Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

VCEasy

VISUAL
CHEMISTRY
Units 3&4

v1
Get the latest
version online at
one page per Key Knowledge point www.VCEasy.org

VCEasy
Electrolytic Cells VISUAL
CHEMISTRY
Key Knowledge point
Reactions are the OPPOSITE
OPPOSITE to those in the galvanic cell. 4.2.7
Reactions are non-spontaneous and require energy. Area of Study
Examples Galvanisation plating a thin film of metal over another metal to make it prettier or more resistant to corrosion

Extracting metals from ores mining Unit


Recharging rechargeable batteries including car batteries
Increasing the thickness of the surface oxide layer of aluminium e.g. cans

+
Diagram Power
supply
Electron
e flow

AN OIL RIG CAT: Anode loses electrons & is oxidised +


+
AN OIL RIG CAT: Cathode gains electrons & is reduced

100% At anode, tin is oxidised


Tin rod e

At cathode, tin is reduced


highly
original Sn(s) Sn2+(aq) + 2e

Anode is POSITIVE in this cell Sn2+


Sn2+(aq) + 2e Sn(s)

Cathode is NEGATIVE in this cell visual


quizzes content
e Object
e being
NO3
plated

Tin plating rod loses mass. A coating of tin forms around the can.
Tin nitrate solution (electrolyte)

Electrolytes Allow charged ions to flow between the electrodes


Molten Electrolytes
Large amounts of energy are
Aqueous Electrolytes
Little energy required.
100%
required to melt the
electrolyte
Cheaper than using molten
electrolytes.
When producing H2 and Cl2, a selective VCE.
Nothing
Examples Molten sodium electrolyte Examples Sodium chloride electrolyte membrane is placed in the middle of the
electrolyte to prevent the H2 and Cl2 from
reacting with each other.
Na3AlF6 (cryolite) electrolyte

Sulfuric acid electrolyte


Used in the electro-refining of copper.
98% pure blister copper is the anode;
99.999% pure copper is the cathode.
added.
the chemical principles, half-equations and overall equations of simple electrolytic cells;
comparison of electrolytic cells using molten and aqueous electrolytes, and inert and non-inert
electrodes

Key knowledge point copied exactly


from the VCAA Study Design
The
ethanoic
faster production
acid
and faster
is replaced
and
produces ofhigher
a substance
produces
with ethanoic
higher
yields, to be
toyields,
the usedthe
ethanoic as a medicine
ethanoic
acid acid
is replaced usually
withrequi
that the general
hydroxyl chemical
group reaction
in the salicylicform anFigure
acid ester
molecule is:
14.2 that isfunctions
replacedethanw
as
heapreferred
numberanhydride
anhydride of(acetic
chemical
inpathway
a reaction for steps,
(acetic
the
withsynthesis
anhydride). knownThisas
anhydride).
ethanoic is athe
synthetic
This is the
preferred
Felix pathway.
preferred
pathway
Hoffmann, whotofiYou should
pathway
for
rst the
synthesised rect
for
synth
asp
carboxylic acid + alcohol esteracid + water(acetic acid) form acetyls
that the general
of aspirin of aspirin
(Figures chemical reaction to form an ester is:pure form in 1897.
and water.(Figures
14.3, 14.4). 14.3, 14.4). a chemically
This reaction
carboxylic could
This is be
acid usedreaction.
a+ slow
alcohol toformester acetylsalicylic
Also the yieldacid.
+ water is low,Interestingly,
as the water it isfo t
hydroxyl to group
drive in thereaction
OOH theHO
salicylic
OH HO
acid molecule
backwards. In an that functions
alternative O
asO the3.1
reaction alcoh
pathw
ThisaCHreaction could be used toacid form(acetic
acetylsalicylic acid. Interestingly, it isac t
in CH reaction
33 Cfaster
C CH with C
C+ ethanoic
3 and produces CH 3+C+ higher
H 2OCH C CH acid)
3 yields,3 the3ethanoic
CH to Cform
CH acetylsalicylic
3 acid is replaced
C C CH3C VCE
+ H w2CO

Making Aspirin
hydroxyl
in aThis
reaction
group
and water.anhydride O
isOofa aspirin
Ethanoic slow
in
with
Ethanoic
acid
the O
O
salicylic
(acetic
ethanoic
reaction.
acid Also
Ethanoic
O(Figures
O
acid
Water
acid
anhydride).
the
molecule
(acetic
Ethanoic
acid yield
Thisacid)
acid is low,
that
is the to
Figure
functions
preferred
form
asO14.3
the water
as the
pathway for
acetylsalicylic
OO formed
alcoh
VISac
CHEMten
Wate
t
and water. 14.3, 14.4). O
to drive the reactionanhydridebackwards. In an alternativeEthanoic
Formation of ethanoic
reaction anhydride. which
pathway,
3.2
UNIT 3
Ethanoic Ethanoic
anhydride anhydride
Synthetic
This
was anis a Pathway
slow
extract reaction.
from coal Also
tarthe the yield
black, is
stickylow,
faster and produces higher yields, the ethanoic acid is replaced with ethan as
substancethe water
that is formed
produced ten
to when the
drive
anhydride coal is heated
reaction
(acetic in the absence
backwards.
OH
anhydride). HOThis ofthe
In isan air.preferred
Once hereaction
alternative had
pathway made salicylic
pathway,
for O acid
which
the synthe
he
faster replaced
O andOH
CH the OH
produces hydroxyl
C higher functional
+yields, theC group
O ethanoic
CH withacid anOHis
ester
CH 3 functional
replaced C withgroup 3.2
ethan
C C
of aspirin
OH (Figures
O 3 14.3, 14.4). OH3O
to form (acetic
anhydride acetylsalicylic O acid (Figure
anhydride). O
This is 14.4).
the This is pathway
preferred the compound for theknown
synthe w

C CH
condensation
C as aspirin. O CH O C C
prod
commercially Ethanoic
3
acid
3
Ethanoic acid
cond
ofO aspirin
C (Figures
CH
OH 14.3,
OH C
14.4). C OH O C OCH C
O
CH
O
O
re

The production
3
OH HOof a substance to SLOW
be used as a medicine O usually requires
3 3
Ethanoic
VCEasyanhydride
a 3number
CH O C
++ + CH3+
of chemical steps,
O CC known
CHO3 as a synthetic
H
CH3 pathway.C You CH3 + recall
+ should
O C 4.1.2CH
C CH
3 + H2O3
VISUAL
CHEMISTRY
Calculating H O
that the general
OH
O chemical
HO
CO reaction
CO to form an ester ! is: O O Exothermic negative H
gives out energy

CHEthanoic C acid +OH Ethanoic C acid CH3 CH C anhydride isC CH3by+combin


H2O
OEthanoic Oprepared
carboxylic acid + alcohol O Water
CH3ester + water
3 O 3 OH
O CHO3
EA!
Energy, H

(activation energy)

H = Hproducts Hreactants
Reactants

O O
CH3
two moleculesEthanoic anhydride
of ethanoic acid (Figure 14 H

This reaction O
acid could
C be usedEthanoic
to form acetylsalicylic C acid. Interestingly, it is the
Products

cetylsalicylic
Salicylic acidSalicylic
acid acidEthanoic
Ethanoic acid Acetylsalicylic
A water Acetylsalicylic
acid acid Ethanoic acidEth
Ethanoic Ethanoic acid Omolecule is O also produced. Water
hydroxyl group in
(aspirin) OHthe(acetic
anhydridesalicylic
C acid molecule
anhydride
acid) (aspirin) that functions
Effects of a Catalyst
O
(aspirin) C as CHthe 3 (aceticalcoholacid)(a
Ethanoic anhydride
in Alkanol
a reaction with ethanoic
+ acidO (acetic acid)Exothermic to form negative H acetylsalicylic +VCEasy + acid
! Solution

+ Carboxylic Acid Ester CH3


Water
4.1
A useful formula to use in calculations such as
Since the density of water is 1.00 g mL1, the mass of 120 mL of water is 120 g.
this is:
The energy required to raise the temperature of 120 g of water by 1C = 4.184 120

O OH O OH O
Energy (J) = 4.184 mass of water (g)
gives out energy = 502.0 J.
Calorimeters
temperature rise (C)

and water.
Figure 14.4Figure 14.4
or
VISUAL Since the temperature rises by (100.0 20.0) = 80.0C, the total energy required
Energy (J) = 4.184 volume of water (mL) = 502.0 80 = 40 160 J.
density of water CHEMISTRY
C
chemfact
The energy required to raise the temperature of the water to 100C is 40.2 kJ.
EA is4.2.2
CH
temperature rise (C).

CThisfrom
ylic acidStructural
(aspirin) is asalicylic
slow
Structural
equation forequation
3acid
the O forethanoic
reaction.
and Also
the
preparation the yield
preparation
Method
isacid low,
C of acetylsalicylic
of acetylsalicylic
Find out how much heat is being absorbed by the
(aspirin) as
calorimeter.
25.3 the
acidfrom water
(aspirin)
salicylic formed
The density of water varies with temperature.

from acid
decreased
The density of water at 5C is 1.0000 g mL1.

and tends
salicylic acid an
ethanoic EA!

O OH O OH Run an electric current through the calibration heater. Using E = (activation energy
Energy, H

Calibration

OH O of water.CH O CtoconvertedMeasuring
CH the heat
without a catalyst)

converted to todrive
(acetic)ethanoic
(acetic)
the acid
anhydride. anhydride.
by the
Unreacted
reaction Unreacted
ethanoic
C addition
backwards. ethanoic
anhydride anhydride
In 3an isalternative
converted
Reactants
isCalibration
VIt,
ethanoic
reaction
and by reading

released
the
VIt3
to
acid ethanoic
pathway,
thermometer,

during
find
by
the calibration

a Britain
acid
the addition
factor.

reaction was
by the
which isadd
ofOH
wate EA with catalyst

CH O During World
Factor =
T War
Units: J C
I, unable t 1

faster
C and produces
+ acid3 higher
Salicylic O yields, the ethanoic
Ethanoic C acid is= Calibration
Acetylsalicylic
Bomb replaced
and solution
+ T acid
H
FactorcalorimetryUnits:with
H stays
J CH ethanoic
C Eth
O obtain aspirin Changefrom its German manufac
the same
Quicker Synthetic Pathway
Energy Change Experiment

O 3

UNIT 4
Enthalpy changes are measured directly using an instrument called a

anhydride OH (acetic anhydride).


C anhydride
This is the preferred C pathway H =CH
(aspirin)
Products
Energy
3
n for the synthesis
Units: J mol OH (a
calorimeter. Figure 25.7a shows the components of a bomb calorimeter
1
used for reactions that involve gaseous reactants or products. The reaction

C In 1915, the British government


The exam could ask for either
H or Heat of Combustion
offered
O
vessel in a bomb calorimeter is designed to withstand the high pressures that
may be created during reactions. A calorimeter employed for reactions in

of aspirin +
(Figures 14.3, 14.4). +
Energy Change Heat aqueous
of
kJ g1
solutions is shown in Figure 25.7b. Both calorimeters are insulated
H = Units:

andMake acetic
The (ethanoic)
The
products, products,
acid, haveacetylsalicylic
acetylsalicylic to be
acid and acidacetic and acetic
(ethanoic) (ethanoic)
CH acid, have acid to
kJ L1

O
gram Combustion
C to reduce loss or gain of energy to or from the outside kJ environment.

reward of 20 000 to anyone who could


mol1

Ethanoic Anhydride
O CH
Unreacted
O ethanoic anhydride
energy profile diagrams andH gas 3 water
Wood 18 kJ mol
the= 143use
2 kJ mol

produced
When
ofis
High heat of combustion = better
1
fuel! a reaction takes place in a calorimeter, the heat
a rise or fall in the temperature of the contents of the calorimeter. Before
1

in
H notation including: activation energy; alternative
change causes

Figure 14.4
reaction pathways for catalysed reactions; the calorimeter and deduction
can be ofofuse,
Hwe for must
an overall reaction given
first determine how much energy
will react with water to
foreseparated
it can be separated
put the
and intoCandtablet
producttheformproduct
purifi and
ed purifi
before edit before
can be itput canacid intobe put
tablet into formtab 4.2
energy profiles or H of two related reactionsto change the temperature within a calorimeter by 1C. This is
is required
3
develop
produce aethanoic
workable E = VIt
manufacturing Oproc
condensati
known as the calibration factor of the calorimeter.
reaction E = VIt

Salicylic acid Structural Ethanoic


equation for the preparationAcetylsalicylic
of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) from salicylic acid an
Electric heater for Electric heater for
a b

acid Ethanoic acid


calibrating the Electric heater calibrating the

for aspirin Oso that the country could ma


calorimeter calorimeter

packagedpackaged for sale. for sale.


to ignite sample Stirrer Thermometer Stirrer

OH HO
Thermometer

OH HO
Oanhydride CH
(acetic) anhydride. Unreacted
3 ethanoic anhydride
(aspirin)
CH3its own
is converted to ethanoic (acetic
C supply. The
acid by acid)
the add
teless CH3
and C
is much +
Acetylsalicylic
Acetylsalicylic less isCvirtually
irritating
acid acidCH3
to is
the virtually
tasteless tasteless
andacid is much reward
andC isless CH3 +was
much H2O
less
irritating wonirrit
by
to
Salicylic acid Ethanoic Acetylsalicylic Ethanoic acid
Pressurised vessel

O O Melbourne pharmacist, George Nicholas


not until
stomach afterstomach
it
than has passed
than
salicylic salicylic
through
acid acid
the
itself. It itself.
is not It is not
until afteruntil after
it has it (acetic
passed hasWater
passed
through
Oxygen under
pressure

Figure 14.4 acid anhydride (aspirin) acid)


Ethanoic Ethanoic acid who Owent on to Omarket aspirin under th
Water

drolyses)
Structuralin
stomach stomach
the
that
equationalkaline
The it the
for that
reacts conditions
itwith
reacts
preparation
products, with
ofwater in(hydrolyses)
water
acetylsalicylic
acetylsalicylic acid (hydrolyses)
(aspirin)
acid
name and in the
from inname
salicylic
acetic
Aspro. The theAspro
alkaline
acid alkaline
and
(ethanoic) acidc
condition
ethanoic
comes
Sample in crucible

Ethanoic anhydride Insulated container

morethe effective
small the salicylic
small
intestine intestine
acid.
and and
returns returns
to the toedthe
more more
effective iteffective
salicylic salicylic
acid. ac
Insulated Glass bulb Solution of

(acetic)
Figure anhydride.
14.4 Unreacted ethanoic anhydride is converted to ethanoic acid by the addition of water.
container containing one reactant

Nicholas Products.
second reactant

25
separated and the product
React Ethanoic Anhydride with Salicylic Acid purifi before can be put into tab Figure 25.7
Bomb Calorimeter
Calorimeters used for measuring energy changes in reactions. Solution Calorimeter

Structural equation for the preparation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) from salicylic acid and ethanoic
a A bomb calorimeter used for reactions that involve gases. b A solution calorimeter. Breaking the glass bulb starts the reaction.

406

(acetic) packaged
anhydride. for sale. Supplying
Su
u and using energy
application of calorimetry to measure energy changes in chemical reactions in solution calorimetry

OH Unreacted
COOH ethanoic anhydride O is converted to ethanoic
COOH acidCOOH by the addition of water.
and bomb calorimetry, including calibration of a calorimeter and the effects of heat loss

O COOHCOOH OH
H CH
Acetylsalicylic acid is virtually tasteless and is much less irrit
O O
OH (ethanoic) acid, have to
TheCproducts,
stomach acetylsalicylic
OHO + than
O
salicylic acid
+ Hacid
and
COH 3
itself. acetic
OH
CH
C 3COOH
O C 2O + HO 2O It C
is notCHuntilOHafter it OH
+ CH has
3COOHpassed
+ CH3CO
mallseparated and the product
C purifi ed
CH3before
FAST within small itincan
smallbe put into tablet form a
OH 3
stomach
The products,
tinepackaged
that it reacts
CH 3
+ acetylsalicylic acid water
and acetic
intestine
(hydrolyses)
+ in
(ethanoic)
intestine
theCalkaline
CH acid, have toc
for
the sale.
small
O
intestinepurifi
and ed
returns O
toitthe more effective salicylic aca
3

separated and the product before Figure


can be14.5
put into tablet form
Acetylsalicylic acid is virtually tasteless and is much less irritating to t
C O
Acid
Ba (aq) + SO +example,
(aq)
For metal oxide
BaSO salt
the (s)
reaction + water
between dilute hydrochloric
Acid Formula Anions
3 3
water.
identifi
4
reaction
metal
In
can
the
cation
type,
beIn
case
an of of metal
reaction
example
represented
4
is given.
by the
carbonates,
products should carbon be dio ba
of supersaturate
Solution areequation:

VCEasy
This type of equation, in
Metal oxides which an
include aqueous
spectator Na2O,solution
ions
MgO, ofomitted,
CaO hydrogen
and ZnO. ischloride,
called nearly
exothermic
an ionic all
proc
Hydrofluoric HF Fproduced

in these groups, or reaction types, can be useful.
nc
Reaction is
type present
3 as ionsvirtually no molecules of hydrogen

e co
Step 1. equation.
Identify the possible products
Ionic equations Metal of the
oxides
are
2HCl(aq) reaction are
simpler
+ by
Zn(s) swapping
usually
than the
basic the positive
full
ZnCl oxides
2(aq)
and
+ Hnegative
since
equations they
2(g) and contain
focus the
on
Ethanoic CH3COOH CH3COO the reactions Solution Formula Reaction
The type
following
solution 1 is are
known six as of theDilution
the
hydrochloric more
the fullcommon
acid. Formu
h General reaction types involving
Volumetric Analysis
ions of the reactants: ion. Water-soluble
+ takes oxides tend to form hydroxide ion:
each+
actual reaction that place. Sometimes, however, equation
Acid
Acid
This metal
+equation,
reactive
reaction oxide
canIn this metal be
alsoreaction, salt
represented saltwater
hydrogen +byhydrogen
an
d t
ionicmolecule
chloride equatio
H! 2SO4 reaction type, a an forexample is given.
fin soln
Products:
is preferred. lead iodide
From and potassium
a full nitrate example, you can tell which particular
Sulfuric HSO4Step and2. SO 2
solution
Metal O the
oxides(aq) to+H O(l)
water
hydrochloric
include Na
molecule. 2OH
acid
2O, MgO, is(aq)
According
CaO ionised to the
and
anddilution
ZnO. BrnstedLowry
the zinc chlo
2

There are numerous ways in which acids = and


VISUAL
4 the correct formulas
Write of the reactants and possible products.
2
=when Conc. MetalinVolume Before

of a
Hydrogen gas is produced#from moles compound
metals will dissolve
Reactive water
metals
oxides chloride
areto usually
includeprovide Ca,
has acted aMg,
basic source
as an Kacid.
oxides and ofsince
an water
Zn
The ion.
but
they not Cu,
molecule
contain Ag
thehas or
oa
Reactants compound) is dissociated. The
When an acid is added to a metal oxide, a salt and water
Products equation can therefore be wri
Figu
are

n=cV c1V1 = c
Nitric the
HNOacid solution isNOdilute. Some acids give
Pb(NO3)2 and KI Reaction
however,When to
dilute
the group acids
hydrogen some
are added
chloride reactions
to main
molecule, together
group
so has metals,
acted ason
and th
aPrecip
base s
3 3 ion. Water-soluble
For example, type the 1
oxides
reaction tend to form
between the hydroxide
dilute nitric ion:
acid and so
CHEMISTRY
gases other than hydrogen when concentrated. PbI2 and KNO2H +3
(aq) + 2Cl (aq) + Zn(s) Zn 2+
(aq) + 2Cl
(aq) + H
Worked example themetals, 12.1bbubbles
reactants of
Hinvolved
hydrogen H gas are
andequation: released,
products
all atoms occurformed.
and a salt is form
Asni2
lead +

Hydrochloric HCl Cl Step 3. Write the equationAcid


both sides.
oxide
and
identifi
For
can
balance
O (aq)be
+cation
it sorepresented
reactive
example,
Theforchloride
+ that
ionof
equal
O(l)
the
isHCl(g)
the
by 2OH
numbers
metal
reaction
reactiononly
the of(aq)

between
spectator
O(l)
+ Hsolutions
products ion. VCEasy
salt
dilute
The
H Onitrate
should
(aq)
on
Cl+(aq) hydro
hydrochloric
+ionic equation
bearebap
2
2

+

Acids low F pH; mol sour


Write
taste;
an ionic equation
react
the reaction
with between
bases
the of lead Hand potassium

3.1.1
When 2HNO an (aq)
beacid is+ acid
CaO(s)
added
toby a the
metal Ca(NO oxide, ) (aq)
a salt + and O(l)
water
2 3

allows you to find out the concentration of a solution Hydrofl uoric HF = described
iodide mol
Pb(NO
metal
L)-1inReactive
+Worked
these
2KI
The

For
can
example
groups,
2H
calcium
+
metals
example,
PbI
represented
L oxide
(aq) 12.1a.
++ or Zn(s)
theisinclude
2KNO
reaction
reaction
a solid
base
Zn
so
2+
Ca,
between
the
equation:
mol
types,
(aq)
Mg,
ions
-1 (g)L VISUAL
LHcan
+dilute
K
are
2 be
and
nitric
not acid=
useful.
Zn
dissociated. but
and The m
no
soli 3 2
3

2 3
3 2 2


test your sample of unknown concentration with a volume of known concentration. oxide
The
2HCl(aq)
can be solution + Zn(s) by theZnCl
represented
Acidbase
following are conjugate
six
2(aq)
equation:
of pairs
the CHEMISTRY
+ H2basin
settling (g)
more common
BasesCH
Ethanoic 3COOH high CH3COO pH; Step
Step
bitter
4. Solution
Deduce,
the statetaste;
from Table is ionised
When
10.4,
react
which in
of dilute
the
inwith
products and
acidsis the
acids
calcium
are
precipitate. nitrate
added The is
to ionic
main
precipitate and
is therefore
group m
recall the Solution Formula (Unit 2.1.1c) & Brnsted-Lowry Theory (Unit 2.1.2). ! Precipitation
given
(aq).
Hydrogen gas is produced from metals when 2+ Include the
symbol
Rewrite themetals,
1. occurs
Pb (aq) + Acid
This
when
Reaction
when
solution
appropriate
The
Acid
For
reaction
(s) and
reaction
Reaction
equation
+
dissolved
+
2HNO
calcium
Reaction 2H
the
type,
bubbles
the
states
metal
metal
type
solubility
with type
in
(aq)
example,
type
(aq)can
soluble
Because
the 3an
soluble
hydrochloric
the
single
also be
+solution.
2CaO(s)
reactants
equation.
example
ofis
3hydroxide
+oxide
oxide +2NO
HCl
proton,
is +a solid
(aq)
the
+
So

and
and
hydrogen
extremely
ionic
represented
the
Cl
compounds
acid
theyso
salt
CaO(s)
reaction
are
is
can
is
equation
Ca(NO
product given.
ions
be
gas low
bybecomes:
the )formed
(aq)
state
areand
dissociated
ionised
salt
the+called
water a Ca
are not
between
+an

+(aq)
conjugate
H ionic
symbol
from
into
water
O(l)
released,
theions.
dissociated.
equatio
each other
zinc
+ acid/base
2NO (aq)
dilute
andchlo
The pa
h
+
b
+
3


2.1.2 3 2

2+
2

Indicators change colour


the acid solution depending
is dilute. Some acids give Pb(NO on )the 2NO
pH
isAcid
(aq) ionised of
3 (aq)
compound)
+ 2KI(aq) their
+
in
+hydroxides
metal
2K
is
H
solution
2
(aq)
oxide
environment
dissociated.
O are
PbI and
(s)

2I(aq)
also a The
calcium
O,+MgO,2KNO

conjugate
salt
equation
+nitrate
(aq)
PbI
pair.
water
can
A
+is2NO
(s)ZnO.
therefore
conjugate
ionic(aq)and + pairbe
therefore
2KHCl
is
(aq)
wri
two d
3 3

Reaction type 1 i.e.


+
The
Metal
Metal nitrate
oxides ions
includeare spectator
Na
include ions
NaOH, +CaO in this
and
Ca(OH) reaction
2+ 2 and3 and so the
Mg(OH) ionic.an 3 2 2 3
gases other than hydrogen when concentrated. metal
when Metal
can + be
dissolved
2Hoxides
(aq) by inrepresented
a2Cl
+are proton,
solution.
(aq) basic
usually + So H
Zn(s) the by
. For

oxides
the
2the
equation
sinceZn equation:
reaction
becomes:
(aq)
they
between
+ 2Cl
contain (aq)
the +2H
oxide (2
2

The hydroxide ions from metal hydroxides (H ) react rea

Definitions
pairs are shown as:
BrnstedLowry
Removetheory conjugate acids have gained aO(l)
proton
+
Stepions
2. to
Remove Conjugate
the acid/base
spectator
Metal pairs
ions,
oxides to+ give
include the
Na ionic
O,
equation
MgO,whenCaO for
and
mixing the
ZnO.reaction.
aqueous
+hydroxide solutions, ions can
2H (aq)
+equation: CaO(s) Ca

form(aq) H
+ofthe
+ 2+
the spectator get the simplified
Acid
The 2H
Metal
hydronium reactive
ion. Water-soluble
(aq) ion
chloride
oxides
ion,
oxides
Ionic equations
+ are
2NO
H (aq), metal
tend
(aq)
isusually
+ the onlyto
+ CaO(s)
from
basic
Reaction
the
Flocculation

spectator
2HCl(aq)
exchange
acids.
oxides
typein Ca
aion.
since
The salt
(aq)
The
+ Zn(s)
double
they
3the
In(s)
ion:
+
products 2NO
ionic hydro
(aq) +H
equation
displacement
contain ZnCl2(aq)
anreacti
oxide
acid
next reaction, between (
NH and+ HH2(g)O, the
+
3

2 2 2+
3

Pb (aq) + 2I (aq)O
(aq) +PbI
ion.anitrate
2+
H O(l) 2OH
Water-soluble
ExampleAny(aq)
resulting
-
solids are precipitates.
1water. 22oxides
2
HCl(g) tend ++/NH
Hto form
2O(l)
the hydroxide H 3O 3+ (aq)

ion:
+ ionsCl (aq) + 3 2
are
The salt and ions +are spectator Alum ions provides in this 2Al
Hreaction (aq) and soprocess
the ineach solut
ionic e
In the next Acids
reaction, between areNH proton donors
In the reaction between
3 and H2O, the conjugate acidbase This Acid
Reactive
the solutions
Reaction For
When
+2H
reaction metal
+

Oexample,
(aq)
2 metals
an typeacid
pairs
of oxide
Zn(s)
barium
+ H2isO(l)
are
4added
can
the include
acid

NH
chloride
also
reactionto 2OH
4
abasemetal
base be
3 salt
Flocculation
Zn 2+
Ca, Mg,
and
between
and
(aq)
2+ oxide,
sodium++
represented
H O/OH
water
2(g)
solutions
aCONJ.
acidsalt
is
KACIDsulfate,
and
and
the because
water Zn
of
base by sulfuric
are but an
produce nobac
io
ac
(aq)corresponding
(aq) ions to form
by
(aq) one a+proton.
precipitate of alumini
! 4+/NH3 and H2O/OH because the
B-L ACID B-L BASE CONJ. BASE
equation is often written as: 2H +
+ CaO(s) join
Ca together
(aq) H 2O(l)to form larger, h
pairs are NH each acid
chemfact differs from its
Acid
Metal For+
When metal
oxides
example, diluteinclude carbonate
the acids
Nato2O,
reaction
a are

MgO,
between added CaO
dilutesalt and to+ ionised
nitric water
main
ZnO.acid and +groupcarbon
solid calc m
solution
hydroxide the can hydrochloric
be represented by acid
the equation:is and th
concentration in ppm = mg L1 = chemfact
mg kg1
When an acid is added metal 3+oxide,
+a NH salt and water are produc
correspondingBasesbase by one proton.
Hydrogen gas is 12.1 are proton
produced Water
from metals acceptors
purification
when BaCl
react2(aq) + Na 2SOReaction
aoxide
iscompound)
4(aq)
metals, Metal
four-step can be
+ Example oxidestype
represented
BaSO 2 the
process
are
4(s) 2NH +usually by theH
3(aq) +
2NaCl(aq) under
basicAl
equation:
2O(l) oxides
(aq)
their 3OH own
since
4 (aq)
+ (aq) +weight
they OH

contain

(aq) Al(O
and Figu
th
Hbubbles of hydrogen gas are released, and
When acids with water, hydronium Metal (H For example,
3O )carbonates reaction
include Nabetween
2CO , MgCOdilute nitric
3 and
acid
CaCO and solid
3.O(l)
calc
summary
the acid solution is dilute. Some acids give Reaction
ion.
Acid 2SO
+ metal
Water-soluble type(aq) is dissociated.
+CaO(s)
4 2NaOH(aq)
oxides
hydroxide tend

to
3The
Flocculation
form Na equation
2SO
acid + water
the 4(aq)
hydroxide can + 2H canbe 2 there
ion: achiev
Possib
Aluminium the ionic salt hydroxide is produced
ions are produced. When bases react oxide
with can
2HNO be represented
4(aq) + by the equation:
Ca(NO ) (aq) + H O(l)
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4 (aq) + OH (aq) However, when ionic substances Acids
For reacting
dissolve
example, with B-L
in themetalreaction
BASE
basewater, carbonates
B-L
acid ACID produce
compounds
CONJ.
between
ACID
carbon base dioxide g
CONJ. BASE
dilute h
concentration in ppb = g L1 = g kg1
+ 3 3 2 2
When acids react with water, hydronium (H3O+)
Acid a+ metal carbonate salt +that water +2+ carbon +2. 2td
water, hydroxide (OH) ions are produced. Strong acids
ions are produced. When bases react with gases6 other Reactionsthan hydrogen
acidof Acids
when concentrated.
base dissociate (Chapter 10)Metal
The
with intosulfuric
The salt
their
calcium2H
2HNO
O 2 + and
(aq) acid
ions
3oxide
(aq)(aq) +water.H is
+in ionised
+is2CaO(s)
asolution.
2Cl
O(l) solid (aq)sointhe
precipitate
neces
solution
This
2OH +ions
Ca(NO sary,
means
Zn(s) )2and
called
are
(aq) (aq) not lime.
+both the
dissociated.
H 2O(l) Lime
itsodium
fl
Znisoc, The
(aq) (Ca(OH
which hydroxnitric
base acid
metalReaction hydroxides
can type
be The 3include
Itrepresented
H +
ion in NaOH,
water by Ca(OH)
the
3
equation: and Mg(OH)

Flocculation
water, hydroxide (OH) ions are produced. free ions that are reacting sulfate
is
Metal ionised
For
to formare in
example,
carbonates ionic
asolution
precipitate, and
was
the
include and therefore
mentioned calcium
colour
reaction Naand source and
previously
the dissociated
nitrate
between some
that,
equation is
of ionic
when
a hydroxide in
2and
microorganisms
hydrogen
solution
is more solution.
thereforeof3ions
chloride nitric Water
dissoci
gas
inisfroth
bu
aci
2CO ,metal
MgCO 3 and CaCO .hydrogen
standard solutions have known concentrations Add & The
The
Acid The
When calcium
when dissolved
covalent + ions
chloride
hydroxide
metal
an
molecular
oxide
acidin oxide
through
ion
is a ions
is
solution.
solid
added
water,
substance
isZn(s)
the
sofrom
to
it
Sobethe
the
a
ionises
only
ions
3
salt
metal
equation
that
are not
oxide,
completelyvirtually
does LIME
spectator not
dissociated.
hydroxides
+inbecomes:
water a salt
ALUM
ionise ion. and
no The
react water
todioxide
The any
nitricreaar
chl
sign
io to was
1
The H+ When water of ionic compounds areaccurately
ion insolutions mixed, a reaction expressed as: magnesium Acids
is ionised The2HCl(aq) in carbonate
reacting notAmolecules
solution with
hydrogen
involved +and can
metal
in ion
calcium (or represented
thecarbonates
which
reaction proton)
nitrate isproduce
dissolves
remain ionic by
solution
in(aq)the
andsolutionequation:
carbon
inis HNO water
represented
therefore and are by
dissoci gaa
FULL EQUATION hydronium For example, ion, H the +
(aq),
remain
reaction from
(Figure
acids.
between
14.6a).
ZnCl
The Similarly,
dilute products pure
nitric + H
ofacid
and
(g)
an H
acid
and
SO 3 2

Acid ion+(or
occurs Metal
proton)
if oppositely saltions
charged +isHcombine to form + + 2Cl(aq)Metal
2+an insoluble So when
with
+ 2Na
the
a called
2H equation
a+dissolved
salt
2HNO
+
oxides and+(aq)
(aq)
spectator
++ 3SO
simply,
in
2NO
water.
include becomes:
covalent
solution.
+3ions.
HNa
(aq)
MgCO
+
Settling
molecular+ So
(aq) CaO(s)
2O,
andcompounds,
the
(s)MgO,
is
dissociation
called
equation CaO
Mg(NO
which the
Cabecomes:
2+
(aq)
and
also 2 ionise
hydronium
)2ZnO.
3is:
completely
+ 2NO3 (aq)ion.
(aq) + H2O(l) +2 CO
2+ HThein water
O(l)h

primary standards should be cheap, easilyb obtainable and easy to store A hydrogen in solution 2
represented a as BaH (aq)
3O (aq) or,
b more are
oxide salt(aq)
can and
be water.4 (aq)
2
represented 3by the equation:
a IONICb EQUATION
TheFor Metal 2Hexample, (aq)
+oxides
attracts +spectator
the
are Zn(s)
more
HCl(g) +
reaction between
usually water
H
O(l)
basic
molecules HZn O
oxides
(aq)
a2+(aq)
2+ and + Cl
solution
+asince
is
(aq) + H
further
they of (g) hydrated.
nitric
+

contain H2acid thH

simply, Hcompound. This Thereaction


nitrate ions
reaction + are can can 3 be
also ions
represented
+ CaO(s)
be
in +
this represented
eitherreaction
+ by and
full so
+ chemical the 3+by
ionic an
+ toequatio io
2 3
2H +
(aq) 2NO (aq) BaSO
The (s)
+H4water 2Na is
+ Ca
(aq) (aq) 2Cl 2NO

(aq) 32(aq) O(l)
(aq) and is called the hydronium ion. The hydronium ion itself + H then +left to stand allo
+
For 2H (aq)
example, SOthe 2
(aq)
reaction 2Na +
between (aq) 2OH solutions (aq) of sulfuric ac
The!insoluble
O+
O The nitrate ions are
molecules spectator
H4 SO (l) +not
are Alum
ions
O(l) as inCa(NO
strongly provides
this O
reaction
attracted
(aq) HSO
Al
and
+and
(aq)
(aq)
so
their the ions
ionic
numbe
+

aa b magnesium
ion. 2HNO carbonate
3(aq) +oxides can
CaO(s) be represented 2 4
by
3)
2
the
(aq) equation:
Hthe H 2O
O(l)
3 4

attracts more water moleculescompound andforms a precipitate,


is further hydrated.which However,cana be these water The Water-soluble
equation
nitrate isions or
+ are by an ionic
spectator which tend
(l) equation
+ions 2+ to
the
in this form
that
+ settledfocuses
reaction the 2Na +2and hydroxide
only soon
(aq)
+ (aq)
materials the +2SO ionic ion:
actual
form 2
(aq)a2++s
4 equatio
excess reagent is not completely consumed in a reaction. hydroxide 2H+(aq) can CaO(s)
be represented Ca (aq)by theH 2O(l)
equation:
solution + the hydrochloric
HNO H O(l)
acidH O (aq)
is NO
ionised and th
+
Barium
H Hsulfate, being insoluble, not appreciably dissociated
ions LIME to
3

form
2+ Ca(OH) into 2
its
a ions.
precipitate
(s)
3

Ca of (
3

Settling of the floc


O+ moleculescollected
are not as strongly attracted and their number is not constant. 2H (aq) + MgCO (s) Mg (aq) + H O(l) + CO (g)

2
Hydrogen bygasfiltration.
is produced from metals when ions reacting. +O(l) +dissociated. 2 +acids.
O H
It precipitates andFULL is Hwritten TheHas
H
compound)
2HNO
calcium
BaSO
O
2H 2
+ (aq)
(aq) (s)Some
3(aq)
oxide
+ + to
H
CaO(s)
Acids MgCO
is
indicate a common
3 solid
that
to
3(s) 2+
ionise
the
that
Ca so
completely
2OH fiit
(aq) the
ltering
is Mg(NO
+ a acids
ionsin solution
solid.
(aq)
H O(l) stage. 3)22
are
All (aq)
and
not
of
2 called
are
Thethe bases
H2O(l) strong
sludge COT
acc 2S(

isThe
Reaction
EQUATION ionic H2SO equation
4 type isacids dissociated.
+2acid. is therefore:
2 The equation 4(aq) + 2H
acidscan there
4 (aq) 2NaOH(aq) Na SO
17 2O(l)
O(l) donate protons easily. Solutions
2 of strong would contain
H H
the acid
Acid + solutionHydroxide
Metal is dilute. Some Vitamin
acids
salt
othergive+ HCO(C6H8are
substances O6)dissolved is aionised
Reactionmonoprotic
and intype
are solution
2

therefore4 and The


present calcium vitamin
as ions nitrate
Al in3+ 2C
(aq) is
solution. content
ionic
+ 3OH and of a
therefo
(aq)
limiting reagent is completely consumed in a reaction and which determines the amount of product formed. The nitrate ions are spectator tank and
ions ALUM in is removed.
this reaction and so the ionic e
H H
Some gases common acids and bases Figure 14.32 When
H O (aq) + an acid Acids
+has
with Ammonia
virtually
isandadded
acidbases
is

no behaving
unreacted
tocan aand metal
be
here acid
either
as a
oxide,
base
molecules
molecular
because
aas
remaining.
salt
it has
and
compounds
gained
Hydrochloric
water
a pro
aro
2+
+
H
key questions other than hydrogen whentablet concentrated. was determined IONIC EQUATION
Acid when
The
Reaction
Acid by
For+
titration
Hmetal
sulfuric (aq)
+metal
+dissolved acid
type OHin
4is
sulfuric
carbonate with (aq)
hydroxide
5solution.
ionised
donated aNaOH
and inSo

proton
nitric Hthe
solution
acid 2solution.
O(l)
are
so
salt equation
isthe and
+most
behaving water both
common0.300 salt
becomes:
+sodium
an strong
acid.
carbon gOnly of
acids. aasmall
+ofhydrox wat
dioxid
3

Figure 14.3
a The hydronium ion, H3O+, is the conjugate Reaction 2H
2H example,
(aq) (aq)
+type
sodium
+ofMgCO +
the
ammonia 2Cl carbonate
reaction
3(s)
(aq)

molecules Aluminium+between
(Na Mg Zn(s)
2CO
ionise so3),that
(aq)
+when
dilute
Ha21.0 hydroxide
O(l) M +Zn
dissolved
nitric
2+
CO2acid
solution (aq)
in
jelly-like,
(g) water,
is and
ammon +pr2 trr
Acids and bases can be either molecular compounds tablet or ions.
b H2O. For example,
required 19.62sulfate mL of are + ionic
0.0832 and
M+)ammonia therefore
NaOH for dissociated
complete in solution. Water
).reaction.
acid of water,
Figure 13.8 Acid
Acid ++ metal
metal as hydrogen
Weak
+carbonate
(Na 3acids
and Filtering +carbonate

carbonate saltions + (CO
water 2
+ The carbon+carbonate dioxid io

1133
a The hydronium ion, H3O+, is the conjugate Metal
oxide 2H
carbonates
can (aq)
be mostly
represented2NO
include (aq)
Na CO
by CaO(s)
the ,
molecules MgCO equation: and
together Ca
CaCO3 with
2+
(aq) .some 2NO
removes
ammonium 3 (aq)

co
sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), when dissolved in water, releases sodium ions
Calculate theofactpercentage covalent
Metal
The chloride molecular
hydroxides
ofcarbonates
vitamin Strong
ion
withC acids
substance
include
isin the
2
the precipitate
3
only that
oftablet. NaOH, does
3
spectator not called
Ca(OH) ionise
3

+3ion. the to The anyfl


and oc, Wa
sign
io M
3
Hydrogen gas is produced from the reaction Cl (aq)
Figure
hydroxide 14.4 aions.shows This some
is shown
salt common +3an
in thePure
water acids
equation and
by
carbonthebasesispresence and
dio th
of

acid of water, b H2O. Acids reacting Vinegar metal
is solutioncarbonates ethanoic produceacid. carbon
ethanoic dioxide
acid gas
2isathe
polar togecov
as (Na+1) and
a Namecarbonate ions (CO3formed
the precipitate
2
). Thewhen carbonate
aqueous ionsolutions
can as the
of a EQUATION
base. Metal 2 nitrate i type include Water
Na 2CO a3from
,weak
MgCO the
iiand and settling
CaCO tank
+ .and allow
aWrite a 3full chemical equation and ionic equation for
Filtering
some metals with dilute acid. FULL The
Reaction
So with the 2HNO
equation
salt and ions It are
arrows.
(aq)
water. Anbecomes:
was
molecular spectator
5+ equation
Ammonia
CaO(s)
mentioned
compound is ions

colour
showing
previously
that in this
base
Ca(NOthe
that,
ionises in reaction
3)some
water.
reaction
when
in water 2(aq)
hydrogen
to of amicroorgan
produce Hchloride
2O(l)
moleculeso
hydrogen gas or
ision
bu
ionio
Acid
Figure 14.4 shows + Metal
some common Oxide
acids salt
and +
bases H and
2 O their conjugates. TheAcids hydroxide
reacting with metal over ions
carbonates through
gravel. from produce
This metal
sand carbon
removes & hydroxide
gravel
dioxide
any gas
remain toge

Titration Method
following compounds are 18 mixedAn together: through water, it ionises completelyvirtually no hydrogen chl
antacid
Acid contains IONIC Metal
Acid
magnesium
EQUATION Foreach +hydrogen
2H
2H +of(aq)
metal+
example,
(aq) theused following
carbonates
ethanoate
hydroxide
+ the +
hydrogen
CaO(s)toZn(s)
demonstrate
reaction precipitation
(acetate)
include
ions.
carbonate
(Mg(OH)
between Ca acid
2+ Zn reactions:
NaHCO
(aq)aoracid, base
solution
2+
+ )
(aq)
H as 3, the
O(l) KHCO
behaviour+
of H
nitric (g)
active of and
3 acid the Ca(H
react
and s
An equation showing the reaction of a molecule or ion with b water can beThe
with
hydronium calcium
a salt and Polyprotic
oxide
water.
molecules
In
+covalent a is
1.0 a+ be solid
remain
M solution acids so acid
(Figure
+representedof the 14.6a).
ethanoic ions are
Similarly,
+2acids. only a not
pure
small dissociated. T
HNO
proportion
2 and
(less H SO
than
3ion, H (aq), from The product
Acids 2H +
(aq)
added SO +metal
2
(aq) 2Na +
(aq) 22OH 2
(aq) 3 2
i K2S acidand MgCl Fora example,
magnesium AgNO carbonate(aq)oftoFor NaCl(aq)
example,
can hydrogen the carbonates
Hwhich
by SO
+contains the : equation: (also
+proportion known inas bis
Settling salt water carbon 2 diox
4 molecular compounds, 4also ationise completely water
used to demonstrate or base ingredient.
2 behaviour of the reacting species.
0.138a protongtoof isantacid
ionised was
in solution crushed
the
the ethanoic
reaction
and
acid
Chlorination and molecules
between
calcium added are ionised
adonating
nitrate solution to
2Na is 20 any
of
+ionic
(aq) mL
one
nitric time
+and SO of acid(Figure
therefo
(aq)and 14.6
+
236 Strong acids
Acids donate form: Some acids are capable of a more than one 4ofproton
ii CuCl and AgNO also produce
b CuSO carbon
(aq) +
1.0 M HCl(g) dioxide
solution
Na CO of
(aq) together

ethanoic acid with a salt
high and water. ethanoic
HClThis mixtureClare aH O(l)salt and water.
+ + H O(l) H O (aq) + Cl +
(aq) +
For example, the acid H2SO4:3
+
magnesium 2HNO carbonate
(aq) MgCO Hcan 3be(s) represented Mg(NO by3and
) 2the
(aq) equation:
H O(l) CO (g)
2
water. required
when dissolved 18.923 4 molecule
in mLsolution.
2SO of
2and
(l) +0.200
4(l)
3are +SoH 2O(l)toM
the Hhydrochloric
equation HSO 4becomes:

(aq) + H3acid O ions.+
(aq)
2 3

Metal molecules and some said


hydrogen be polyprotic.
ions ethanoate The 2 number
(acetate) of2 hydrog
At 25
Reaction chydrogen type carbonates
46 include NaHCO ,then
KHCO and Ca(H

4 of liquid
The water is left togas stan
2

Acids donate a proton to form: iii KOH and AlCl3 Reaction


The For ionic example, 4type
(NHequation)(aq)
2SO
the
(aq)
aIt41.0
was H
is reaction
+solution
SO
BaCl
therefore:
mentioned H O(l)
(aq) fiinbetween
previously that, O (aq) solutions
when + 3HSO
hydrogen (aq)of 3hydrochlor
chloride
+
is (aq
bu

Reaction + 3 type
Macid
2 After base ltering, )the clear water is us
2 4
of ethanoic acid, the 2
concentration of 3 4

For example, acid can donate


the 2depends
reaction on the structure
H between
ofso2the acid.
solutions +CH COCOO ob

H2SO4(l) + H2O(l) Water HSO4(aq) + Hfor H2SO4 FULL EQUATION


HSO
14The

nitrate
2HNO ions are + spectator
MgCO 3(s) ions this
Mg(NO reaction 2(aq) + and +(also
H the
O(l) ionic equatio
(g)
neutralisation. Calculate Acids (aq)the
(aq) 1percentage
added Hto metal hydrogen by masscarbonates of Mg(OH) known in as bica
3
3O (aq)
+ a Equation +
+through add chlorine gas
HNO water,
(l) it
H ionises
O(l) completelyvirtually
O 3(aq) NO
is(aq) noin hydrogen
+
chl
HCl Cl
Acid iv + Metal Carbonate sodium
NO3Acid d +2H hydrogen
metal + 2NO carbonate
carbonate
(aq) is
3 (aq)
only +can
CaO(s)
approximately
+

which be represented

0.004
the salt M. Ca
This
+
settled
2+ by
water
(aq)
shown the
+and 2+
2NO equation
an
materials carbo
2
3 (aq)
equation

Chlorination
MgSO and NaOH K S(aq) Monoprotic
Pb(NO ) (aq) acids can donate 3
only 2
one proton 3
include hy 3

+
1 pipette one solution into a conical flask (the sample !antacid. Acidic
CH COO
Hoxide (non-metal destroy bacteria.
oxide) Chlorine
base reacts wit
sa

HNO3 molecules remain 2(Figure 14.6a). Similarly, pure HNO and H SO
acid base +and
+are the base O : Mg
3
4 2 3 2
also
The produce (aq) carbon OH dioxide
(aq) together H O(l)

with aalsosalt and water.
+
hydroxide + can be represented by the equation: +
IONIC EQUATION presence of
reversible arrows:
Acid nitrate
metal
ions
hydroxide
spectator ions in this +inH(HF),
reaction and + are so
salt2the ionic
wat
HSO4 Acids that ionise completely solution called strong3)equatio acids. S
the 2H (aq) MgCO 3(s) 2(aq) 2O(l) CO (g)(HNO
+ 2+ 3 2
H2SO4 acid (HCl), hydrofl uoric acid nitric acid and eth
+
+
b Write a full balanced chemical equation H 3for each reaction.
O H 2O
The
Metal
H O(l)eHCl(aq)
nitrate CaCl
carbonates ions(aq) + covalent
NaHCO
are
acids Na PO
molecular
spectator
donate
include (aq)
(aq)
protons
Na
compounds,
toions the
easily.in
CO fi
which
NaCl(aq)
this
Solutions
,Hacid
MgCO ltering reaction +
of strong ionise
and H stage.
completely
O(l)
and
acids
CaCO + so
would
The
CO the
in water
(g) slu
ion
contain
3.
NO3 ThisCHis3COOH
an example of+ a hydrolysis For
reaction. example, 2 (CH
the COOH).
reaction
3 4 +2between solutions of +hydrochloric
HNO3
Osalt : +H ! 2OFigure
+ CO PO4++O
2
3 2 2
and the base 2
(aq) +2include CH 3 COOH(l)

SO ,such
2SO
Cl
H 2+ (g)
O(l)
H 2+O(l)
CH3COO (aq)
+ remaining. H O HOCl(aq(aq) +

3,sulfuric and CO 2. equation:


Acidic oxides H+ O(l) + OH
f(aq)2H MgCO 3(s) Mg 2(aq) H O(l) CO 2(g)
2 CH2COO +
with O 2
virtually (aq) +no H O(l)
unreacted 3 OH
molecules Cl(aq) (aq)Hydrochloric
13.8 +carbonate
H O (aq) +
HCl(g) 3
(aq) (aq) 2 + 3 3

213
13
NaOH(aq) Pb(NO 3)2(aq)
is called an aliquot, and it has known concentration)
+ H
3
Diprotic acids, as 2acid2
(H 2SO 4) and
3
carbonic acid
H3O H2O