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Geometric Dimensioning
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1
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,
Contents
What is GD& T7 1

Machining Flowchart 1

N~cessity of Dimensional Tolerance 2

Tolerance Dimensioning 2

Deviation 5

Fits between Mating Parts 5

System of Fits 7
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance (GD&T) System-ASME Y14.5M-1994 9

Terms and Definitions 11

Maximum Material Condition (MMC) 13

GD&T Rules 15

Datums 16

GD& T Symbols and Modifiers 20

;.
,--;,f'
.
GD&T II
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
What is Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing?
Geometric Dimensioning EtTolerancing (GDEtT)is a symbolic language for researching, refining, and encoding the
function of each feature of a part. In addition to enabling unambiguous decoding to communicate design intent
to manufacturing and quality assurance, GDEtTenables scientific tolerance stack-up analysis. and is therefore
in a position to absolutely guarantee the assemble ability of in-tolerance mating parts. It consists of concepts,
tools, rules, and processes,which are described in various military, national and ISO standards, and are set forth
in this document in abbreviated form.

BASIC DIMENSION Y AXIS OF


DATUM REFERENCE FRAME
(A,B,C)

...
Z(A,B,C) X(A,B,C)

-
ill}--L-----4---~--+-------------~-~I~~~1~0.-2~IA~I~B~S1
0180.3 (C) 0270.3
1-$-10.5@IAIBlcl 1_L'0'5'A'
T
DATUM FEATURE A 1
1 (B)

EXTENSION LINE
LEADER
FEATURE CONTROL
FRAME

Fig 1.1: A GDftT Encoded Drawing

Machining Flowchart
Let us consider the steps involved in creating a mechanical device to solve a given problem.

The first step is conceptual development! product design (the design stage).
Draft !detail the plans for each part (the drawing stage)

Then the individual parts are machined.


Next we layout an assembly plan, finally the device is assembled.

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II GD&T

Machining

(comPletion)
Fig 1.2: Machining flowchart

Necessity of Dimensional Tolerance


It is almost impossible (and sometimes uneconomical) to maintain the strict degree of accuracy due to
inevitable inaccuracy of manufacturing methods.
Due to interchangeability! mass production.
It is impossible for an operator to make perfect settings. In setting up machine .., i.e. in adjusting the tool
and work piece on the machine, some errors are likely to creep in.
To accommodate this, it is normal to display measurements with a plus or minus (+/-l tolerance which allows
for some margin of above errors.
Usually, the dimensional tolerance is decided at the design stage and a Machinist must take care to apply
the required dimensional tolerance and to ensure that discrepancies are not introduced as a result of poor
workmanship of measuring techniques. The tolerance is a compromise between accuracy required for proper
functioning and the ability to economically produce this accuracy.

Tolerance Dimensioning
Tolerance is the total amount that a specific dimension is permitted to vary. It is the difference between the
maximum and the minimum limits for the dimension.
Tolerance may be specified in 3 places:
Directly on (with) the specified dimension

In a genera I note
In title block (tolerance block)
For example a dimension given as 1.625 .002 means that the manufactured part may be 1.627 or 1.623, or
anywhere between these limit dimensions.

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---===========
GD&T II
Expressing Tolerance
1.00 .05 III Equal Bilateral Tolerance

1.00 ~:g~III II Bilateral Tolerance

1.00 ~:g~ III II Unilateral Plus Tolerance

1.00 ~:gg III Unilateral Minus Tolerance

1.05 III II Plus Limits, 2 Lines


.98
.98 Minus Limits, 2 Lines
III II
1.05

1.05 - .98 III II Plus Limits, 1 Lines

.98 -1.05 III II Minus Limits, 1 Lines

Unilateral Bilateral

Fig 1.3: Expressing i'o/erancing

Tolerance definition - Key terms


Nominal Size: It is the designation used for general identification and is usually expressed in common
fractions. For Ex. In the previous figure, the nominal size of both hole and shaft, which is 11/4", would be 1.25"
in a decimal system of dimensioning.
Basic Size or Basic dimension: It is the theoretical size from which limits of size are derived by the application
of allowances and tolerances.
Actual Size: is the measured size of the finished part.
Limits: The two extreme permissible sizes between which the actual size lines are called limits.
Max Limit: It is defined as the maximum permissible size for a given basic size. In fig. the max limit for the
basic size of Dia30 is = Dia30 + 0.035 = Dia30.035mm.
Min Limit: It is defined as the minimum permissible size for a given basic size. In fig. the min limit for the
basic size of Dia30 is = Dia30 - 0.215 = Dia29.785mm.
Tolerance: It is defined as the amount of variation permitted to a basic size. The difference between the
max and min limits of a basic size are called tolerance. In fig. the tolerance is = Dia30.035 - Dia29.785 =
0.2Smm.

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a GD&T

Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the hole or shaft size.
Upper Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the permitted maximum size of the part.
Lower Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the minimum permitted size of the part.
Actual Deviation: It is the algebraic difference b/w the actual measured size and the corresponding basic
size.
Zero Line: Since the deviations are measured from the basic size, to indicate the deviations graphically, the
basic shaft, the min shaft, the actual shaft and the max shaft are aligned at the bottom and a straight line,
called zero line is drawn through the top generator of the basic shaft as shown in fig. This is called zero Line
because the deviations at the basic size will be zero. When the zero line is drawn horizontally, deviations above
this line will be positive and below it will be negative.
Tolerance zone: The zone bounded by the upper and lower limits of the basic size.
Fundamental Deviation: It is that one of the two deviations which is conventionally chosen to define the
position of the tolerance zone in relation to the zero line.
Grades of tolerance: In a standardized system of limits and fits, group of tolerance are considered as
corresponding to the same level of accuracy for all basic sizes.

~-- Basic Shaft


Zero Line -- .......

~-- Basic Hole


International
tolerance grade

Fundamental deviation cl- .. Min. size ------t~1

Max. size ---.-'

Fig 1.4: Tolerance definition

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------- -
GD&T II
Deviation
It is defined as the algebraic difference between a size 8: corresponding basic size.

ZERO LINE

Deviation <EI>
SHAFT

(lower limit)
Diameter Basic Size
-cei
(upper limit)
<es>

Fig 1.5: Deviation

Upper deviation: It is the difference of dimension between the maximum possible size of the component and
its basic size. i.e. it is designated by ESfor hole 8: es for the shaft. It is a positive quantity when the maximum
limit of size is greater than the basic size and negative quantity when the maximum limit of size is less than
basic size.
Lower deviation: Similarly, it is the difference of dimension between the minimum possible size of the
component and its nominal size. i.e, It is designated by EI for hole 8: ei for the shaft. It is a positive quantity
when the minimum limit of size is greater than the basic size and negative quantity when the minimum limit
of size is less tha n basic size.
Fundamental deviation: It defines the location of the tolerance zone with respect to the nominal size. For
that matter, either of the deviations may be considered.
Minimum Clearance: in a clearance fit, it refers to the difference between minimum size of the hole 8: the
maximum size of the shaft.
Maximum Clearance: in a clearance I transition fit, it refers to the difference between maximum size of the
hole 8: the minimum size of the shaft.
Minimum Interference: in a Interference fit, it refers to the difference between maximum size of the hole 8:
the minimum size of the shaft.
Maximum Interference: in a Interference I transition fit, it refers to the difference between minimum size of
the hole 8: the maximum size of the shaft.

Fits between Mating Parts


Fit is the general term used to signify the range of tightness or looseness that may result from the application
of a specific combination of allowances and tolerances in mating parts.

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II GD&T

There are three types of fits between parts:

o Clearance Fit
In clearance fit an internal member fits in an external member (as a shaft in a hole) and always leaves a
space or clearance betwr _._L'_ - - - L_

Fig 1.6: Clearance fit

e Interference Fit
In interference fit the internal member is larger than the external member such that there is always an
actual interference of material. The smallest shaft is 1.2513" and the la rgest hole is 1.2506", so that there
is an actual interference of metal amounting to at least o.ooor Under maximum material conditions the
interference would be 0.0019". This interference is the allowance, and in an interference fit it is always
negative.

(0) iNTERFERENCE FIT

e Transition Fit
Transition fit result in either a clearance or interference condition. In the figure below, the smallest shaft
1.2503" will fit in the largest hole 1.2506", with 0.003" to spare. But the largest shaft, 1.2509" will have
to be forced into the smallest hole, 1.2500" with an interference of metal of 0.009':

dl.2r:-t-
""'1.2503
t .__ __ ~
d
(b) TRANSITION FIT

CADDO ~ ..
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1 GD&T II
H11/c11 Loose Running: For wide commercial tolerances on external members.
Free Running: For large temperature variations, high running speeds, or heavy journal
H9/d9
pressures.
Ha/f7 Close Running: For accurate location and moderate speeds and journal pressures.
H7/g6 Sliding: Fit not intended to run freely, but to turn and move freely, and to locate accurately.
Locational Clearance: Fit provides snug fit for locating stationary parts; but can be freely
H7/h6
assembled and disassembled.

Locational Transition: Fit for accurate location, a compromise between clearance and
H7/k6
interference.
H7/n6 Locational Transition: Fit for more accurate location where greater interference is permissible.

Locationallnterference: Fit for parts requiring rigidity and alignment with prime accuracy of
H7/p6
location, but without special bore pressure requirements.

Medium Drive: Fit for ordinary steel parts or shrink fits on light sections, the tightest fit usable
H7/s6
with cast iron.
Force: Fit suitable for parts which can be highly stressed or for shrink fits where the heavy
H7/u6
pressing forces required are impractical.

System of Fits
Two types of systems used to obtain various types of fits:

e Hole Basis System


In this system the different types of fits are obtained by associating shafts of varying limit dimensions
with a single hole, whose lower deviation is zero. When the lower deviation of the hole is zero, the
minimum limit of the hole is equal to its basic size, which is taken as the base for computing all other
limit dimensions.

j_
.500 .498_c=:2_
.502 .495~-

-r-
(0)
BASIC HOLE. FIT

Fig 1.9: Hole Basis System

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{.
.f
" .(~
,.(
II GD&T

In the above figure

The minimum size of the hole 0.500" is taken as the basic size.
An allowance of 0.002" is decided on and subtracted from the basic hole size, making the maximum
shaft as 0.498"

Tolerances of 0.002" and 0.003" respectively are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain the maximum
hole of 0.502" and the minimum shaft of 0.495':

o Shaft Basis System


In this system the different types of fits are obtained by associating holes of varying limit dimensions
with a single shaft, whose upper deviation is zero. When the upper deviation of the shaft is zero, the
maximum limit of the shaft is equal to its basic size, which is taken as the base for computing all other
limit dimensions.

_L_/~ j_
n(.502 n(.500~_
)U.505 )U.499~

~/~ '(b)
BASIC SHAFT FIT

Fig 1.10: Shaft Basis System

The maximum size of the shaft 0.500" is taken as the basic size.
An allowance of 0.002" is decided on and added to the basic shaft size, making the minimum hole
as 0.502':

Tolerances of 0.003" and 0.001" respectively are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain the maximum
hole of 0.505" and the minimum shaft of 0.499':

IT Grade
IT Grade refers to the International Tolerance Grade of an industrial process defined in ISO286 implements 20
IT tolerance. This grade identifies what tolerances a given process can produce for a given dimension.
Field of use of individual tolerances of the system ISO:
ITOl to IT6 - For production of gauges and measuring instruments
IT5 to IT12 - For fits in precision and general engineering
ITll to 1T16- For production of semi-products
1T16to IT18 - For structures
ITll to 1T18- For specification of limit deviations of non-tolerated dimensions

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~====~====~=
GD&T II
IT Grade

Fig 1.11: Machining process associated witt) tolerance grades

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance (GD&T)System-ASME


Y14.5M-1994
GD&T is an international language that is used on engineering drawings to accurately describe a part. With
this the designer can properly apply geometric tolerance, they must carefully consider the fit and function of
each feature of any part.
This language consists of well defined set of symbols, rules, definition & conventions. GD&T encourage a
dimensional philosophy called "FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONING": functional dimensioning that defines a part
based on how it functions in the final product.
Consider the following example:
Consider a table. Given table Height, we assume all 4 legs will be cut to length the same time.

I
Ii 201

_j
Fig 1.12: Tuble with dimensions applied

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m GD&T

Datum axis

Datum paints

measurement

Datum planes
Origino(
measurement

Fig 7.17: Datums

Some common datum feature simulators are surface plates, angle plates, chucks, mandrels, and machine tables.
Feature Control Frame:
Imagine the control of dimensions of this part shown here. The size and the location of the feature (cylindrical
hole) is specified with basic dimension. We can now add an allowed deviation also to the feature

1--1.000-- 00.5000.010
1--1.000-- 00.5000.010

Fig 1.18: Part with dimensions

Here the tolerance must be shown as applying to the feature being controlled. Like this each controlled feature
(hole, shaft, slot, surface, etc) associated with the basic dimension is given a feature control frame to show a
tolerance. The tolerance that appears in the feature control frame is the allowed deviation from the perfect
size or location shown by dimensions.
Feature control frame has the following:
A geometric characteristic symbol
A tolerance zone descriptor
A tolerance of location
A material condition symbol
Primary, secondary, and tertiary datums
For our example, the component, shown with details of feature control frame would appear like this.

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===========
GD&T m
1-$-1 O.030@ I A I B lei

Fig 1.19: Feature control frame

Material Condition: To overcome shortcomings in symbols, modifiers can be added to change their meanings.
They can be either Maximum material condition or least material condition. -..........____
Maximum Material Condition is the condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of
material everywhere within the stated limits of size. This means that the tolerance is at the extreme that would
result if too little material was cut off, and the maximum material remains.

MMCSymbol

Least Material Condition is the condition in which a feature of size contains the least amount of material
everywhere within the stated limits of size. This means that the tolerance is at the extreme that would result
if too much material was cut off, and the minimum material remains.

LMC Symbol

Maximum Material Condition (MMC)


MMC is that condition of a part or feature which contains the maximum amount of material, e.g. minimum
size hole, or a maximum size shaft
The maximum material principle takes into account the mutual dependence of tolerances of size, form,
orientation and/or location and permits additional tolerance as the considered feature departs from its
maximum material condkion.
Assembly clearance is increased if the actual sizes of the mating features are finished away from their MMC,
and if any errors of form or position are less than that called for by any geometrical control.

~ ===~~====== CADD
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~
III GD&T

Its application is restricted to those features whose size is specified by tolerance dimensions incorporating an
axis or median plane. It can never be applied to a plane, surface, or line on a surface.
The characteristics to which the maximum material condition concept cannot be applied are as follows:
flatness, roundness, cylindricity, profile of a line, profile of a surface, run-out.

VL tc~I"'o dition
A constant boundary generated by the collective effects of a size features specified MMC/LMC 8: the geometric
tolerance for that material condition.

Or

Constant value outer locus 8: constant value inner locus values are derived

o 0.1 Positional
zone atMMC

030.1 MMC size of feature


- 0 0.1 Positional zone at MMC
030 Virtual condition (Inner boundary)

VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY

The M M C modifier
applied to the position
tolerance implies, that a
virtual condition is
defined for the features
and the calculations are
Pin in
Plate 1
done with the M M C limit
of size.

Boundary
Hole in
Plate 2

Virtual condition for hole >= Virtual condition for pin

Fig 7.20: virtuot condition

~
. 1
".tf
GD&T

o Virtual Condition for external feature

Q
.' . ..
The virtual condition
O~ Virtual Condition:
of the pin shown here Is
thus an envelop of diameter
Pin MMC 0 26.5 26.9 milleters

+ 0 0.4
Pin '"
~
Pin Virtual o 26.9
Condition

o Virtual Condition for internal feature

Virtual Condition:

Hole MMC 0 29.5 This Is an Imaginary


Hole '" - 0 0.4 envelope in space and
--...;_----- will maintain the hole
'+~-""!<o'~-ViItual Condition Hole Virtual 0 29.1 boundary outside Itself

GD&T Rules
ul- W
Individual Feature of Size/Perfect form at MMC/Envelope rule: Where only a tolerance of size is specified,
the limits of size of an Individual future prescribe the extent to which variation in its geometric form as well
as sizes are allowed.

~
~$ 00
I~$
\
I
t. .001
3- 0st. 7 -( I
tooo
j- 0st. 7
-E l.003
I r0.~ ~$. -E ! J0.sb3 :$
tOOl

-F l.oo.
=t .s'02 :$
o [ J05102 :$
l.OO1

," -F::f?-t~-r- .005


-c::r:?3- 0}O' 7
l.OO1

~~($ ()()6 ~
-E t I ~($
l.001

MANUfACTURED SIZE
OUT-OfSTRAIGHTNESS

MANUFACTURED SIZE
OUT OF ROUNDNESS

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II GD&T

06O.O.':
FULL FORM CHECK
AT 0 5.95 (MMC)

TWO POINT CHECKS


2X 010O.1 AT 0 6.05 (LMC)

Fig 1.21: GDEtT Rule I

Rule #2
RFSapplies, with respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference, or both, where no modifying symbol is
specified. MMC/LMC must be specified on the drawing where it is required.

~
.-----------,1 1.00: .002

PRODUCED SIZE TOLERANCE (lOmm)


1.002 .002
1.001 .002
1.000 .002
.999 .002
Symbol for RFS(past practice from Y14.5M - 1982) .998 .002
RFS
Fig 1.22: GOaT Rule2

Datums
Datum are theoretical. It consists of:

Axes
Planes
These elements exist within a frame work of three mutually perpendicular intersecting planes known as datum
reference frames. The datum reference frame is a virtual reference frame that does not exist on the part
actually.
Therefore it is necessaryto establish a method of simulating the theoretical reference frame from the actual features
of the part.

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-=--=-=--===-=---=--===
GD&T
III
Datum Reference Frame

II
r------------- I
I I I
I I XY I
/ I I
/ I I
/ I I

/
I
~
"v I
.-----------~ I X
I I I
I I I
y
: / xz /
I I I

~~/-
Z
----------_/

Fig 1.23: Datums

,..0 1 l.f'ltior Met-} od


The simulation is accomplished by positioning specifically identified features in contact with appropriate
datum simulators, in a stated order of precedence, to restrict motion of the datum reference frame. These
specifically identified features are called as datum features.

y
Datum axis

Datum

'1

Datum planes
origin of
measurement

Fig 1.24: Datum Simulation

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GD&T

A free floating part has six degrees of freedom:

Rotation about X
'Rotation about Y
Rotation about Z
Translation about X
Translation about Y
Translation about Z
y

/
,,~~~-+-+--CD+-~-

r
z
/- ~G)

Fig /,25: DOF

Let us the part in a simulated datum reference frame, Establishing a primary datum reference frame, we see
two rotational and one linear degree of freedom are eliminated,
Now bringing in a secondary datum plane we find that more degreesof freedom are eliminated. Now bringing the part in
contact with a tertiary datum plane, the remaining single degree of freedom is also eliminated and this provides a positive
part orientation for any manufacturing or inspection procedure required.
y

"

Fig 1.26: Dotum Simutation

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-------- .---
GD&T--------------------------------------- II
a tu 1 L'ea~ure
Consider a surface plate having a real feature of adequately precise form contacting the datum features. This
real surface is called as simulated datum features.
Now consider a part, a real feature of a part (in this case a surface). which is used to establish the location of a
datum is called as datum feature. As datum features are subject to manufacturing errors and variations, it may be
necessary, where appropriate to specify tolerances of form to them.

Simulated Datum Feature

.. Surface Plate

Fig 1.27: Datum Feature

Datum Targets
Datum targets are specific portions of a surface, line or point that may be used for datum referencing.
Sometimes due to the configuration of a part, its function in assembly or its rough or warped surfaces, it becomes
desirable to use only a portion of the surface as a datum. The portion may be designated as a point or points, a line
or lines, or an area or areas.The areas may be defined as any shape that is appropriate.

Fig 1.28: Datum Targets


GD&T

Datum Target symbols


Points, lines and areas on datum features are designated on the drawing by means of a datum target symbol.
The datum target symbol consists of a circle cut in to two halves. The top tier contains the target area
size that can be placed either internally or externally as shown. The lower tier contains a datum identifying
letter with a target number.

010
Al
-'lr----r.__--,/
@

Fig 1.29: Datum Target Symbols

The symbol is placed outside the part outline with a radical (leader) line directed to the target. The use of solid
radial line indicates that the datum target is on the rear surface. The use of a dashed radial line indicates that
the datum target is on the far (hidden) surface.

GD&T Symbols and Modifiers


ASME follows fourteen geometric symbols and the modifiers as given in the table.

TYPE OF TYPE OF
CHARACTERISTICS SYMBOL
FEATURES TOLERANCE

FLATNESS 0
INDIVIDUAL STRAIGTNESS
(NO Datum FORM
Reference) CIRCULARITY 0
CYLINDRICITY 1:/
INDIVIDUAL LINE PROFILE r-.
or RELATED PROFILE
FEATURES SURFACE PROFILE 0
PERPENDICULARIT ...L
ORIENTATION ANGULARITY L

PARALLELISM II
RELATED
FEATURES CIRCULAR RUNOUT ;t
(Datum RUNOUT
Reference
TOTAL RUNOUT .!!J1
Required) CONCENTRICITY 0
--
LOCATION POSITION ~
SYMMETRY -

Fig 1.30: Geometric Symbols


r GD&T
Ell
TERM SYMBOL

AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION @


AT LEA8T MATERIAL CONDInON
PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE Modifying symbols
FREE STATE
TANOENT PLANE (f)
DIAMETER
SPHERICAL DIAMETER s
RADIUS R
SPHeRICAL RADIUS SR
CONTROLLED RADIUS CR Additional Symbols
REFERENCE ()
ARC LNOTH .........
STATISTICAL TOLERANCE (ill
BETWEEN +-+

Fig 1.31: Modifiers

Profile tolerances
o Profile of a Line

A uniform two dimensional zone limited by two parallel zone lines extending along the length of a
feature.
The amount of deviation that is allowed for a surface to float within a certain dimensional range while
maintaining the shape or form of each line elements that makes up that surface.

Fig 1.32: Profile of a line

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.f
of":
m GD&T

o Profile of a Surface

It is the amount of deviation that is allowed for a surface.

Fig 1.33: Profile of a surface

A uniform three dimensional zone contained between two envelope surfaces separated by the tolerance
zone across the entire length of a surface.

Orientation tolerances
o Angularity

L
The distance between two parallel planes, inclined at a specified basic angle in which the surface, axis, or
center plane of the feature must lie.
It requires that all points on a specified feature must form an angle with a datum.

Fig 1.34: Angularity

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l ,
ft" ,,/'
..fro
GD&T ---------------------------------------- II
o Perpendicularity

j_
The condition of a surface, axis, median plane, or line which is exactly at 90 degrees with respect to a
datum plane or axis.
It requires that all points on a specified feature must be perpendicular with a datum.

~
~I.-------.

~
~
~
~
~
~
/.
: ~.u.,"""
.. """""""/.""'/..,...J/.!-,/ /.,..-,/.....,./.....,-/....,.../..,..../..,.-/
/."""/."""/."""/"'""'

0.003 Tolerance Zone


Fig 1.35: Perpendicularity

o Parallelism

II
The condition of a surface or axis which is equidistant at all points from a datum of reference. All points
on a surface are to be parallel to a given datum, within a specified tolerance.

_[0.01 Tolerance Zone

1
1..
Fig 1.36: Parallelism
II GD&T

Locational tolerances

o Tru Position

A zone within which the center, axis, or center plane of a feature of size is permitted to vary from its true
(theoretically exact) position.
A position tolerance generates a tolerance zone that confines the center, center plane or axis of a
feature of size. It is also capable of confining a surface or surfaces within or outside of a boundary known
as virtual condition.

1-$-1 o.o30@1 1 1c 1
0 B

1.500

4X00.20000.010
Fig 1.37: True position

o Concentricity

A cylindrical tolerance zone whose .axis coincides with the datum axis and within which all cross-
sectional axes of the feature being controlled must lie. (Note: Concentricity is very expensive and time-
consuming to measure. Concentricity is a geometric control of the median points of all diametricallv-
opposed elements of a figure of revolution.

Fig 1.38: Concentricity

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GD&T---------------------------------------
o Symmetry

Symmetry is that condition where the median points of all opposed or correspondingly located elements
of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or center plane of datum feature.

1-=-1.0051 ciA 1
.. ..r 1.000.005

1..--------+- 1
1.375.001 -- .875.005

.___,J
1-1 .. --- 2.000.005 -- -11
...... __j .700.001 L
Fig 1.39: Symmetry

Runout tolerances

o Circular Runout

A composite tolerance used to control the relationship of one or more features of a part to a datum axis
during a full 360 degree rotation about the datum axis.

0.02
Tolerance
Zone

[
Fig 1.40: Circular runout

---------- - -
GD&T

o Total Runout

All surface elements across the entire surface of the part must be within the runout tolerance.

Tolerance Zone

Fig 1.41: Total runout

Form tolerances
o Flatness

o
A two dimensional tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which the entire surface must
lie. Basically all the surface elements are constrained to lie within two parallel planes, separated by the
tolera nee.

1010.0011

r Tolerancezo: ~:~ _

t '--------'==r:f
Fig 1.42: Hotness

o Straightness

A condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line.


One of the surface elements is constrained to lie within two parallel surface planes separated by
the tolerance. This means that if any line across the surface is within two parallel lines, the part is
acceptable.

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.' .t
-------- -_-- -
s .I:"
GD&T
iii
1-10.0011

I Tolerance Zone 0.001


L_ _

Fig 1.43: Straightness

o Circularity

o
A condition on a surface of revolution (cylinder, cone, sphere) where all points of the surface intersected
by any plane perpendicular to a common axis (cylinder, cone) or passing through a common center
(sphere) are equidistant from the axis of the center.
All of the points on a cylindrical surface are constrained to lie within two circles. It is a 2-D surface form
control.
0.01
Tolerance
Zone

-------
-$
Fig 1.44: Circularity

o Cylindricity

A condition on a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common
axis.
It is an extension to circularity that specifies the tolerance along the cylinder. It is a 3-D form control
which controls roundness (circularity), straightness and taper.

L' 1:11 0.0011

-+-- ----~- $
0.001 Tolerance Zone

Fig 1.45: Cylindricily

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GD&T

Index
A IT5 to ITl2 8
Actual Deviation 4 IT11 to ITl6 8
Actual Size 3 ITl 1 to ITl 8 8
Angularity 22 IT16 to ITl 8 8
IT Grade 8
B
L
Basic Size or Basic dimension 3
LeastMaterial Condition 13
C Limits 3
Locational tolerances 24
Circularity 27
Lower deviation 5
Circular Runout 25
Lower Deviation 4
Clearance Fit 6
Concentricity 24
M
Cylindricity 27
Machining Flowchart 1
o Material Condition 13
Maximum Clearance 5
Datum Feature 19
Maximum Interference 5
Datums 11
Maximum Material Condition 13
Datum Targets 19
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) 13
Datum Target symbols 20
Max Limit 3
Deviation 4
Minimum Cledrance 5
Minimum Interference 5
E Min Limit 3
Expressing Tolerance 3
N
F Necessity of Dimensional Tolerance 2
Feature 11 Nominal Size 3
Feature of Size 1 1
Fits between Mating Parts 5 o
Flatness 26
Orientation tolerances 22
Form tolerances 26
Fundamental deviation 5 p
Fundamental Deviation 4
Parallelism 23
G Perpendicularity 23
Profile of a Line 21
GD& T Rules 15
Profile of a Surface 22
GD&T Symbols and Modifiers 20
Profile tolerances 21
Grades of tolerance 4
R
H
Rule # 1 15
Hole Basis System 7
Rule #2 16
Runouttolerances 25

Interference Fit 6
ITO1 to IT6 8

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GD&T
II
S
Shaft Basis System 8
Simulation Method 17
Straightness 26
Symmetry 25
System of Fits 7

T
Termsand Definitions 1 1
Tolerance 3
Tolerance definition - Key terms 3
Tolerance Dimensioning 2
Tolerance zone 4
Total Runout 26
Transition Fit 6
True Position 24

U
Upper deviation 5
Upper Deviation 4

V
Virtual Condition 14
Virtual Condition for external feature 15
Virtual Condition for internal feature 15

Z
Zero Line 4

II
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