndicated results based on primer being top coated.
(2) lndicated results based on limitation of top coat in the system.

See Figs. D-1 through D-2a and Tables D-1 through


Fig. D-1 Normalized Response Spectrum Values

Normalized Response Spectra Values

Critical Damping Ratio = 5%
1,000 ...,4-q.,.c. '--f>l -M
800 Shape Bound Probability Level = 50%
( 1.edian)
Frequency Horizontal
CPS Component
400 Acceleration


60 L+
.40 ,'-4 L,

1 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1,000

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 4 6 8 10
Frequency, cps
Fig. D-2 Seismic Zone Map

Av== 0.20

200 300
1 1
Fig. D-2a Seismic Zone Map
Table D-1 SpecialValues for Maximum Ground
Acceleration of l.Og
Frequency, Displacement Spectrum, Acceleration
Hz Spectrum, in. in./sec Spectrum, g

fs 0.25 50.7 318.6{ 5.186{2

10.39 65.26
0.25 s fs 2.5 {1.1436 {0.1436 1.062{ 0.8564

25.32 159.1 2.589

2.5sfs9 {2.1158 r-1158 {0.1158

63.87 401.3 6.533

9 s fs 33 {2.5369 {1.5369 {0.5369

9.768 61.37
{> 33
-f- 1.00

Table D-2 Response Spectrum Scaling Ratio

Versus Av
AV> Effective Peak
Accelerations Scaling Ratio

0.05 0.04
0.08 0.06
0.15 0.11
0.20 0.15
0.30 0.23
0.40 0.30

GENERAL NOTE: Linear interpolation may be used in between Av

coefficients not given.
Table D-3 AUowable Creep Stress of Carbon Steel at Elevated Temperature
Allowable Stresses (in ksi) [Note (1)]

Type of Steel Temperature (0 F)

[Note (2)] ?50 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100

A 36 [Note (3)] 14.3

[Note (4)] 10.3
A 53 Gr B [Note (4)]
[Note (3)]

A 242 Type 1 12-17 8-13 5-9

[Notes (5), (6)]
A 618 Gr 1
[Notes (5), (6)]

A 588 Gr A 12-17
[Notes (5), (6)] 8-13 5-9
A 588 Gr B
[Note (5)]

A 387 Gr 11 15.7 . 10.7 7.1 4.4 2.7

[Note (7)] [Note (4)] [Note (4)] [Note (8)] [Note (8)] [Note (8)]
A 335 Gr P11
[Note (7)]

A 387 Gr 12 18.0 11.3 7.3 4.5 2.5

[Note (7)] [Note (4)] [Note (4)] [Note (4)] [Note (8)] [Note (8)]
A 335 Gr P12 18.0 11.3 7.3
[Note (7)]

the creep value does not govern-normal allowable stresses based on Fy govern.
the use of this steel is not recommended at this temperature.
:t:, the use of this steel at this temperature is only recommended for noncritical applications.
(1) The values presented in this tableare altowable stresses based on the criteria presented in para. 3.3.5 with a design life of
100,000 hr. The appropriated factor of safety has been incorporated in these values.
(2) Creep and rupture properties are highly dependent upon the exact chemical composition of the steel. The values indicated in the table
are intended to be used only as a reference. Values used in design should be obtained from test data reflecting the precise chemical
composition of the steel to be used in the ductwork fabrication.
(3) Creep and rupture properties for this steel are derived from ASTM DS-1151.
(4) The allowable stress value at this temperature is governed by the creep rupture strength.
(5) Creep and rupture properties for this steel are derived from various United States Steel Corporation publications, including Steels for
Elevated Temperature Service.
(6) A range of values is presented for A 242, A 588, andA 618 steels because of the potentially large variation in chemistry, which can
drastically affect the steel's properties. The lower bound value should be used unless data indicate otherwise.
(7) Creep and rupture properties for this steel are derived from ASTM DS-50. These values differ from some of the ASME values because
ASME limits the allowable stress to 0.25Fy, which is a limitation for boilers, not ducts.
(8) The allowable stress value at this temperature is governed by the creep rate.

Table D-4 Creep and Rupture Properties of Type 410 Stainless Steel
Stress for a Creep Rate of Stress for Rupture in
0.0001% per hr 0.00001% per hr
1% in 10,000 hr 1% in 100,000 hr
Test Temperature, 1,000 hr, 10,000 hr,
OF (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

900 (482) 24.0 (165) 13.6 (94) 34.0 (234) 22.0 (152)
1,000 (538) 9.0 (62) 7.4 (51) 19.4 (134) 13.0 (90)
1,100 (593) 4.2 (29) 3.6 (25) 10.0 (69) 6.8 (47)
1,200 (649) 2.0 (14) 1.7 (12) 4.8 (33) 2.8 (19)
1,300 (704) 0.8 (6) 0.8 (4) 2.5 (17) 1.2 (8)
1,400 (760) ... (...) ... (...) 1.2 (8) 0.6 (4)

Table D-5 Creep and Rupture Properties of Type 304 Stainless Steel
Stress for a Creep Rate of Stress for Rupture in
0.0001% per hr 0.00001% per hr
1% in 10,000 hr 1% in 100,000 hr 10,000 hr,
Test Temperature, 1,000 hr,
OF (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

1,000 (538) 25.5 (176) 17.9 (123) 49.8 (343) 36.0 (248)
1,100 (593) 16.5 (114) 11.1 (77) 31.0 (214) 22.2 (153)
1,200 (649) 10.8 (74) 7.2 (50) 19.0 (131) 13.8 (95)
1,300 (704) 7.0 (48) 4.5 (31) 11.9 (82) 8.5 (59)
1,400 (760) 4.6 (32) 2.9 (20) 7.7 (53) 5.3 (37)
1,500 (816) 3.0 (21) 1.8 (12) 4.7 (32) 3.3 (23)

Table D-6 Creep and Rupture Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel
Stress for a Creep Rate of Stress for Rupture in
0.0001% per hr 0.00001% per hr
1% in 10,000 hr 1% in 100,000 hr 10,000 hr,
Test Temperature, 1,000 hr,
OF (OC) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

1,000 (538) 35.5 (245) 20.1 (139) 50.0 (345) 43.0 (296)
1,100 (593) 22.5 (155) 12.4 (85) 34.0 (234) 26.5 (183)
1,200 (649) 14.2 (98) 7.9 (54) 23.0 (159) 16.2 (112)
1,300 (704) 8.9 (61) 4.8 (33) 15.4 (106) 9.9 (66)
1,400 (760) 5.6 (39) 3.0 (21) 10.3 (71) 6.0 (41)
1,500 (816) 3.6 (25) 1.9 (13) 6.7 (46) 3.7 (26)

Table D-7 Creep and Rupture Properties of Type 317 Stainless Steel
Stress for a Rate of Stress for Rupture in
0.0001% per hr
0.00001% per hr
1% in 10,000 hr 1% in 100,000 hr 1,000 hr, 10,000 hr,
Test Temperature,
oF (oc) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

1,000 (538) 24.0 (165) 16.0 (110) ... ... (...)

1,100 (593) 17.3 (119) 14.7 (101) 34.0 (234)
(... ) 28.0 (193)
1,200 (649) 12.7 (88) 8.7 (60) 24.0 (165) 13.3 (92)
1,300 (704) 7.3 (50) 4.7 (32) 16.7 (115) 10.7 (74)
1,400 (760) 4.3 (30) 2.3 (16) 10.3 (71) 6.7 (46)
1,500 (816) 2.7 (19) 2.0 (14) 6.7 (46) 3.3 (23)

E-1 EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Velocity Pressure q2 (at h) [eq. (4-4)]

E-1.1 Example 1 qz = 0.00256 Kz Kzt V l = 34.816 (psf)
See Table E-1.1-1. Force Coefficient C (at h), (Table I-5)
for (h/D) = 17.50
E-1.2 Example 2
C = 0.6583
See Table E-1.2-1.
Terrain Exposure Constants -, b, a, l
E-1.3 Example 3: Calculation Along Wind loads (Table I-1)
See Table E-1.3-1. Wind design based upon ASCE 7, 0.2000 (unitless)
as applicable for steel stack design used as an Example b 0.65 (unitless)
of the design method for STS-1. a 0.1538 (unitless)
500 (ft)
3-Sec Gust Velocity (mph) V = 100
(Fig. I-1, Mandatory Appendix I) Stack First Mode Natural Frequency (Hz) n 1
Stack Height (ft) h = 140 (Modal Frequency Analysis)
n1 = 1.335
Stack Diameter-Top (ft) d = 8
Gust Factor Calculation G
Importance Factor (unitless) I = 1.00 (Mandatory Appendix I)
(Tables I-3 and I-2)
Integral Scale Length (ft)
Exposure Category C
L2 = z (z/33)- = 602.73037

Zmin (ft) Zmin = 15 Factors gQ and gv (unitless)

(Table I-1) gQ = 3.4
gv = 3.4
e (unitless) e = 0.20
(Table I-1) Background Response Q (unitless)
Equivalent Structure Height (ft)
(Mandatory Appendix I) . 1
Q= = 0.8908
z = 0.6 h = 84 ------0-63

1 + 0.63 (Bh ) .
Intensity of Turbulence (unitless) 2
(Mandatory Appendix I)
Mean Hourly Wind Speed (ft/sec)
I2 = e( 33) = 0.1712
2 V2 = b ( 3- ) V (22)
= 110.0703
Topographical Factors K1, K 2, K3 (Fig. I-2)
K1 0.00 Coefficient N1 (unitless)
K2 = 1.00
K3 = 1.00

Combined Topographic Factor Kzt

[eq. (4-5)]
Kzt = (1 + K1 K2 K3) = 1.0000 Coefficient 7Jh, r8, 7Jd (unitless)
7Jh 4.6n 1h/V2 = 7.8108
Velocity Pressute Exposure Coeffident r8 4.6n1B/V2 = 0.4463
Per Table I-4, K 2 (at h) = 1.360 7Jd 15.4n1d/V2 = 1.4942
Table E-1.1-1 Example 1: Velocity Pressure, qz, Calculations
Variable Definition Stack 1 Stack 2 Stack 3 Units of Measure/References

V 3-sec gust speed 90.000 100.0000 110.000 mph
1 lmportance factor 1.000 1.0000 1.000 (unitless)
h Stack height 80.000 160.0000 240.000 ft
D Top outside diameter 5.000 10.0000 15.000 ft
Exposure category e e e e
Y/1 First mode frequency 2.600 1.3000 0.900 Hz
t Plate thickness 0.250 0.3125 0.375 in.
value 0.006 0.0060 0.006
Calculated Values
h/D Slenderness ratio 16.000 16.000 16.000
cr Force coefficient 0.650 0.650 0.650 Table 1-5

Gr Gust effect factor 0.950 1.010 1.050 See Mandatory

Appendix 1
Kzt Topographical factor 1.000 1.000 1.000 Eq. (4-5)
Kz (at h) Exposure coefficient 1.210 1.390 1.516 Table 1-4
qz (at h) Velocity pressure 25.090 35.580 46.960 psf

Coefficient gR (unitless) Aerodynamic Damping f3a (unitless)

[eq. (5-1)]
= 4.2578 dV-
J2loge0 (3,600n1)
.5 7 7
+ f3a =
= 0.008284
-;=== = = = ====
J2 loge (3,600n1

Coefficient Rn (unitless)
Structural Damping f3s (unitless)
7 7 (Table
R 11 = .4
= 0.0397 f3s = 0.004
(1 + 10.3N1 3 Total Damping f3 (unitless)
f3 = f3a + f3s = 0.012284
Coefficients Rh, RB, Rd (unitless)
Rh Rt setting YJ = YJh Resonance Response Factor R (unitless)
RB Rt setting 1J = YJB
Rd Rt setting YJ = YJd R=

R1 =-1 1 2
(1 - e- "') for y > O
YJ 2y2 Gust Factor G (unitless)

1 for YJ =O l + 1.7I:zJg/ Q +
gi R2) = 0.9555
Rh 0.1198 G = 0.925 ( 1 + 1.7I:z gv
RB 0.7586
Rd 0.4566 E-1.4 Example 4: Earthquake Response Calculation

Mass per unit length of top one-third of stack ma (lbm/ ft) For a lumped mass system, such as shown in Example
Paragraph 1, the response spectra analysis is as follows:
ma = 319.0 (a) The displacement Ujn of the jth mass in the nth
mode of vibration is given by
Air Density p (lbm/ft3)
p = 0.076474
Avg. Stack Diameter top Y:, d (ft) ajn the nth mode shape value of the jth mass
d = 8.0000 Mj = the jth mass of stack
Table E-1.2-1 Example 2: Gust Effect Factor, Calculations

G = 0.925
(1 + 1.u, Jg o' + gk'R')
1 + 1.7/z 9v

Variable Definition Stack 1 Stack 2 Stack 3 Units of Measure/References

V 3-sec gust speed, mph 90.0000 100.0000 110.0000 mph

1 lmportance factor 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 (unitless)
h Stack height, ft 80.0000 160.0000 240.0000 ft
D Top outside diameter, ft 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 ft
Exposure category e e e
YJl First mode frequency 2.6000 1.3000 0.9000 Hz
t Plate thickness 0.2500 0.3125 0.3750 in.
f3 Damping value 0.0060 0.0060 0.0060 (unitless)

B Stack width 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 ft

e Turbulence intensity factor 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 Table 1-1
1 Integral length scale factor 500.0000 500.0000 500.0000 ft (Table 1-1)
Integral length scale power law exponent 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 Table 1-1
z Equivalent height 48.0000 96.0000 144.0000 ft
! tntensity turbulence 0.1880 0.1670 0.1560
Lt Integral length scale of turbulence 538.9100 619.0400 671.3400 ft
Q Background response 0.9140 0.8840 0.8630
b Mean hourly wind speed factor 0.6500 0.6500 0.6500 Table 1-1
a Mean hourly wind speed law exponent 0.1540 0.1540 0.1540 Table 1-1
Vt Mean hourly wind speed 90.8900 112.3500 131.5500
N1 Reducd frequency 15.4200 7.1600 4.5900
Rn 0.0245 0.0403 0.0535
YJh 10.5300 8.5200 7.5500
YJb 0.6580 0.5320 0.4720
YJd 2.2000 1.7800 1.5800
Rh 0.0905 0.1105 0.1236
Ra 0.6747 0.7226 0.7475
Rd 0.3522 0.4082 0.4410
R Resonant Response Factor 0.4160 0.6221 0.7794
9R Peak Factor of Resonant Response 4.4110 4.2520 4.1640
9v Peak Factor for Wind Response 3.4000 3.4000 3.4000
9Q Peak Factor for Background Response 3.4000 3.4000 3.4000

Gust Effect Factor 0.95 1.01 1.05 (unitless)

N number of masses (b) The overturning moment is

design response spectra value for the nth mode
frequency N (5)
participation factor of the nth mode MA,n = L (Mjw Ujnhj) + IAw eA,n
j 1

2: Mjaj 11
JA mass moment of inertia of footing about
j 1
r;J = ----- (2) point A
natural circular frequency of the nth mode of
L 2 ()
Mja jn stack, in radians per second
j =1
the nth mode rotation of footing of stack
For the horizontal excitation the bending moment

Mn and shear force Vn at the ith mass location and in

the nth mode of vibration can be obtained, as In the general case, when a stack is supported at many
places, the shear forces V11 and bending moments Min
N (3)
along a stack can be obtained by static analysis due to
Vn = L Mjw u jn
j = 1 inertia loads

M11 = L Mjw Uj 11 (hj- (4) (6)
j 1
Table E-1.3-1 Stack Along Wind loading
Velocity Velocity Mean Fluctuating
Elevation, Pressure Pressure, Force Load, Base Moment, Load, Base Moment,
Location, Z, Coefficient, qz i, Coefficient, w(z) i, M 0 (i to i+1), W0(z) i, M* (i to i+1),
ft Kz i psf Ct i lbf/ft kip-ft lbf/ft kip-ft

1 140 1.360 34.816 0.6583 84.7340 122.4351

2 130 1.335 34.176 0.6583 83.1764 113.3525 113.6897 159.4571
3 120 1.310 33.536 0.6583 81.6188 103.0100 96.1990 115.7303

4 110 1.285 32.896 0.6583 80.0612 92.9790 113.6897 115.7303

5 100 1.260 32.256 0.6583 78.5036 83.2595 87.4536 96.4905
6 90 1.240 31.744 0.6583 77.2575 73.9969 78.7083 76.9998

7 80 1.210 30.976 0.6583 75.3884 64.8901 69.9629 63.2581

8 70 1.170 29.952 0.6583 72.8962 55.6275 61.2175 49.2655
9 60 1.130 28.928 0.6583 70.4040 46.5933 52.4722 37.0220

10 50 1.090 27.904 0.6583 67.9118 38.0576 43.7268 26.5276

11 40 1.040 26.624 0.6583 64.7966 29.8854 34.9815 17.7822
12 30 0.980 25.088 0.6583 61.0583 22.0558 26.2361 10.7859

13 20 0.900 23.040 0.6583 56.0740 14.6831 17.4907 5.5387

14 10 0.850 21.760 0.6583 52.9588 8.2034 8.7454 2.0406
15 o 0.850 21.760 0.6583 52.9588 2.6479 0.0000 0.2915
Mo 749.2419 M* = 799.9092

(a) Total Base Moment: M = M 0 +M* = 1,549.15 kip-ft
(b) A linear variation in load between the calculation points is assumed in calculation of the moments.

Total shear force V and bending moments M at the This is not the same value of damping used for seismic
ith location are calculated from the modal values Vn loads.
and Mn using expressions Response is highly sensitive to small changes in
damping f3s where values of A2 are near l.
E-2.1 General Theory
The root-mean-square motion at the point of maxi
(8) mum displacement is given by
M= 2 :
)12 aM clcM
n =1 D mr JI\(f3s + f3a)
N = number of governing modes, i.e., modes that
contribute 10% or more to the responses
_ c2 [ 1
mr 4(;)2 ]

E-1.5 Example 5 HID

See Table E-1.5-1. m, me/ pf52g


Ho m(z) ql (z)dz
IH ql (z)dz

(THIS METHODOLOGY 15 NOT AN EXAMPLE) 0.6 (for parallel stacks only)

NOTE: This subsection does not apply to guyed or braced stacks
(paras. 4.10 and 4.11). 1 )V2
(H H ql dz
The steel stack response to vortex-induced wind loads </J(zM) (z)
1 H
is based upon dimensions, modal properties for the It should be noted that the structural
vibration mode being considered, the structural damp damping for vortex shedding is in accordance
ing, {35, and aerodynamic damping, f3a with para.
ASME STS-1-2011
H 2
<jJ (z)dz zM = H for cantilever mode
o CM - 2.0 for the fundamental mode of vibration
</J(zM) value of <P(z) at maximum deflection
Table E-1.5-1 Example 5: Earthquake Response Spectrum Example Calculations
1 2 3 4 5

Frequency (cycle/sec) 0.8830 5.3730 14.429 26.7400 41.3710

Time period (sec) 1.1320 0.1860 0.0690 0.0370 0.0240
Participation factor 1.6008 -0.9801 0.4572 -0.4140 0.2089
Scaled displacement (ft) 0.2994 0.0180 0.0018 0.0004 0.0001

Mode Shape, ft:

Elevation, ft 1 2 3 4 5 SRSS

210 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.4796

196 0.9087 0.6833 0.4818 0.2706 0.0541 0.4357
182 0.8175 0.3695 -0.0118 -0.3630 -0.6344 0.3919
168 0.7266 0.0699 -0.4099 -0.6960 -0.6823 0.3483
154 0.6367 -0.2009 -0.6437 -0.6201 -0.1261 0.3052
140 0.5485 -0.4279 -0.6734 -0.2032 0.5582 0.2630
126 0.4629 -0.5979 -0.5039 0.3311 0.8113 0.2221
112 0.3808 -0.7016 -0.1867 0.7080 0.4251 0.1829
98 0.3033 -0.7353 0.1921 0.7344 -0.2956 0.1460
84 0.2317 -0.7017 0.5333 0.3929 -0.7776 0.1118
70 0.1673 -0.6101 0.7507 -0.1517 -0.6350 0.0809
56 0.1113 -0.4762 0.7944 -0.6366 0.0249 0.0540
42 0.0652 -0.3213 0.6656 -0.8358 0.6915 0.0318
28 0.0303 -0.1712 0.4192 -0.6794 0.8665 0.0148
14 0.0081 -0.0541 0.1550 -0.3020 0.4816 0.0040
o 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

Moment, ft-kips:

Elevation, ft 1 2 3 4 5 SRSS

210 o o o o o o
196 72 2,661 19,186 65,894 157,732 62
182 274 8,958 56,860 167,448 332,516 213
168 594 17,222 94,081 221,161 307,182 426
154 1,019 25,858 115,574 183,151 66,594 677
140 1,535 33,425 112,369 63,421 -213,779 948
126 2,130 38,715 83,326 -83,092 -318,044 1,231
112 2,791 40,823 34,947 -185,969 -166,383 1,521
98 3,507 39,197 -20,594 -195,537 119,371 1,819
84 4,267 33,658 -68,763 -108,314 311,865 2,131
70 5,060 24,384 -96,467 30,687 259,070 2,465
56 5,877 11,863 -95,364 149,693 5,951 2,826
42 6,710 -3,191 -63,777 184,799 -239,327 3,217
28 7,553 -19,956 -6,651 109,762 -266,473 3,637
14 8,400 -37,632 66,561 -54,813 -20,266 4,081

(a) Shear calculation method similar with base shear = 37 kips.
(b) A single-wall steel stack, which has a height of 210ft, outside diameter of 12ft, and thickness of 0.50 in., which is located with Av =
0.30, has the modal properties and response spectrum earthquake SRSS values indicated in the above table.

el 0.12 for an isolated steel stack

S = 0.16 + 1- (A- 3) forA-< 15
0.12 a for a grouped stee
1 300 0 0
stack2 A
0.20 2::15
For a group of two or more identical steel stacks,
the amplification factor a and Strouhal Number S are
given as,
(A/D- 3) A < 15 For < 3 or for groups of identical steel stacks or
a = 1.50- nonidentical steel stack groups, interference effects shall
24 0 be established by reference to model test or other studies
= 1.0 for 2:: 15 of similar arrangements.
E-3 COMPUTATION OF VORTEX-INDUCED The number of cycles in T years at the equivalent
RESPONSE constant amplitude a 5 is given by
E-3.1 Evaluation of loads Dueto Vortex Shedding
The equation defining aM/5 can be written as,
D {1 _A,[1- 4( )'J

r Ve and Vzcr are evaluated at the same height.

iiM Al
w(z) a (21Tni) 2 <P (z) m(zYgc
el CM/mr J f3s 2

A Cz/mr f3s

For mr f3s > 0.8

For mr f3s < 0.4

= 0.5 (1 mtT'
E-3.2 PracticalApplication
The general solution may be reduced to the following
formulas of vortex shedding and then used to determine
equivalent static loads. For any values of mr {35 ,

The peak values for vortex shedding response are:

where is the maximum value and used to calculate

peak loads and stresses, while a 5 defines equivalent con
stant amplitude for fatigue calculations. The values of
g and gs are determined from the following:
For mr f3s > 0.8,
g 4.0
gs = 2.0

For mr f3s < 0.4,

g = 1.6
gs = 1.5
Linear interpolation is used for 0.4 < mr f3s < 0.8.

E-3.3 Equivalent Static loads

The equivalent static loads corresponding the dis
placement, M, are given by
A fatigue analysis can be performed using the methods R
in the CICIND Model Code for Steel Chimneys or the H
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).
ql (z) dz
E-3.4 Variable Diameter Stacks
For variable diameter stacks, the preceding method R 1.0 for nearly parallel
may be used with the following modifications to account c2 o.6 R
for the range of possible critica!diameters. The previous
method is used with the following changes in formulas. The limits change to
The peak response is determined by varying the range
of height being considered for any mean diameter, D, mr f3s > O.SR
for a portion of the steel stack where the diameter vares lnr f3s < 0.4R

15% from this mean diamete . The peak response is
E-3.5 Symbols and Definitions
determined by iterations over the full height of the stack.
A center-to-center stack spacing for interfer
ence effects, ft
( (#(z)dz constant
maximum value amplitude for static
<P (zM) ----- equivalent design loads, ft
2 maximum1 value amplitude for static
H <P (z) dz equivalent fatigue loads, ft
o r.m.s. dynamic displacement at z = Zm, ft

W 8(z) a5 (21Tni) </Y (z) m(zYgc constant for grouped/ isolated stacks
c2 constant Table E-4-1 Mode Shape by Element
CM mode shape constant
k zk, ft Eh, ft odk, ft htk, ft mk> lbn/ft ifJk
[5 mean diameter for the segment 21 to 22 or
for stacks with less than 10% variation 1 140 135 8 10 320 1.0000
over the top one-third the value of D is the 2 130 125 8 10 320 0.9022
average over the top one-third, ft 3 120 115 8 10 320 0.8044
2 4 110 105 8 10 320 0.7072
g gravitational acceleration (32.2 ft/ sec )
g constant for maximum static equivalent
loads 7 80 75 8 10 320 0.4272
gc gravitational constant (32.2 lbm-ft/ 8 70 65 8 10 320 0.3413
lbf-sec2 ) 9 60 55 8 10 320 0.2616
gs constant for fatigue static equiv. loads 10 50 45 8 10 320 0.1894
H height of steel stack, ft 11 40 35 8 10 320 0.1263
12 30 25 8 10 320 0.0742
me equivalent uniform mass per unit length,
13 20 15 8 10 320
lbm/ft 14 10 5 8 10 320 0.0092
dimensionless mass 15 o o 8 o o 0.0000
mass per unit length at height 2, lbm/ft
natural frequency of mode, Hz
effective number of cycles in period years
constant for tapered stacks Table E-4-2 Equivalent fatique and Static
Strouhal number loads by Element
life of stack in years k zk, ft whk lb/ft W 5k, lb/ft
critical speed for the segment
21 to 22 = 5n1D, ft/sec 1.00 140.00 3,366 3,155
mean hourly design speed (50-yr return 2.00 130.00 3,036 2,847
period) at the critical height 2cr used for 3.00 120.00 2,707 2,538
4.00 110.00 2,380 2,231
evaluating the critica! wind velocity
5.00 100.00 2,057 1,929
, (ft/ sec) 6.00 90.00 1,742 1,633
height 2 under consideration, ft 7.00 80.00 1,438 1,348
upper and lower limits of a section of the 8.00 70.00 1,149 1,077
stack over which the diameter changes by 9.00 60.00 880 825
30% (e.g., 15 15%), ft 10.00 50.00 637 598
11.00 40.00 425 399
2cr (z 1 + 22) or, for stacks with less than 10% 12.00 30.00 250 234
variation over the top third, 2cr = %H, ft
height at maximum modal shape displace 13.00 20.00 116 109
14.00 10.00 31 29
ment (H for mode 1), ft
amplification factor
15.00 0.00 o o
aerodynamic damping
structural damping
aspect ratio Height (ft):
air density (0.00238), lbm-sec2 1ft4 H = 140.00 ft
normalized mode shape at height, 2
(unitless) Top Ht Mean OS Diameter, ft:
max normalized modal displacement c/J(2) D = 8.00
for mode at 2 = 2M, for the first mode
2 = H (unitless) Top Ht Mean Thickness, in.:
equivalent static load, lbf/ ft t = 0.3125 in.
equivalent fatigue load, lbf/ ft
Ws(2) 3-sec gust Velocity (mph) from (Fig. I-1)
V= 100
See Tables E-4-1 and E-4-2. Vortex Shedding Design
per E-5 for steel stacks with less than 10% variation in
diameter in the upper one-third of the stack. Stack is
140 ft tall and has an 8-ft diameter and 0.3125-in. con
stant wall thickness.
Importance Factor (Tables I-2 and I-3)
I = 1.00 VR = Vjl

Exposure: (para. C

Reference Design Wind Speed:
First Mode Frequency, Hz: 5; n1 Dbar
n1 = 1.335
53.40 fps
Density of air, slugs/fe:
36.41 mph
p = 0.00238

Gravity Constant, ft/ sec2 Mean Hourly Design Speed at 5H/6 (ft):
g = 32.2 Zcr)abar 44
Vz.cr bbar ( VR
33 30
Structural Damping, unlined (Table
f3s = 0.004 115.78 fps

Shape Factor (Table 1-5): If Ve > 1.2 X Vzcr then ignore

C = 0.6583 Region if (Ve> 1.2 Vzcr'
"Need not Consider/' "Consider")
Spacing between stacks: Region "Consider"
A = 160 ft (20 X D)
If Ve > Vzer but less than 1.2 X Vzer reduction factor
First Mode, therefore (E-5):
CM = 2.0

Strouhal Number (E-5): Freduction

s, = if [> 15, 0.2, 0.16 + 30 ( 3)] Reduction if (Ve > Vzm "true/' "false")
Reduction = "false"
Average Diameter for Top Ht:
Freduction if (Reduction = "true/' Freduction, 1)
Dbar D
Freduction = 1.00
St 0.20 Grouped Chimney effects must be considered below
Vortex Shedding Elevation Range: 15 X Spa:
Z1 H A = 160.00
Z2 =
For Spacing below 3 X Spa/ Dbar Seek Advice:
For Exposure C (Table 1-1):
Advice if (< 3, "Seek Advice," "Use Code")
ar 0.65
e 0.2 ll'gp1 1.0
Ift 500
1.5 - 2_ (- 4)
1 24 Dbar
6.5 0.83
1 Advice "Use Code"
5 ll'gp3 2.0
Number of Sections: ll'gr if [A > 15 Dbar' 1, if (A
I 500 4 Dbar' ll'gp21 ll'gp3)]
k l...n 1.00
n 15
Zmin 15 A = 17.50
a 9.5
Zg 900 --2 ll'gr el = 0.12
Critical Elevation:
cf>c 2: ( )2 htk cPe = 35.288
Zcr 6H k= 1
1 15
116.67 ft me = cPe k m1c ht1c (c/J c) me = 320.000 lbm/ ft
z1 140.00 ft 1

z2 0.00 ft Maximum Deflection at Top for First Mode:

c/JzM 1.0
Critical Velocity:
c2 = o.6o
a5 = 4.5125
c/JzM H c/Jc whk = [ah (21TI11)2 cfJk mk]
H c/Jc

1.992 = [as (21TI1I)2 c/Jk mk]

me mr = 65.24
mr 2
P Dbar g Peak Bending Moment for Vortex Shedding:
mrf3s 0.2610 1 (WJk + Wfzk- 1) (zk + Zk-1)
el cM A1 = 0.01390 Mh 1,000 g k..;:2 2 (zk 1 zk)
mr jf3s A 18,784 ft-kip
0.60 A2 = 2.30
mr f3s Average Peak Moment to Consider for Fatigue:
mrf3s 0.2610 1 (Wsk + Wsk-l) (zk + Zk-1)
Ms 1,000 g k.-;:2 2 (zk 1- zk) 2
For any value of mr X /35 : 17,610 ft-kip
-1 (1- A2) + j(l- 2
A2) + 16 A21
A 2]v2
am Dbar [ 8
A Number of Stresses at Peak Moment for Fatigue:
2 2
1.6 + [ ]
2.4 (mr/3 - 0.4)
s _
gxh = 0.766
(50T)n 1 10
(Ve V
exp -15 (Ve V )

(mr/3 - 0.4) 0.5 N o = 1.17 X 108 cycles (based on 50 yr)

1.5+--s _ gxs = 1.326
Calculate Bending Stress dueto Peak Moment for
fatigue consideration.

Section Modulus:
Shnt {if [m,,B,< 0.4, 1.6 [if (m,,B,> 0.8, 4.0, Sxh]]} D 8.00 ft
1.60 D-!.
S 321TD (D4 Din.4) 123
{if [m, ,8, < 0.4, 1.5 [if (m,f3., >
2,239.95 in.3
0.8, 2.0, Sxh]]} M 5 12
gs = 1.50
94.34 ksi
For Peak Loads: ah = 4.8134
High bending stress level indicates failure for this
stack configuration. Additional damping or aerody
For Fatigue: namic wind spoilers such as helical strakes are required.

See Tables F-1 through F-15.

Table F-1 length Table F-6 Force/length

To Convert From To Multiply By To Convert From To Multiply By

in. mm 25.4000 lbf/in. N/m 175.13

in. cm 2.5400 lbf/ft N/m 14.59
ft m 0.3048
yd m 0.9144
mile (statute) km 1.6090
Table F-7 Pressure or Stress
(Force per Area)
Table F-2 Area To Convert From To Multiply By
To Convert From To Multiply By 2
kgf/m Pa 9.807
2 2 ksi MPa 6.895
in. mm 645.1600000 2
6.4510000 N/m Pa 1.000
ft2 m2 0.0929000 ksf kPa 47.880
2 m2 0.0006451 psf Pa 47.880
yd2 m2 0.8361000 psi kPa 6.895
sq mile (statute) m2 2'590,000.0000000

Table F-8 Bending Moment (Torque)

Table F-3 Volume (Capacity) To Convert From To Multiply By

Multiply By lbf-in. 0.1130

To Convert From To
lbf-ft 1.3560
29.570000 kgf-m 9.8070
gal 0.003785
in.3 16.400000
ft3 0.028320
yd3 0.764600 Table F-9 Mass
To Convert From To

Table F-4 Kinematic Viscosity ounce-mass (avoirdupois) g

ounce-mass (avoirdupois) kg
(ThermalDiffusivity) pound-mass (avoirdupois) kg 0.4536
To Convert From To Multiply By ton (metric) Mg 1.0000
ton (short, 2,000 lbm) Mg 0.9072
in. /sec m 2 /sec 0.0006451
2 stokes 6.4521000
in. /sec

Table F-1O Mass per Area

To Convert From To Multiply By
Table F-5 Force
To Multiply By psf 4.8800
To Convert From 2
lbm/yd 0.5425
N 9.807
N 4448.000
N 4.448
Table F-11 Mass per Volume Table F-14 Velocity
To Convert From To Multiply By To Convert From To Multiply By

3 3
lbm/in. kg/m 27,680.0000 in./sec m/s 0.02540
3 3
lbm/ft kg/m 16.0200 ft/sec m/s 0.30480
3 3
lbm/yd kg/m 0.5933 ft/min m/s 0.00508
lbm/gal (U.S. liquid) kg/m 119.8300 rnph km/h 1.60900
km/h m/s 0.27800

Table F-12 Temperatures

Table F-15 Acceleration
To Convert From To Multiply By To Convert From To Multiply By
Of oc te = (tr- 32)/1.8
oc OF tr = 1.8tc + 32
ft/sec m/s
K oc te= tk- 273.15 in./sec
freefall, standard m/s 9.8070

Table F-13 Heat

To Convert From To Multiply By

Btu/lbm J/kg 2326.0000

Btu in./h ft W/mK 0.1442
2 2
Btu/h ft F W/m K 5.6780
Btu/lbmF )/kg-C 4184.0000
Btu/lbmF Kcal/kg-C 1.0000