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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources


Berghuis v. Thompkins, 560 U.S. 370 (2010).
https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-1470.ZO.html.


This source provided background information on Berghuis v. Thompkins , which is a case
that is related to Miranda v. Arizona because Thompkins was originally declined his
Miranda Rights, but later wanted to exercise them. This source helped with the
understanding of the Miranda Rights and their rules. This source was important to my
project because it provided information on the impact of the Miranda Rights. This source
is a primary sources because it includes court documents from Berghuis v. Thompkins.

Earl Warren. Photograph. 1957. Time Magazine.


Chief Justice

This source provided a visual of Chief Justice Earl Warren when he was on the cover of
Time Magazine in 1957. This source was important to my project because it helped show
how influential a chief justice can be, and how much power his rulings can truly have.


Criminal Justice: Doubts About Miranda. Time, November 01, 1968.

This source provided an article relating the the impact of the Miranda Rights. This source
helped me better understand the controversy relating to the case and its effect on criminal
justice. This source is important to my project because it provided information relating to
the opinion of the Miranda case during the time period when it occurred. This source is a
primary source because it provided an article from the time period immediately following
Miranda v. Arizona.

Danny Escobedo Picture. Photograph. 1960. Getty Images.


http://www.gettyimages.com/photos/danny-escobedo.

This source provided a visual representation of Danny Escobedo. This source is a primary
source because it is a photograph of Danny Escobedo from the time period of Miranda v.
Arizona. This source is important to my project because it provided a good image for a

case relating to Miranda v. Arizona.
Dickerson v. United States, 530 U.S. 428 (2000).
https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/99-5525.ZO.html.


This source also provided information relating to Miranda v. Arizona because Dickerson
v. United States involved a person not being read his Miranda Rights. This source helped
with a further understanding of the Miranda Rights and the importance of suspects being
read their Miranda Rights.This source was important to my project because it provided
information on the impact of the Miranda Rights. This source is a primary source because
court documents from Dickerson v. United States.
the source includes

Ernesto Miranda Autographed Miranda Card. Photograph. The Arizona Republic.


http://www.azcentral.com/picture-gallery/news/local/phoenix/2016/03/01/ernesto-mirand
a/81151650/.

This source provided information about how Miranda made money after he served time
in prison for the rape of Rebecca Ann Johnson. This source helped my understanding of
Miranda v. Arizona by providing an original Miranda Card carried by police and
provided information about how Miranda made money and ultimately died after prison.
This source is important to my project because it helped me understand the Miranda
Rights, an impact of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is a primary source because it
provides a photo of an original, autographed Miranda card.

Ernesto Mirandas Car. Photograph. 1963. Arizona State Archives.


https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided a visual representation of Ernesto Mirandas car. This source is a
it provides an image from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona.
primary source because
This source is important to my project because it provides an image of Mirandas car,
which he used when he kidnapped Rebecca Ann Johnson.
Ernesto Mirandas Confession. Photograph. 1963. Arizona State Archives.
https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided a visual of Mirandas confession. This source is a primary source
because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is
important to my project because it provides an image of Mirandas confession, which is
an important element of Miranda v. Arizona.

Ernesto Miranda in Court. Photograph. Arizona State Archives. https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided a visual representation of Ernesto Miranda in Court. This source is
a primary source because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda v.
Arizona. This source is important to my project because it provides an image of Ernesto
Miranda, the defendant in Miranda v. Arizona and who made Warrens stand possible.

Ernesto Mirandas Lineup. Photograph. 1963. Arizona State Archives.


https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided a visual image of Ernesto Mirandas lineup. This source is a
primary source because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona.
This source is important to my project because it provides a key image that was part of
Mirandas arrest and interrogation.

Gideon Wainwright. Photograph. 1963. Emaze. https://www.emaze.com.

This source provided a visual of Gideon Wainwright. This source is a primary source
because it provided a photograph during the time of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is
important to my project because it provided an image of a case related to Miranda v.
Arizona.

John Flynn Sits in his Office. Photograph. Arizona Central. Azcentral.com.

This source provided a visual of John Flynn, one of Mirandas lawyers. This source is a
primary source because it is an image of one of Mirandas lawyers. This source is
important to my project because it provided an image of John Flynn, one of Mirandas
lawyers in the Supreme Court Case, Miranda v. Arizona.
Judgement Reversed. Photograph. National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/.

This source provided a visual of the telegram informing the Arizona Supreme Court of
the decision in Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my project because it
provided an important visual relating to Miranda v. Arizona. This source is a primary
source because it provided a telegram sent from the Supreme Court during the time
period of Miranda v. Arizona.

Justice Brennan's Concurring on Miranda v. Arizona. Photograph. 1966, Library of Congress.

This source provided an image of Justice Brennans concurrence in Miranda v. Arizona.


This source is important to my project because it provides a visual of an important court
document from Miranda v. Arizona.

Maryland v. Shatzer, 559 U.S. 98 (2010).


https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-680.ZS.html.

This source provided information about a case relating to Miranda v. Arizona because
Shatzer refused to speak to interrogators weeks after he was read his Miranda Rights.
This source helped my understanding of how long Miranda Rights last and some of the
other rules of Miranda Rights. This source was important to my project because it
provided information on the impact of the Miranda Rights. This source is a primary
source because it includes court documents from Maryland v. Shatzer.

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S 436 (1966).


http://recordsofrights.org/events/137/you-have-the-right-to-remain-silent.

This source provided information about Warrens decision in Miranda v. Arizona. This
source helped my understanding of Miranda v. Arizona because it included photos of
court documents from the court case, including Chief Justice Earl Warrens opinion,
which is where Warren took his stand. This source is a primary source because it includes
photos of original court documents from the Supreme Court case.
Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S 436 (1966).
http://users.soc.umn.edu/~samaha/cases/miranda_v_arizona_oral_arguments.htm.

This source provided information about John Flynn and John Franks arguments for
Mirandas defense. This helped with my understanding of Miranda v. Arizona because it
provided Flynn and Franks reasons why they believed Mirandas confession was
unjust. This source is a primary source because it provides a transcript of the Supreme
Court case.

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S 436 (1966).


http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/?dod-date=613.

This source provided an image of Chief Justice Earl Warrens opinion. This source
helped me understand why Warren thought Mirandas confession was unjust. This
source is important to my project because it provided information relating to Warrens
stand in his opinion. This source is a primary source because it provides an image of
Warrens opinion of the case.

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).


http://www.loc.gov/law/help/digitized-books/miranda-v-arizona/miranda-documents.php.

This source provided a primary source court document from Miranda v. Arizona. This
source helped me understand how earlier rulings led to the decision in Miranda v.
Arizona.

Miranda v. Arizona. New York Times, October 2, 1966. Historical New York Times.

This source is a New York Times article about the publics reaction to Miranda v.
Arizona. This source helped me better understand the controversy relating to Warrens
ruling and the reactions to Warrens stand. This source is a primary source because it
provided a newspaper article from the relevant period.

Miranda Warning born 50 years today. Photograph. 1963. PBS.


http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law-jan-june11-scotus_06-16/.

This source provided an image of Ernesto Miranda when he was arrested in 1963. This
source is important to my project because it provided a visual of Ernesto Miranda, the
defendant involved in Miranda v. Arizona, making it a great primary source for my
project.
Miranda Card Read to Suspect In Slaying of 66 Court Figure. The New York Times,
February 2, 1976. Historical New York Times.

This source provided a New York Times article about the murder of Ernesto Miranda.
This source helped me better understand how and why Ernesto Miranda was murdered
and to understand peoples reactions to Warrens stand. This source is a primary source
because it provides a newspaper article from the 1970s relating to my project.

Miranda Slain; Main Figure in Landmark Suspects Rights Case. New York Times, February 1,
1976. Historical New York Times.

This source provided more information relating the murder of Ernesto Miranda, such as
the location of the murder. This source helped me understand peoples reactions to
Warrens stand. This source is a primary source because it provided information from the
time period of Miranda v. Arizona.

Officer Carol Cooley. Photograph. 1963. Supreme Court Cases through primary sources:
Miranda v. Arizona.

This source is a picture of the officer who arrested Ernesto Miranda in 1963. This source
is a primary source because it is an image from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona
and of someone related to the case. This source is important to my project because it
provides a key image of someone related to Miranda v. Arizona and who had a huge
impact on the case.

Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in Miranda v. Arizona. Photograph. 1966.
Docsteach.org

This source provided an image of Chief Justice Earl Warrens opinion from Miranda v.
Arizona. This source is a primary source because it provides an image from the time
period of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my project because it provides
a key image from Miranda v. Arizona.
Phoenix Attorney John Flynn, left, with Ernesto Miranda. Photograph. 1966. Arizona State
Archives. https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided an image of Ernesto Miranda with his lawyer, John Flynn.This
source is a primary source because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda
v. Arizona. This source is important to my project because it provides a key image from
Miranda v. Arizona.

Phoenix Police Station. Photograph. 1963. Miranda v. Arizona: The Rights of the Accused.

This image provided a visual of the Phoenix Police Station, where Ernesto Miranda was
arrested and interrogated.This source is a primary source because it provides an image
from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my project
because it provides a key image from Miranda v. Arizona.

Photograph of the Fingerprints of Ernesto Miranda from his booking sheet. Photograph. 1963.
Arizona State Archives. https://www.azlibrary.gov/arm.

This source provided an image of Ernesto Mirandas fingerprints.This source is a primary


source because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona. This
source is important to my project because it provides a key image related to Miranda v.
Arizona.

Ronan, Charles N. "Amended Accusation by Maricopa County Superior Court Charging Ernesto
Miranda with Robbery, May 1963." Arizona State Archives. 2012. Accessed November
3, 2016. http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/archgov/id/493/rec/26.

This source provided an image of a document saying that Miranda was found guilty of
charges in the original trial and helped me better understand those charges. This source is
important to my project because it provided information relating to how Warren was in a
situation to take a stand. This source is a primary source because it provided an actual
court document on the case.
The Supreme Court in 1966 led by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Photograph. 1966.
emersonkent.com.

This source provided an image of the Supreme Court justices in Miranda v. Arizona. This
source is a primary source because it provides an image from the time period of Miranda
v. Arizona. This source is important to my project because it provides a key image from
Miranda v. Arizona.

"The Supreme Court: New Rules for Police Rooms." Time, June 24, 1966.

This source provided information about the impact, which the Miranda decision had on
police interrogations. This source helped me understand the true importance of Miranda
v. Arizona and its impact on todays society, providing evidence I needed to prove my
thesis. This source is a primary source because it is from the same time period as
Miranda v. Arizona.

U.S. Constitution, Amendment 5.

The 5th Amendment is the basis of the Miranda Rights, as the defenses argument mostly
revolves around it. This source helped me better understand the defenses argument in the
case and how they were taking a stand to protect rights protected by the Constitution.
This source is a primary source because direct quotations from it were used and the
Constitution is a primary source document.

U.S. Constitution, Amendment 6.

The 6th Amendment also is very important to the creation of the Miranda Rights. This
source helped me better understand the defenses arguments in Miranda v. Arizona and
how they were taking a stand to protect rights protected in the Constitution. This source is
a primary source because direct quotations from it were used and the Constitution is a
primary source document.
Secondary Sources

Burgan, Michael. Miranda v. Arizona: The Rights of the Accused. Minneapolis, MN: Compass
Point Books, 2007.

This source provided images which I used on my website. The images were placed on the
page titled "The Crime and are a very important primary source for my website. This
source was important to my project because it provided key primary sources for my
project. Although it provides primary sources, this is a secondary source because it is a
book about Miranda v. Arizona and is not from the time period of the court case.

Cray, Ed. Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

This secondary source provided background information relating to Chief Justice Earl
Warren and his other infamous rulings. This source helped me better understand the
controversy relating to Earl Warren and how much courage it took him to take another
controversial stand.

Dolan, Maura. "Murder Conviction Voided over Miranda Rights Violation." Los Angeles Times,
October 29, 2013. Accessed November 10, 2016.
http://articles.latimes.com/2013/oct/29/local/la-me-miranda-murders-20131030.

This secondary source is a modern day example of the Miranda Rights.This case shows
that the Miranda Rights are still used and are very important in criminal justice. This
source is important to my project because it provides information on the impact of
Warrens stand.

Facts and Case Summary - Miranda v. Arizona. United States Courts. Accessed October 11,
2016.
http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/facts-and-case-sum
mary-miranda-v-arizona.

This secondary source provided a summary of the cases of Miranda v. Arizona and
background information relating to the case. This source helped me better understand the
basics of the case such as the reasons for Mirandas arrest. This source is important to my
project because it provided information relating to how Warren was put in a situation to
take a stand.
Ferguson, Andrew, and Leo, Richard. The App: Metaphor and Machine. Unpublished,
November 16, 2016.

This secondary source is a paper written by two law professors for an idea of an app for
the Miranda Rights. This paper helped me understand the Warren Courts impact with
their decision in Miranda v. Arizona. This is a secondary source because it provided an
analysis of the Miranda v. Arizona decision by the people not involved in the decision.

Ferguson, Andrew. Telephone interview by the author. November 16, 2016.

This source is an interview I conducted with Professor Andrew Ferguson of the


University of the District of Columbia. This interview helped me really understand what
Miranda v. Arizona was all about and a modern day view of the Supreme Court case.
This is a secondary source because Professor Ferguson was not involved in Miranda v.
Arizona, but rather is a professor, who has studied Miranda v. Arizona. This source was
important to my project because it helped me better understand Warrens stand.

Holland, Brooks. "Miranda V. Arizona: 50 Years of Judges Regulating Police Interrogation."


American Bar Association. Accessed October 11, 2016.
http://www.americanbar.org/publications/insights_on_law_andsociety/15/fall-2015/mirad
avarizona_holland.html.

This secondary source provided information about the amendments relating to Miranda
and why the ruling in Miranda was possible. This source helped me better understand
why Chief Justice Earl Warren could rule in Mirandas favor. This source is important to
my project because it provided information relating to how Warren was put in a situation
to take a stand.

Hook, Sue Vander, and Yale Kamisar. Miranda v. Arizona: An Individual's Rights When Under
Arrest. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Pub., 2013.

This secondary source provided information about the impact of the Miranda Rights and
helped me better understand the specifics of the Miranda Rights. This source is important
to my project because it provided information on how Warren took a stand.
Hughes, Keith. Miranda vs Arizona: US History Review. Filmed March, 2014. Youtube video,
7:22. Posted March, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_UEREAqyz0.

This is a secondary source video I used on my website, which provided background


information on Miranda v. Arizona. This source helped me better understand Miranda v.
Arizona and I thought it would help judges better understand my topic as well. This
multimedia piece helps demonstrate the importance of Miranda.

Impact of Rhode Island v. Innis on Miranda Rights. Miranda Warning. Accessed November
01, 2016.
http://www.mirandawarning.org/impactofrhodeislandvinnisonmirandarights.html.

This secondary source was an interview a website conducted on Rhode Island v. Innis
and its effect on the Miranda Rights. This source helped me further understand how the
Miranda Rights have changed because of Rhode Island v. Innis. This source is important
to my project because it helped me better understand the impact of Warrens stand.

Kent College of Law at Illinois Tech. "Miranda v. Arizona." Oyez. Accessed October 11, 2016.
https://www.oyez.org/cases/1965/759.

This secondary source provided background information and general knowledge of the
case helping me understand the basics of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to
my project because it provided information relating to how Warren was put in a situation
to take a stand.

Leo, Richard A., and George C. Thomas. The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice, and Policing.
Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

This secondary source provided information relating to the controversy with the Miranda
Rights. This source helped me learn the purpose of the Miranda Rights and why they are
so controversial. This source is important to my project because it provided information
relating to peoples reaction to Warrens stand.
McBride, Alex. "Miranda v. Arizona (1966)." PBS. December 2006. Accessed October 11, 2016.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_miranda.html.

This secondary source provided background information relating to Miranda v. Arizona.


This source helped me understand background information and general knowledge
relating to the case. This source is important to my project because it provided
information relating to how Warren was put in a situation to take a stand.

Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Infoplease. 2005. Accessed October 07, 2016.


http://www.infoplease.com/us/supreme-court/cases/ar23.html.

This secondary source provided the arguments which the defense and prosecution made
in the case. This source helped me understand John Flynn and John Franks major
arguments for Mirandas confession to be thrown out of the trial. This source was
important to my project because it helped me understand Miranda v. Arizona and how it
allowed Warren to take a stand.

Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Its Impact on Interrogations. The Digital Commons. December
2014.

This secondary source helped me understand Miranda v. Arizona and its impact on
interrogations as it provided information on the creation of the Miranda Rights and how
Miranda v. Arizona has an impact on criminal justice today. This source is important to
my project because it helped me understand the impact of Warrens stand.

Miranda Rights in the 21st Century. Cartoon. 2013. The Political Carnival

This source provided an image of a cartoon relating to Miranda v. Arizona. This source is
a secondary source because it provided an image related to Miranda v. Arizona, but not
from the time period of Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my project
because it provided a modern day tie in to Miranda v. Arizona and how it affects our
world today.
"Miranda Rights and Terror Suspects." Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2011. Accessed November
11, 2016. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/04/opinion/la-ed-warnings-20110404.

This secondary source provided information about Miranda Rights in the modern world
as it discussed the controversy of whether terrorists should be read "Miranda Rights."
This source is important to my project because it provided information on the impact of
Warrens stand.

Page, Douglas. Miranda Rights and Wrongs: Confusion about Constitutional Rights can Lead to
Self-Incrimination. In Law Enforcement Technology, (accessed November 2, 2016).
http://libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/
ps/i.do?p=PPCJ&sw=w&u=mlin_s_bridcoll&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA333448997&
asid=ac86c0e846ce3ef6a829802f759826c6.

This secondary source provided information about the Miranda Rights and how they
affect law enforcement. This source helped me understand the importance of the Miranda
Rights and police procedures relating to the Miranda Rights.

Peabody, Bruce. "Fifty Years Later, the Miranda Decision Hasnt Accomplished What the
Supreme Court Intended." Washington Post. June 13, 2016. Accessed November 02,
2016.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/06/13/your-miranda-right
s-are-50-years-old-today-heres-how-that-decision-has-aged/.

This secondary source provided a modern day article comparing the intended effect of the
Miranda Rights to its actual effect. This source helped me understand why Chief Justice
Earl Warren made his decision in Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my
project because it helped me better understand the impact of Warrens stand.

Robbery Clearance Rates. Chart. 1996, FBI Uniform Crime Reports.

This source provided an image of stats showing the impact of the Miranda Rights.This
source is a secondary source because it provides stats after the time period of Miranda v.
Arizona. This source is important to my project because it shows the huge impact the
Miranda Rights had on the criminal justice system.
Riley, Gail Blasser. Miranda v. Arizona: Rights of the Accused. Hillside, NJ, U.S.A.: Enslow
Publishers, 1994.

This secondary source gave a detailed description of the crimes Ernesto Miranda
committed and the details of the many trials involving those crimes. This source helped
me understand the case and why Miranda was originally arrested. This source is
important to my project because it provided information relating to how Warren put in a
situation to take a stand.

Stuart, Gary. Telephone interview by the author. November 17, 2016.

This is an interview I conducted with Miranda expert and author of Miranda: The Story
of America. In this interview I learned a lot about Miranda and how Earl Warren made
his decision in Miranda v. Arizona. This is a secondary source because it is an interview I
conducted with an expert of Miranda v. Arizona and not a person directly involved with
Miranda v. Arizona. This source is important to my project because it helped me better
understand Warrens stand.

Schweber, Nate, and Lisa Foderaro. "Whos Miranda? Suspect in Kayak Killing Didnt
Understand Her Rights, Lawyer Says." New York Times, June 21, 2016. Accessed
November 10, 2016.
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/22/nyregion/angelika-graswald-kayak-killing-hudson-r
iver.html?rref=collection/timestopic/Miranda
Warnings&action=click&contentCollection=timestopicsion=stream&module=stream_u
nit&version=latest&contentPlacement=1&pgtype=collection&_r=0.

This secondary source provided information about a modern day case involving the
Miranda Rights. It showed the importance of Miranda Rights and how some suspects
may not know their rights when they are taken into custody. Why is that important?
(theme or thesis)

Simmons, Steven J. "Earl Warren, The Warren Court and Civil Liberties." The Digital
Commons. December 15, 1974. Accessed November 2, 2016.
http://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2240&context=plr.

This secondary source gave me general knowledge of the Warren Court and its impact on
the rights of people in the United States. It helped me understand the importance of not
only Warrens impact on Miranda v. Arizona, but also in many other cases.
Sonneborn, Liz. Miranda v. Arizona: The Rights of the Accused. New York: Rosen Pub. Group,
2004.

This secondary source provided information on the impact of the Miranda Rights and the
specific rights. This source is important to my project because it helped me better
understand the impact of Warrens stand.

Watts, Stan. "Maricopa County Lawyers Played Pivotal Roles in Ernesto Miranda Cases." The
Legal Nexus. April 18, 2011. Accessed October 11, 2016.
https://maricopabar.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/maricopa-county-attorneys-played-pivo
tal-roles-in-miranda-v-arizona/.

This secondary source provided information on the impact in which Mirandas lawyers
had and the arguments they used in his defense. This source is important to my project
because it provided information relating to how Warren was able to be put in a situation
to take a stand.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. S.v. "Wickersham Commission." Retrieved


December 16 2016 from
http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Wickersham+Commission.

This source provided information on the Wickersham Commision. This source helped me
understand the criminal justice system before Miranda v. Arizona and the importance of
Warrens stand. This source is important to my project because it provides valuable
information relating to the police treatment of suspects before Miranda v. Arizona.

What Are Your Miranda Rights? Mirandawarning.org. Accessed October 11, 2016.
http://www.mirandawarning.org/whatareyourmirandarights.html.

This secondary source provided information on the rights given in the Miranda Rights
helping me understand the importance of the Miranda Rights and how they affect
criminal justice. This source is important to my project because it helped me better
understand the impact of Warrens stand.