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# 2348.

Departamento de Mtodos Cuantitativos para la Economa y la Empresa
2015/2016
(Bilingual group)

## List of exercises: unit 6

Models of random variables

1.- A firm produces boxes of oranges and 15% of the boxes can be considered defective. If in a truck
there are 20 boxes of oranges, find:
a) the probability of having 3 defective boxes.
b) the probability of having 18 non-defective boxes.
c) the mean and the standard deviation of the random variable defined as number of defective
boxes in the truck.

## 2.- The probability of receiving an email considered as spam is 0,01.

a) Having received 10 emails, what is the probability of having at least 2 spam emails?
b) Having received 5 emails in a day, and 6 emails in the following day,
b1) what is the average number of spam emails received during these two days? And the
standard deviation?
b2) what is the probability of having 2 or more spam emails?

3.- For a product the probability of having a defect type A is 0,05 and of having a defect type B, 0,02,
being both defects independent.
a) In a box where there are 15 of these products, what is the probability of having at the same time
more than 1 and less than 5 products with defect type A?
b) What is the probability of having less than 10 products with defect type B in a batch of 200
products?
c) In a box of 10 products, what is the probability of having at least one product with both defects A
and B at the same time?

4.- In a construction company the average of accidents is 3 per week. Assuming that the number of
accidents is distributed as Poisson, find:
a) the probability of having 3 or less accidents in a week.
b) the probability of having 3 or less accidents in two weeks.

5.- In a telephone exchange the average number of received phone calls is 480 per hour. Assuming
that the number of received phone calls is distributed as Poisson, and that the telephone exchange
maximum capacity is 12 phone calls per minute, what is the probability of not being able to attend
the phone calls received in a minute?

## 6.- One of each 100 invoices is defective.

a) What is the probability of having at least two defective invoices in a set of 500?
b) How many invoices do we have to check to have a probability at least of 95% for finding at
least one defective invoice?

7.- The service time for person, in minutes, in a customer service follows a Uniform distribution in
the interval (10, 20).
a) What is the probability of having a service time smaller than 14 minutes.
b) What is the probability of having a service time between 12 and 15 minutes.
c) Compute the mean and the standard deviation for the service time.

## LIST OF EXERCISES-UNIT 6: MODELS OF RANDOM VARIABLES 1

Departamento de Mtodos Cuantitativos para la Economa y la Empresa

8.- Fuel sales of certain dealer has a monthly average of 1,2 million litres with a minimum of 0,9
million per month. Assuming that the Uniform distribution is for modelling monthly fuel sales,
find:
a) The maximum monthly fuel sales.
b) The percentage of months where the fuel sales are bigger than 1,1 million litres.

9.- The average waiting time in the queuing line in a big supermarket is 2 minutes. Under the
assumption that the waiting time follows an exponential distribution, compute:
a) The probability of having a waiting time: (1) smaller than 1 minute, (2) higher than 3
minutes, and (3) between 1 and 3 minutes.
b) The standard deviation of the waiting time.
c) The average number of clients served by hour.
d) The waiting time that the supermarket can use in its marketing to be sure that at least
95% of its clients actually wait less than that.

10.- The repairing time for one of the machines in a firm follows an exponential distribution, with mean
20 minutes.
a) What is the probability of having a repairing time smaller than 10 minutes?
b) What is the probability of having a repairing time higher than 20 minutes?
c) The maintenance of the machine has been hired to a services company that bills 20 per
half an hour or fraction. What is the probability that a particular repair has a cost of 40?
d) The service company would like to plan the repairing times, assigning to this machine a
repairing time T such that only 5% of the times they really need more time than that.
What could be the time T to achieve this goal?

11.- The average lifetime of an electronic device is 10 years. If the lifetime follows an exponential
distribution:
a) What is the warranty period that should be established to attend with the warranty as
maximum to 4,88% of the electronic devices of this kind?
b) What is the probability that one electronic device works more than 12 years when it has
been working more than 8 years?

## 12.- Let be X a random normal variable N(=3; =1,5). Compute:

a) P(X>2).
b) P(5,1<X<6,9).
c) P(1<X<5).
d) Value of c such that P(X>c)=0,984997.

13.- Let be X a random normal variable such that P(X3)= 0,841345 and P(X9)= 0,02275. Compute
the values of the mean and the standard deviation .

14.- A firm produces packs of sugar which weight is 1 kilogram. Due to fluctuations in the production
process, actually the real weight of a pack of sugar is a random normal variable X. Knowing that
15% of the packs is less than 1 kilogram and 20% of the packs is more than 1,1 kilogram, compute
the mean and the standard deviation of X.

15.- The demand of fuel in a concrete period of time follows a normal distribution with mean 150.000
litres and standard deviation 10.000 litres. Compute the probability of having, in that period of time:
a) A demand of fuel of 147.600 litres as maximum.
b) A demand of fuel between 146.000 and 162.000 litres.
c) What is the amount of fuel the firm should have to be able to satisfy the demand in that period of
time with a probability 95%?

## LIST OF EXERCISES-UNIT 6: MODELS OF RANDOM VARIABLES 2

Departamento de Mtodos Cuantitativos para la Economa y la Empresa

16.- Marks in the subject Statistics for business are such that they follow a normal distribution
X ~ N( 6, 3) . Compute:
a) Percentage of students with marks smaller than 5.
b) Percentage of students with marks between 5 and 7.
c) Percentage of students with marks higher than 7.
d) Highest mark between the 25% of students with smaller marks.

## 17.- Let be X ~ N 5, 2 and Y ~ N 3, 3 two independent random variables and let be

W another random variable such that W 2X 3Y .
a) What is the distribution of W?
b) Compute k such that P(Wk)=0,95.

18.- A firm has a machine to pack a product in packets of weight X1, where X1 is distributed normal with
mean 25 grams and standard deviation 0,8 grams. The weight of the empty packet X2 is also
distributed normal with mean 5 grams and standard deviation 0,2 grams, being X1 y X2
independent. Regularly the firm is examined finding the average weight for 100 packets. Knowing
that there is a fine if the result is less than 29 grams, what is the probability of having a fine; that is
not passing the inspection?

19.- Marks in subject A are distributed N(=6; =3,5) and marks in subject B are distributed N(=4,5;
=2), being both random variables independent.
a) A teacher marks both subjects. If 30% of the exams are of subject A and 70% of exams of
subject B, what is the probability of having a randomly selected exam with a pass (mark equal to
or higher than 5)?
b) If we select at random two exams, one for subject A and one for subject B, what is the probability
of having a total mark (the sum of the marks) smaller than 9?

20.- The length of a component is a random normal variable X such that N(=150; =0,4). The
component is considered non-faulty if its length is in interval (149,2-150,4). Compute:
a) Percentage of faulty components.
b) An interval, centered in the mean, such that gives only a total of 10% of faulty components.

21.- In a firm there are two different techniques to pack their products. 80% of the products are packed
using technique A, and the rest of products are packed using technique B. During the storage
packed products lose part of their weight. The percentage of lost weight during storage is N(=3,4;
=0,5) if the product was packed using A and N(=a; =0,5) if B was used. An inspector performs
a test that is passed when a product selected at random has a weight lost smaller than 4%.
a) If a=4,1, what is the probability of passing the test?
b) If a=4,1 and a product passes the test, what is the probability of having been packed using
process A? And if the product does not pass the test?
c) If the firm can control a, what should be its value to assure that at least 90% of the products pass
the test?

Solutions

## 1.- a) 0,2428 b) 0,2293 c) 3; 1,597

2.- a) 0,0042 b1) 0,11 0,33 b2) 0,0052
3.- a) 0,1704 b) 0,9919 if working with P(4) c) 0,0099
4.- a) 0,6472 b) 0,1512
5.- 0,0638
6.- a) 0,9596 if working with P(5) or 0,960245 if working with B(500; 0,01) b) n299

## LIST OF EXERCISES-UNIT 6: MODELS OF RANDOM VARIABLES 3

Departamento de Mtodos Cuantitativos para la Economa y la Empresa

## 7.- a) 0,4 b) 0,3 c) =15 ; =2,887

8.- a) 1,5 b) 66,66%
9.- a) P(X<1)=0,3935; P(X>3)=0,2231; P(1<X<3)=0,3834 b) =2 c) 30 d) 6 minutes
10.- a) 0,3935 b) 0,3679 c) 0,0670 d) 60 minutes
11.- a) 6 months b) 0,6703
12.- a) 0,748571 b) 0,076096 c) 0,904448 d) c=0,255
13.- =5 =2
14.- =1,055 =0,053
15.- a) 0,405165 b) 0,540352 c) 166.449
16.- a) 37,07% b) 25,86% c) 37,07% d) 3,96

17.- a) W ~ N 19, 97 b) k=35,2014

18.- 0
19.-a) 0,4678431 b) 0,355691
20.- a) 18,1405% b) 149,34150,66
21.- a) 0,792092 b) 0,893765; 0,440291 c) a<3,12