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Question & Answers

Gopala Krishna Palepu

Assistant Divisional Engineer
400KV / APTRANSCO / Hyderabad
1. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main-1 Protection : Distance Protection
in 400KV Lines (21M1/L1)
2. Main-2 Protection : Distance/ Differential
(21M2/L2 or 87M2/L2)
3. Over Voltage Stage-1 Prot (59-1)
4. Over Voltage Stage-2 Prot (59-2)
5. Auto reclosure with check synchronization
(79 + 25)
6. Sensitive IDMT Directional E/F Relay
2. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main Protection: Differential Protection
for 400/220KV ICT (87T)
2. Backup Protection: IDMT Directional Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection on HV side
3. Backup Protection: IDMT Directional Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection on LV side
4. Over Flux Protection on HV side (99T HV)
5. Over Flux Protection on LV side (99T LV)
6. Additional Protection: REF Protection or
High Impedance Differential Protection
7. Additional Protection: Neutral
Displacement Protection (151N)
8. Additional Protection: Under Impedance/
Distance Protection (21T)
9. Additional Protection: Neutral Current
10. Over Load Alarm Protection (51 O/L)
3. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main Protection: Differential Protection
for 400KV Shunt Reactor. (87R)
2. Backup Protection: Under Impedance/
Distance Protection or Definite Time Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection(21R/51)
3. REF Protection (64R)
4. What are the inbuilt Protections 1. Gas Detector or Oil Surge detector or Say
available for 400KV ICT / Shunt Buchholz Relay or Oil Surge relay
Reactor? 2. Similarly for OLTC Buchholz Relay or Oil
Surge relay
3. Oil Temperature
4. Winding Temperature
5. Oil Level
6. Pressure Relief.
5. Meaning of LBB/BFR Local Breaker Backup Protection / Breaker
Failure Relay
6. What are the requirements for 1. Any protective relay operates will initiate
LBB operation LBB.
2. After initiation, timer starts & waits for
3. After elapse of stipulated time still
initiation is there and currents are available
in LBB then it will Operate and give trip
signal to adjacent Breakers connected to the
7. Why we need Bus bar Protection? To Provide High Speed Sensitive Clearance of
Bus bar Faults by tripping all the Circuit
Breakers connected to faulty Bus.
8. Why line protection need For redundancy and Reliability.
duplicate Distance protection?
9. How many zones are required in Minimum 3 Zones and some manufacturers
Distance Protection are giving more than 3 zones.
10. on which principle the Merz-Price Principle
differential relay operates
11. Why 2nd harmonic restraint When a Power Transformer with its
required for Differential Relay secondary circuit open, is switched on, it acts
as a simple Inductance and a magnetizing in
rush current which will be several times,
Transformer full load current will flow. As the
inrush current flows in the Primary of the
Transformer only, it appears to the
Differential relay as an internal fault.
A Harmonic analysis of typical magnetic
inrush current wave is shown below
2nd : 63.0 %
3 : 26.8 %
4 : 5.1 %
5th : 4.1 %
6 : 3.7 %
7 : 2.4 %
as seen from the above, the second
harmonic component is predominant in the
Magnetizing Inrush Current. A Differential
Relay which Extracts the 2nd Harmonic
Current and fed to the restraint coil to make
the relay inoperative due to Magnetic inrush
12. Name at Least 2 types of 1. Quadrilateral
Characteristics for distance 2. Mho
schemes. 3. Optical/Lens
4. Bullet
5. Triangular
13. Differentiate switched Distance In an Ideal Non switched scheme, there will
scheme and non switched be 6 starters, 3 for Phase Faults and 3 for
distance scheme. ground faults. There will be independent
Measuring units for both Phase faults and
earth faults for each phase, for all 3 zones,
totaling 18 units. This scheme is faster and
more accurate but is costly.
In the switched scheme, only one measuring
unit will be used for all types of faults. This
single measuring unit is switched to the
correct fault loop impedance by switching-in
the respective voltages and currents by the
Switched scheme is relatively slow in
operation and has the risk of total scheme
failure in the event of failure of the only one
measuring unit is available.
14. What is the accuracy limit of < 5%
Zone-1 reach
15. Why Fuse Failure Protection is The distance relays being voltage restraint
required as an inbuilt feature in O/C relays, loss of Voltage due to main PT
Distance Protection. fuse failure or inadvertent removal of Fuse in
one or more phases will cause the relay
operation. The fuse failure relay will sense
such condition by the presence of residual
voltage with out residual current and blocks
the relay.
16. What types of unit protections 1. Phase Comparison Protection
are available for Line? 2. Phase segregated Line Differential Relay
17. Need of Over Voltage Protection Normally 400KV transmission lines are
for Transmission Lines. meant for Transmission of Bulk Power to
Long Distances to Load center area. If the
line is idle charged condition or lightly loaded
condition the sending end voltage is more
than the receiving end voltage due to line
mutual capacitance. This is called Ferranti
effect. This may cause the failure of
equipment. To safe guard the equipment,
over voltage protection is adopted.
18. Necessity of Over Flux Protection If Flux increases causes on increase of the
for Transformers. iron losses and disproportionately large
increase in magnetizing current. This leads
to a rapid temperature rise in the bolts and
destroying their insulation and damaging coil
insulation. To safe guard the Transformer,
over flux protection is provided.
19. What is the Percentage of Around 85%
Transient Faults in Transmission
Lines in total faults?
20. In which condition Auto Zone-1 and Phase to Earth Faults only
reclosure Relay operates.
21. Meaning of dead time In auto- The time between the Auto-reclosing Scheme
reclosure operation. being energized and the operation of the
contacts which energize the Circuit Breaker
closing circuit.
22. Meaning of reclaim time In auto- The Time Following a successful closing
reclosure operation operation measured from the instant the
Auto-Reclosing relay closing contacts make
which must elapse before the Auto-Reclosing
relay initiates another reclosing attempt. In
other words, it may be said to be the time
between 1st and 2nd Auto-Reclosure.
23. What are the conditions required 1. Zone 2/3/4 of Distance protection
for blocking Auto reclosure Relay. 2. LBB/BFR relay Operation
3. Over Voltage Protection
4. Circuit Breaker Problems
5. Bus bar Protection
6. carrier Fail conditions
7. Line Reactor Protection
8. Direct Transfer Trip signal received.
24. LBB relay is Current Operated or It is current operated.
Voltage operated or both
25. Why Main and Check Bus bar Bus bar differential protection should have
protection is required. over all sensitivity above heaviest loaded
feeder current, unless separate check zone
has been provided. Normally high impedance
Bus bar protection needs check zone
protection to over come this problem. The
trip command is only given when both a
discriminating & check zone system
26. For 400KV lines Yes, for ICT 21T may be utilized as a Backup
Main-1 is 21L & Main-2 is 87L Protection.
For 400/220 KV ICT
Main-1 is 87T & B/U 21T is it
possible to utilize.
27. What is the principle of Operation Circulating Current Principle.
of REF relay?
28. How many Configurations 1. I- Configuration
available in One & Half Breaker 2. D- Configuration
29. What are the CT methods 1. 3 CT Method
available in One & Half Breaker 2. 4 CT Method
System? 3. 5 CT Method
4. 6 CT Method (GIS Version)
5. 6 CT Method (AIS Version)
30. Which CT Method is More 3 CT Method
31. Which CT Method is fault free in 6 CT method ( GIS Version)
Protection and not having blind
32. Explain the Relevance of STUB When a Line is supplied via 2 Circuit
Protection? Breakers in a One & Half Circuit Breaker
arrangement, the line protection includes the
area between the two CTs. However, when
the line isolator is open the line CVTs for the
Distance Protection are connected to the line
and cannot provide the correct voltage for
the STUB end.(i.e the area between the line
isolator and CTs) (stub = dead end)
To provide protection for a fault in this area,
Distance Protection is Provided with a STUB
protection which gives a bus over current trip
if the line isolator is open and the current
exceeds the set value in any phase.
33. Explain the Relevance of TEED The Main CT, Tie CT & Line CT are Physically
Protection located in T shape in case of 5 CT Method.
For identification of Fault in between these
three CTs, then it is connected to Differential
relay in the principle of Main CT current + Tie
CT current = Line Current.
34. Explain the need of SOFT This is required where there are line voltage
protection transformers, to provide fast tripping in the
Event of accidental line energisation with
maintenance earthing clamps left in position.
35. If power swing occurs whether It will block
Distance scheme will operate or
37. Why Over Load Relay is provided Over Load relay shall be set at 100% of
in ICT Protection rated current with delay of 5 seconds. This
shall be connected to give alarm only, for
alertness and arranging a load relief.
38. In which case the Auto Where Transformation ratio HV to LV is less
Transformers are utilized. than 2.
39. Condition for ND Relay Operation Due to Unbalanced Load condition the
in case of Transformer shifting of Neutral will takes place from zero
Protection. voltage to some voltage. This may cause
failure of Transformer. To safe guard the
Transformer this relay will be provided in LV
40. Give the drawing of SLD of One
& Half Breaker System (one dia
Only) with CT, CVT, LA/SA, CB,
WT/LT, Isolators & Earth
Switches, Bus CVT with