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Identification and Pre-


This lecture gives introduction and approaches to
project identification. It looks at:
the context within which projects are developed including
national and sectoral plans
e.g. Energy Vision 2025, PSDP, 5 year plans, annual plans, NGOs,
and Donor initiatives.
the types of surveys and data available for project
identification purposes.

It also looks at identification and prioritization of needs

and problems of different stakeholders.

A project may be seen as an investment activity where
financial resources are expended to create capital
assets that produce benefits over extended period of

Project identification is the initial phase of the project

development cycle.
It begins with the conceiving of ideas or intentions to set up
a project.
These ideas are then transformed into a project.

Essential characteristics of projects
For projects to be properly conceived, the
characteristics below must be clearly defined:
Expected outputs
Intended beneficiaries
Planned lifespan
Extended outcome of the project
Principle stakeholders
Financial plan and source of financing

Project ideas conceived by:
Groups of individuals (community)
Local leaders
Policy makers
Relevant energy bodies such as ministry, PC, Finance division
International development agencies
Government pronouncements

Project ideas may be due to:

prevailing problems in a given area.
availability of resources in a given location such as fuels,
manpower, connectivity, etc.

Project identification
Clear project identification allows you to answers
questions like:

a) How do the projects come about?

b) Where do projects come from?
c) Why are projects where they are?
d) What are the overall benefits?
e) How difficult to complete the project?

Approaches to project
There are two major approaches to project
(a) Top-down approach
(b) Bottom-up approach

Top-Down Approach

Projects are identified based on demands from beyond

the community.

This may include directives from:

international conventions (such as Kyoto
Protocol/climate change)
international institutions or NGOs that have
determined particular priorities and thus projects
national policy makers identifying projects that
pertain to party manifestos and/or national plans.
Advantages of Top-Down Approach

It may be a rapid response to serious circumstances

such acute energy shortage because there is limited
time and chance to consult the beneficiaries.
It can be effective in providing important energy
related services when provision of such services is
considered state responsibility.
It can contribute to wider national or international
objectives and goals
and therefore potentially be part of a wider benefit
(as in the case of trans-boundary resources, such as
climate, water or others)

Limitations of Top-Down
Does not help in modifying strongly established ideas and
beliefs of people.
Assumes external individuals know better than the
beneficiaries of the service.
Communities have little say in planning process rendering
approach devoid of human resource development.
Community develops dependency syndrome on outside
assistance and does not exploit their own potential.
The development workers (change agents) become
stumbling blocks to people-led development
tendency to impose their own biases, etc. on people.

Bottom-Up Approach

In this approach community/beneficiaries are

encouraged to identify and plan the projects
themselves with or without outsiders.

Advantages of Bottom-Up
Interveners accomplish more with limited resources
since people tend to safeguard what they have provided
for themselves.
Develops peoples capacity to identify problems and
needs and to seek possible solutions to them.
Provides opportunities of educating people.
Helps people to work as a team and develop a WE
attitude - makes project progressive and sustainable.
Resources are effectively managed; dependence
reduces, there is increased equity, initiative,
accountability, financial and economic discipline.

Limitations of Bottom-Up
Not always effective for projects that require urgency to
Time-consuming and requires patience and tolerance.
People sometimes dislike approach because they do not
want to take responsibility for action.
The agency using this approach is never in control and
cannot guarantee the results it would want.
The priorities of communities may not fit with national or
international priorities that seek to have a broader

Top-down approaches to project

1. The household (socio-economic) survey

Studies social and economic situations of a given area
e.g. climate, geographical set-up, economic activities,
political set up, education system, culture, diet, social
services, physical infrastructure etc.
Uses questionnaires, interviews, documentation, and
direct observation.
Data is collected, processed and analyzed and projects
are then identified

Top-down approaches to project
2. Rapid appraisal
Called Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) when carried out
in a rural areas, and Rapid Urban Appraisal (RUA) in
an urban area.
Method collects and assesses data quickly using any
data collection techniques.
Primary purpose is to acquire the information in the
shortest time possible and it lowers the cost.
It is rapid because investigation, assessment and
identification of projects are done at the same time.

Rapid appraisal uses the following data collection
Analysis of secondary data sources
Direct observation at site
Visualization of Resources like fuels,
transmission and distribution network,
finances, human resource, other physical
allied infrastructure, social organizational
maps and time series maps.
Top-down approaches to project
3. Needs Assessment Survey
Also referred to as situation analysis (SITAN).
It involves:-
Fact finding about problems or needs in a given
area or community.
Finding out what is lacking in a given area or
Investigating a situation in a given area.

NAS is carried out to:

find out the problem in a given community or

economic sector so as to identify the most
appropriate solution (s)/project (s) to solve the
problem (s) in question.
analyze the causes of the problems and seek likely
solutions to the problems leading to project

Bottom-up approaches to project
1. Animation
Process of stimulating people to become more aware
and conscious of problems they suffer from.
to gain confidence in their ability to deal with these problems
and take initiatives to improve situation.
Animation makes the community better understand and
be prepared to overcome its problems and take
decisions with full responsibility.
Carried out by Animators / Helpers / Change agents.
(Internal Animators if they come from within the
community or External Animators if from outside.)

Bottom-up approaches to project
2. Facilitation/Community action

an attempt to assist people to get over problems by

(say) training them in certain skills, providing them
with the needed information e.g. market
information, linking them up with relevant agencies
and organizations to improve access to the needed
resources etc.

Bottom-up approaches to project
3. Participatory Appraisal
Project identification should be participatory, and
should involve local communities in identifying and
prioritizing their needs.
The views of the communities should be considered
during the screening and selection of various project
proposals and the selection of the preferred
proposals for implementation.

PRA (participatory rural appraisal) when carried out in
rural areas; and PLU (participatory urban appraisal) when
carried out in urban areas
PRA/ PUA can be described as a family of approaches,
methods and behaviours that enable people to express
and analyze the realities of their lives and conditions, to
plan for themselves what action to take, and to monitor
and evaluate the results.
The key to PRA/PUA is that the only external involvement
is in facilitation. The communities themselves determine
the issues, priorities and courses of action.

The problem statement
The process of project identification ends with the
formulation of a problem statement.
It takes the form of:
Listing all the problems/needs in the community/area/
Prioritizing the problems and selecting 1 3 core (major)
Finding out the root causes of the problems.
Sitting the likely effects of the problems on the community.
Suggesting the probable solutions to the problems.
Identifying the (projects) from the solutions.

The screening process of projects, inter alia,
responds to the following concerns:

Is the technology appropriate to the projects objectives or local

Is the risk involved manageable?
Is the demand for the expected outputs adequate, and does the
project actually have a comparative advantage?
Will the supply of raw materials or skills be adequate?
Is the design in agreement with the institutional and managerial
capabilities available?
Will the recurrent costs be adequately met given the available
financial resources?
Is there adequate commitment by the intended beneficiaries and
support from District and central government authorities?

The screening process of projects, inter alia,
responds to the following concerns (cont.):

Is the project has negative effects on the environment?

And if yes, can the effects be mitigated?
Is the project culturally acceptable by the community
Is the project sustainable?

Case Study - Practical
With reasons, identify a suitable project for Chitral to
meet their electricity needs keeping in mind it is
difficult to connect Chitral with national grid.

Using the example above, clearly state the problem

and identify another project related to your area of

Submit assignment by Tuesday, 1-3-16

Pre- feasibility study
Learning objective:
1. Identify pre feasibility study
a. preparing environment study.
b. preparing legal study
pre-feasibility study

A pre-feasibility study may be conducted first to

help sort out relevant alternatives. Before
proceeding with a full-blown feasibility study, you
may want to do some pre-feasibility analysis of
your own. If you find out early-on that the
proposed business idea is not feasible, it will save
you time and money. However,
if the findings lead you to proceed with the
feasibility study, your work may have resolved
some basic issues.
Continue : Pre- feasibility study

A consultant may help you with the pre-feasibility

study, but you should be involved. This is an
opportunity for you to understand the issues of
business development.
Importance of Pre- feasibility study

1. General information ( legal ,environment ,

2.General idea about the cost of project.
3.Pre determination of detailed feasibility study
4.Pre- collected information about the idea.
Environment feasibility study
1. Identify Environment feasibility study.
2. Effecting of the project on the environment.
3.Effect of environment on the project.
a. special environment component.
b. general environment components.
Special component
Monopolies legislation
Environmental protection laws
Taxation policy
Employment laws
Government policy
Special component
Economic Factors
Disposable income
Business cycles
Energy availability and cost
Special component
Socio cultural factors
Distribution of income
Social mobility
Lifestyle changes
Levels of education
Special component
New discoveries and innovations
Speed of technology transfer
Rates of obsolescence
Information technology
Legal feasibility study
1.identify legal feasibility study.
- motivations.
- restricted.
Feasibility Study
Energy projects, especially large and complex ones,
often meet with difficulties during their execution
A feasibility study is, therefore, a pre-requisite for
preparation of a major energy project on sound lines,
and is not ruled out even for a minor one.
It is basically an in-depth "three-in-one study
consisting of the technical, financial and economic
viability of a project.
The study arrives at a definite conclusion about the
feasibility of a project after considering the various