Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

2017

SERVANT LEADERSHIP
THE MOST BALANCED AND EFFECTIVE
LEADERSHIP STYLE

Coercive
Leadership
Style

Coaching Authoritative
Leadership Leadership
Style Style

Servant
Leadership

Pacesetting Affiliative
Leadership Leadership
Style Style

Democratic
Leadership
Style

Jessy Barabas
SERVANT LEADERSHIP: THE MOST BALANCED AND
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE

By
Jessy Barabas

Current Edition - February 2017


Table of Contents
Title Page ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... i

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................................................................................. ii

List of Illustrations ........................................................................................................................................................................................... iii

Report Summary...............................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Methods of Investigation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Leadership and Management ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

Management............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

Leadership ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

The Importance of Leadership in Relation to Management ........................................................................................................................ 2

The Six Styles of Leadership .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

Coercive Leadership Style ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Authoritative Leadership Style .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Affiliative Leadership Style .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Democratic Leadership Style ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Pacesetting Leadership Style ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Coaching Leadership Style........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Servant Leadership ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

The Eight Main Characteristic of Servant Leadership and Their Relation to the Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching
Styles of Leadership .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

The First Characteristic: Patience........................................................................................................................................................... 8

The Second Characteristic: Kindness ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

The Third Characteristic: Humility ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

The Fourth Characteristic: Respect ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

The Fifth Characteristic: Selflessness ................................................................................................................................................... 11

The Sixth Characteristic: Forgiveness ................................................................................................................................................... 11

The Seventh Characteristic: Honesty ................................................................................................................................................... 12

The Eighth Characteristic: Commitment .............................................................................................................................................. 13

Servant Leadership in Relation to the Coercive and Pacesetting Styles of Leadership .............................................................................. 14

Coercive Style of Leadership ................................................................................................................................................................ 14

Pacesetting Leadership Style ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

Conclusions..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

Recommendations: Improving Leadership Capacity ....................................................................................................................................... 15

Works Cited .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

ii
List of Illustrations
Figure 1: The Six Leadership Styles All Relate to Servant Leadership .......................................................................................................7
Table 1: Leadership Style Quick Reference ..............................................................................................................................................4

iii
Report Summary
This report discusses the difference between management and leadership and highlights the greater
importance of leadership in the workplace. Explored will be the six different leadership styles used by
business leaders around the world. Evidence shows that the best leaders are the individuals who have
mastered multiple styles.

In particular this report will look at servant leadership and show how this style of leadership encompasses
and combines the different styles of leadership. The eight main characteristic of servant leadership and
their relation to the authoritative, affiliative, democratic, and coaching styles of leadership will be covered
as well as how servant leaderships relates in general to the coercive and pacesetting styles. Basically, it is
argued that a servant leader would be able to engage in any one of the six leadership styles.

Conclusions
This report, based on the findings, concludes that:

Although complimentary to leadership, management is not leadership.


Leadership is needed in the workplace if organizations wish to move away from the ineffective
command and control style of management.
There are six styles of leadership and the best leaders are the individuals who have mastered
multiple styles. The six styles are the Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting,
and Coaching leadership styles.
Servant leadership is an all-inclusive style of leadership that combines the attributes of all six of
the leadership styles used in organizations today.

Recommendations: Improving Leadership Capacity


1. Organizations must accept that the old command and control style of management no longer
works, except in certain situations.
2. Organizations must make a commitment to developing leadership.
3. In particular, a commitment must be made to implement the principles of servant leadership,
which will provide organizations with the most balanced and effective leaders needed in order to
st
run a successful organization in the 21 Century.

Evidence shows that leaders who use multiple styles of leadership while cultivating relationships with
their employees, have successfully moved away from just managing to truly leading and have experienced
a positive shift within their organizations (Goleman 79). Simply put, if businesses want results then
servant leadership is the most balanced and effective leadership style capable of providing those results.

iv
The Methods of Investigation Used in Creating This Report
By relating the findings in James C. Hunters book, The Worlds Most Powerful Leadership
Principle, with the information gathered by Daniel Goleman in his article, Leadership That Gets Results,
this report will show how effective servant leadership is in combining different leadership strategies while
never losing sight of the individual person. Further information gathered for this report comes from a
mixture of print and online sources, each augmenting the results found in the two secondary sources
mentioned above. Brigitte Scott, the president of C.U.P.E. local 2268, and Lis Mack, the Acting Manager
for the Partners FOR the Saskatchewan River Basin, were the participants interviewed to supplement the
secondary research findings.

Acknowledgements by the Author of This Report


I would like to expressly thank the two individuals who participated in my e-mail interview,
Brigitte Scott and Lis Mack. I would also like to thank my SIAST instructor, Kevin DeCorby, for giving me
permission to write my report on servant leadership. Finally, I am also grateful for the authors of my
secondary research; your insights were the basis for this report.

Qualifications and Information About the Author of This Report


My name is Jessy Barabas and I have had an interest in leadership for quite some time. I have had the
opportunity to complete the Leadership Development Program offered by the University of Saskatchewan
during the winter session of 2010. Furthermore, as part of our training to be responsible leaders as
members of the service staff for the Greater Saskatoon Catholic School Board, I have been introduced to
the main concepts covered by Steven Coveys, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Personally I have
also read a number of books which have dealt with leadership. Naturally, as a by-product of writing this
report, I have gained new knowledge and insights into leadership, the styles, and servant leadership itself.
Of note, as part of the requirements of the Business Certificate program offered by Saskatchewan
Polytechnic, I have also completed Introduction to Management and Introduction to Human Resource
Management. I also have a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Saskatchewan.

v
Introduction

Businesses need results and only effective leadership can provide those results. But what is
effective leadership? Management is not true leadership for management is the process of doing things
the right way, while leadership is doing things that are considered right (Leob and Kindel 27). Despite the
benefits provided by true leadership, leadership seems to have garnered the reputation that it is too soft
to deal with the realities of day to day operations within an organization. Many individuals who are in
positions of authority believe that the only important element in business is the bottom line (Hunter 123).
Yet evidence shows that leaders who use multiple styles of leadership while cultivating relationships with
their employees, have successfully moved away from just managing to truly leading and have experienced
a positive shift within their organizations (Goleman 79).

Methods of Investigation
By relating the findings in James C. Hunters book, The Worlds Most Powerful Leadership
Principle, with the information gathered by Daniel Goleman in his article, Leadership That Gets Results,
this report will show how effective servant leadership is in combining different leadership strategies while
never losing sight of the individual person. Further information gathered for this report comes from a
mixture of print and online sources, each augmenting the results found in the two secondary sources
mentioned above. Brigitte Scott, the president of C.U.P.E. local 2268, and Lis Mack, the Acting Manager
for the Partners FOR the Saskatchewan River Basin, were the participants interviewed to supplement the
secondary research findings.

Purpose
This report will briefly discuss the difference between management and leadership and highlight
the greater importance of leadership in the workplace. Explored will be the six different leadership styles
used by business leaders around the world. In particular this report will look at servant leadership and
show how this style of leadership encompasses and combines the different styles of leadership. Basically,
a servant leader would be able to engage in any one of the six leadership styles. Essentially, the purpose
of this report is to suggest that if businesses want results then servant leadership is the most balanced
and effective leadership style capable of providing the results that business seek.

1
Leadership and Management

Management
Management in and of itself is not true leadership. Management is the process of doing things
the right way, while leadership is doing things that are considered right (Leob and Kindel 27). Brigitte
Scott, the president of C.U.P.E. local 2268 states that, Management is about directing and controlling
according to established principles. Management is about the things we do (Hunter 32).

Leadership
Leaders, on the other hand, inspire people to go beyond what they think they are capable of
(Leob and Kindel 10). Leaders help others to do more than they ever thought they could (Scott).
Leadership is about unlocking individual potential. It is not about telling people what to do, but inspiring
them to see what they are capable of, then, helping them get there (Scott). Brigitte Scott says that her
leadership style is based in the philosophy that nobody can do everything, but everyone can do
something. Lis Mack, the Acting Manager for the Partners FOR the Saskatchewan River Basin states that,
leaders are seen as strong and supportive. Leadership is the skills of influencing people to
enthusiastically work towards goals identified as being for the common good, with character that inspires
confidence (Hunter 32).

The Importance of Leadership in Relation to Management


If you want influence over people you have to earn it. For, legitimate authority (influence) must
be earned and does not come from a job title, nameplate, or special perks (Hunter 68). The assumption is
that people who have the technical skills, the ability to do the job the best, can get others to do the job as
well as they can (Hunter 59). The technical and task-oriented skills that managers work so hard to
develop and that have served them well in rising to leadership positions do not serve them well in
becoming effective leaders (Hunter 33).
The simple fact is that people in organizations are not as interested in what you know; they are
more concerned about if you care (Hunter 15). Evidence shows that the majority of managers who attain
leadership positions have no idea how to deal with the organizations most valuable resource, its people
(Hunter 45). The biggest single mistake that people make about leadership is that they think leadership
means command. Command. is not leadership (Leob and Kindel 14). Management primarily focuses on
managing things while leadership focuses on working with people (Hatala and Hatala 4-5). Effective
leaders retain talent by building commitment, rekindling passion and showing how employees can play a
meaningful role by participating in co-creating the organizational vision (Hatala and Hatala 7).

2
It must be understood that management and leadership, while different, are complimentary. For
the best business leaders are individuals who have good management skills as well as good leadership
skills. Fundamentally a great business leader is an individual who has both the ability to understand and
efficiently implement the processes of an organization (management) while also providing the direction
and motivation the workforce needs in order to attain organizational goals (leadership). John Kotter,
professor of leadership at the Harvard Business School, argues that leadership is a compliment to
management, not a natural extension of it. Leadership is not advanced management, but calls for a new
shift in awareness that requires a different set of skills and behaviours (Hatala and Hatala 4). For
Leadership can and must be learned (Hunter 42). The trick to becoming a leader is to be able to elicit
cooperation, to listen to the needs of others, and to put other peoples needs ahead of your own with
great consistency (Leob and Kindel 11).

3
The Six Styles of Leadership
Daniel Goleman wrote an article called Leadership That Gets Results. This article was featured in
the March-April 2000 issue of the Harvard Business Review. In this article Goleman articulates the six
leadership styles used in business today. There are Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic,
Pacesetting, and Coaching leadership styles. Coercive leaders demand immediate compliance.
Authoritative leaders mobilize people towards a vision. Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds and
harmony. Democratic leaders build consensus through participation. Pacesetting leaders expect
excellence and self-direction. And Coaching leaders develop people for the future (80). What follows is a
summary of each of Golemans leadership styles by Bill Sharlow, editor of Money-Zine.com. For a quick
reference on each style and its impact in the workplace see Table 1 below.

Table 1: Leadership Style Quick Reference

Leadership Style Description Organizational Impact


Coercive Do what I say Negative
Authoritative Come follow me Significantly Positive
Affiliative How do you feel? Moderate/Positive
Democratic What do you think? Neutral
Pacesetting Do what I do Negative
Coaching Try this Positive
Source: Adapted from (Hatala and Hatala 15)

Coercive Leadership Style


The Coercive Leadership Style should be used with caution because it's based on the concept
of "command and control," which usually causes a decrease in motivation among those interacting with
this type of manager. The coercive leader is most effective in situations where the company or group
requires a complete turnaround. It is also effective during disasters, or dealing with underperforming
employees - usually as a last resort. (Sharlow http://www.money-zine.com/Career-
Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-Style/)

4
Authoritative Leadership Style
If your business seems to be drifting aimlessly, then the Authoritative Leadership Style can be
very effective in this type of situation. The authoritative leader is an expert in dealing with the problems
or challenges at hand, and can clearly identify goals that will lead to success. This leader also allows
employees to figure out the best way to achieve those goals. (Sharlow http://www.money-
zine.com/Career-Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-Style/)

Affiliative Leadership Style


The Affiliative Leadership Style is most effective in situations where morale is low or
teambuilding is needed. This leader is easily recognized by their theme of "employee first." Employees
can expect much praise from this style; unfortunately, poor performance may also go without correction.
(Sharlow http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-Style/)

Democratic Leadership Style


The Democratic Leadership Style gives members of the work group a vote, or a say, in nearly
every decision the team makes. When used effectively, the democratic leader builds flexibility and
responsibility. They can help identify new ways to do things with fresh ideas. Be careful with this style,
however, because the level of involvement required by this approach, as well as the decision-making
process, can be very time consuming. (Sharlow http://www.money-zine.com/Career-
Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-Style/)

Pacesetting Leadership Style


When employees are self-motivated and highly skilled, the Pacesetting Leadership Style is
extremely effective. The pacesetting leader sets very high performance standards for themselves and the
group. They exemplify the behaviours they are seeking from other members of the group. This
leadership style needs to be used sparingly since workers can often "burn out" due to the demanding
pace of this style. (Sharlow http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development/Leadership-
Skill/Leadership-Style/)

5
Coaching Leadership Style
In the Coaching Leadership Style the leader focuses on helping others in their personal
development, and in their job-related activities. The coaching leader aids others to get up to speed by
working closely with them to make sure they have the knowledge and tools to be successful. This
situational leadership style works best when the employee already understands their weaknesses, and is
receptive to improvement suggestions or ideas. (Sharlow http://www.money-zine.com/Career-
Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-Style/)

Each of these styles however, is not used in isolation. Research indicates that leaders with the
best results do not rely on only one leadership style (Goleman 79). Brigitte Scott, the president of
C.U.P.E. local 2268, and Lis Mack, the Acting Manager for the Partners FOR the Saskatchewan River Basin
were both asked if they used multiple styles. Brigitte Scott indicated that she uses the Coaching,
Affiliative, and Democratic leadership styles. Lis Mack also used a number of styles. They were Coaching,
Affiliative, and Democratic. She also indicated that she uses the Coercive leadership style when situations
demand that she resort to ordering commands.
Leaders use all six of these leadership styles. Of the six styles only four have a positive impact on
the workplace (Goleman 82). The four styles that have a positive impact on the workplace are the
Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching styles (Goleman 87). Leaders who used styles that
positively affected the climate had decidedly better financial results than those who did not (Goleman
81). However, few leaders have mastered all six of the styles. Even fewer still, know when and how to use
the ones they already know (Goleman 89).

6
Servant Leadership
Not mentioned as one of the six styles of leadership is servant leadership. This particular
leadership strategy is all-inclusive, as those who practice it engage in most, if not all of the leadership
practices. See Figure 1 below.
A servant leader is an individual who is patient, kind, humble, respectful, selfless, forgiving,
honest, and committed. They exemplify excellence in the workplace and provide direction for their
employees during times of difficulty and upheaval. Servant leaders serve those they lead by seeking out
their greatest good. For,
Figure 1: The
servant leadership is
Six Leadership Coercive
predicated on the fact Styles All Leadership
Relate to Style
that anyone who wishes Servant
Leadership Coaching Authoritative
Leadership Leadership
to be the leader must first Style Style

be the servant. If you


Servant
choose to lead you must Leadership

serve (Hunter 72). After Pacesetting Affiliative


Leadership Leadership
all leadership is about Style Style

people and legitimate Democratic


Leadership
leadership, influence, is Style

built upon serving,


sacrificing, and seeking the greatest good of those being led (Hunter 73).
There are however many in the workplace that views servant leadership as a weak and passive
style of leadership. James C. Hunter, author of The Worlds Most Powerful Leadership Principle: How to
Become a Servant Leader, states that many in the workplace say, What do you want from us? Nice guy
servant leader, or someone who gets the job done (123)? Yet serving others is a great responsibility. A
leader, who has dedicated themselves to serving, would not wish to abdicate his or her leadership
responsibility to define the mission, set the rules governing behaviour, set standards, and define
accountability (Hunter 51). In fact a leader who is dedicated to his/her people would more likely than not
be more committed to their employees than any command and control type of leader. In fact the most
effective servant leaders have the extraordinary ability to show unrelenting toughness and sincere
affection for people. They can be extremely demanding in their quest for excellence but show equal
passion for demonstrating care and love for their people (Hunter 121).

7
The Eight Main Characteristic of Servant Leadership and Their Relation to the
Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching Styles of Leadership

The First Characteristic: Patience


We must have control over our emotions and we must have patience if we are to behave with
character during times of difficulty. Without control over our basic desires, whims, appetites, and other
urges, we have little hope of behaving with character in difficult situations (Hunter 91). Without patience
we will be at the whim of our emotions, relationships will be damaged, and there will be a negative
impact in the workplace. Patience is essential as it is a building block of character and by extension,
leadership.

Evidence of patience in relation to the:


Authoritative style: It takes patience to right a drifting business, to guide it through difficult
times. These leaders also have the patience to allow their employees to figure out the best way
to implement the leaders vision for a turnaround. Without patience authoritative leaders could
not give their people the freedom to innovate, experiment, and take calculated risks (Goleman
84). By extension these traits would also help an organization to maintain a competitive
advantage during times of prosperity.
Affiliative style: Without patience employees cannot come first. It takes a lot of effort and
patience for a leader to put employees first and build a company with high moral, let alone re-
invigorating a workplace suffering from the debilitating effects of low morale.
Democratic style: It takes time and effort to build teams and to involve employees in the
decision making process. This style can be very time consuming. Leaders must show patience
while implementing this leadership style.
Coaching style: Coaching leaders have a constant dialogue with their employees, they help them
improve both their strengths and weaknesses through long term developmental goals, and as a
result they have patience for short-term failure if it furthers long-term learning (Goleman 87).
For it is not possible to help others in their development, to help them gain the knowledge and
tools they need in order to succeed without patience. Coaching takes time.

The Second Characteristic: Kindness


Kindness builds relationships. Kindness and common courtesy are about doing the things that
help relationships flow smoothly. This includes extending ourselves for others by appreciating them,
encouraging them, being courteous, listening well, and giving credit and praise for efforts made (Hunter
93).

8
Evidence of kindness in relation to the:
Authoritative style: Kindness does not seem to be important when a leader is trying to guide a
business through difficult times. Yet without displaying kindness towards their employees
authoritative leaders could not give their people the freedom to innovate, experiment, and take
calculated risks (Goleman 84). If a leader is unkind employees will not feel free to innovate,
experiment, or to take risks. Once again, kindness is essential.
Affiliative style: Employees cannot come first if a leader is unkind. For this style revolves around
people its proponents value individuals and their emotions more than tasks or goals (Goleman
84). Kindness is essential.
Democratic style: Without solid relationships democracy in the workplace cannot operate
effectively. Kindness reinforces the relationships needed in order to foster an environment that
will allow democracy to thrive. By spending time getting peoples ideas and buy in, a leader
builds trust, respect, and commitment (Goleman 85).
Coaching style: Coaching leaders must build relationships with their employees in order to
understand their strengths and weaknesses. Coaching requires constant dialogue, and that
dialogue has a way of pushing up every driver of climate (Goleman 87). A leader could not coach
effectively without expressing kindness towards their employees.

The Third Characteristic: Humility


Humble leaders know that they are no better or worse than other people. This does not mean
that they are self-effacing, passive, or overly modest; it simply means that they know who they are and
they are comfortable being themselves (Hunter 94-95). They are open to others opinions, as they know
they do not have all the answers and are quick to credit others when credit is due (Hunter 95). Humble
leaders are secure in knowing they have strengths and limitation. and by extension they are able to
keep things in perspective (Hunter 96-97).

Evidence of humility in relation to the:


Authoritative style: As is the case, a humble leader would be open to understanding the benefits
as well the drawbacks of all leadership styles. At first glance this style seems to be impervious to
any drawbacks and only a leader who is open to hearing dissent for their supported style of
leadership would grasp the nature of this styles failure. This style assumes that the leader is an
expert who can deal with the problems and challenges facing their organization. But this
approach fails when a leader is working with a team of experts or peers who are more
experienced than he /she is; they may see the leader as pompous or out of touch (Goleman

9
89). Also a leader may become overbearing while implementing this style, which could
undermine the egalitarian spirit of an effective team (Goleman 89).
Affiliative style: As with all styles a humble leader, who is able to keep things in perspective,
would understand that along with the benefits there are some major deficiencies of the affiliative
style. Simply put, the affiliative style should not be used alone. Its exclusive focus on praise can
allow poor performance to go uncorrected; employees may perceive that mediocrity is
tolerated (Goleman 85). Furthermore when tough challenges arise in a workplace that is solely
focused on employees, an organization will not be able to face challenges with any sort of
direction (Goleman 85). Faced with the deficiencies afforded by this style, and yet knowledgeable
of its strengths, a humble leader would be comfortable in seeking solutions that could work in
conjunction with this style. The humble leader knows they do not have all the answers and would
be open to the opinions of others in order to find solutions for this styles deficiency.
Democratic style: Once again humble leaders know their strengths and limitations. Humble
leaders know that despite all of the benefits of democracy there are downfalls. If used in the
wrong way the democratic styles can lead to number of bad consequences. One of the
democratic styles more exasperating consequences can be endless meetings where ideas are
mulled over, consensus remains elusive, and the only visible result is scheduling more meetings.
In reality, their people end up feeling confused and leaderless. Such an approach can even
escalate conflicts in the workplace (Goleman 85). A humble leader would, despite his or her
commitment to their employees, recognize that the democratic style also fails when the
employees themselves are not competent enough to make the informed decisions needed for
the system to run effectively (Goleman 85). A humble leader would not let pride and arrogance
get in the way of making the right decision.
Coaching style: Humble leaders know their strengths and limitation and can keep things in
perspective. They know when to coach and when they themselves need coaching. Coaching
flops if the leader lacks the experience to help employees along (Goleman 87). Humble leaders
know when to engage in a leadership style and when to back out.

The Fourth Characteristic: Respect


Each and every one of us is important. We may have different jobs, salary, or education but we
are all deserving of respect. Effective leaders understand that everyone is important and adds value to an
organization. the only difference is that people have different job responsibilities and the market
compensates those responsibilities differently (Hunter 99). The leader gives respect. The leader chooses
to treat all people like important people (Hunter 99).

10
Evidence of respect in relation to the:
Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching styles of leadership: This characteristic of
servant leadership is the same across all of the leadership styles. If a leader does not show
respect can they truly help their employees. For leadership is about people, without respect you
lose the people you are leading. Respect is a must.

The Fifth Characteristic: Selflessness


One of the tricks to becoming a leader is to put other peoples needs ahead of your own with
great consistency (Leob and Kindel 11). A leader is selfless. Leaders put the needs of the group ahead of
their own needs. The will to serve and sacrifice for others, the willingness to set aside our wants and
needs in seeking the greatest good for others this is what it means to be selfless. This is what it means to
be the leader (Hunter 99-100).

Evidence of selflessness in relation to the:


Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching styles of leadership: This characteristic of
servant leadership is the same across all of the leadership styles. A leader needs to put
employee, as well as organizational needs, ahead of their own needs. For if a leader consistently
puts themselves ahead of their employees, shareholders, and customers they risk eroding the
main ingredient of effective leadership, influence. Selflessness is essential.

The Sixth Characteristic: Forgiveness


Forgiveness releases our resentment. When we are willing to forgive other people we are
released from our feelings of indignant displeasure or persistent ill will. Leaders lead by learning from
their mistakes. And leaders develop other leaders by giving the people for whom they are responsible the
space to fail and to learn. ...Forgiveness offers people the chance to take risks, to learn and to grow in
their own leadership within the organization (Wright 1). Forgiveness involves going to people and
communicating assertively how what they have done has affected you, dealing with it, and then letting go
of any lingering resentment (Hunter 101).

Evidence of forgiveness in relation to the:


Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching styles of leadership: This characteristic of
servant leadership is the same across all of the leadership styles. A leader must be able to forgive
themselves as well as those they lead. People make mistakes and we can either grow from those
mistakes or be consumed by them. Leaders must face forgiveness head on, deal with the
situation at hand, and let go of their resentment. For there are many managers who have ruined

11
their careers because their feelings and pride got in the way and they could not forgive others
and let go of their resentment (Hunter 102).

The Seventh Characteristic: Honesty


Leaders must be free from hypocrisy they must be sincere. A leader who adheres to the facts
builds honesty and trust. Trust is at the heart of relationships. Without trust you cannot lead.
Exemplary leaders are devoted to building relationships based on mutual respect and caring (Bennis ed.
et al. 85). Leaders build trust by respecting their employees ideas. Leading well requires that people be
honest when they look at information and resist their own biases, even when they think they already
know the answer (Leob and Kindel 58). Honest leaders also build trust by assertively addressing
employee accountability. A major aspect of honesty and being free from deception is in how we hold
people accountable for their actions. If we fail to do so, we are not leading honestly, because
accountability is our responsibility as leaders, along with helping people be the best they can be (Hunter
106).

Evidence of honesty in relation to the:


Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, and Coaching styles of leadership: This characteristic of
servant leadership is the same across all of the leadership styles. Without honesty leadership
fails. Without honesty leaders cannot effectively promote their vision, build consensus, develop
strategies for organizational and personal improvement, or engage in honest disciplinary action.
We discipline (train) because we care about people, because we want them to be the best they
can be, and because it is our responsibility as leaders. Remember, that is what we signed up for.
Richard Green, president of the lip-care company Blistex, flatly states, It is immoral not to fire
those who cant do the job (Hunter 119-120). If we are not honest with ourselves or with others
we cannot lead others effectively.

12
The Eighth Characteristic: Commitment
Leaders are committed for leadership development is not a quick fix, but a long term
development process and a lifelong journey (Hatala and Hatala 18). Servant leaders are committed to
doing the right thing to continually improve themselves and their organization. Servant leadership
requires a passion for doing what you say you are going to do, following through on promises, and
finishing what is started. It requires a passion for helping others along their journey to be the best they
can be. Indeed, leaders should not ask others to be the best they can be unless they are committed to
being the best they can be (Hunter109).

Evidence of commitment in relation to the:


Authoritative style: An authoritative leader is committed to their vision for their organization
and for the goals that will lead them to success. The authoritative leader Maximizes
commitment to the organizations goals and strategy. By framing the individual tasks within a
grand vision, he motivates people by making clear to them how their work fits into a larger
vision for the organization (Goleman 84).
Affiliative style: Leaders employing this style consistently commit to putting their employees,
shareholders, and customers ahead of themselves. Affiliative leaders are masters at building a
sense of belonging (Goleman 84). Commitment once again builds commitment.
Democratic style: A major component of a democracy is in giving a voice to those involved. Once
again this is a style that builds commitment with commitment. By spending time getting
peoples ideas and buy in, a leader builds trust, respect, and commitment (Goleman 85).
Coaching style: Coaches develop others to be the best that they can be in the workplace. They
are committed to their employees development and their employees return the favor with
increased levels of commitment. Coaching builds commitment with commitment for the styles
implicit message is, I believe in you, Im investing in you, and I expect your best efforts
(Goleman 87).

13
Servant Leadership in Relation to the Coercive and Pacesetting Styles of Leadership

Coercive Style of Leadership


Servant leaders are leaders who serve those they lead. Sometimes service for an individual or
group of individuals necessitates the use of the coercive leadership style. Certainly, there are legitimate
uses of power. Indeed, power is sometimes necessary to meet the legitimate needs of an individual or the
organization we are serving (Hunter 63). For instance, this style is always useful during periods of
upheaval or disaster. Naturally the coercive style should be used only with extreme caution and in the
few situations when it is absolutely imperative, such as during a turnaround or when a hostile takeover is
looming (Goleman). Leaders could not lead during times of difficulty without this style.

Pacesetting Leadership Style


When asked if servant leaders would use all of the different styles of leadership Lis Mack stated,
That most good leaders/managers would be more likely to use all of the leadership styles EXCEPT for
pacesetting. Lis Mack explained that this style only works in a small variety of situations, with certain
personnel and it often causes conflict within an organization. For the pacesetting leader sets extremely
high performance standards and exemplifies them himself. He is obsessive about doing things better and
faster, and he asks the same of everyone around him (Goleman 86).
Yet, servant leaders do have a use for this style. How do they accomplish this? Servant Leaders
set extremely high performance standards in regards to putting people first. Indeed, leaders should not
ask others to be the best they can be unless they are committed to being the best they can be (Hunter
109). In fact the most effective servant leaders have the extraordinary ability to. be extremely
demanding in their quest for excellence but show equal passion for demonstrating care and love for their
people (Hunter 121). Servant leaders set the pace for how each and every one should be treated.

14
Conclusions

This report, based on the preceding findings, concludes that:

Although complimentary to leadership, management is not leadership.


Leadership is needed in the workplace if organizations wish to move away from the ineffective
command and control style of management.
There are six styles of leadership and the best leaders are the individuals who have mastered
multiple styles. The six styles are identified as the:
o Coercive leadership style
o Authoritative leadership style
o Affiliative leadership style
o Democratic leadership style
o Pacesetting leadership style
o Coaching leadership style
Servant leadership is an all-inclusive style of leadership that combines the attributes of all six of
the leadership styles used in organizations today.

Recommendations: Improving Leadership Capacity

1. Organizations must accept that the old command and control style of leadership no longer
works, except in certain situations.
2. Organizations must make a commitment to developing leadership.

3. In particular, a commitment must be made to implement the principles of servant leadership,


which will provide organizations with the most balanced and effective leaders needed in order to
st
run a successful organization in the 21 Century.

Evidence shows that leaders who use multiple styles of leadership while cultivating relationships with
their employees, have successfully moved away from just managing to truly leading and have experienced
a positive shift within their organizations (Goleman 79). Simply put, if businesses want results then
servant leadership is the most balanced and effective leadership style capable of providing those results.

15
Works Cited

Bennis, Warren, Gretchen M. Spreitzer, and Thomas G. Cummings. The Future of Leadership: Today's Top

Leadership Thinkers Speak to Tomorrow's Leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Print.

Goleman, Daniel. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review Mar. - Apr. 2000: 79 - 90.

Print.

Hatala, Richard, and Lillas Hatala. The Business Case for Leadership Development. Saskatoon: University

of Saskatchewan, Centre for Continuing & Distance Education, 2008. Print.

Hunter, James C.. The world's most powerful leadership principle: how to become a servant leader. New

York: Crown Business, 2004. Print.

Loeb, Marshall, and Stephen Kindel. Leadership for Dummies. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 1999.

Print.

Mack, Lis. Email interview. 31 May 2011.

Scott, Brigitte. Email interview. 31 May 2011.

Sharlow, Bill. "Leadership Style." Careers, Finance and Investing : Money-zine.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13

June 2011. <http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development/Leadership-Skill/Leadership-

Style/>.

Wright, Walter C. "Leadership and Forgiveness." The TEAL Trust. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2011.

<www.teal.org.uk/Trainingbox/Leadership%20and%20Forgiveness.pdf>.

MLA formatting by BibMe.org.

The original copy of this report was initially submitted June 22, 2011 as part of the completion
requirements for Business Communications 121 offered by SIAST.

16