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Dr.

Homi Bhabha Competition Test Series

Topics: Chemistry C2 : Method Of Separation

(A) Methods of Separation

Threshing

Winnowing

Sifting/Sieving

Hand Picking
Solid Solid Separation
Sublimation

Magnetic separation

Fractional
crystallization

Sedimentation

Decantation
Insoluble solid from
Coagulation or loading
liquid Separation
Filtration

Centrifugation

Soluble solid from liquid Evaporation


Separation Distillation

Separation of liquid Separating funnel


from Liquid Separation
Fractional Distillation

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(1) Solid Solid Separation:


Following are the method of separation for Solid-Solid Separation

a. Threshing: Is the method to separate the grain from ears. Act of removing grain or seeds from hulls or husks

b. Winnowing: Is the method to separate lighter part from heavier part of mixture

c. Sifting/Sieving: Method of separating mixture based on size of particles.

d. Hand Picking: Method of separating mixture based on size of particles.

e. Sublimation: Method of separating sublimative substance.


Sublimation is the process where solid gets converted into gas after heating.

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f. Magnetic separation: Method Used to separate particles out based on magnetic properties

g. Fractional crystallization Separation of two soluble solid.


In this both the solid is dissolved in a particular liquid(Solvent).After cooling, hot
saturated solution ,crystals of less soluble substance is first formed. Using filtration
method they are separated from solution.
e.g. Common salt and potassium nitrate

(2) Insoluble solid from liquid

a. Sedimentation: Method of separation heavy insoluble solid from liquid. We allow the mixture to settle down
for some time. Settling of heavy particles at bottom is called sedimentation

b.Decantation: The method of removing upper clear liquid without disturbing settled solid is called decantation

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c. Coagulation or loading : Method of removing heavy suspended particle by adding alum or coagulating agent.

d. Filtration: Method of separating insoluble solid from liquid by using filter like filter paper ,cloth ,cotton ,sand
Bed

e. Centrifugation Removes fine insoluble suspended particles from solution by applying centrifugal force.
e.g. Butter from curd ,washing machine squeeze water

(3) Soluble solid from liquid

a.Evaporation: is used to remove liquids from solutes which cannot be done through filtration
due to the small size of the substances.

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b. Distillation: 1. The evaporation and subsequent collection of a liquid by condensation as a means of


purification: the distillation of water.2. The extraction of the volatile components of a mixture by the
condensation and collection of the vapors that are produced as the mixture is heated: petroleum distillation.

(4) Solid from Gas


Cyclone separation the cyclone technology forces air to spin round at very high speed, creating centrifugal
force and causing the dust particles to be pulled out into the bin

(5) Separation of liquid liquid mixture


a. Separating funnel For Immiscible Liquid
A separating funnel is a glass funnel with a tap at the bottom. A separating funnel is a separation technique that
is used for two liquids that do not dissolve in each other. Liquids that do not dissolve in each other are called
immiscible.

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b. Fractional Distillation
Liquids that dissolve in each other can be separated by fractional distillation. Liquid that dissolve each other are
called as Miscible liquid

Principle is based on difference in boiling point


The solution is heated until it boils. The liquid with the lowest boiling point boils first and becomes a vapour (gas). The
vapour is cooled in the condenser until the temperature falls below the boiling point when it condenses back into a
liquid which is collected in a container. The collected liquid is called the distillate. It has been distilled. The condenser has
cold water running through a jacket around the outside to keep the temperature below the boiling point of the vapour.

After the liquid with the lowest boiling point has been collected, the temperature of the remaining mixture will rise to a
new temperature when the liquid with the next lowest boiling point will boil and be collected. The process can be
continued to separate all the liquids in the mixture.

Fractional distillation is used to separate the components of crude oil and to separate nitrogen and oxygen from liquid
air.

(6) Chromatography:
Separation of different dissolved constituent of a mixture present in a very minute Quantity

Important Definition:

Settling: Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment. It
happens due to force which could be due to Gravitational force or centrifugal force.
E.g. Removal of solids from liquid sewage waste, Settling of solid food particles from a liquid food

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Filtrate: The liquid or solution that has passed through a filter.


Residue: The substance that remains after evaporation, distillation, filtration or any similar process.

Sublimating substance: Ammonium chloride , Sal ammoniac, Camphor, Naphthalene, Iodine

Identify chemical instrument

1. Iron gauze: Wire gauze can be used to support a container (such as a beaker or flask) during heating. When the
bunsen burner flame is beneath it, with a tripod, the wire gauze helps to spread the flame (and heat) out evenly over the
container.

2. Tripod: Used to support and hold various flasks, beakers and other glass ware.

3. Round bottom flask:

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4. Condenser: One that condenses, especially an apparatus used to condense vapor to liquid

Write notes on following topics

Define
Vaporization
Freezing
Condensation
Melting Point
Boiling point
Evaporation
Fractional Distillation Principle is difference in boiling point
Crude Oil Low Boiling Point Petrol
Higher Boiling Point Diesel

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