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MODEL OF AN FCCU REGENERATOR

J. C. Penteado, ABSTRACT

a

C. O. R. Negro This work discusses a mathematical model of an FCCU (Fluid Catalytic

and L. F. S. Rossib Cracking Unit) regenerator. The model assumes that the regenerator is

divided into two regions: the freeboard and the dense bed. The latter is

composed of a bubble phase and an emulsion phase. Both phases are

a,b

Universidade Tecnolgica Federal do Paran modeled as a CSTR (Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) in which ordinary

Departamento Acadmico de Mecnica differential equations are employed to represent the conservation of mass,

energy and species. In the freeboard, the flow is considered to be one-

Bairro Rebouas

dimensional, and the conservation principles are represented by partial

CEP 80230-901, Curitiba, Paran, Brasil differential equations to describe space and time changes. The main aim of

a

negrao@utfpr.edu.br this work is to compare two numerical approaches for solving the set of

partial and ordinary differential equations, namely, the fourth-order Runge-

lfrossi@utfpr.edu.br

Kutta and implicit finite-difference methods. Although both methods give

a

Corresponding author very similar results, the implicit finite-difference method can be much

faster. Steady-state results were corroborated by experimental data, and the

dynamic results were compared with those in the literature (Han and Chung,

2001b). Finally, an analysis of the models sensitivity to the boundary

conditions was conducted.

method, fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

r''' - coke consumption rate per unit of volume

a coefficient of the discretized equation (24) (-) (kmol m-3 s-1)

A heat transfer area (m-2) Rg rate of gas produced by combustion (kg s-1)

C molar concentration (kmol kg-1) s coefficient in equation (24) (-)

cp specific heat (J kg-1 K-1) S coefficient in equation (26) (-)

d coefficient in the discretized equation (24) (-) sb coefficient in equation (24) (-)

D mass transfer coefficient (s-1) Sb coefficient in equation (26) (-)

H heat transfer coefficient per unit of volume (W t time (s)

m-3 K-1) T temperature (K)

k valve flow rating factor (kg1/2 m1/2) V volume (m3)

kc coke combustion rate coefficient (Pa-1 s-1) vc catalyst velocity (m s-1)

k1j , k2j, k3j, k4j Coefficients for the fourth-order vg gas velocity (m s-1)

Runge-Kutta method (-) U overall heat transfer coefficient (W m-2 K-1)

k1 combustion rate coefficient in reaction i (Pa-1 s-1) w coke on catalyst (-)

k2 combustion rate coefficient in reaction ii ( Pa-1 s-1) x hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio in coke (-)

k3C rate constant in reaction iii (kmol kg-1 s-1 Pa-2) X valve stem position (-)

k4h homogeneous rate constant in reaction iii (kmol y mole fraction (-)

m-3 s-1 Pa-2) z vertical coordinate (m)

L height (m) Z compressibility factor (-)

m mass (kg)

m& - mass flow rate (kg s-1) Greek symbols

M molecular weight (kg kmol-1)

N number of adjacent regions in equation (24) (-) valve head differential at maximum flow/valve

P pressure (Pa) head differential at zero flow [0 1] (-)

Q&los - rate of energy loss to the surroundings (kW) c CO/CO2 on the catalyst surface (-)

Q& reac - rate of energy released by chemical reactions volume fraction [0 1] (-)

mf - void fraction in the dense bed at minimum

(kW)

fluidizing condition (-)

r1, r2, r3, r4 reaction rates (kmol m-3 s-1)

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

- volume fraction of the bubble phase Gas) by the action of a catalyst (generally composed

Hr heat of reaction (difference in the enthalpy of of silica and alumina) at high temperature. In

the products and reactants) (kJ m-3 s-1) addition, carbonic residues (coke) are deposited on

P - pressure difference across the valve (Pa) the surface of the catalyst, reducing its activity. This

t time step (s) endothermic process takes place in a vertical flow

- coefficient in equation (26) (-) reactor (riser). Following this, the products are

- coefficient in equation (26) (-) separated from the catalyst to prevent further

cracking and avoid loss of performance. The spent

a general variable (mc,E, mg,R, wE, Ci,E, TE, Ci,B, TB)

catalyst then flows to a regenerator where the coke is

in the discretized equation (24) (-)

burnt in a fluidized bed. The combustion reactivates

- density (kg m-3)

the catalyst and provides energy for the cracking

reactions.

Superscripts

From the modeling viewpoint, regeneration is

very complex: it is a two-phase (solid - gas) flow

a feed air

combustion problem. Several studies have been

B bubble phase

carried out to model the regeneration process. For

c catalyst

instance, McFarlane et al. (1993) developed a

C cyclone

simulation model for the ESSO model IV FCC Unit.

ck coke

Lansarin (1997) proposed a mathematical model to

CO carbon monoxide

simulate the steady-state behavior of a UOP Stacked

CO2 carbon dioxide

converter. Ali and Rohani (1997) published a

D dense bed

dynamic model of an FCC converter, which was later

E emulsion phase

modified by Malay et al. (1999). Santos (2000)

F freeboard

described different models for the regenerator. Han

g gas

and Chung (2001a and 2001b) developed a dynamic

i different components: O2, CO, CO2, H2O, N2

FCC model in which the regenerator was divided into

j one of the ordinary differential equations in the

two regions.

fourth-order Runge-Kutta method

Other authors published more specific studies of

k adjacent region defined in equation (24)

regenerator models. Errazu et al. (1979) developed a

N2 - nitrogen

grid model for an FCCU regenerator. They concluded

O2 oxygen

that the fluidized bed can usefully be represented by a

r regenerator

CSTR without feed-gas bypass. De Lasa and Grace

R regenerated

(1979) described a model for a fluidized-bed reactor

S spent

with the dense bed treated as a CSTR. They assumed

U Upstream discrete point

piston flow on the freeboard and concluded that

V neighborhood

modeling of the freeboard is very important. Lee et

al. (1989) developed three different models for a

Superscripts

typical regenerator and compared the results of these

models with measurements from an industrial plant.

t previous time

Faltsi-Saravalou and Vasalos (1991) described a

t+t current time dynamic model of a two-region fluidized bed (dense

and freeboard) and gave a rigorous description of the

INTRODUCTION hydrodynamics of Geldarts A and B-type particles.

They divided the dense bed into two phases: the

Nowadays, hundreds of fluidized catalytic bubble phase and emulsion phase. The freeboard

cracking (FCC) units are in operation worldwide, above the dense region was modeled as a one-

producing almost 500 million gallons of gasoline per dimensional flow reactor. Guigon and Large (1984)

day. This process is considered one of the most applied a two-phase flow model to a multistage

important developments in chemical engineering in regenerator. Filho et al. (1996) explored the influence

the last century (NACS, 2003). Because of the large of the air jet near the regenerator air distribution grid.

amount of gasoline produced, small efficiency gains Based on these earlier works, a dynamic model

can lead to significant increases in earnings, and as a for simulating the regeneration process in an FCC

result, major investments have been made to enhance unit is presented. The model is based on the mass and

the processs efficiency. The operational flexibility of energy conservation equations. The differential

the FCC process means that it can easily be adapted equations are solved by two numerical methods: the

to the demands of local markets. Furthermore, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and the finite-

process is highly profitable, as heavy distillates with difference method. The main aim of the present work

limited commercial value are converted into more is to investigate and compare the performance of

expensive products. Residues from atmospheric and these numerical methods.

vacuum distillation (gasoil and other residues) are

cracked into gasoline and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

= m& c,S + m& c,C m& c,R m& c,F (1)

dt

In the proposed model, the regenerator is

divided into two distinct regions: the dense bed and

where m is the mass and m& the mass flow rate. The

the freeboard. The dense bed comprises two phases

indices c, S, C, R, E and F represent catalyst, spent,

(the bubble and emulsion phases), as shown in Figure

cyclone, regenerated, emulsion and freeboard,

1. The model is based on the following assumptions:

respectively.

i) heat and mass are exchanged between the bubble

and emulsion phases; ii) most of the combustion

The coke mass balance within the emulsion

takes place in the emulsion phase; iii) the regenerator

phase, based on coke on catalyst, is given by the

exhaust gas consists of CO, CO2, O2, H2O and N2; iv)

following equation:

the combustion of hydrogen is considered

instantaneous; v) the hydrogen-carbon ratio is

d ( wE )

constant during the coke-burning process; vi) the mc,E = ( wS wE ) m& c ,S + ( wC wE ) m& c ,C

cyclones are 100% efficient; vii) the specific heat of dt (2)

the catalyst is constant; viii) the specific heat of the rck, E M ckVE

gases is a function of the temperature; ix) the

temperature is uniform throughout the dense bed and where w is the coke on catalyst, r ''' the coke

varies with height in the freeboard; and x) solid and consumption rate per unit of volume, M the

gas are in thermal equilibrium within the emulsion molecular weight and V the volume. The index ck

phase. represents coke.

compound, the mass balance can be written as:

In this study, the dense bed comprises: i) the

emulsion phase, composed of gases and catalyst at dCi , E vg , E DB , E ri, E

minimum fluidization condition; and ii) the bubble dt

=

LD

(C

i,a Ci , E ) +

mf (1 )

(Ci , B Ci , E ) +

mf

(3)

phase, consisting of gas in excess of that needed for

minimum fluidization. Both phases are considered as

where C is the molar concentration, D the mass

continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs)

transfer coefficient, L the height, mf the dense bed

Emulsion Phase void fraction at the minimum fluidization condition,

the volume fraction of the bubble phase and vg the

This phase is composed of solid particles gas velocity at minimum fluidization condition. The

(catalyst and coke), air (O2 and N2) and combustion gas velocity and the void fraction at the minimum

products (CO, CO2, and H2O). fluidization condition are calculated using Kunii and

Levenspiels (1996) model. The index i represents the

gas components O2, CO, CO2, H2O and N2, and the

indices a, B and D, the feed air, bubble phase and

dense bed, respectively.

the emulsion phase, the model assumes that the gas

and catalyst are in thermal equilibrium:

(m c

c,E p ,c + mg,E c p ,g,E )

dTE

dt

=

c

m& c ,S c p ,c (TS TE ) + m& c ,C c p ,c (TC TE ) + m& ac pg ,E p ,a Ta TE

c

p , g ,E

( )

+VB H B,E + DB,E CO2 ,B CO2 ,E c p ,O2 ( TB TE )

+UV AV (TV TE ) H r ,EVE

Mass conservation of solids: The rate of where T is the temperature, cp the specific heat, U the

accumulation of catalyst within the emulsion phase is overall heat transfer coefficient, A the heat transfer

equal to the spent and recycled catalyst flow rates area and Hr the heat of the combustion reaction. H

minus the regenerated catalyst flow rate and the is the heat transfer coefficient per unit of volume. The

catalyst flow rate to the freeboard: indices g and V are, respectively, gas and

neighborhood.

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

the form:

Mass conservation: The bubble phase comprises

the mass of gas in excess of that needed for minimum (Ci,F ) 1 (vg,F Ci,F ) ri''',F (8)

fluidization. The oxidation of CO into CO2 is + =

t g , F z g ,F

considered to take place within this phase. The rate of

accumulation of component i within this phase can be

written as: where vg,F is the average gas velocity along the

freeboard.

dCi,B vg,B

= (Ci,a Ci,B ) + DB , E (Ci,E Ci,B ) + ri''', B (5) Energy conservation: The gas components are

dt LE considered to be in thermal equilibrium with the

catalyst. The conservation equation includes the

where vg,B is the upward bubble velocity, which is a advective transport, heat of reaction and heat loss

function of the superficial gas velocity and the through the regenerator walls:

average diameter of a single bubble in the bed

(Levenspiel, 1998). TF

(c c p ,c c,F + g,F c p,g,F g,F ) =

t (9)

Energy conservation: In the energy balance for T

the bubble phase, the model assumes that all gas (vc,F cc p,c + vg,F g,F c p ,g,F ) F + H i ri''',F

components within the bubble phase are in thermal z

equilibrium. The rate of energy accumulation

accounts for the exchange of heat and mass with the where Hi ri''',F is the rate of energy released by the

emulsion phase, the energy transported by the inlet combustion reactions. The catalyst fraction in the

and outlet gas streams, and the heat generated by the freeboard, c,F, drops exponentially with height

combustion reactions: according to a correlation described by Kunii and

Levenspiel (1996).

dTB

mg , B c p , g , B = H B , EVB + DB , EVB (Ci , E Ci , B )c p ,i (TE TB )

dt Overall Mass Balance

c p , g ,a

+ m& i ,a , B c pg , B Ta TB H r , BVB

c The overall mass of catalyst within the

p,g,B

regenerator is the sum of the mass in the dense bed

(6)

and freeboard:

The outlet temperature of the dense bed is

considered to be an average value of the emulsion mc,r = mc,E + mc,F (10)

and bubble phases weighted by the product of the

respective specific heats and mass flow rates of these The rate of change of the overall mass of gas

phases. stored in the regenerator is equal to the inlet air flow

rate added to the coke combustion rate minus the

Freeboard exhausted gas flow rate:

flow reactor, and the temperature and concentration = m& a + Rg , D + Rg , F m& g,C (11)

dt

of each component therefore change with regenerator

height as a result of combustion. The model predicts

where Rg is the rate of gas produced by combustion

the coke combustion on the catalyst surface and also

within the dense bed, D, and freeboard, F.

the oxidation of CO into CO2.

Pressure in the Regenerator

Mass conservation: The one-dimensional coke

conservation equation can be written as:

The pressure within the regenerator is calculated

'''

according to the ideal gas law:

(wF ) vc , F (wF ) r M ck (7)

+ = ck , F

t c , F z c, F c g , R RTE

P = Zg (12)

M g ,R

where is the volume fraction and vc the catalyst

velocity, which is based on the catalyst mass flow

where P is the pressure, Z the compressibility factor,

rate and is independent of the height. c is the catalyst

density. R the ideal gas constant and g,R the gas density

computed as the ratio of the mass of gas to the

volume of gas within the regenerator.

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

k1 =

c +1

The catalyst flow rate and gas flow rate

throughout the transport lines are a function of the kc

pressure differences across the valves: k2 = (21)

c +1

kX (13)

m& = P where k c and c are, respectively, the rate

+ (1 ) X 2

coefficient of the coke combustion reaction and the

molar ratio of CO2 and CO on the catalyst surface

where k is the valve flow rate factor, X the valve stem (Arbel et. al., 1995). The oxidation of CO is

position, the valve head differential at maximum dependent on the type of catalyst (composites of

flow/valve head differential at zero flow and P the vanadium, nickel and copper contribute to the

pressure difference across the valve. combustion) and can be homogeneous and/or

heterogeneous. The reaction rates for the oxidation of

Combustion Kinetics Model CO (Eq. (16) and (17)) are given by:

compounds (C, H, N, S) but consists mainly of

carbon and hydrogen. In the present model, the

following assumptions are made: coke consists of r4 = k4h yO2 yCO P 2 (23)

only CHx hydrocarbon, with a constant atomic ratio

of hydrogen to carbon (x = 0.9); the hydrogen reacts All reaction constants (c, k c , k 3c and k 4 h ) depend

completely and instantaneously; and the combustion

on the temperature and are calculated according to

of coke is the slowest reaction (the bottleneck). The

Arhenius model (Fogler, 1999). The values of

combustion of coke is divided into two reactions: one

frequency factors and Activation Energy are reported

in which carbon monoxide is formed (Eq. (14)), and

in Table 1.

another, carbon dioxide (Eq. (15)). In addition to the

burning of coke, oxidation of CO into CO2 (Eq. (16)

Table 1 Energy of activation and frequency factors

and (17)) also takes place in the regenerator:

of the reaction constants c, kc, k3c, k4h.

k1

i) CH x + (0.5 + x 4)O2 CO + x 2 H 2 O (14) Constant Energy of Frequency Factor

Activation

k2 c 56501.8 2512 (-)

ii) CH x + (1 + x 4 )O2 CO2 + x 2 H 2 O (15) kJ/kmol

kc 158051.0 1055 (Pa.s)-1

k3c

iii) CO + 1 2 O2 CO2 (16) kJ/kmol

k3c 115479.4 615.65 (kmol/kg/s/Pa2)

k4h

kJ/kmol

iv) CO + 1 2 O2 CO2 (17) k4h 299629.9 2.9619x1016

kJ/kmol (kmol/m3/s/Pa2)

where x is the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio in

coke, k1 , k 2 and k 3c the respective rate coefficients SOLUTION METHODS

of the heterogeneous reactions, and k 4 h the rate As the differential equations described above do

coefficient of the homogeneous reaction. The not have a solution (because of their non-linearity),

reaction rates for coke combustion are of second they are solved by numerical methods. Two

order and depend on the oxygen and coke approaches are employed: i) the finite-difference

concentrations: method (Patankar, 1980); and ii) the fourth-order

Runge-Kutta method (Patankar, 1980). The fourth-

w (18) order Runge-Kutta method is applied to initial-value

r1 = (1 )ck1 yO P

Mck 2 problems, represented by ordinary differential

equations, and the finite-difference method is

w employed for both ordinary and partial differential

r2 = (1 ) c k 2 yO P (19) equations.

M ck 2

Finite-Difference Method

where y is the mole fraction. The constants k1 and k2

are defined as: Ordinary Differential Equations

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

It can be seen that all the first order ordinary where represents one of the properties

differential equations (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) and

(11) have the same form and can generally be written mc , E , mg , rg , wcq, E , Ci , E , TE , Ci , B , TB . k is the value

as, of a property at an adjacent region (spent, cyclone,

regenerated, emulsion, freeboard, feed air), N

d N indicates the number of interactions with adjacent

a = d k (k ) +s sb (24)

dt k =1 regions, and the coefficients a , d k , s and sb are

defined according to each conservation equation.

Tables 2 and 3 show the coefficients for the mass and

energy conservation equations, respectively.

Table 2 - Properties and k and the coefficients a, d k , s, sb for the mass conservation equations.

Equation (1) Equation (2) Equation (3) Equation (5) Equation (11)

mc,E wE Ci , E Ci , B mg ,r

1 - wS Ci ,a Ci ,a -

2 - wC Ci , B Ci , E -

a 1 mc,E 1 1 1

vg ,E vg,B

d1 - m& c ,S -

LD LE

DB ,E

d2 - m& c ,C DB ,E -

mf ( 1 )

ri,E m& ar + Rg ,D + Rg ,F

s m& c ,S + m& c ,C -

ri,B

mf

sb m& c ,R + m& c ,F rck, E M ck VE - - m& g,C

Table 3 - Properties and k and the coefficients ak , dk , s, sb for the energy conservation equations.

TE TB

1 TS -

2 TC -

c p ,a c p ,a

3 Ta Ta

c p ,g ,E c p ,g ,B

4 TB TE

5 TV -

a mc,E c pc + mg,E c p ,g,E mg ,B c p ,g ,B

d1 m& c ,S c p ,c -

d2 m& c ,C c p ,c -

d3 m& a c p ,g ,E m& i ,a c p ,g ,B

d4 (

H B ,EVB + DB ,EVB CO2 ,B CO2 ,E c p ,O2 ) H B,EVB + DB ,EVB ( Ci ,E Ci ,B )c p ,i

d5 UV AV -

s H r , EVE H r , BVB

sb - -

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

The first order derivative of equation (24) can point to the dense-bed interface (S is assumed to be

be approximated by the backward finite-difference the interface value) and evolves along the height.

approximation to yield the following expression:

at +t N t +t t +t N t +t t +t

+ d k = d k k +

t k =1 k =1 (25)

t +t

t + ( s t +t sbt +t )

a

t

Figure 2 One dimensional discretization.

where t is the time-step. The index t and t+t

represent past and present values. Discretization provides two set of algebraic

equations, represented by equation (25) for the dense

Partial Differential Equations bed and equation (27) for the freeboard.

be written in the general form:

The stability of a numerical method cannot

j j usually be proven for non-linear sets of equations.

j + j = S j Sb , j (26) The ability for the user to set up the grid is

t z particularly important to obtain an accurate solution.

Therefore, the convergence and numerical stability

where the coefficients S j , j , S j and Sb, j are were checked by evaluating the solutions

defined according to one of the conservation dependence on t and z .

equations and can be found in Table 4. The implicit finite-difference method applied to

linear equations is unconditionally stable and

Table 4 Property j and the coefficients j , j , Sj provides a solution for any value of t . The only

and Sb,j . restriction to the value of t is the accuracy of the

solution.

Equation (7) Equation (8) Equation (9) The convergence criterion adopted is the

residues of the energy conservation equation:

wF Ci,F TF

j 1 1 ccp,c c,F + g,F cp, g,F g,F Es = max Ri < tol. (28)

i =1... j

vc,F vg,F

j vc,F ccpc + vg,F g,F cpg,F

c, F g ,F E s is the maximum value between the dense and

Sj - - H r '''

i i,F

freeboard energy conservation equations. The

iteration process stops when Es is smaller than a

rck, F Mck ri,F

Sb, j - tolerance (tol). This criterion was adopted because

c,F c g ,F the last equations to reach convergence were the

energy equations.

(26) are discretized by backward approximations.

This results in the following implicit finite-difference The algebraic equations were solved

equation: sequentially, using an approach similar to the Gauss-

Siedel method. Figure 3 shows the flowchart of the

t +t y algorithm developed. Firstly, initial values are

+ tj +t pt + tj +tst +t (27)

j

established for all the variables ( 10 , 20 ,... ). Then the

t

coefficients of the dense-bed equations and the

(

+ s tj +t sbt +

,j

t

y ) respective values are calculated iteratively. Once

the dense-bed equations have converged, the

where the index P is the discretization point, S the coefficients of the freeboard equations are computed.

nearest point to P in the upwind direction and y Finally, the f values for the freeboard properties

the grid dimension, as shown in Figure 2. As can be ( 1k, z+1 , 2k,+z 1 ,... ) are calculated. Convergence of the

seen, the property at point P can be evaluated as a whole set of equations is checked. If convergence is

function of the property at point S. In other words, not reached, the solution process restarts at the dense-

evaluation of the discrete values starts at the nearest bed equation. Finally, current values are attributed to

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

established and the simulation evolves until the last k j 2 = t f j (t + 12 t,1n + 12 k j1 , 2n

time-step is reached.

+ 12 k j1 ,K ,nn + 12 k j1 )

a j , di , j + 12 k j 2 ,K , nn + 12 k j 2 )

k = k +1

k +1

, k +1

,..., k +1 k j 4 = t f j (t + t , 1n + k j 3 , 2n + k j 3 ,K , nn + k j 3 )

1 2 j

no

Ri < tol . jk = jk +1 the previous time-step, indicating that the method is

yes

an explicit one. Iteration is therefore not required, and

the equations can be solved sequentially.

y = y + y

jk,y = jk,y+1

Partial Differential Equations

j , j

1,ky+1,2,k y+1,..., jk,y+1 y < Lrg (7), (8) and (9) cannot be solved directly by the

no fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, they are first

no

yes discretized in the z direction, resulting in a set of

tt=+t +t t = k

yes ordinary differential equations (Eqs. (29)). These

t < tmax t +t Es < tol .

no

time-dependent equations are then solved by the

fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

To solve the freeboard equations, boundary

conditions at the dense-bed interface are needed. The

Figure 3 - Finite-Difference Algorithm. outputs of the dense-bed solution are the boundary

conditions for the freeboard equations. Since the

Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta Method catalyst particles collected by the cyclones are

recycled to the dense bed, there is interaction

Ordinary Differential Equations between the two sections, and their equations are

therefore interdependent. To ensure the

According to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta interdependence of the equations, the finite-

method [20], the system of j first order differential difference solution is carried out iteratively between

equations (Eqs. (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) and (11)) can the dense-bed and the freeboard equations, as

be written as, explained in Section 3.1.4.

As the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is an

explicit one, iterations are not necessary and the time

d1

= f1(t,1 , 2 ,..., j ) solution is performed sequentially.

dt

d 2

= f 2 (t,1 , 2 ,..., j ) (29) RESULTS

dt

M In this section the results of the proposed model

d j are compared with experimental data and with the

= f j (t,1 , 2 ,..., j ) results of numerical models found in the literature

dt

((Han, 2001a) and (Han, 2001b)).

and its general solution is

Verification of the Model

jn+1 = jn +

1

6

( k j1 + 2 k j 2 + 2 k j 3 + k j 4 ) (30) This case study is based on the start-up of a

PETROBRAS/SIX pilot plant located in So Mateus

do Sul-PR, Brazil. At start-up, the regenerator

where temperature is assumed to be 900K, the pressure, 1.9

bar, and the coke on catalyst, zero. The molar

k j1 = t f j (t,1n , 2n ,K , jn ) , concentrations of gas compounds (CO, CO2, H2O, O2

and N2) are assumed to be identical to their

concentrations in the feed air (see Table 5). For the

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

925,0

the regenerator boundary conditions are assumed to 925.0

(K) (K)

924.0

924,0

simulation was carried out over a 200-minute period.

Temperature

923,0

923.0

A comparison of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta

Temperatura

80

80pontos

points

922.0

922,0 40pontos

40 points

and finite-difference methods is given below. 20

20pontos

points

10pontos

10 points

921.0

921,0

920,0

0 1 2 3 4

Regenerator height (m)

Altura (m)

Spent-catalyst mass flow rate 0.13 Kg/s Figure 4 Temperature profile for different meshes

in the freeboard. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta solution.

Spent-catalyst temperature 790 K

As the catalyst mass flow leaving the freeboard

Coke on catalyst 0.14 kgcoke kgcatal

returns by the cyclones to the dense bed, the number

Feed-air mass flow rate 0.05 Kg/s of grid points in the freeboard will affect this mass

Air Temperature 350 K flow and, therefore, the dense-bed temperature. Table

Molar concentration of O2 in 0.20 - 6 shows the sensitivity of the temperature to the

the feed air number of grid points. T is the maximum

Molar concentration of N2 in 0.79 - temperature difference between the result with a

the feed air particular grid (5, 10, 20, 40 or 80-point) and the

Molar concentration of CO2 0.01 - result with a 160-point grid.

in the feed air t in Table 6 corresponds to the maximum time-

Molar concentration of CO 0.00 - step that ensures the method is stable for the given

in the feed air number of grid points. The value that ensures the

Molar concentration of H2O 0.00 - method is stable also provides a time-step-

in the feed air independent solution. In other words, if the time-step

is reduced, the same solution is obtained.

Additionally, as the number of grid points doubles,

Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method

the computational time more than triples. In view of

the small difference between the 40 and 160-point

An analysis of the models sensitivity to time-

grid results (0.1K), the 40-point grid is considered

step size and the number of discrete nodes in the

adequate.

freeboard was carried out. As the fourth-order Runge-

Kutta method is an explicit one, its stability depends

Finite-Difference Method

on the time-step size. In the freeboard, the maximum

time-step that provides a stable solution will also

First, an analysis of the convergence criterion

depend on the mesh size. For instance, only one

(the sum of the residues of the energy equation see

volume is allowed in the dilute region, for a value of

Section 3.1.3) was carried out. Solutions for sums of

t=0.54s. As the number of points increases, the residues of 1.0kW, 0.1kW and 0.001kW were

time-step must decrease to keep the ratio z 5.5. compared. The results were found to be insensitive to

t

This value is the ratio of the coefficients j and j the sum of residues smaller than 0.001kW, and this

value was therefore used henceforth as the

in Equation (26), which is basically the ratio of the convergence criterion.

phase velocity (solid or gas) to the volume fraction

(solid or void) of the phase in the freeboard. By Table 6 - Temperature change for different grids.

discretizing Equation (26) in space and substituting it

in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta Equation (30), it can

Grid t (s) T (K) Computational

be seen that the coefficient of Pn can be negative if

points time (min)

z / t < j / j ; negative coefficients can cause 5 0.1 2.84 4

instability in explicit methods (see Patankar, 1980). 10 0.049 0.4459 7.2

Figure 4 shows the steady-state temperature 20 0.023 0.2533 25.5

along the regenerator height for different numbers of As already0.0115

40 mentioned,0.1186

there is no restriction

78.2 in

grid points. As the number of points increases from 80 0.0060 0.0598 249.7

10 to 20, the temperature at each grid point increases 160 0.0025 - 1333

by approximately 0.25K.

As already mentioned, there is no restriction in

terms of time-step size in the implicit finite-

difference method. Figure 5 shows the transient

response of the spent-catalyst temperature for

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

different time-steps. As expected, the steady-state is The finite-difference and fourth-order Runge-

independent of the time-step. However, the smaller Kutta methods give virtually the same results. For

the time-step, the steeper the dynamic temperature example, the maximum temperature difference is

gradient. Table 7 shows the maximum temperature only 0.04 K for a 0.54s time-step. Any value larger

difference between a certain time-step solution and a than this makes the solution unstable. Table 8 shows

7.5s time-step result. As shown, 7.5s and 15s time- a comparison of the performance of the numerical

step results are quite close; therefore, a 15s time-step methods. For a mesh-independent solution, the finite

solution is considered time-step independent. difference method is much faster. As the time-step is

reduced, the finite-difference method becomes slower

Table 7 - Temperature difference for different time- than the fourth-order Runge-Kutta approach; for

steps. 0.0115s, the computational time for the finite-

Time-step (s) Tmax(K) difference method is 81minutes, and for the Runge-

120 4.1 Kutta method, 78 minutes.

60 2.3

Table 8 - Comparison of the finite-difference and

30 0.7

fourth-order Runge-Kutta methods. Computer

15 0.05

employed: Pentium III, 1.1GHz, 512MB.

930

Fourth-order Finite

Runge-Kutta Difference

920

(K)

Temperatura(K)

Temperature

t = 60 s

t = 30 s

Time step Conditionally Unconditionally

900 t = 15 s stable stable

t = 7.5

7,5ss

Convergence - Energy

890

0 50 100 Criterion equation

Tempo(min)

Time

Time (min)

(min) residue 0.001

Figure 5 Transient response of the spent-catalyst kW

temperature for different time-steps and a 40-point Grid dependence t e z are t e z are

mesh in the freeboard. Finite-difference solution. interdependent independent

Grid for mesh 40 points 40 points

Figure 6 shows the catalyst temperature in the independent

emulsion phase for different grids and a 15s time- solution

step. The steady-state is sensitive to the number of Computational 78.2 min 81 min

grid points in the freeboard, showing the dependence time for a

of the dense bed on the freeboard solution. As with t = 0.01115 s

the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, the 40-point Computational 78.2 min 1 min

grid provides a mesh-independent solution. time for a

Nevertheless, as the method is unconditionally stable, time-step

the number of grid points is not dependent on the independent

time-step size. Therefore, a higher time-step can be solutions

used and a mesh-independent solution still be

obtained, thereby considerably reducing the Experimental Comparison

computational time.

Comparison of the results of the proposed

930

model with the steady-state experimental values from

the PETROBRS/SIX# pilot FCCU plant revealed

(K)

920

Temperatura (K)

Temperature

910 points

80 pontos and coke on catalyst are smaller and larger,

points

40 pontos respectively, than their experimental counterparts.

points

20 pontos

900 points

10 pontos The small amount of gas exchanged between the

points

5 7.5s

pontos emulsion and bubble phases is a possible cause of

890 these discrepancies. Falsti-Saravalou and Vasalos

0 50 100 150 200

(1991) explained that this mass exchange is strongly

Time

Time (min)

Tempo(min)

(min)

dependent on the bubble sizes within the dense bed. It

Figure 6 Transient response of dense-bed is probable, therefore, that the correlation used to

temperature for a 15s time-step and different grids in

the freeboard. Finite-difference solution.

#

A business unit of Petrobrs S/A, located in So

Mateus do Sul-PR, Brazil.

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

estimate the bubble diameters gave inappropriate in Table 11. The coke on regenerated catalyst and the

values. Table 9 shows a comparison of plant data outlet molar concentrations of CO and CO2 obtained

with computed values for different bubble diameters. with the complete model are closer to the

experimental data. On the other hand, the temperature

Table 9 Comparison of the results obtained with the of the regenerated catalyst provided by the one-bed

proposed model and experimental data for different model is nearer to that of its experimental

bubble diameters. counterpart. This comparison clearly demonstrates

the influence of the freeboard on the combustion of

Variable Plant Bubble diameter (m) Unit CO. When the model including the freeboard is used,

0.15 0.1 0.04 the values for the outlet molar concentrations and

TE 995.1 944.6 978.3 957.2 K coke on catalyst approximate to the experimental

TF 947.2 960.2 938.4 934.2 K values.

wE 0.048 0.24 0.031 0.026 %

CCO 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.40 % Table 11 Comparison of the two-bed (dense and

CCO2 8.31 7.36 8.65 8.42 freeboard) and one-bed models.

%

CO2 11.17 12.34 10.75 10.82 %

CN2 79.57 80.30 80.54 80.36 % Two-bed Plant One-bed Unit

TE 978.3 995.1 1006.0 K

In the conditions prevailing in the case study,

TF 938.4 947.2 - K most

A bubble diameter of 0.1m yields the closest the plant operates with excess oxygen, so that

results to the experimental data. The bubble size that w E 0.031 0.048 0.023

reactions are complete and take place in the dense %

provides the best results is approximately half that CCO

bed. it is for 0.06

this reason0.000 0.93 for the%

that the results one-

obtained by the empirical correlation. A bubble CCO2 8.65 8.31 7.75 %

diameter less than 0.035m makes the solution CO2 10.75 11.17 11.15 %

unstable and is the lowest limit at which the CN2 80.54 79.57 80.17 %

correlation is still valid. For a bubble diameter of

0.1m, the bubble velocity and void fraction, which In the conditions prevailing in the case study,

also depend on the bubble diameter, agree with the plant operates with excess oxygen, so that most

values given by Santos [6]. reactions are complete and take place in the dense

Two models of combustion kinetics were tested: bed. It is for this reason that results for the one-bed

the model proposed by Arbel et al. [17] and that model and those for the complete model are similar.

described by Han and Chung (2001a) and (2001b). When there is no excess O2, a significant amount of

As shown in Table 10, the results obtained using the CO is oxidized in the freeboard, in which case the

model proposed by Arbel et al. [17] are closer to the complete model is more appropriate.

experimental data than the results obtained with the

model described by Han and Chung for most Numerical Comparison

variables.

Following is a comparison of the proposed

Table 10 Comparison of two kinetic models found model with that proposed by Han and Chung

in the literature. ((2001a) and (2001b)).

Han and Chung (2001b) modeled the whole

Variable Plant Arbel Han and Unit FCC, including the riser, regenerator, reactor and

et al. Chung valves. In order to compare the two models, the

(1995) (2001a e b) values of some variables (the inlet-air and spent-

TE 995.1 978.3 958.5 catalyst flow rates (see Figure 7), coke on spent

K

catalyst and spent-catalyst temperature (see Figure

TF 947.2 938.4 906.1 K

8)) obtained from Han and Chungs (2001b) results

wE 0.048 0.031 0.065 %

were established as the boundary conditions of the

CCO 0.00 0.06 0.54 % proposed model. After 10 minutes of simulation, the

CCO2 8.31 8.65 7.91 % airflow rate was increased from 34kg/s to 35.7kg/s.

CO2 11.17 10.75 11.27 % This value was kept unchanged until the simulation

CN2 79.57 80.54 80.28 % had continued for 150 minutes, when the flow rate

was reduced to its initial value. The air temperature

Therefore, the kinetic model described by Arbel was maintained constant at 432K throughout the

et al. is used for the other comparisons, including that simulation.

in Table 9. In order to check the influence of the

freeboard on the regenerator model, a second

approach was considered, in which the freeboard was

excluded (i.e., a one-bed model). A comparison of the

complete model with the one-bed approach is shown

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

1.0

40

40 Airflow

390 Table 13 Steady-state comparison of the proposed

Vazo de Ar

0.8 370 model and Han and Chungs (2001b) model.

rate (kg/s)

catalisador(kg/s)

30

30 Spent catalyst

(kg/s)

de Ar(kg/s)

0.6 350

Variable Han and Current Unit

Vazo rate

20

20 330

Vazo de flow

0.4

Chung model

Airflow

310

Catalyst

10

10

0.2 Regenerated

Vazo catalystregenerado

de catalisador

290

(2001b)

0.0

00 270

Coke on the regen. 0.1 0.13 %

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 catalyst

Time

Time (min)

Tempo (min)

Regen.-Catalyst 991.0 1003.4 K

temperature

Figure 7 Air, regenerated-catalyst and spent- Molar concentr. of CO2 14.80 14.86 %

catalyst flow rates (Han and Chung (2001b)) Molar concentr. of CO 0.4 2.31 %

transient boundary conditions. Molar concentr. of O2 0.2 0.06 %

1,0

1.0 890 Molar concentr. of H2O 9.20 7.72 %

(%) %

870

(K)

Cat. Gasto (K)

0.8

0,8

Cat. Gasto

Catalyst temperature

850

on catalyst

0.6

0,6 830 temperatures obtained with both models are in good

de Coque

Temperatura

0,4

Coke

Frao

0.2

0,2

770 and 0.13% for the present model and the Han and

0.0

0,0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

750 Chung model, respectively. However, the molar

Time

Tempo(min)

(min) concentrations of CO, O2 and H2O for the proposed

model differ slightly from those obtained by Han and

Figure 8 Coke on spent catalyst and spent-catalyst Chung. These differences can be attributed to the

temperature (Han and Chung (2001b)) transient modeling of the dense bed, as Han and Chung

boundary conditions. (2001b) employed a distributed model and the

approach described here assumes it is uniform.

Beyond the boundary conditions, the proposed

approach also uses the Han and Chung (2001b) Dynamic Comparison

models for combustion kinetics, mass transfer

coefficient and control valves. It should be noted that As shown in Figure 9, the transient response of

Han and Chungs model assumes there are one- the coke on regenerated catalyst and regenerated-

dimensional variations of gas properties within the catalyst temperature obtained with the proposed

whole regenerator, whereas the proposed model only model and those obtained with Han and Chungs

assumes this within the freeboard. These are the model ((2001a) and (2001b)) are similar. Because of

differences between the models. the low molar concentration, the discrepancies

between the two models appear quite large (see

Steady-state comparison Figure 10). However, the maximum molar

concentration is in the order of 2.5% and the

Initially, a steady-state comparison of the differences in concentration are under 2%. Despite

proposed model and Han and Chungs (2001b) model these differences, the models show similar trends.

was conducted. The fixed boundary conditions are

shown in Table 12, and the comparison of the main Sensitivity Analysis

variables is given in Table 13.

Lastly, an analysis of the sensitivity of the

Table 12 Boundary conditions for the steady-state proposed model to all the boundary conditions was

comparison between the proposed model and Han carried out for the operating conditions and

and Chungs (2001b) model. geometry described in Section 4.1 (The

PETROBRAS/SIX pilot FCCU plant).

Variable Value Unit

Spent catalyst flow rate 314 kg/s

Spent catalyst temperature 787 K

Coke on spent catalyst 0.9 %

Air flow rate 34 kg/s

Inlet air temperature 432 K

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

(K) (K)

1.0

1,0 1060 1025

(K)

Te 0,8

0.8

(K)

mp

Temperature

Regenerado

Current model

temperature

Modelo

Frao de Coque Cat. Reg. %

1040 era

temperature

1000 tur

Coke on catalyst (%)

0.8

0,8 Han e Chung (2001)

Cat. Regenerado

-------- Han and Chung (2001b) a 0,6

0.6

1020 975 Coke Coque

0.6

0,6

Cat.

1000 0,4

0.4

Regen. catal.

950

Temperatura

Regen. catal.

0.4

0,4 980

0,2

0.2

925

Temperatura

960

0.2

0,2 900 0.0

0,0

940

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

0.0

0,0 920 Catalyst flow rate (kg/s)

Vazo de catalisador

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (min)

Tempo (min) Figure 11 Regenerated-catalyst temperature and

coke on regenerated catalyst in steady state as a

Figure 9 Numerical comparison of coke on

function of the spent-catalyst flow rate.

regenerated catalyst and regenerated-catalyst

temperature.

Effect of the coke on spent catalyst

Mole concentration (%)

2.02,0 O2

catalyst the higher the regenerator temperature.

Current model

Frao molar %

1.51,5 Han

Hane Chung (2001)

and Chung

(2001b) constant value (see Figure 12) because of the lack of

1.01,0 oxygen to burn the coke that is fed in. As a result, the

CO coke on regenerated catalyst starts to increase.

0.50,5

O2

0.00,0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Effect of the spent-catalyst temperature

Time

Tempo(min)

(min)

Figure 13 shows the regenerated-catalyst

Figure 10 Numerical comparison of CO and CO2 temperature and coke on regenerated catalyst as a

molar concentrations at the regenerator outlet. function of the spent-catalyst temperature. It can be

seen that both curves are discontinuous, with two

As the boundary conditions were changed one steady states for the spent-catalyst temperature

by one, the transient behavior of the regenerator between 632 and 667K.

temperature, coke on regenerated catalyst and gas

1050 2,0

2.0

composition was similar to a first-order system

(K)

Temperatura

(K)

Temperature

temperature

1000

response. The time for all variables to stabilize was

Cat. Regenerado

1,5

1.5

Frao de coque %

less than 25 minutes. This is of the same order as the 950

ue

Coq

ratio of the mass of catalyst within the regenerator to 900 1,0

1.0

Regen. catalyst

Coke

the mass flow rate of the spent catalyst. As the 850

Temperatura

0,5

0.5

transient responses of all the variables are quite 800

similar, they are not shown. The sensitivity analysis 750 0,0

0.0

0.0

0,0 0.2

0,2 0.4

0,4 0.6

0,6 0.8

0,8 1.0

1,0 1.2

1,2 1.4

1,4 1.6

1,6 1.8

1,8 2.0

2,0

was thus performed only for steady-state conditions. Coke on spent catalyst (%)

Frao de coque no catalisador gasto %

coke on regenerated catalyst in steady state as a

Figure 11 shows the steady regenerated-catalyst function of coke on spent catalyst.

temperature and coke on regenerated catalyst as a

function of the spent-catalyst flow rate. The The lower temperature curve is obtained by a

maximum temperature can be seen to occur at a flow progressive increase in the spent-catalyst

rate of 250kg/s. For flow rates higher than 250kg/s temperature. When the spent-catalyst temperature

there is insufficient oxygen to burn the coke, and for reaches 667K, a small increase in this temperature

lower flow rates there is excess oxygen. produces a step change in the operating conditions

the regenerated-catalyst temperature jumps from

This is characteristic of the transition from 678.3 to 873.3K. According to Fogler [18], the low

partial to total combustion, which can be achieved by spent-catalyst temperature, where the discontinuity

either increasing the coke on spent catalyst or its flow takes place, is called the ignition temperature.

rate. Both procedures raise the amount of coke in the

regenerator. The higher the catalyst flow rate the

lower the oxygen/coke ratio and, consequently, the

lower the combustion rate.

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

2,5

2.5 8 5

(K)

1000

Regenerado (K)

7 CO

molar O 2 % (%)

2.0

2,0

Cat. temperature

coque %(%)

800 4

6

mole concentration

Frao molar CO %

Temperatura

Coke ondecatalyst

Temperature

1.5

1,5 5

600 3

4

Regen. catalyst

1,0

1.0

Frao

400 2

Temperatura

O2Frao

Coque

Coke 0,5

0.5 2

200 1

1

0 0,0 O2

0.0

0 0

500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900

20 30 40 50 60

Temperatura

Spent cat. gasto (K)

catalyst temperature (K) Inletdeairflow

Vazo rate (kg/s)

ar alimentado (kg/s)

coke on regenerated catalyst in steady state as a monoxide and oxygen at the regenerator outlet in

function of spent-catalyst temperature. steady state as a function of inlet air flow rate.

0.4

Figure 14 shows the molar concentration of 0,4 1050

(K)

temperature(K)

Coque

oxygen at the regenerator outlet as a function of the Temperature 1030

coque %(%)

cat. regenerado

0.3

0,3

spent-catalyst temperature. When the oxygen molar

decatalyst

1010

concentration is low (spent-catalyst temperature 0.2

0,2

Regen. catalyst

Coke on

higher than 800K), an increase in the spent-catalyst 990

Frao

Temperatura

0.1

temperature does not improve the combustion rate. 0,1

970

Coke

Therefore, the regenerated-catalyst temperature only 0.0

Temperatura

0,0 950

rises because of the higher energy of the spent- 20 30 40 50 60

Inlet

Vazo deairflow rate (kg/s)

ar alimentado (kg/s)

catalyst itself. A discontinuity can also be observed

when the spent-catalyst temperature is reduced. At

632K, the steady state of the system jumps to a lower Figure 16 Regenerated-catalyst temperature and

value. This value is called the extinction point (Han coke on regenerated catalyst in steady state as a

and Chung 2001b). As can be seen, there is hysteresis function of the inlet air flow rate.

between the ignition and extinction points. The spent-

catalyst temperature between these two values can A maximum temperature is observed at an air

lead to one or other steady state. Operation near this flow rate of 44kg/s. Above this maximum

region is not desirable, as any disturbance can lead to temperature, the coke on catalyst becomes very low.

instability. High temperatures and excess oxygen are

characteristics of complete combustion. The

25

regenerator therefore works at complete combustion

O 2 mole concentration (%)

Frao molar O2 %

15

temperature is less sensitive to the inlet air flow rate.

The excess oxygen helps to reduce the regenerator

10 temperature once the air is cold, while the excess air

5 significantly improves the combustion process.

0

500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 Effect of inlet air temperature

Spent Temperatura Cat. Gasto

catalyst temperature (K)

A 10K increase in inlet air temperature produces

Figure 14 Molar concentration of oxygen in steady a 1K increase in regenerated-catalyst temperature.

state as a function of spent-catalyst temperature. This relationship is almost linear irrespective of the

inlet temperature, as the energy carried by the air is

Effect of the air flow rate small compared with that produced by combustion.

function of the inlet air flow rate is shown in Figure

15. The higher the inlet air flow rate, the lower the This paper describes a dynamic model for an

concentration of CO. As the amount of available O2 FCCU regenerator based on both the equations for

increases, less CO is formed, and combustion the conservation of energy and mass and empirical

changes from partial to complete. This change in correlations. The regenerator is composed of two

combustion regime is confirmed by Figure 16, which beds: the dense bed and freeboard. The dense bed

shows the reduction in coke on catalyst and increase comprises bubble and emulsion phases. Both phases

in regenerated catalyst temperature as the air flow are considered to be CSTRs (Continuously Stirred

rate increases. Tank Reactors). The freeboard model is considered

one-dimensional, as its properties vary with

regenerator height. The conservation equations for

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

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Modeling and Simulation of a Fluidized Catalytic

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the financial support provided by Kunii, D. and Levenspiel, O., 1996, Circulating

i) the Brazilian National Oil Agency (ANP) and Fluidized-Bed Reactors. Chemical Engineering

FINEP through the ANP Human Resources Program Science, Vol. 52, No. 15, pp. 2471-2482.

for the Oil and Gas Sector (PRH-10/UTFPR-PR); Lasarin, M. A., 1997, Modeling and Simulation

ii) FINEP/PETROBRAS (the OCUCC project); of a FCC Converter Unit (Modelagem e Simulao

and iii) the CAPES Foundation. da Seo de Converso de uma Unidade FCC). PhD

The authors would also like to thank Thesis, UNICAMP Department of Chemical

PETROBRAS/SIX for the experimental data Engineering. Campinas, SP, Brazil: (in Portuguese).

provided for the steady-state comparison. Lee, L. S., Yu, S. and Cheng, C., 1989,

Fluidized-Bed Catalyst Cracking Regenerator

Cincia/Science Penteado et al. Numerical Approaches for a Mathematical

Journal, Vol. 40, pp. 71-89.

Levenspiel, O., 1998, Chemical Reaction

Engineering. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Malay, P., Milne, B. J. and Rohani, S., 1999,

The Modified Dynamic of a Riser Type Fluid

Catalytic Unit. The Canadian Journal of Chemical

Engineering; Vol. 77, pp. 169-179.

McFarlane, R. C., Reineman, R. C, Bartee, J. F.

and Georgakis, C., 1993, Dynamic Simulator for a

Model IV Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit. Computers

& Chemical Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 275-

300.

NACS. Eger Murphree and the four Horsemen:

FCC, Fluid Catalytic Cracking, The North American

Catalysis Society, 2003. See also:

http://www.nacatsoc.org.

Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer

and Fluid Flow. New York: Hemisphere Publishing

Corporation.

Santos, M. G., 2000, Dynamic Model for

Control of a UOP FCC Unit (Modelo Dinmico para

o Controle do Conversor de uma Unidade de FCC

UOP STACKED). MSc Thesis, UFRGS Department

of Chemical Engineering, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

(in Portuguese).

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