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PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE

PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES

Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE

PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Jeffrey M. Ostonal, MAIE

Outline

Differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

What are bacteria?

Cell structure

Classification

Shapes

Structures

What are fungi?

Morphology

Physiology

Classification

Colony morphology

What are viruses?

Morphology

Chemical properties

Resistance

Naming and classification

What are Helminths?

Major assemlages

Nematodes Cestodes

Trematodes

Difference b/w Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

Organisms which do not contain nuclei or membrane-

bound organelles.

All are unicellular

only about 2 um long.

Eukaryotes

unicellular or multicellular organisms which contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. A nucleus is a membrane sac within the cell which holds all of the cell's DNA. Membrane-

bound organelles within the cell can include

chloroplasts, mitochondria, and several other

organelle types.

Eukaryotic Cell

(protist, animal)
(protist, animal)
Eukaryotic Cell (protist, animal)

Eukaryotic Cell

(plant)
(plant)
Eukaryotic Cell (plant)

Eukaryotic cells are always bound by a membrane, just as prokaryotic cells are.

Some eukaryotic cells are also surrounded by a cell

wall, but eukaryotic cells do not have capsules.

Eukaryotic cells can have protuberances such as

flagella or cilia (tiny hairs which typically form a

fringe all the way around a cell.) Eukaryotic cell is filled with cytoplasm.

Ribosomes and various other organelles can be

found floating in the cytoplasm.

Mitochondria (mitochondrion when referring to a

single organelle) are present in nearly all

eukaryotic cells and produce the cell's energy by

breaking down food.

Chloroplasts, in contrast, are present only in plants

and algae and are used in photosynthesis, the

process through which the organism uses energy

from the sun to build sugars

Two Major Cell Types

Cell Type Prokaryotic
Cell Type
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
Example Bacteria Archaea Protists Fungi Plants Animals
Example
Bacteria
Archaea
Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals

WHAT ARE BACTERIA?

Are unicellular heterotrophic organisms.

heterotrophs, meaning that they get their food from eating other organisms or from eating organic matter. the case of unicellular organisms, a cell is the body of the organism.

Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall;

they divide by binary fission,

possess flagella.

and

Bacteria

can

use

a

wide

range

of

substances for their nutrition.

They are ubiquitous.

they may

chemical

Classification

Based on the appearance of the bacterial colony.

Based on their shape, groupings, and features

such as the number and location of flagella.

Gram staining and acid- fast staining

properties. Nutritional requirements (Culturing)

Metabolic by-products (metabolites)

DNA analyses

Bacterial Shapes

The three morphological categories which all bacteria fall into - cocci, bacilli, and spirilla

Bacterial Shapes  The three morphological categories which all bacteria fall into - cocci, bacilli, and
Bacterial Shapes  The three morphological categories which all bacteria fall into - cocci, bacilli, and

Other variety based on shapes

Vibrios

characteristics vibratory motility. Spirochetes (from speira meaning coil and chaite meaning hair) are flexuous spiral forms.

with

shaped

curved

rods

and

are

comma

Actinomycetes are branching filamentous bacteria, so called because it resembles to the radiating rays of the

sun when seen in tissue lesions (from actis meaning ray and

mykes meaning fungus). Mycoplasmas are bacteria that are cell wall deficient and hence do not possess a stable morphology. They occur as round or oval bodies and asinterlacing filaments.

Structure of Bacteria

Cell wall

Outer Membrane

Cytoplasmic Membrane

Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

Mesosomes

Plasmids

Capsule

Flagella

Pili

Endospores

Membrane  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  Mesosomes  Plasmids  Capsule  Flagella  Pili 

Cell wall

It is very rigid & gives shape to the cell.

Its main function is to prevent the cell from expanding &

eventually bursting due to water uptake.

Constitutes a significant portion of the dry weight of the

cell and it is essential for bacterial growth & division.

peptidoglycan. Mucopeptide

(peptidoglycan or murien) formed by N acetyl

glucosamine & N acetyl muramic acid alternating in

chains, cross linked by peptide chains. Embedded in it are

composed

of

polyalcohol called Teichoic acids.

Some are linked to Lipids & called Lipoteichoic acid.

Lipotechoic acid link peptidoglycan to cytoplasmic membrane and the peptidoglycan gives rigidity.

A bacterium is referred as a protoplast

without cell wall. Cell wall may be lost due to the action of lysozyme

enzyme, which destroys peptidoglycan. This cell is easily lysed and it is metabolically active but unable to

reproduce.

A bacterium with a damaged cell wall is referred as spheroplasts. It is caused by the action of toxic chemical

or an antibiotic, they show a variety of forms and they

is

when

it

are able to change into their normal form when the toxic agent is removed, i.e. when grown on a culture

media

Outer Membrane

Outer membrane is found only in Gram-negative

bacteria, it functions as an initial barrier to the

environment and is composed of lipopolysaccharide

(LPS)and phospholipids

The LPS present on the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria account for their endotoxic activity and

antigen specificity.

Cytoplasmic membrane

Cytoplasmic membrane is present immediately beneath the cell wall, found in both Gram positive

& negative bacteria and it is a thin layer lining the

inner surface of cell wall and separating it from cytoplasm. It acts as a semi-permeable membrane controlling the flow of metabolites to and from the protoplasm.

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is a Colloidal system containing a

variety of organic and inorganic solutes containing

80% Water and 20% Salts, Proteins. They are rich

in ribosomes, DNA & fluid. DNA is circular and

haploid. They are highly coiled with intermixed

polyamines & support proteins.

Ribosomes

They are the centers of protein synthesis. They are slightly smaller than the ribosomes of eukaryotic cells

Mesosomes

They are vesicular, convoluted tubules formed by invagination of plasma membrane into the

cytoplasm.

They are principal sites of respiratory enzymes and

help with cell reproduction.

Cytoplasmic Inclusions

The Inclusion bodies are aggregates of polymers

produced when there is excess of nutrients in the

environment and they are the storage reserve for

granules, phosphates and other substances.

Volutin granules are polymetaphosphates which are

reserves

metabolism and they are also known as

of

energy and phosphate for cell

metachromatic granules.

Plasmids or Episomes.

The cytoplasmic carriers of genetic information

Small circular DNA

Replicates independently

Capsule

Is the outer most layer of the bacteria (extra cellular).

It is a condensed well defined layer closely surrounding the cell. They are usually polysaccharide.

They are secreted by the cell into the external environment and

are highly impermeable.

When it forms a loose meshwork of fibrils extending outward from

the cell they are described as glycocalyx and when masses of

polymer that formed appear to be totally detached from the cell and if the cells are seen entrapped in it are described as slime layer.

Helps in adherence of bacteria either to themselves forming colonial masses or to surfaces in their environment and they resists phagocytosis and desiccation of bacteria.

Flagella

Flagella are long hair like helical filaments extending from cytoplasmic membrane to exterior of the cell. The parts of flagella are the filament, hook and the basal body. Filament is external to cell wall and is

connected to the hook at cell surface, the hook & basal

body are embedded in the cell envelope.

Hook & filament is composed of protein subunits called

as flagellin. Flagellin is synthesized within the cell and

passes through the hollow centre of flagella.

Used for locomotion.

The arrangement of flagella may

be:

(i) Monotrichous single flagella

on one side, Vibrio cholera

(ii) Lophotrichous tuft of

flagella on one side, Bartonellabacillifornis

(iii) Amphitrichous single or tuft

on both sides, Spirillum serpens

(iv) Peritrichous surrounded by

lateral flagella, Escherichia coli

or tuft on both sides, Spirillum serpens  (iv) Peritrichous – surrounded by lateral flagella, Escherichia

Pili / Fimbriae

Hair-like proteinaceous structures that extend from the cell membrane to external environment. They are thinner, shorter and more numerous than flagella and they do not function in motility.

The fimbriae is composed of a subunit called pilin.

There are two types pili namely Non-sex pili (Common

pili) eg. fimbriae or type IV and the sex pili.

The fimbriae are antigenic and mediate their adhesion which inhibits phagocytosis. The sex pili help in conjugation.

Spore

helps

adverse

environmental conditions that are

unfavorable for vegetative growth of

them

to

overcome

cell. These

spores

are

bactericidal

physical conditions.

agents

resistant

to

adverse

and

Each

endospore which play a role in heat

resistance. Spores consists of three layers namely core, cortex and spore coat

to only one

give rise

spore can

heat resistance.  Spores consists of three layers namely core, cortex and spore coat to only

What are fungi?

Member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that

includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well

as the more familiar mushrooms.

have cell walls that contain chitin. feed by absorption of nutrients from the environment around them.

The hyphae secrete digestive enzymes which break down the substrate, making it easier for the fungus to absorb the nutrients which the substrate contains.

Most fungi are saprophytes.

A very few fungi actively capture prey, such as

Arthrobotrys.

Many fungi are parasitic.

MORPHOLOGY OF FUNGI

Fungi vary widely in size

and shape, from unicellular,

microscopic organisms to

multicellular forms easily seen with the naked eye. Individual cells range from 1 μ to 30 μ.

Microscopic fungi exists as

either

molds

or yeasts

or

both.

cells range from 1 μ to 30 μ .  Microscopic fungi exists as either molds

Molds

form

large

multicellular

aggregates of long branching filaments, called hyphae.

There are vegetative hyphae and reproductive hyphae.

Spores

are

borne

reproductive hyphae.

on

the

The

tube-like

hyphae

are

responsible

for

the

fluffy

macroscopic

mold colony. The hyphae and other

appearance of

the

structures combine

to

form

an

elaborate

network

called

a

mycelium.

and other appearance of the structures combine to form an elaborate network called a mycelium .
and other appearance of the structures combine to form an elaborate network called a mycelium .
and other appearance of the structures combine to form an elaborate network called a mycelium .

Yeasts

These are large (5 to 8 μ), single-celled organisms that rarely form filaments.

Most yeasts reproduce by

the asexual process of budding.

Yeast colonies are usually

characterized by a smooth

surface similar to that of

many bacteria

process of budding.  Yeast colonies are usually characterized by a smooth surface similar to that
process of budding.  Yeast colonies are usually characterized by a smooth surface similar to that

PHYSIOLOGY OF FUNGI

Nutrition

Most fungi contain complex enzymes and other chemical substances which, when diffused into the host, break down the complex substances

available into simpler substances that can be used for food.

Reproduction

Fungi reproduce sexually or asexually, or both.

The yeasts reproduce both by spores and budding. The yeast cell forms

a small knoblike protrusion, or bud, that separates from the mother cell

and grows until it reaches full size, at which time the process is repeated.

Growth

Fungi grow well under warmth and moisture.

As the temperature decreases, fungal activity also decreases;

Spores are very resistant to cold, some surviving freezing temperatures

CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI

According to biological taxonomy based upon the type of

hypha, spore, and reproduction.

Class Phycomycetes or Zygomycetes - The algal fungi:

bread molds and leaf molds.

Class Ascomycetes - The sac fungi: yeasts, mildews,

and cheese molds.

Class Basidiomycetes - Mushrooms, toadstools, rusts,

and smuts.

Class Deuteromyceters - Fungi imperfecti: a

heterogeneous collection of fungi without sexual

reproduction. Contains most pathogenic.

Colony Morphology

the

colony? For example, circular, filamentous, etc.

Size The diameter of the colony. Tiny

colonies are referred to as punctiform

Elevation - This describes the side view of a

colony. Turn the Petri dish on end.

Margin/border The edge of a colony. What is the magnified shape of the edge of

the colony?

Surface - How does the surface of the colony

appear? For example, smooth, glistening,

rough, wrinkled, or dull.

Opacity - For example, transparent (clear),

opaque, translucent, etc.

Colour - (pigmentation) - For example, white, buff, red, purple, etc.

Form - What

is

the

basic shape of

etc. Colour - (pigmentation) - For example, white, buff, red, purple, etc. Form - What is

What are viruses?

Are obligate intracellular parasites.

They

lack

the

enzymes

for

protein and nucleic acid synthesis.

They are dependent for replication on the synthetic machinery of host cells.

They multiply by a complex process and

not by binary fission.

by antibacterial

antibiotics. Viruses cause a wide range of

human diseases.

They

unaffected

are

Differences between Bacteria and Viruses

Properties

Bacteria

Viruses

Cellular organization

Present

Absent

Growth on inanimate

Yes

No

media

Binary fission

Yes

No

DNA and RNA

Both are present

Either DNA or RNA

Ribosomes

Present

Absent

Sensitivity to

Yes

No

antibacterial antibiotics

Morphology of Viruses

The viruses range in size from 20 nm to 300 nm.

Poxviruses

of

the

largest viruses

are one

and

parvoviruses are one of the smallest viruses.

method of estimating the size of virus particles was by passing them through colloid on membrane filters of

graded porosity.

the ultracentrifuge, a second method. The third and the most direct method of measuring virus size is electron microscopy.

Structure, Shape and Symmetry

The

extracellular

infectious

virus

particle is called virion.

The virion consists essentially of a nucleic acid surrounded by a

protein coat, the capsid.

The

capsid

with

the

enclosed

the

nucleocapsid. The capsid protects

nucleic

acid

is

called

the

agents in the environment.

nucleic

acid

from

harmful

the nucleocapsid . The capsid protects nucleic acid is called the agents in the environment. nucleic

The capsomere is a subunit

of

the

capsid,

an

outer

covering of

protein

that

genetic

material of a virus. Capsomeres self-assemble to form the capsid.

protects

the

of protein that genetic material of a virus.  Capsomeres self-assemble to form the capsid. protects

The

capsid

and helical.

symmetry

shows

two

icosahedral

kinds

of

(cubical)

An icosahedrons is a polygon with

12 vertices and 20 facets or sides.

Two types of capsomers are present

in the icosahedral capsid.

They are the pentagonal capsomers

at the vertices (pentons) and the

hexagonal capsomers making up

the facets (hexons).

There are always 12 pentons but the number of hexons varies with the virus group.

making up the facets (hexons).  There are always 12 pentons but the number of hexons

Examples of viruses with icosahedral symmetry of the capsid are;

Adenovirus

Herpes Simplex Virus

helical symmetry;

tobacco mosaic virus.

poxviruses, symmetry.

show

a

complex

 Herpes Simplex Virus  helical symmetry;  tobacco mosaic virus.  poxviruses, symmetry. show a
 Herpes Simplex Virus  helical symmetry;  tobacco mosaic virus.  poxviruses, symmetry. show a
 Herpes Simplex Virus  helical symmetry;  tobacco mosaic virus.  poxviruses, symmetry. show a
Peplomers- Protein subunit s  present as projecting spike s the on envelope. surface of

Peplomers- Protein subunits

present as projecting spikes

the

on

envelope.

surface

of

the

The influenza virus carries two kinds of peplomers:

haemagglutinin

and

neuraminidase.

Haemagglutinin

is

a

triangular

spike

and

neuraminidase

 

is

mushroom-shaped.

Chemical properties

Viruses contain only one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. Viruses are unique because they

carry genetic information on RNA.

Viruses also contain protein which makes up the capsid. Enveloped viruses contain lipids derived

from the host cell membrane.

Most viruses do not have enzymes for the synthesis of viral components or for energy production.

Some

the

viruses

have

for

example

enzymes,

influenza virus has neuraminidase.

Resistance

Viruses are destroyed by heat except a few.

They are stable at low temperatures. For long term

storage, they are kept at -70°C. A better method

for prolonged storage is lyophilisation or freeze-

drying. Viruses are inactivated by sunlight, UV rays and ionising radiation.

They are, in general, more resistant than bacteria to chemical disinfectants.

Phenolic disinfectants have a weak action on viruses.

Classification

According to affinity to different systems or organs of the body

(tropism).

Dermotropic- producing skin lesions (smallpox, chickenpox, measles)

Neurotropic -that is those affecting the nervous system (poliomyelitis, rabies)

Pneumotropic,that is those affecting the respiratory tract (influenza, common cold) and,

Viscerotropic, that is those affecting visceral organs (hepatitis).

Based on their physiochemical and structural features.

based on the type of nucleic acid they possess: riboviruses

contain RNA and deoxyriboviruses contain DNA.

Based on other properties like strandedness of nucleic acid,

symmetry of nucleic acid, presence of envelope, size and shape of virion and number of capsomeres.

DNA viruses

Herpesviridae family consists of enveloped

an

double-stranded DNA

icosahedral capsid.

viruses

having

Examples of this family are herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus.

Parvoviridae consists of nonenveloped single- stranded DNA viruses, for example Parvovirus

B19.

Hepadnaviridae family includes Hepatitis B virus

which is a partially double stranded DNA virus.

Papillomaviridae family includes human papilloma

virus which is responsible for causing skin warts.

Herpes labialis Hepatitis Skin wartz
Herpes labialis
Hepatitis
Skin wartz

in human

RNA viruses

Picornaviridae

are

small

(20-30

nm),

non-enveloped,

icosahedral viruses with single-stranded RNA genome.

poliovirus and coxsackievirus.

Orthomyxoviridae are enveloped viruses carrying

haemagglutinin and neuraminidase peplomers on the envelope.

The genome consists of single stranded RNA in several (eight)

pieces. Thus, they have a segmented genome.

influenza virus.

Flaviviridae consists of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus.

Retroviridae family are enveloped RNA viruses which have a

special enzyme called ‘reverse transcriptase’.This enzyme is an RNA dependent DNA polymerase. It is required in the synthesis

of DNA from RNA.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

Yellow Fever

Influenza Virus
Influenza Virus

Helminth

A general term meaning ‘worm’.

All helminths are multicellular eukaryotic invertebrates with

tube-like or flattened bodies exhibiting bilateral symmetry.

They are triploblastic (with endo-, meso- and ecto-dermal

tissues) but the flatworms are acoelomate (do not have body

cavities) while the roundworms are pseudocoelomate (with body cavities not enclosed by mesoderm).

In contrast, segmented annelids (such as earthworms) are coelomate (with body cavities enclosed by mesoderm).

Many are free-living organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments whereas others occur as parasites in most

animals and some plants.

Major assemblages

Nemathelminthes

(nematodes)

and

the

Platyhelminthes

(flatworms),

the

latter

being

subdivided into the Cestoda (tapeworms) and the

Trematoda (flukes):

(flatworms), the latter being subdivided into the Cestoda (tapeworms) and the Trematoda (flukes):
(flatworms), the latter being subdivided into the Cestoda (tapeworms) and the Trematoda (flukes):
(flatworms), the latter being subdivided into the Cestoda (tapeworms) and the Trematoda (flukes):

Nematodes (roundworms)

Have long thin unsegmented tube-like bodies with anterior mouths and longitudinal

digestive tracts.

They have a fluid-filled internal body cavity which acts as a hydrostatic skeleton providing rigidity (so-called ‘tubes under

pressure’).

Worms use longitudinal muscles to produce a

sideways thrashing motion.

Adult worms form separate sexes with well- developed reproductive systems.

Two classes of nematodes are recognized on the basis of the presence or absence of

special chemoreceptors known as phasmids:

Secernentea (Phasmidea) and Adenophorea (Aphasmidea).

or absence of special chemoreceptors known as phasmids : Secernentea (Phasmidea) and Adenophorea (Aphasmidea).
or absence of special chemoreceptors known as phasmids : Secernentea (Phasmidea) and Adenophorea (Aphasmidea).

Main parasitic assemblages infecting

humans and domestic animals

trichocephalid ‘whip-worms’

oxyurid ‘pin-worms’

ascarid ‘roundworms’ .

strongyle ‘hookworms’

rhabditid ‘threadworms’

camallanid ‘guinea worms’

spirurid ‘filarial worms

Cestodes (tapeworms)

have long flat ribbon-like bodies with a single anterior holdfast organ (scolex) and numerous segments.

They

and all

nutrients are taken up through the

do

not

have a

gut

tegument.

They do not have a body cavity (acoelomate) and are flattened to

facilitate perfusion to all tissues.

Segments exhibit slow body flexion

produced by longitudinal and

transverse muscles.

All tapeworms are hermaphroditic

and each segment contains both

male and female organs.

and transverse muscles.  All tapeworms are hermaphroditic and each segment contains both male and female
and transverse muscles.  All tapeworms are hermaphroditic and each segment contains both male and female

Two subclasses of cestodes are differentiated on the

basis of the numbers of larval

hooks, the Cestodaria being

decacanth (10 hooks) and the

Eucestoda being hexacanth (6 hooks). Collectively, 14 orders of

cestodes have been identified according to differences in

parasite morphology and

developmental cycles.

14 orders of cestodes have been identified according to differences in parasite morphology and developmental cycles.

Cestodes of medical and veterinary

importance.

Cyclophyllidean cestodes. The larvae of Taenia spp. cause cysticercosis in

cattle, pigs and humans, while those

of Echinococcus cause hydatid disease

in humans, domestic and wild animals.

Pseudophyllidean cestodes. Found in fish-eating animals and aquatic

invertebrates (copepods) and then in

fish e.g. Diphyllobothrium in humans,

dogs and cats being transmitted

through copepods and fish.

(copepods) and then in fish e.g. Diphyllobothrium in humans, dogs and cats being transmitted through copepods

Trematodes (flukes)

have small flat leaf-like bodies with oral and ventral suckers and a blind sac-like

gut. They do not have a body cavity

(acoelomate) and are dorsoventrally

flattened with bilateral symmetry.

They exhibit elaborate gliding or creeping motion over substrates using

compact 3-D arrays of muscles. Most

species are hermaphroditic (individuals

with male and female reproductive

systems) although some blood flukes

form separate male and female adults.

(individuals with male and female reproductive systems) although some blood flukes form separate male and female

Two major groups of trematodes

Monogenean

trematodes

Ectoparasites of fishes.

Digenean trematodes Digenea endoparasites in many

are

vertebrate hosts and

have snails as vectors.

of fishes.  D igenean trematodes  Digenea endoparasites in many are vertebrate hosts and have
of fishes.  D igenean trematodes  Digenea endoparasites in many are vertebrate hosts and have

Digenean orders of particular medical

and veterinary significance.

Echinostomatidae fasciolids (liver flukes) live as adults in hepatic bile ducts of mammals The parasites proliferate in

freshwater snails and mammals become

infected by ingesting metacercariae attached to aquatic vegetation.

Several Fasciola spp. cause hepatic

disease in domestic ruminants and

occasionally in humans.

Strigeatidae schistosomes (blood flukes) Miracidia released from eggs infect

aquatic snails and produce fork-tailed

cercaria which actively penetrate the skin

of their hosts. Several Schistosoma spp.

cause schistosomiasis/bilharzia in humans.

which actively penetrate the skin of their hosts. Several Schistosoma spp. cause schistosomiasis/bilharzia in humans.