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Care Center

Volunteer Training Manual


Revised April 2014
Table of Contents

Introduction 4
I.1 Care Center Rules
I.2 Parking
I.3 Dress Code
I.4 Personal Items

1.0 Wildlife Rehabilitation in General 5


1.1 What Is Wildlife Rehabilitation?
1.2 To Whom Do We Have Responsibilities?
1.3 Rehabilitation Time Limits

2.0 Intake 6
2.1 Accepting the Animal
2.2 Identifying the Species
2.3 Handling Considerations
2.4 Available Tools
2.5 What Type of Carrier/Basket to Use
2.6 Conditions Requiring a Wildlife Technicians Immediate Attention
2.7 After Intake
2.8 Dont Make Promises
2.9 Intake Log Book

3.0 Medical Cards and Data 9


3.1 Filling Out the Card: The Public
3.2 Filling Out the Card: Your Responsibilities
3.3 Where the Card Goes
3.4 Special Intake Cards: Least Tern Project
3.5 Animal Record Keeping: Electronic Tracking

4.0 Public Communication and Education 11


4.1 The First Communication
4.2 Education
4.3 Ask for Donations
4.4 Frequently Asked Questions
4.5 Problems with the Public

5.0 Basic Skills: Working Safely with Wildlife 13


5.1 Protect Yourself
5.2 Protect the Animals
5.3 Read All the Signs on the Cages and the Walls
i
6.0 Basic Skills: Keeping the Environment Clean 14
6.1 Cleaning Agents
6.2 Conversion Formulas
6.3 Cleaning the Animals Environment
6.4 Cleaning Feeding Instruments and Medical Equipment
6.5 Laundry
6.6 Miscellaneous Cleaning
6.7 Waste Disposal

7.0 Basic Skills: Food Preparation and Feeding 17


7.1 Preparing the Food
7.2 Tube Feeding / Crop Checking (Tube-Feeding Graphic)
7.3 Syringe Feeding
7.4 Stick Feeding

8.0 Ongoing Care 21


8.1 Monitoring the Animals Health
8.2 Signs of Trouble
8.3 Caging, Watering, Feeding Basics

9.0 Diseases or Conditions 22


9.1 Common
9.2 Less Common

Appendixes 23
Appendix A: Safety Incident Report 23
Appendix B: Code of Ethics 24
Appendix C: Sample Intake Card 25
Appendix D: Dr. Meiers Zoonoses Manual 26
Appendix E: Caging Information 28
Appendix F: How to Read a Syringe 36
Appendix G: Abbreviations and Rehab Jargon 37
Appendix H: Anatomy: Avian and Mammal 39
Care Center Training Manual
Introduction

Welcome to Project Wildlife. We take care of approximately 10,000 animals annually from more than 300 different species. Of that
number, 80% are birds and 20% are mammals. This manual will introduce you to life as a volunteer at the Care Center and provide
you with information on what you will encounter during your shift. We couldnt do what we do without you. Thank you for joining us.

I.1 Care Center Rules


Your safety comes first. Do not handle anything you are not trained to handle or you do not feel comfortable handling. The same holds
true for the public. If someone at the door is uncooperative, ask a staff member to help you.

Remember, you are a predator in the eyes of all the animals at our center. It is important to keep activity/noise to a minimum.
Noise is stressful to our patients, so please keep your voice down.
Put your cell phone on vibrate and try to limit calls to emergencies only; take all calls outside.
Do not play music.
If you smoke, please smoke outside, and wash your hands before resuming your tasks.
Wash your hands thoroughly before and after eating and drinking.

If you are bitten:


1. Clean the wound site for at least 5 minutes with Nolvasan or Betadine scrub (for all bites or injuries).
2. Notify the Wildlife Technician immediately.
3. If the animal is a mammal, it will have to be euthanized for rabies testing.
4. A written Safety Incident Report must be filed (see Appendix A).
5. Please wear gloves if you are assisting another volunteer or a member of the public who has been bitten and is bleeding.

I.2 Parking
Use on-street parking if it is available. If you cannot find street parking, check with the staff for current parking information.

I.3 Dress Code


When working at Project Wildlife, you will get dirty, so wear comfortable clothing that you can move around in, long pants (below
the knee at least), closed-toe shoes, and minimal jewelry. Remember that a lot of our patients are attracted to glittery items.

Protective clothing is provided at the Care Center, including:

Aprons and gowns


Disposable rubber gloves (latex / nitrile)
Protective gloves (leather / Kevlar)
Masks
Goggles
Booties

I.4 Personal Items


Please limit the number of personal items you bring to the triage facility; there is limited storage space, and we must limit patients
exposure. You can store your items in the volunteer cabinet located near the front door and take them home with you at the end of
your shift. Food items can be placed in the small refrigerator in the patio area. All food and drinks must be labeled with your name
and should be taken home with you each day.
Care Center Training Manual
1.0 Wildlife Rehabilitation in General

1.1 What Is Wildlife Rehabilitation?


Wildlife rehabilitation is defined as restoring wild animals to their natural state. In other words, after rehabilitation, an animal must be
healthy and strong enough to deal with its natural environment and predators. It must be able to feed, find shelter, breed, and escape
dangers of all kinds. In particular, it must be able to deal with the special challenges of living in an urban area. The animal must be
properly fearful of domestic pets, cars, and people. At Project Wildlife, volunteers, staff, and consulting veterinarians work together
to provide care for a wide variety of patients with the ultimate goal of releasing them back into the wild.

1.2 To Whom Do We Have Responsibilities?


To all San Diego County wildlife: Our goal is to keep all wild animals wild. To rehabilitate without imprinting (imprinting
can lead to a non-releasable condition). To help injured wildlife regain their health and give them a second chance to succeed
in the wild. At Project Wildlife, we follow a Code of Ethics (see Appendix B) while rehabilitating wildlife.
To Project Wildlife: We have responsibilities to the animals, to Satellite Care Team members, and to the organization.
To the government: We abide by all state and federal regulations: California Department of Fish and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
To the public: We educate the public about what we do and how they can help wildlife. If you are unsure how to address the
public or how to answer a question, please ask a Wildlife Technician for help.

1.3 Rehabilitation Time Limits


Project Wildlife cannot hold migratory birds for more than 180 days without additional authorization. Government regulations require
us to euthanize any bird that will not be able, even after medical treatment and rehabilitation, to perch upright and/or ambulate without
inflicting additional injuries. We also are required to euthanize any bird that has sustained injuries requiring amputation of a wing at
the elbow or above, of a leg or a foot, and/or is blind, unless the conditions of 50 CFR 21.31(e)(3)(iii) are met.

If an animal cannot be released within the 180-day limit, there are three options. First, Project Wildlife may apply to the licensing
agency (U.S. Fish and Wildlife or California Fish and Wildlife) for an extension to continue the rehab process. Second, the animal
can be submitted for consideration as an education animal ambassador if it meets those requirements. If the animal does not qualify
for either of these options, it must be euthanized.
Care Center Training Manual
2.0 Intake

2.1 Accepting the Animal


Ask the public what theyve brought in and what happened, so you have an idea of what to expect before opening the
container. Do not open the container at the door. Bring it inside to examine its contents.
Make sure it is a WILD animal. We cannot accept domestic animals; if its domestic, direct the public to Animal Services. If
you are not certain, get a second opinion. We see a lot of domestic pigeons, doves, and ducks, so make sure you know how
they differ from their wild relatives.
Try to determine if the animal is an orphan or whether it was taken from parents that were out looking for food. If it is
healthy, we may send it back to its parents.
Was this animal trapped as a nuisance animal? Project Wildlife cannot relocate trapped wildlife.
Do not let the public remove the animal from the box, bag, or carrier. A trained volunteer or staff member should be the only
person handling the animal at the door.
Put on protective gloves before touching the animal.
Ask the public to dispose of the container.
Dont forget to ask for a donation. Since Project Wildlife is a nonprofit organization, the majority of our funding comes from
donations.

To provide the best service for the animals in our care, we must refuse to accept animals that we cannot provide care for or
those that do not need our assistance. These animals include:
Healthy, uninjured adults or independent juveniles: The public should release them where they were found.
Domestic animals: Refer the public to Animal Services.
Trapped nuisance animals: The public should release them where they were found or contact Animal Services.
Amphibians and reptiles: Refer the public to another organization, such as the San Diego Turtle and Tortoise Society.
Large predatory mammals (bobcats, mountain lions, coyotes): Refer the public to the Fund for Animals.

2.2 Identifying the Species


Verify the species identification:
Look it up in a book, such as the Sibleys Guide.
Ask a Wildlife Technician.
Ask other, more experienced volunteers.

2.3 Handling Considerations


Are you trained to handle this type of animal? (Wildlife Technicians handle all skunks, raccoons, foxes, bats, squirrels, mice
and rats; raptors require specialized training; large sea and shore birds also require specialized training.)
What is the current situation (e.g., a small, dangerous animal in a big box)?
What is the condition of the animal? Do you need to have a Wildlife Technician see it immediately? Should it be put in an
incubator or under a heat lamp while the public fills out the intake card?

2.4 Available Tools


Towels: For handling (to grab a beak, as in herons / large seabirds, or to give talons something else to grab on to), to distract
the animal, for restraint (as in a burrito wrap), and to minimize stress (covering an animals eyes)
Nets: Use them carefully to catch escapees. Be careful not to hit the bird with the frame.
Gloves: Know the proper type to use for what you are doing (leather for seabirds and mammals), Kevlar (for raptors),
latex/nitrile (for handling all patients).
Care Center Training Manual
2.5 What Type of Carrier/Basket to Use

Babies: Take the baby and place it under a heat lamp or in the incubator in the med room while the public is filling out the card.
Eggs: Project Wildlife cannot accept eggs. We do not have egg brooders, nor do we have a permit to hatch eggs. We will on
occasion take eggs from which you can hear pipping because these birds will hatch in a day or two.
Songbirds & Hummingbirds: Strawberry basket lined with tissue.
Pigeons/Doves: Basket lined with a paper towel; place a net and a towel over the top.
Crows/Ravens: Basket lined with a paper towel; place a net and a towel over the top.
Small Mammals (Voles, Moles, Shrews, and Gophers): Plastic terrarium lined with a towel and/or tissue, and a towel
covering carrier. These animals should also be given an opossum pouch or another towel to hide in inside the carrier.
Handled by Level 2+ or Wildlife Technicians only, depending on species.
Small Mammals (Rats and Mice): Do not handle Hantavirus vectors. Requires a Wildlife Technician.
Rabbits/Opossums: Plastic terrarium lined with a small hand towel, a second towel or opossum pouch to hide in, and a towel
covering the carrier. Must be Level 2 in order to handle.
Skunks/Raccoons: Requires a Wildlife Technician. The tech on duty will place them in an appropriate skunk carrier.
Adults
Small Songbirds: Small basket lined with a paper towel, with a net and towel over the top.
Hummingbirds: Small basket with screening or hummingbird baskets lined with a blue surgical towel and a net over the
top, place under a heat lamp. Crimp the towel with your fingers making an elevated ridge to simulate a perch. Do not put a
towel over the basket.
Pigeons/Doves: Large basket lined with a paper towel, a net and towel over the top (use a small basket for spastic adult
doves).
Crows/Ravens (Always wear latex gloves, West Nile Virus possible): Cardboard carrier lined with a towel and/or newspaper.
Small Mammals (Rats and Mice): Do not handle Hantavirus vectors. Requires a Wildlife Technician.
Small Mammals like Voles, Moles, and Gophers (wear leather gloves): Plastic critter carrier/terrarium with tight-fitting lid,
lined with a towel, add a second towel or opossum pouch to hide in, and a towel covering the carrier. Use a glass aquarium
for extra-feisty patients. Must be Level 2 to handle.
Rabbits (Always wear latex/nitrile gloves, Tularemia possible): Cardboard carrier lined with a towel, add another towel to
provide a hiding place. Must be Level 2 or higher to handle.
Opossums (wear protective gloves; they might bite): Cardboard carrier lined with a towel. Must be Level 2 or higher to
handle.
Seabirds/Shorebirds (wear protective gloves & goggles; their beaks tear skin): Cardboard carrier lined with a towel, use extra
padding (foam under towel) for birds that do not stand. The kennels must be large enough for the birds to stand up in and to
stretch their wings. Must be Level 2 or higher to handle.
Raptors (wear protective gloves; their talons puncture skin): Cardboard carrier lined with a towel (no stray strings or loops on
which talons can get caught). Special training neededMust be Level 2 or higher.
Squirrels/Raccoons/Fox/Bats/Mice/Rats: An appropriate carrier. Requires a Wildlife Technician.
Skunks: Project Wildlife will take in adult skunks and if needed transferred them to Fund for Animals in Ramona.

2.6 Conditions Requiring a Wildlife Technicians Immediate Attention


Severe bleeding Legal issues: Gunshot wounds, animal cruelty, etc.
Seizures/convulsions Legal issues: Gunshot wounds, animal cruelty, etc.
Suspected poisoning Shock: Abnormal heart rate, pale gums, fully dilated pupils,
Ice cold or very hot cold, unconscious
Heavy breathing / panting Hummingbirds: Must eat every 30 minutes to sustain metabolism
Severe dehydration: sunken eyes, skin turgor, Endangered/threatened species: Least Tern, Snowy Plover,
stringy mucous membranes Burrowing Owl, Least Bells Vireo, Beldings Sparrow,
Wet/sticky San Diego Cactus Wren, Clapper Rail, Brown Pelican,
Stephens Kangaroo Rat
2.7 After Intake
Keep the animal warm, dark, and quiet (except hummingbirds; give them light).
Animals must be stabilized prior to any procedures; that is why they will be allowed to sit in the med room for 15 minutes or
so to de-stress. The Wildlife Technicians have not forgotten about the animals; they are just allowing them to stabilize before
conducting a physical examination.
Never give a cold animal food or drink until the body is warmed up. This includes giving subcutaneous fluids (and flea
treatments as well).

2.8 Dont Make Promises


Project Wildlife cannot make follow-up calls or give updates. We take in too many animals and have too few volunteers to provide
this service. We will however, send out a single follow-up e-mail or postcard if the public asks for one and provides an e-mail or
mailing address.
If the public asks if we will euthanize the animal, reply: The vet will make that decision, or We will do all we can for the well-
being of this animal.
We are not able to release the animal back in the publics yard. We are required to release it within a 3-mile radius of where it was
found. It will go to the most habitable place in the area on its own, which may be that persons yard.

2.9 Intake Log Book


At every intake please make sure to log it into the intake log book, located on the front door counter. Please enter date, species, age,
what happened to the animal if known, zip code, and the initials of the person who took in the animal.
3.0 Medical Cards and Data

3.1 Filling out the Card: The Public


One card must be used for each animal. If there are multiple animals of the same species from one person (i.e., a nest of birds), have
the public fill out one card completely and sign all the cards. You can fill in the species and write 1 of 5, 2 of 5, etc., at the top of each
card. See Appendix C for a Sample Intake Card.

Ask the public to fill out the medical card completely while you take the animal to the Med Room (if there are multiple
volunteers, one stays with the public while another attends to the animal). Before the public leaves, look over the card.
History: Ask how the animal came into the publics possession. Try to get as much information as possible. Examples of
questions you can ask include:
Could a neighborhood cat have caught it? Cat-caught
Was it near a power line or a power-line pole? Electrocution
Was it under a window / next to a building? Window strike
Was it by the side of the road? Hit by car
Was the animal fed anything and when was it last fed? Some things (e.g., bread, juice, milk, any medication) can cause
serious problems.
When was the animal found?
Where was the animal found? Both the zip code, if known, and the area where the animal was found (the closest cross streets
if it was found other than at the persons residence). This information allows us to return the animal to its home turf; helps
in tracking disease outbreaks, poisonings, pollution/toxin problems; and enables us to notify the finder if the animal is
diagnosed with a zoonotic disease (one that can be transmitted to humans).
Address of finder: To notify the person if the animal is found to have a zoonotic disease.
Signature: Make sure the public signs a card for each animal; this is a legal document.
Donation: Project Wildlife relies on donations to care for the animals, please ask for a donation: Would you like to make a
donation for the care of this animal?
Cash: Staple to the white sheet and put it in the box. Give the person a receipt.
Check: Staple to the white sheet and put it in the box. Give the person a receipt.
Credit card: The instructions for the running the credit card machine are directly above the machine. Have the person
sign the receipt, staple it to the white sheet, and put it in the box. You can also print an extra copy for the person if
they ask for one.
E-mail / postcard: If the public would like to find out about the animal, we will send them an e-mail or postcard to let them
know the final outcome. Ask them to fill out their name and address, the date and species, and staple the card to the medical
record.

3.2 Filling out the Card: Your Responsibilities


You are responsible for filling in the date the animal was brought to Project Wildlife. You are also responsible for filling in the
species. Be specific. For example, its not just a rabbit or bunny; its a cottontail, brush rabbit, or jack rabbit. If you dont know,
find out: look in Sibleys for a bird or ask another volunteer or a Wildlife Technician. This identification is required to report
accurately to California Department of Fish & Wildlife and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

3.3 Where the Card Goes


The top half of the white copy of the card is sent to our business office to track the persons names and donations. Please make sure
that it contains both the date and the species. Fill out the bottom half of the white copy and give it back to the person. It contains
information on date, species, and any donation amount; it is a receipt.

The bottom copy, or medical card, stays with the animal at all times. It is vital to track the animals health and to document all
treatment while in our care. The card must be filled in completely and accurately in ink because it is a legal document. It is needed to
document Project Wildlifes annual species count and is required for reporting to California Dept. of Fish and Wildlife and U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service. When the animal is released or euthanized, the hard copy will be submitted for data entry. At this time, or when
the animal is released to homecare, we will fill out and mail the pink slip that lets the public know the outcome of this animals
treatment.

3.4 Special Intake Cards: Least Tern Project


Some U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services cards are specifically designed to track raptors and some mammals as part of the Endangered
Least Tern Project. In these special cases, make sure that both a numbered medical card and a USDA card, which is a government-
issued record, are completely filled out. These cards should be at the front desk, but the ranger who brings in the bird should already
have one filled out and with him/her.

3.5 Animal Record Keeping: Electronic Tracking


Tracking all the animals that are admitted to Project Wildlife is a big job. Each of the more than 10,000 animals that are admitted
annually to the Care Center or Satellite Care sites has a medical record and identification card that is used to track treatments and the
disposition of the animal. Every year Project Wildlife must submit reports to the government and other organizations detailing the
intake, treatment, and disposition of our animals. Electronically tracking these records makes it much easier to create these reports
and to track the animals and create more effective treatments. Creating these records as the animals are admitted to the Care Center
streamlines the process and makes inputting medical data later much easier. It is the responsibility of all volunteers to make sure that
the card, intake sheet, and computer record match. For information on accessing and working with the system, refer to the ARKS
manual.
4.0 Public Communication and Education

4.1 The First Communication


Remember to speak slowly and stay calm.
Always smile no matter what.
Some people will start telling you everything you need to know as soon as you arrive; others will not know where to begin.
Try these conversation starters:
What have you brought us?
Have you been to Project Wildlife before?
How did you find/catch this animal?
Please fill out the outlined portion of our medical card while I take this animal to the back.
Keep in mind which animals Project Wildlife accepts and which we must refer to another organization.

4.2 Education
Dont miss an opportunity to educate the public to prevent future wildlife issues!

Uninjured baby: Ask the public to put it back in the nest because the parents may still be around. Give it another chance at
home with its family, unless they know the parents are dead. Ask the public to monitor the nest very closely to be sure the
parents come back. Usually parents only stop in briefly to feed, so theyll have to watch consistently for a few hours. Birds
do not abandon their young because a human has touched it. Even if the nest has been slightly moved or modified, the parents
will hear the babies when they return.
Caught by a cat: Keep cats indoors for the good of both the pet and wildlife; give the public a Cat Indoors brochure.
Caught by a dog: Make noises and turn on outside lights before letting the dogs out.
Hit by a car: Slow down; keep your eyes on the side of the road. Nocturnal animals are often hit at dusk and dawn.
Tree cut down: Trim trees in late fall / winter to avoid the nesting season; it is against the law to disturb active nests.
Trapped as a pest: Deter the animals with ammonia-soaked rags or with cayenne pepper; do not put pet food or birdseed
outside.
Poisoned: The animal needs to be treated immediately; inform the public about secondary poisoning in the food chain and its
detrimental impacts. Owls can naturally take care of rodent problems; however, if the public poisons rodents, owls may be
poisoned as well and then rodent populations will thrive.

4.3 Ask for Donations


Always remember to mention we operate on donations. Anything the public can give will help: from monetary gifts to help us care for
the animal they bring in to supplies that we can use to care for wildlife. In-kind donations are recorded in a notebook kept with the
volunteer sign-in notebook. The bottom half of the white top sheet of the intake card serves as a receipt for donations.

4.4 Frequently Asked Questions

May I visit the animal in a few days? No, they all go to homecare sites for rehabilitation.
May I call and find out how it is doing? No, we do not have a direct phone line here, and it is difficult and time consuming to
look up any patient on the spur of the moment. However, if you fill out a postcard, we will send it when we know more about
the animals condition.
May I take him home as a pet if you cannot release him? No, you need special permits from the state to house a wild animal.
What will you do if he cant be fixed? We will humanely euthanize him.
Do you have vets or people with special training? Yes, the animals are all seen by our Wildlife Technicians who are specially
trained, and we will call our vet as needed.
Can you release him at my house? We will release the animal somewhere nearby that has suitable habitat.
May we come in and look around? No, wild animals in treatment are under a lot of stress, so we minimize their contact with
people as much as possible. Also, we dont want to unnecessarily expose the public to any zoonotic diseases.
Do you know where the Humane Society and/or Animal Services are located? Yes, they are located 5500 Gaines Street, San
Diego 92110. Go back to the stop sign and make a right. Then go straight through 3 stoplights, and make a left on Gaines
Street. You can give them a copy of the map (located with the brochures by the computer at the front door).

4.5 Problems with the Public


Get a Wildlife Technician or the Care Center Administrative Coordinator if you encounter the following situations:
The public does not like your answers to their questions and becomes upset or angry.
The public refuses to leave.
The public tries to come into the Care Center uninvited.
The public demands that you return the animal.
The public demands that you take an animal we are not allowed to take (peacock, cat, etc.).
The public makes threats or otherwise acts in a violent manner.
The public asks for follow up on a patient.
5.0 Basic Skills: Working Safely with Wildlife

5.1 Protect Yourself


Dress in long pants (at least below the knee) and closed-toe shoes.
Familiarize yourself with zoonoses (See Appendix D, Dr. Meiers Zoonoses manual).
Wash your hands regularly.
Antibacterial hand soap is available throughout the Care Center at each sink.
Antibacterial hand gel is available as well throughout the Center.
Use Nolvasan on wounds/bites: Dilute 1 ounce to 1 gallon; scrub the area and then soak for 5 minutes.
Use a Betadine scrub on wounds/bites: Dilute 1 part Betadine to 10 parts water; scrub the area.
Use shoe wash stations when they are set up.
Always be aware of your surroundings.

5.2 Protect the Animals


Wearing gloves is mandatory. Always change gloves between different cages. Wash your hands thoroughly and often.
Read the med card for each animal, and let the Wildlife Technician on duty know if the animal needs medication. If the
animal is banded, be sure that the band number on the card matches the band number on the bird. Also make sure that the
band hasnt gotten too tight or fallen off.
Check each animal for the health and function of the following:
Eyes
Mouth
Nostrils/nares
Legs and feet
Vent
Skin, fur, or feathers (caked or soiled fur/feathers can lead to hypothermia, skin disorders, and/or an inability to
defecate)

5.3 Read All the Signs on the Cages and on the Walls
Meds: Medications need to be given on time. Check all medical records for medications at the beginning of your shift. There
may be more than one patient medicated in a cage, and more than one medication being given to each patient.
Check crops: Tube feed if there is NO seed in the crop.
Stick feed / syringe feed
Tube feed: How many times a day? Remember to turn the card when youve finished to indicate the feedings been done.
Remember, too, when you come on shift that the shift before has fed and turned the card, but you may need to feed again.
Hydrate: Use either Normosol or tap water.
Needs fecal
Trichomoniasis: Caused by a protozoan, trich is highly contagious to other birds, wear gloves! Clean syringes in bleach
solution described for diseased cages. Symptoms include red throat, white cheesy mass or debris in the mouth or throat,
decreased appetite, a foul smell. The birds airway may be obstructed and the feeding tube may not go down easily.
Pox: Caused by the avian pox virus, it is highly contagious to other birds, wear gloves! Again, these syringes should be
cleaned with bleach and kept separate from other feeding instruments. Look for small lesions, pustules, or scabs on
unfeathered areas, such as the beak, eyes, ears, the abdomen, inside the wing, the vent, legs, or feet.
Coccidia: This protozoan is contagious to other birds. Wear gloves. Keep cages clean so birds dont accidentally eat their
own feces. (Although most bird species of coccidian are not considered zoonotic, certain mammal species of coccidian are
zoonotic.) Keep syringes separate.
Roundworm: Zoonotic! Wear gloves. Keep paper clean.
6.0 Basic Skills: Keeping the Environment Clean

6.1 Cleaning Agents


Antibacterial hand soap.
Betadine scrub: Use for surgery prep or puncture wounds on people.
Betadine solution: Use 1 part solution to 10 parts water for wounds and for soaking injuries (dilute to the color of strong tea).
Bleach: 1 part bleach to 9 parts water. Do not use on metal surgical instruments, nets, or on porous or painted surfaces.
Never mix Bleach and Dawn: Caustic fumes will be produced.
Dawn dishwashing liquid: Can be used on almost any surface.
Laundry solutions: Brite White NP premeasured laundry detergent (1 packet per load), Chlorlite ( cup per load).
Lemon Clean: 4 ounces to 1 gallon (128 ounces) water. Use on syringes, instruments, dishes, and floors.
Nolvasan: 1 ounce to 1 gallon water. Use for superficial wounds, countertops, syringes, and instruments.
Quaternary ammonia: 1 ounce to 1 gallon water. Use on dishes and countertops.
Sanitizer auto-inject solutions: Ultra Klene (red), Eco-San (yellow), Ultra Dry (green).
Simple Green: 1 part to 9 parts water. Use on countertops and floors.
Trifectant: 1 tablet to 16 ounces water, 1 scoop to 1 gallon water, or as directed on package. Use on countertops, kennels,
and sinks.

6.2 Conversion Formulas


1 cc fluid = 1 ml fluid1 teaspoon = 5 ml
1 tablespoon=3 teaspoons = 15 ml
1 cup = 240 ml
1 gallon= 16 cups= 3,840 ml = 3.8 liters

6.3 Cleaning the Animals Environment


Cages
Remove or replace soiled newspaper/towels/paper towels. Clean out the tray beneath the cage as well, replacing soiled paper
if necessary. For those birds that eat mealworms, check the tray for escapees and return them to the occupants of the cage.
Change out the water and food dishes. Replace dry food if it is contaminated with feces. At night, remove all soft foods
(kibble, salads, etc.).
Remove wash perches as needed; sterilize the perches after the occupant leaves and the cage is empty.
Remove and wash shrubbery as needed; sterilize between cage occupants.
Wash empty, dirty cages outside with soapy water, rinse, spray with Trifectant, let sit 10 minutes, rinse again, and then let
dry in sun.

Food Dishes
Wash in the sink in the main room in warm, soapy water with Dawn to remove all debris. Rinse in warm water.
Place in the sanitizer. First, read the directions. Once you understand the directions, check the thermostat. If the water
temperature is at least 120F, place dishes in the sanitizer. Press and hold the start button according to the directions.
If for some reason the sanitizer is not working, soak dishes in either a 10% bleach solution or a quaternary ammonia solution
for 15 minutes, rinse well, and set out to air dry.

Incubators
After each feeding, clean incubators with diluted Nolvasan.
Clean and spray incubators with Trifectant at least once a week. Let sit for 10 minutes and rinse completely. Allow to air-dry
for at least 30 minutes before birds are added.
Check the water level in the water tray at the beginning of each shift. Be sure to clean and sterilize the tray when the
incubator is cleaned.

6.4 Cleaning Feeding Instruments and Medical Equipment


Syringes
Syringes that are used in diseased cages with pox, trich, coccidia, and roundworm are kept separate from other syringes.
Set up 2 tubs of fresh water to the right of the main room sink.
Rinse the syringes from healthy cages in the water tub. Change the rinse water / disinfectant at the sink in the main room if it
looks murky; do not dump it down the kitchen sink.
Soak the syringes in the Lemon Clean solution (4 ounces Lemon Clean to 128 ounces water) for a minimum of 15 minutes.
Rinse syringes from diseased cages with water, soak them in the bleach solution (1 part bleach to 9 parts water) for a
maximum of 15 minutes, and rinse it again with water.
Spray the kitchen sink with Trifectant and allow it to disinfect for 10 minutes. Be sure to put up the disinfecting sign so no
one else inadvertently uses the sink you are trying to disinfect it.
Wash the syringes with soap and water, using appropriate-size bottle brushes.
Rinse the syringes well and air-dry them in strawberry baskets.
Allow them to dry completely before putting them away.

Medical Instruments
Clean off any organic material, and then soak them in disinfectant such as Lemon Clean or Nolvasan. Do not use bleach; it
causes rusting.
Spray the kitchen sink with Trifectant and allow it to disinfect for 10 minutes. Put up the disinfecting sign.
Wash instruments with soap and water, using a toothbrush to gently remove debris.
Rinse well.
Soak in Chem Pink solution for 10 minutes; rinse well. The solution is used undiluted from the bottle and does not expire.
(Soaking trays and refill solutions for both Chem Pink and the instrument lubricating milk are kept in the brown cabinets
under the counter in the med room.)
Soak instruments in instrument lubricant milk (diluted 1 part to 6 parts water) for 30 seconds to 1 minute with hinges open.
(The lubricant expires 1 week after it is made.)
Place the instruments on a blue tray covered with a blue towel. Make sure the hinges on instruments such as scissors and
hemostats are still open.
Allow the instruments to dry completely before putting away.

6.5 Laundry
Laundry can run in the background while you are feeding the birds; check it regularly so it does not stack up. Keep it running at all
times, put in the last load 1 hours before closing (4:00 PM slow season, 6:30 PM baby season).
Shake out towels in the trash can.
Check apron pockets.
Tie apron strings to prevent tangling.
Use warm water setting (we run out of hot water quickly).
Add 1 packet of detergent directly into the barrel of the washer.
Add cup chlorite to the dispenser.
Clean the lint trap in the dryer after each dryer load.
Restock towels (1 stack large & 1 stack small) at the door, in the medical room, and in the holding room; stack the remainder on the
shelves in the bathroom.

6.6 Miscellaneous Cleaning


Floors: Regularly sweep and spot-treat spills/feces. The closing shift mops the floors daily.
Walls: Wipe off any dirt, formula, feces with disinfectant. The walls are easy to wipe down.
Countertops: Wipe off any dirt, formula, feces with disinfectant such as Trifectant.

6.7 Waste Disposal

Empty trash cans at the end of each shift. Dumpsters are located through the back door and the back gate across the parking
lot.
Garbage can locations:
outside (2) baby room
medical room kitchen sink
main room (several) bathroom
office ICU
7.0 Basic Skills: Food Preparation and Feeding

7.1 Preparing the Food


Check the refrigerator and prepare food as needed.
Label everything with the date of expiration.
The recipes for soaked kibble, formula, and songbird salads are displayed in the kitchen.
Soaked kibble with vitamins (expires after 7 days): Keep it stocked; it is used as a base to formula, for adult self-feeding
songbirds, and for seabirds that are not emaciated and standing. Remember that it takes approximately 5 hours for kibble to
soak to the proper consistency, so during the afternoon shift, make sure that there is enough soaked kibble for the next-days
opening shift.
Soaked kibble without vitamins (expires after 7 days): Mammals.
Formula (warm before feeding): Keep stocked, necessary for baby birds and non-eating adult birds. Label newly prepared
formula with the date the kibble used to prepare it is due to expire.
Songbird fruit salad: Keep stocked; feed to songbirds not in incubators.
Songbird green salad: Keep stocked; feed to songbirds not in incubators.
Sugar water: Mix as needed for hummingbirds, 1 part sugar to 4 parts water.
Vital: Defrost as needed for hummingbirds; to prepare: 4 cups water, 1 cup sugar, 1 package Vital. Freeze until needed.
Milk products (all): Avian: 1 part dry milk to 2 parts hot water; discard after 24 hours. Small mammals: 1 part dry milk to 3
parts water.
Bat formula: Blended mealworm via 1 cc syringe (with white cannula for tiny species). Use a syringe with mealworm viscera
if blended formula is not available. Another alternative is beef baby food with a banana mashed in. You can also give a taste
of Nutrical (nutrient-boost oral paste) to keep blood sugar elevated.
Raptor slurry: 15cc Normasol + 2 tablespoons beef baby food + 1 teaspoon Carnivore Care.

7.2 Tube Feeding / Checking Crops


Do you know how to tube feed? Start at Appendix F for information on how to read a syringe.
Check the crop first. If there is some seed present, DO NOT tube feed (unless it is a juvenile growing bird). Inform the
manager if a bird labeled as Tube Feed has seed in its crop.
Specific amounts of formula are indicated for each species (Doves: 510 ml; Pigeons: 1020 ml).
Stretch out the neck. The tube goes down more easily, and the animal less likely to spit up and choke.
Insert the tube on the right side of throat; check that tube is not in the trachea.
STOP IMMEDIATELY if bird gasps, faints, vomits, the food/fluid is not going down, the food/fluid is coming out of an un-
noticed injury (torn crop). Turn the bird upside down over a trash can if vomiting occurs. Then put it down in its cage and
alert a Technician.
7.3 Syringe Feeding
Use a 1cc syringe. Do not use larger syringes because you have less control and it is easier to aspirate birds. Do not use a
white (cannula) tip on any bird but finches.
Get fresh formula from the refrigerator every hour, and warm it to between 90 and 95.
Alternate between birds so they have time to swallow and do not aspirate.
Fill their crops, but do so in small increments! Full birds are quiet birds.
Pay attention to birds that are not coming to the syringe or gaping.
Is their crop full because they are self-feeding or has it not digested since the last feeding?
Are any birds (species and band color/number) not eating? If a bird has not eaten two feedings in a row, it will have
to be force-fed formula unless it has begun self-feeding. Be sure to let the next shift know.
Remove the dirty newspaper from the cage or change the nest after feeding. Give fresh salad at the beginning of each shift.

Tools for syringe feeding are a 1cc syringe and Give small amounts to each bird in cage/nest. Alternate
formula. Each cage or incubator gets its own between birds giving them time to swallow.
syringe and its own dish of formula to be
changed out every hour.
7.4 Stick Feeding
Use a bamboo skewer and a flat lid/dish of soaked kibble.
Get fresh kibble from refrigerator every shift.
Alternate between birds so they have time to swallow.
Feed them until they quit gaping. Full birds are quiet birds.
Pay attention to birds that are not coming to the stick or gaping.
Is its crop full because they are self-feeding or has it not digested since the last feeding?
Are any birds (species and band color/number) not eating? If a bird does not eat at two feedings in a row, it will
have to be force-fed formula unless it has begun self-feeding. Be sure to let the next shift know.
Remove the dirty newspaper from the cage or change the nest after feeding. Give fresh salad every shift.

Soaked kibble on lid and a bamboo If possible stick feed through the cage, not opening the door.
skewer are the tools for stick Alternate between birds, giving the others in the cage time to
feeding birds. swallow.
8.0 Ongoing Care
8.1 Monitor the Animals Health
Improving: Eating on own, social with same species, motor skills developed, ready for outdoors
Getting worse: Losing weight, antisocial with same species
New conditions appearing: Notify the manager immediately if you notice:
o Pox: Lesions on face, feet, featherless areas
o Trichomoniasis: Trouble tube feeding, white plaques in mouth, red throat, foul smell emanating from mouth
o Coccidia/Roundworm: Diarrhea, thin, losing weight
o See USGS Wildlife Health Centers Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases online for more info (downloadable PDF):
http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/publications/field_manual/
8.2 Signs of Trouble
Open-mouth breathing, gasping, shallow or deep breathing, tail bobbing in birds
Fluffed feathers/fur
Eyes closed and unresponsive
Runny/watery feces OR no feces
Blood: Find a Wildlife Technician, birds can bleed to death quickly
Huddling in a corner, lethargic, reclusive
Drooping wings, limping, not standing, adults unable to fly
Dried formula on face, beak, mouth, eyes, nose

8.3 Caging, Watering, Feeding Basics


See Appendix E for specific information on each species.
Cage size: Use smaller cages for injured animals, not bigger. This helps immobilize the animal and helps prevents further
injury.
Dangerous conditions: Sharp edges, loops in towels, water bowl too deep, dangling items that can create hanging or
entanglement issues.
Is a nest or soft towel necessary?
Can the animal stand or perch?
Does it have a sharp keel or other unique need for particular bedding?
Does it need a place to hide?
Should it be on/under heat?
Adult hummingbirds should be under a heat lamp (basket half under the light) and monitored until stable. Pay
attention to babies that cannot move out from under heat lamp; they may get too hot and die.
Nestling birds should be under a heat lamp and monitored until stable and then put in an incubator; they cannot
move out from under the light and could die from too much heat.
Baby mammals should be half on heat so they can move off if they get too hot.
Adult animals in shock should be half on a heating pad so they can move off if needed. Make sure there is enough
room in the cage for the whole animal to move off heat.
Heating pads should all be on LOW setting.
Water dishes should be an appropriate size for the animal. Small animals/birds can drown in large dishes; ducks need large
dishes to put the entire bill in for drinking.
Floor covering Always cover the entire cage bottom with paper, paper towels, or towels to avoid animals falling through or
damaging their feet.
ALWAYS cover the cage/carrier/basket. Visual stimuli are stressful.
9.0 Diseases or Conditions
9.1 Common
Parasites (examples):
Internal: roundworms, flatworms, tapeworms, flukes
External: mites (common on doves, finches, mockingbirds), lice (pigeons, seabirds), flat flies, fleas, ticks
Infections: bacterial, fungal, viral
Pox: Caused by the avian pox virus, it is highly contagious to other birds. (Wear gloves!) Look for small lesions, pustules, or
scabs on unfeathered areas, such as the beak, eyes, ears, the abdomen, inside the wing, the vent, legs, or feet.
Trichomoniasis: Caused by a protozoan, trich is highly contagious to other birds. (Wear gloves!) Symptoms include red
throat, white cheesy mass or debris in the mouth or throat, decreased appetite, a foul smell. The birds airway may also be
obstructed.
Steatitis: Yellow fat disease, often found in herons and egrets
Botulism (avian); bacteria toxins
Injuries
Open wounds
Broken bones
Fish hooks
Glue/oil
Malnutrition
Poisoning

9.2 Less Common


The highlighted diseases in this list are zoonotic.
Bubonic Plague (spread by fleas): Squirrels
Distemper: Skunks, raccoons, foxes
Exotic Newcastles: All birds
Hantavirus: Rodents (especially deer mice from rural areas)
Paramyxovirus
Parvo virus
Rabies: Skunks, raccoons, foxes, bats, opossums
Tularemia: Rabbits
West Nile Virus: All birds
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix A: Safety Incident Report

PERSON INVOLVED
Name: ______________________________ DOB: ___ / ___ /____
Street Address:___________________________________City:____________________ Zip:_____________
Tel: Home______________________ Work ___________________
Do you have pre-exposure rabies shot? ________ When was your last tetanus shot? ________________
Incident Date: ______ Time: ________ Skin broken? ___Yes ___ No
Where on body did injury occur: _______________________________________________________________
EXPLAIN CIRCUMSTANCES OF INCIDENT
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
MEDICAL CARE OBTAINED? _Yes _ No
If yes, complete the following:
Date of Visit ____________________________ Hospital: _______________________________
Physician: _________________________________Physician's Tel: ____________________

OWNER/MANAGER OF SITE WHERE INCIDENT OCCURED


Name: _________________________________________________
Street Address:___________________________________City:____________________ Zip:_____________
Tel: Home______________________ Work ___________________

I, the undersigned person involved in this Incident Report, state the above is true to the best of my knowledge and will notify
the main office of Project Wildlife with regular updates on my recovery.

SIGNATURE: ____________________________________________ DATE: ________________________


******************************************************************************************
ANIMAL (if animal was involved)
Species: ______________________ PW ID #_________________ Age: ___ Adult __ Juve __ Baby
Date Quarantined: ______________ By: _____________________
Quarantine Failure: __Yes ___No
Reason: _________________________
Date Released: _______________________By: _______________
Rabies Specimen to Health Department ___Yes ___No
Delivered by: _____________________________Date: __________
I, the undersigned owner or person having control of the animal described in this Incident Report, will notify the main office
of Project Wildlife immediately should the described animal become sick, injured, lost or die during the quarantine period.

SIGNATURE: ____________________________________________ DATE: ________________________


Office Notes:
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix B: Code of Ethics


1. A wildlife rehabilitator should strive to achieve high standards of animal care through knowledge and an understanding of the
field. Continuing efforts must be made to keep informed of current rehabilitation information, methods, and regulations.

2. A wildlife rehabilitator should be responsible, conscientious, and dedicated, and should continuously work toward improving the
quality of care given to wild animals undergoing rehabilitation.

3. A wildlife rehabilitator must abide by local, state, provincial and federal laws concerning wildlife, wildlife rehabilitation, and
associated activities.

4. A wildlife rehabilitator should establish safe work habits and conditions, abiding by current health and safety practices at all
times.

5. A wildlife rehabilitator should acknowledge limitations and enlist the assistance of a veterinarian or other trained professional
when appropriate.

6. A wildlife rehabilitator should respect other rehabilitators and persons in related fields, sharing skills and knowledge in the spirit
of cooperation for the welfare of the animals.

7. A wildlife rehabilitator should place optimum animal care above personal gain.

8. A wildlife rehabilitator should strive to provide professional and humane care in all phases of wildlife rehabilitation, respecting
the wildness and maintaining the dignity of each animal in life and in death. Releasable animals should be maintained in a wild
condition and released as soon as appropriate. Non-releasable animals which are inappropriate for education, foster-parenting, or
captive breeding have a right to euthanasia.

9. A wildlife rehabilitator should encourage community support and involvement through volunteer training and public education.
The common goal should be to promote a responsible concern for living beings and the welfare of the environment.

10. A wildlife rehabilitator should work on the basis of sound ecological principles, incorporating appropriate conservation ethics and
an attitude of stewardship.

11. A wildlife rehabilitator should conduct all business and activities in a professional manner, with honesty, integrity, compassion,
and commitment, realizing that an individuals conduct reflects on the entire field of wildlife rehabilitation.

Used with permission. Originating from Miller, E.A., editor. 2000 Minimum Standards for Wildlife Rehabilitation, 3rd edition.
National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, St. Cloud, MN. Page 7.i
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix C: Sample Intake Card


i
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix D: Dr. Meiers Zoonoses Manual

Used with permission. Originating from Jane E. Meier, D.V.M, author. 1998 Project Wildlife Zoonoses: Animal
Diseases & The Project Wildlife Volunteer

Revised 6-21-2004

INTRODUCTION
This information is intended to make you aware of some of the diseases that wild animals can pass on to YOU.
Good hygiene and sensible handling of wildlife will reduce the risks.
If you have a chronic serious medical condition (e.g. diabetes mellitus, severe allergies, or asthma), a depressed
immune system, or you are pregnant, you must consult with your physician(s) and receive their consent before
working with wildlife.
For information concerning San Diego County zoonotic diseases statistics, contact the County Veterinarian's
Office, at (858) 694-2838.

ZOONOSES

DEFINITIONS
Zoonoses are diseases or infections in man which are naturally transmitted from any vertebrate animal. More than
300 zoonotic diseases occur worldwide. More than 80 are of major public health importance in the United States.
Zoonoses can be viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic. Examples of zoonotic diseases are rabies, salmonellosis,
ringworm, and scabies.
Pathogens are disease causing organisms. Examples of pathogens are rhabdoviruses (rabies), Salmonella spp.
(salmonellosis), Microsporum canis (ringworm), and Sarcoptes scabiei (scabies).
Vectors are any living organisms which transport a pathogen from the sick to the well, inoculating the latter. The
pathogen may be conveyed simply in a mechanical way, or the vector may be essential to the life cycle of the
pathogen. A house fly can mechanically carry bacteria from one location to another spreading disease. A mosquito
is an essential part of the life cycle and transmission of malaria.
Carriers are living organisms that have a disease and can transmit it, but they are asymptomatic. One of the most
famous disease carriers was Typhoid Mary, who remained healthy, but spread typhoid to unsuspecting individuals.
Hosts are organisms in or on which a parasite or pathogen lives. Dogs and cats are the hosts for the cat flea.
Fomites are inanimate objects which can transmit a pathogen from one location to another. Vehicle tires, shoes,
and clothing are examples of fomites.

ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION
Routes of transmission vary and may include: direct contact with the animal, carcass, or its body fluids/waste;
animal bites or scratches; bites of infected insect vectors; aerosolization and inhalation of pathogens; eating or
drinking contaminated food or water; and contact with fomites.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix
PREVENTION OF ZOONOTIC DISEASE
Keep yourself, the animal, and the environment clean! Wash your hands with a disinfectant soap before and after
handling any wildlife or wear disposable gloves. Do not touch your face or mouth while handling wildlife. Change
clothes if yours become soiled. Wash wildlife bedding and food and water containers separately and use bleach if
possible. Use disposable paper towels, not dishcloths, to dry your hands, surfaces, and containers. Dispose of
animal waste in a sanitary way. Immediately wash off saliva, blood, urine, or feces with a good disinfectant soap.
Keep your vaccinations up to date. All Project Wildlife volunteers should have a current tetanus vaccination
because cuts and scratches are common. The bat team requires human rabies vaccinations, and the all other rabies-
vector teams (skunks, raccoons, foxes) recommend them. Be cautious of any animal exhibiting abnormal behavior,
especially nervous system abnormalities.
Keep your pet's vaccinations up to date. All dogs and cats should have current rabies vaccinations. Minimally, cats
should have current feline respiratory vaccinations. Minimally, dogs should have current canine distemper, parvo,
and leptospirosis vaccinations. Raccoons, skunks, coyotes, and foxes can all be infected with canine distemper,
leptospirosis, and canine parvo. Raccoons can be infected with feline distemper (feline parvo). The pathogens can
be tracked in on shoes, clothing, or hands. If you handle or transport a sick wild animal that has nasal and ocular
discharge, diarrhea, or vomiting take suitable precautions. Discuss vaccinations with your veterinarian.
Many wild mammals have internal and external parasites. Remove potential disease vectors (fleas, ticks, lice) as
soon as practical. Check with your team leader about flea, tick, and mite controls. Juvenile mammals should be
wormed particularly raccoons because of the risk of visceral larval migrans. Check with your team leader if you
are caring for wild mammals at home. Always keep domestic animals away from wildlife to minimize cross
infection.

For information on a specific zoonotic disease, refer to the Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix
Appendix E: Caging Information

Never put water in cage with baby mammals or unsteady head trauma mammals/birds, they may fall in and drown!

Pigeons
Cage: Line with newspaper, for small cages use torn half-sheets of paper, add a folded towel for birds with leg/feet problems. Seed
deflectors are a must! Standard indoor caging and outdoor half-length caging can accommodate 2 pigeons ideally, 3 only if they are young
juveniles; outdoor full-length cages can accommodate 4 adult pigeons or 6 juveniles.

Put appropriate signage on cage (Tube Feed, Trichomoniasis, Pox, Meds, etc.).

Dishes: Medium- to large-size hanging dishes, hang hooks at top of seed guard, never put dishes under perches, place them toward the
front of the cage.
Diet: Mixed seed with milo (orange balls), may include sunflower seeds & other seeds/grains. Tube feed as necessary (1020ccs), 2 to 3
times daily for juveniles and thin adults, depending on size, age, and degree of self-feeding. Always provide clean water.
Perch: Two perches of different widths, preferably at least one natural perch, from door side of cage to opposite side, do NOT put perches
in corners; feather damage can occur if not enough room is left for the tail.
Other: Watch for Pox/Trichomoniasis/Coccidia signs.
Babies: Add nest, keep clean, tube feed 34 times a day (once per shift and before closing). Make sure the crop is empty before tube
feeding; inform manager if it is not.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Doves
Cage: Line with half-sheet of newspaper, hang screen across door opening, add folded towel for birds with leg/feet problems. Use soft
sport pet transport cages and add shrubbery for hiding; doves are very skittish! If you have to use wire cages, pad them with towels.
Small soft-sided cages can accommodate 4 doves ideally, 6 only if theyre young juveniles; large soft cages can hold 6 doves, 8 if
juveniles.

Put appropriate signage on cage (Tube Feed, Trichomoniasis, Pox, Meds, etc.).

Dishes: White semicircle dishes placed on the ground; never put dishes under perches; place them toward the back of the cage.

Diet: Mixed seed with millet (small yellow seeds). Tube feed as necessary (35cc babies, 510 cc adults), 2 to 3 times daily for juveniles
and thin adults, depending on size, age, and degree of self-feeding. Always provide fresh water.

Perch: Provide at least one natural perch; do not put perch in corner as this can cause feather damage.

Other: Handle as little as possible. Doves are on the bottom of the food chain and stress easily. Watch for Pox/Trichomoniasis/Coccidia
signs

Babies: Add nest, keep clean, tube feed 34 times a day (once per shift and before closing). Make sure the crop is empty first; inform the
manager if it is not. Place heat lamp on cage or keep in incubator as necessary.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

SongbirdsSeed Eaters (sparrows, finches, towhees, etc.)


Cage: Line with newspaper, hang a screen across door opening, add folded towel for birds with leg/feet problems. Add shrubbery for
hiding spots. Standard indoor caging can accommodate 4 adults ideally, 6 at the most.

Put appropriate signage on cage (Tube Feed, Trichomoniasis, Pox, Meds, etc.).

Dishes: Small hanging dishes with perches, place small lids on floor for birds that cannot perch, never put dishes under perches, place
dishes toward the back of the cage away from the door.
Diet: Mixed finch Seed, songbird salad, berries for fruit eaters.
Perch: Two natural perches of different widths at multiple levels
Other: They can escape quickly, keep an eye on where they go, catch them before resuming activities, enlist the help of others to catch
them. (It may help to turn off the lights; they will fly to the nearest window.) Watch for Pox/Trichomoniasis/Coccidia signs.
Hatchlings (eyes closed, naked/downy feathers) & Nestlings (pin feathers): Keep in a nest in an incubator, keep clean, tube feed or stick
feed every 15 minutes for hatchlings, 3045 minutes for nestlings, until there is a full crop. Quiet birds are full birds. 12 to 16 birds in an
incubator is the ideal number, 20 at maximum.
Fledglings (fully feathered): Keep clean, tube feed or stick feed every 6090 minutes. They may opt to not eat for one feeding and that is
okay, but be sure they eat the next round of feedings and have a nice a full crop. Quiet birds are full birds.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

SongbirdsInsectivores (mockingbirds, starlings, blackbirds, etc.)


Cage: Line with newspaper, hang a screen across door opening, add a folded towel for birds with leg/feet problems. Standard indoor
caging and outdoor half-length cages can hold 3 adults ideally, 4 at the most; outdoor full-length cages can hold 6 ideally, 8 max. Scrub
jays can only fit 2 to standard caging, 3 max, and 4 to large caging, 6 max. Add swings, toys, mirrors to keep birds amused. Be sure to put
a light on mockers.

Put appropriate signage on cage (Tube Feed, Trichomoniasis, Pox, Meds, etc.).

Dishes: Medium hanging dishes with perches, place small lids on floor for birds that cannot perch, never put dishes under perches. Place
toward back of cage away from door.
Diet: : Songbird salad, mealworms for mockers/blackbirds, berries for fruit eaters. Do not feed worms to starlings; they dont need them
and they will eat to excess. Jays should get jay seed (sunflower seeds, nuts, dried fruit), peanuts in the shell, songbird salad, and
mealworms.
Perch: Two natural perches of different widths at multiple levels.
Other: They can get out quickly; watch out. Put a mirror in the cage for lone occupants. Watch for Pox/Trichomoniasis/Coccidia signs.
Hatchlings (eyes closed, naked/downy feathering) & Nestlings (pin feathers): Keep in a nest in an incubator, keep clean, tube-feed or
stick feed every 15 minutes for hatchlings, every 3045 minutes for nestlings until there is a nice full crop. Quiet birds are full birds. In an
incubator, 5 to 8 is ideal, 10 at maximum if they are not very active and are young.
Fledglings (fully feathered, hopping around): Keep clean, tube feed or stick feed every 6090 minutes. They may opt to not eat for one
feeding and that is okay, but be sure they eat the next round of feedings and have a nice a full crop. Quiet birds are full birds.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Hummingbirds
Cage: Basket with screening on it, or blue baskets with cm holes, a blue surgical towel on the floor, a net over the top. If the hummer is
down, do not put perches in the basket; crimp the towel to form a perch and put the basket under light and on top of a heating pad on LOW
in the med room.

Dishes: Syringe with a red tip.

Diet: Sugar water (1 part sugar to 4 parts water)/Vital (in freezer).

Perch: Small sticks if the hummer is healthy but not if there is head trauma or if it is weak.

Other: They can escape in the blink of an eye; stay sharp. Keep them warm.

Babies: Add nest, keep clean, tube feed Vital every 3045 minutes.

Cliff Swallows
Cage: Soft-sided cage, 6 birds ideal in small cage, 8 maximum if young and not very active. Large soft-sided cages can accommodate 8
ideally, 10 at most. Add shrubbery for hiding.

Dishes: Water dish, lies flat on ground. Flat dish for mealworms.

Diet: Soaked kibble, mealworms, waxworms (if available in excess, use sparingly). For juveniles, offer soaked kibble on a feeding stick,
alternated with mealworms and waxworms.

Other: They can escape in the blink of an eye; stay sharp.

Nestlings/Hatchlings: Incubator, 12 to 16 ideal; 20 maximum. Every 10 to 20 minutes, feed 0.2 to 0.5 cc formula via 1 cc syringe and
cutup mealworms and waxworms.

Fledglings: Stick feed, 1 to 2 kibble, every 30 minutes.

Crows & Ravens


Cage: Medium airline carrier with a towel on the bottom and a towel over the door. If the bird is not standing, make a donut out of a towel
to support his/her weight. Plastic bins with screen lids (duckling bins) can be used for 4 to5 nestlings or 3 juveniles. Make sure they are
close to the same weight.

Dishes: Crock of solid food, a half-circle hanging dish or crock of water.

Diet: Soaked kibble, scrambled eggs, fruit. Tube feed formula as necessary. One cooked egg for every 2 cups of kibble formula.
Mealworms as treats. Feed mice once they can eat on their own.

Hatchlings/Nestlings: Towel nest, tube feed formula every 3040 minutes.

Diving Ducks (ruddy ducks, teals, scaups)


Cage: Medium or large airline carrier with a towel on the bottom.

Dishes: Deep crocks; they like to put their whole bill in the dish of water.

Diet: Crock half filled with duckling pellets and half with mash (located in food dispenser; clean water.

Ducks (mallards, mallard/domestic hybrids)


Cage: Medium or large airline carrier with a towel on the bottom.

Dishes: Deep crocks; they like to put their whole bill in the dish of water.

Diet: Crock half filled with duck pellets and half mash (located in food dispenser), fresh water.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix
Ducklings
Cage: Duckling bin, half with a towel, other half contains the food/water bin (put towel in space between mess bin & bin wall), feather
duster surrogate, heat lamp. . Put in a mirror as well if it is a singleton. Depending on behavior, cage can hold 12 max at 25 g, 8 max at 50
g, 6 max at 100g, and 4 to 6 max at over j100 g.

Dishes: Lid of food, special water dispenser.

Diet: Duckling food (located in food dispenser) 50% Mazuri waterfowl starter (duckling pellets) with 50% duckling mash in a jar lid or
shallow dish, water using duckling container, small worms for wood ducks.

Seabirds
Cage: Airline carrier appropriate to the size of the bird (the bird should be able to stand and stretch its wings) with a towel on the bottom.
Non-standing birds need extra padding such as foam under the towel.

Dishes: Crocks, hanging half-circle.

Diet: Soaked cat kibble for standing gulls (to non-emaciated birds only), Lactated Ringers Solution or Multimilk every 2 hours for
supportive care.

Other: Most seabirds go for the eyes, wear appropriate protection (goggles & gloves).

Hatchlings/Nestlings: Towel nest or incubator.

Raptors
Cage: Airline carrier appropriate to the size of the bird (the bird should be able to stand and stretch its wings). If bird is down, use non-
raveled towel on the bottom. If standing, use newspaper.

Diet: Lactated Ringers or Normosol SQ for 1 st 24 hrs, up to 3 days. Raptor slurry may need to be given if raptor wont eat solid food after
24 hours. Place crock of water in cage in ICU. Take crock out at night. Cut up mice in small pieces or split open; once eating is confirmed,
offer whole mice. If the raptor is down and not eating, force feed with raptor slurry. Continue to hydrate twice a day. Offer mice / mice
and small birds (Coopers hawks, peregrines, kestrels) to hawks and falcons in the morning; owls are fed mice in the evening. Be sure to
fill out feeding cards attached to med cards.

Other: Raptors stay in ICU until they are stabilized. Keep white boards in ICU and med room up-to-date.

Hatchlings/Nestlings: Towel nest, surrogate parent stuffed animal (baby owls & falcons imprint easily).

Rabbits
Cage: Small/medium airline carrier with hiding spot, line with newspaper/towel, place some hay by hiding spot, a towel over carrier.

Dishes: Shallow heavy crocks for water/lids for food.

Diet: Fresh veggies, pesticide-free weeds, romaine lettuce, rabbit pellets, timothy hay.

Other: Stressed easily, keep quiet.

Bunnies: Plastic aquarium with hiding spot, timothy hay added to container. If single baby, add stuffed friend, half on, half off low heat.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Opossums
Cage: Airline carrier with a towel on the bottom and a towel or opossum pouch to hide under, a towel covering the door.

Dishes: Shallow crocks.

Diet: Omnivore, a crock of soaked kibble, small amount of fruit, and a pinkie mouse if available. Techs will administer SQ fluids. Only
offer a water dish if the opossum is perfectly healthy.

Babies: Clamshell carriers work well. Wildlife Technicians may need to give formula.

Small Mammals (rodents)


Cage: Aquarium/critter carrier with tight-fitting lid, line with newspaper, provide a towel or pouch to hide under, cover the aquarium with
a towel.

Dishes: Small crock of water, shallow food dish.

Diet: Rodent pellets, fresh fruit, fresh veggies, birdseed.

Other: Place to hide, box or towel to sleep in/on.

Babies: Critter carrier with towel/tissue, stuffed friend, half on low heat.

*NOTE: Due to the zoonotic disease potential, none of the following animals may be handled by Care Center
Volunteers, except with prior approval. You must alert a Tech immediately.

*Squirrels (fleas may carry Bubonic Plague, squirrels can turn in skin & bite hard)
Cage: Aquarium with tight-fitting lid, line with newspaper/flannel or fleece with no loose threads, cover aquarium with towel.

Dishes: Water bottle for adults.

Diet: Hydration; nuts and fruit as directed by a Tech.

Other: Place to hide like a box, absolutely no terry towels in container, or anything with strings.

Babies: Plastic aquarium with tight-fitting top, lined with flannel, fleece, or tissue. Do not use plastic carriers; there is not enough air
circulation. Clamshell carrier for eyes-open babies (same bedding as pinkies), aquarium or wire cage for weaned juveniles, half on heat,
feed or hydrate subcutaneously.

*Raccoons (may carry rabies and/or bayworm, special training required, can turn in skin & bite hard)
Cage: Raccoon-only airline carrier lined with a towel.

Other: Rabies Vector, do not handle unless trained.

Babies: SQ fluids, half on heat.

*Skunks (may carry rabies or distemper). We are only taking baby skunks at this time.
Cage: Cardboard carrier lined with a towel and a towel over the carrier.

Other: Rabies Vector, do not handle. May spray; keep outside in back aviary.

Babies: Cardboard carrier lined with a towel, half on low heat.


Care Center Training Manual Appendix

*Foxes (may carry rabies or distemper, special training required, can bite hard)
Cage: Airline carrier lined with a towel and a towel over the carrier.

Other: Rabies Vector, do not handle unless trained.

Pups: Medium-sized airline carrier lined with a towel, hydrate and leave alone. They imprint easily.
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix F

How to measure medications with a syringe


Project Wildlife mostly uses 0.5 mL , 1.0 mL , 3.0 mL and 5.0 mL syringes for drawing up oral
medications. Note that 1 cc = 1 mL .
The longer, larger tic marks (lines) on a 1 mL oral syringe correspond to 0.1 mL 0.2 mL , 0.3 mL , etc.,
and the smaller marks in between are in 0.01 mL increments. On 3 mL and 5 mL syringes the larger
marks measure 1.0 mL , 2.0 mL , 3.0 mL , etc.
If you notice air bubbles, you can tap on the syringe with the tip facing upwards. Expel the air, and if
necessary, draw up more medication to the appropriate dose. Large air bubbles left in the syringe may
alter the actual dose the bird or mammal receives.
To administer medication to a mammal, place the tip of the syringe in the side of its mouth, then move
it into the cheek pouch. Slowly push the plunger to expel the medication into the mammal s mouth.
Be sure to hold the mammal s head firmly in a normal upright position until all the liquid has been
swallowed. If you have a large quantity of liquid to administer, you may wish to give only a small
amount at a time.
To administer medication to a bird, place the tip of the syringe in the right side of the beak and into the
crop, if the bird does not have a crop you will need to use gavage tubing and run it down to the
proventriculous . Slowly push the plunger to expel the medication into the bird s mouth. Be sure to
hold the bird s head firmly in a normal upright position until all the liquid has been swallowed. If you
have a large quantity of liquid to administer, you may wish to give only a small amount at a time.
Clean the syringe by pulling out the plunger and filling the syringe with water. After rinsing, soak in a
disinfectant such as Lemon Clean, 10% Bleach, or Nolvasan for 15 minutes. Then wash and rinse in a
disinfected sink. Let air dry. Do not put syringes back together while wet as mold may start to grow.
If the bird/mammal experiences any problems with the medication, alert an assistant manager, your
team leader, or veterinarian.

How to 1 mL syringe 3 mL syringe


accurately pull
up and
measure
Smaller Smaller
medication marks marks
0.1 0.5
measure in measure in mL
0.01 mL 0.2 0.1 mL
Measure Line 1.0
increments 0.3 increments mL

Compare this part of 1.5


mL
0.4
the plunger to the
corresponding tic 2.0
0.5 mL
marks on the
0.6 2.5
syringe to determine mL
the dose
Example 0.7 Example 3.0
mL
measure to 0.8 measure to
this line this line would
would be 0.9 be 2.8 mL
0.67 mL
1.0
mL
Care Center Training Manual Appendix

Appendix G: Abbreviations and Rehabilitation Jargon

Abbreviations

1. AD right ear 39. NVO no visable ova (in fecals)


2. Ad lib freely or as wanted 40. O2 oxygen
3. ADR aint doing right 41. OD right eye
4. AM morning 42. OS left eye
5. AS left ear 43. OU both eyes
6. ASAP as soon as possible 44. PCV packed cell volume
7. AU both ear 45. PM evening
8. BAR bright, alert, responsive 46. PO by mouth
9. BID twice daily 47. PRN as needed
10. c with or w/ 48. prone position lying flat on back
11. cc cubic centimeter 49. Q every
12. CNS central nervous system 50. Q2H every 2 hours
13. d/c discontinue 51. Q3H every 3 hours
14. DOA dead on arrival 52. Q8H every 8 hours
15. Dx diagnosis / disease 53. QD every day
16. EOD every other day 54. QID 4 times a day
17. Fx fracture 55. QH every hour
18. g/gm gram 56. QOD every other day
19. gtts drops 57. RLQ right lower quadrant
20. HBC hit by car 58. Rt right
21. H20 water 59. RTG ready to go
22. Hx history 60. RUQ right upper quadrant
23. IC intracardiac (within the heart cavity) 61. Rx prescription
24. ID intradermal (within the skin) 62. s without
25. IM intramuscular 63. SC/SQ subcutaneous
26. IO intraosseous (within the bone marrow) 64. Sx symptoms/surgical
27. IP intraperitoneal (in the abdominal cavity) 65. Tbls tablespoon
28. IT intrathecal (cerebral spinal fluid) 66. Temp temperature
29. IV intravenous 67. TID 3 times a day
30. kg kilogram 68. TLC tender loving care
31. lb pound 69. tsp teaspoon
32. LLQ left lower quadrant 70. Tx treatment
33. Lt left 71. URI upper respiratory infection
34. LUQ left upper quadrant 72. UTI urinary tract infection
35. mg milligram 73. w/ with / c
36. ml milliliter 74. WNL within normal limits
37. N/S normal saline 75. Wt weight
38. NPO nothing by mouth 76. x times
Rehab Jargon
Soft release (hacking out): Leaving the door to a run/aviary open so animals can come and go until they feel safe in the
world, then they stop returning.
Hard release: Animal is taken to an area with good habitat and released; there is no safety zone as when hacking out.
Bunny Hugger: Someone who treats wild animals in rehab like a pet; person who handles animal unnecessarily.
Tame vs. Imprint: A tame animal has become used to humans, and when released may become a nuisance since it may
approach humans. An imprinted animal has lost its ability to act in a manner consistent with its species because it has not
acquired important learned behaviors. To prevent imprinting, put animals with the same species and keep human contact to a
minimum.
Appendix

Appendix H: Animal Anatomy Birds

Diagram from: http://cm27personal.fal.buffalo.edu/birds/anatomy/external/topography.html


Appendix

Diagram from: http://cm27personal.fal.buffalo.edu/birds/anatomy/external/topography.html


Appendix

Diagram from: http://cm27personal.fal.buffalo.edu/birds/anatomy/external/topography.html

Diagram from: http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/skeleton.html


Appendix

Diagram from: http://cm27personal.fal.buffalo.edu/birds/anatomy/internal/skeleton.html


Appendix
Mammals

Diagram of cat skeletal structure from:


http://www.archbishopryan.com/academics/science/bioll/diagram/diag0020/index.htm