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BUTTERFIELD,R. & BANERJEE, P. K. (1971).

Gdotechnique21, No. 1,43-60.

n i q u e 2 1 , N o . 1 , 4 3 -

THE

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE

PILE

R. BUTTERFIELD*

GROUPS

and P. K. BANERJEEt

PILES

AND

SYNOPSIS

The response of rigid and compressible single piles embedded in a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic

medium has been obtained by a rigorous analysis based on Mindlin’s solutions for a point load in the interior of an ideal elastic medium.

The analytical

method

is described

and is extended

to analyse axially loaded rigid and compressible pile

groups with floating caps spaced in an arbitrary manner.

The

results

are

presented

as

a series

of

graphs

showing the effect of variation of the ratios of pile length to a diameter, the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the pile to the shear modulus of the medium E,/G and the effect of base enlargement on the load displacement characteristics of single

axially

of

length to diameter ratio, pile spacing and E,/G ratio

on the response

loaded

piles.

Graphs

are also

presented

showing

the

effect

of a range of typical

pile groups.

data from

more approximate solutions and laboratory and full- scale pile loading tests, The latter indicate that the analyses may usefully calculate group settlement ratios and allow the extrapolation of load displace- ment data on single piles to predict group behaviour.

The results are compared

with published

La reponse de pieux simples, rigides et compres- sibles noyes dans la masse d’un milieu tlastique lineaire isotrope a &.e obtenue par une analyse rigou- reuse basee sur les solutions de Mindlin pour charge ponctuelle & l’interieur d’un milieu elastique ideal. La methode analytique est Btendue a l’analyse de groupes de pieux rigides et compressibles, charges axialement avec casques flottants. espaces d’une manibre arbitraire. Les resultats sont represent& par une gamme de graphiques montrant l’effet de la variation des rap- ports entre la longueur du pieu avec le diametre, le rapport de module d’elasticite du pieu avec le module de cisaillement du milieu E,/G et l’effet de l’agran- dissement de la base sur les caracteristiques de deplacement de pieux simples, charges axialement. Des graphiques montrent egalement I’effet du rapport longueur a diametre et du rapport E,/G et de l’espacement des pieux, sur la reponse d’une gamme de groupes de pieux typiques. Les resultats sont compares avec les informations publiees d’apres des solutions plus approximatives et de laboratoire et des essais en vraie grandeur de charge de pieux. Ces derniers indiquent que l’analyse peut utile- ment permettre le calcul du rapport de tassement de groupe et faciliter l’extrapolation des donnees de deplacement de charge pour des pieux simples pour predire le comportement des groupes.

INTRODUCTION

The reliable prediction of foundation displacements at working load remains a major civil engineering problem. However, the results of a long series of experiments at the Waterways Experimental Station, summarized by Turnbull et al. (1961), showed for saturated clays close agreement between experimentally determined values of the stresses under surface loads and the values computed from elastic solutions based on the analysis given by Boussinesq (1885). There is therefore some justification for attempting to obtain useful predictions of load dis- placement characteristics of piles and pile groups based on elastic theory. Several investigators (D’Appolonia and Romualdi, 1963; Mattes and Poulos, 1969; Nair, 1963; Poulos and Davis, 1966; Poulos, 1968; Saffery and Tate, 1961; Salas and Belzunce, 1965; Seed and Reese, 1955; Sowers et al., 1961) outlined approximate methods based on elastic theory for analysing different aspects of the load displacement behaviour of single axially loaded piles and piers. Poulos and Davis (1968) and Mattes and Poulos (1969) published more

*

Senior Lecturer,

Civil

Engineering

Department,

University

of Southampton.

 

t

Senior Scientific

Officer, Highways

Engineering

Computer

Branch,

Ministry

of Transport.

43

44

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

NOTATION

A,

cross-sectional area of pile shaft s spacing of piles in a group

diameter

diameter

Youngs

of base

of shaft

modulus

material

of

shear

material weighting functions

modulus

of

half

over

and base respectively

pile

space

shaft

prescribed vertical

shaft

dis-

placement

prescribed

vertical

base

dis-

placement

prescribed

ment

length

number of piles in a group

number of intervals

radial shaft displace-

of integra-

of pile

tion

the base respectively

over the

shaft

and over

total

load on pile and end load

respectively

W,

2)

W(r, 4

(WA*

(US),

CwlJi

w,

r~

(w;)

awl@,

xyJ

4,

6U,(r,

4

load carried

by

shaft

at

any

depth z below the surface

nth iterated

value

of P,

for

compressible

pile

ratio of displacement

of under-

reamed

pile to that

of plain

radial

displacement

at

(7, z) due to a loaded pile

a radius of pile shaft

b radius of pile base depth of point load

point

vertical

displacement

at

point

(y94

vertical

displacements

of shaft

radial displacements of shaft

vertical displacements of base

pile

elements

of

discrete

medium interface vertical and radial displacement

of any shaft element iterated values of {W,} local Cartesian co-ordinate system

elementary vertical and radial

displacements

at point

(r, 2)

elementary

quantities

in e,

and E directions

respectively

.z

global cylindrical co-ordinate

system

local

system fictitious vertical shaft, radial

co-ordinate

cylindrical

shaft

base intensities

and

vertical

resultant

respectively

&,

WG

Poisson’s

& for 9th

ratio

pile

of

elastic

half

il

&h

J%

G

GI, G,

fi(4

_f1m

fi(4

L

N

12,fn

P,

PZ

P,”

P,

RCl

pile

space

R, displacement of a pile group

of a

Poisson’s

vertical

ratio of pile material

stress,

shear stress

and

under load N x P to that single pile under load P

and under load N x P to that single pile under load P radial stress respectively

radial stress respectively

accurate analyses which included the effects of the pile length to diameter ratios, base enlarge- ment, thickness of the elastic layer, and pile compressibility. Their analysis was based on the following assumptions, in addition to those of ideal elasticity.

(a) The pile shaft load was replaced by uniform vertical shear stress on the surface of

each of a suitable

number

of small cylindrical

pile elements.

(b) The pile base was assumed to be a smooth disc, not necessarily of the same diameter

as the shaft,

across which the base load was uniformly

distributed.

(c) The disturbance of the continuity of the elastic half space due to the presence of the piles was ignored.

The analysis presented in this Paper is capable of eliminating assumptions (b) and (c) and shows that assumption (b) has asignificant effect on the response of underreamed piles and very

(b) and (c) and shows that assumption (b) has asignificant effect on the response of underreamed
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 45 short plain piles and that appreciable

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

PILES

AND

PILE

GROUPS

45

short plain piles and that appreciable errors occur in the calculated values of radial stress com- ponents in the immediate vicinity of a loaded pile due to assumption (c). Poulos (1968) has also presented an approximate general study of axially loaded groups of incompressible piles incorporating assumptions (u)-(c). It is shown that pile compressibility is important in group behaviour and that the load dis- tribution between the piles can be markedly different from that predicted by incompressible pile analyses. The analysis deals with arbitrarily spaced compressible piles under a rigid pile cap where the cap is not in contact with the ground surface, although the cap group interaction problem has been studied (Banerjee, 1970) and will be dealt with (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1971a). Whereas the elastic analyses incorporate gross idealizations of any field situation and intro- duce parameters which are inevitably imprecise, comparisons with published experimental results have been made which show encouraging agreement in situations where either data from single plain pile load tests are to be extrapolated to estimate the working load response of single underreamed piles and groups of piles or group settlement ratios are to be estimated. An attempt has also been made to present the theoretical analysis in an elegant and general way since it offers a novel, powerful and versatile means of attacking many associated prob- lems of interest to the foundation engineer which are less tractable by other methods.

METHOD

OF

ANALYSIS

Figure 1(a) represents an outline of a cylindrical pile of length L and radius a inscribed in a homogeneous isotropic elastic half space defined by G and II. The essence of the analysis is to find a fictitious stress system + which, when applied to the boundaries of the figure inscribed in the half space, will produce displacements of its boundaries which are identical to the speci-

fied boundary conditions of a real pile system of the same geometry and also satisfy identically the stress boundary conditions on the free surface of the half space. The stresses 4 are fictitious in that they are to be applied to the boundaries of the fictitious half space figure and are not necessarily therefore the actual stresses acting on the real pile surfaces (Banerjee,

However, once the + values have been determined it is a simple matter to calculate the

1970).

0

t

I

Fig.

1.

Integration

of

Mindlin’s

(1936)

equations

for

(a)

&

(b)

4

and

(c)

4%

Mindlin’s (1936) equations for (a) & (b) 4 and (c) 4% b t; 6 , I

b

t;

6

,

I

Elemental

/aSBSc

I

area =

Mindlin’s (1936) equations for (a) & (b) 4 and (c) 4% b t; 6 , I
Mindlin’s (1936) equations for (a) & (b) 4 and (c) 4% b t; 6 , I
Mindlin’s (1936) equations for (a) & (b) 4 and (c) 4% b t; 6 , I

(a)

Mindlin’s (1936) equations for (a) & (b) 4 and (c) 4% b t; 6 , I

46

actual stresses and displacements they produce anywhere in the half space, including those on the real pile boundaries. Let 4, be a vertical fictitious stress acting in the half space along the pile shaft boundary at a depth c below the surface, the vertical and radial displacements SW,(r, z) and 6U,(r, z) respectiveIy at a point B(r, z) due to & acting on the surface of an eIementa1 cylinder of height 6~. The radius a can be obtained by integrating Mindlin’s point load solution (Mindlin, 1936) for (c$,&&) over the surface of the elemental cylinder. The results can be expressed as

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

SW,(Y, z) =

2n

s

a&(KW,(c,

0

2A

iw,(Y, z) =

a&{KU,(c,

s

0

rl, z) 6c}d6

.

.

.

yl,

z)

Sc} do

.

.

.

.

.

where KW,(c, yl, z) and KU,(c, I~, z) derived from Mindlin’s soIution are given in the Appendix.

Mindlin’s solution is used here in the kernels of the integrals since it automatically satisfies the stress boundary conditions on the unloaded surface of the half space.

The total vertical

and radial displacements

at B(r,

sities are then obtained by integration as

W,(y, z) = ss

0

0

L

2n

~,aKW,(c,

L 2n

U,(y, z) = ss

0

0

$,aKU,(c,

z) due to all such elemental

shaft inten-

rl,

z) de dc

.

.

.

.

.

rl, z) dBdc

.

.

.

.

.

Similarly taking & to be the fictitious vertical stress over the base area of the pile acting at a

point O’(E, 0, L)

expressed by analogy with equations (3) and (4) as

(Fig. l(b)) the vertical and radial displacements at B(Y, z) due to &, can be

c$~EKW,(L, r2, z) de de

.

.

.

.

.

,eKU,(L,

Y,, z) dt’da

.

.

.

.

.

where KW,(L, y2, z) and KU,(L,

r2, z)

can

be

obtained

by

substituting

C=L

and

rz=

ly2+ E2- zye cos e,]u2 for rl in equations

(26) and (27) respectively

Thus

the

total

vertical

and radial

displacements

at

a point

in the Appendix. B(Y, z) due to both

shaft and base intensities

are given by

 

W(Y, z) =/:s;

[+,aKW,(c,

~1, z) de dc+/;/;

[&KW,(L>

y2, z)] de de

vertical

-

(7)

U(Y, z) = ss

L

0

2n

[&dW,(c>

0

yl, -41dedc+

b

21~

[$,EKU,(L,r2,Z)l de de

ss

0

0

-

(8)

Equations (7) and (8) can be solved for the following boundary conditions. At B(r, 0), o,=

~,~=0,

at

B(a,

z), O<z<L,

W(a,

z)=.fi(

z

)

and

at B(Y, L),

0 <Y <<6, W(Y,

L) =fi(L)

= con-

stant

for a rigid base.

In these conditionsf,(z)

is the prescribed vertical displacement of the

shaft

face andf,(L) is the value of fi(z) at z=L. However, the solution does not take into

account the lateral restraint of the pile-soil interface, i.e. the effect of the pile reinforcement

on the half space. In order to satisfy this additional requirement (that U(a, z) =fi(z), 0 <z < L) a fictitious radial stress intensity & is applied over the pile shaft. This is a mathe- matical device and is not the interface radial stress due to the loaded pile. The vertical and radial displacements at B(r, z) due to & can be obtained by integrating over the pile shaft

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 4 7 surface, Mindlin’s (1936) solution for

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

PILES

AND

PILE

GROUPS

47

surface, Mindlin’s (1936) solution for an embedded point load acting parallel to the surface of an elastic half space. The displacements (Fig. l(c)) are given by

W&a

U,(r,

2)

z)

=

L

ss 0

2n

0

a#,KW,(c,

=ILj2’a&KU&,

0

0

Y, z) dBdc

r, z) dB dc

 

.

.

.

.

*

(9)

.

.

.

.

.

(10)

where KW,(c,

Thus from equations (7)-(10) the total vertical and radial displacements at a point B(r, z) due to a pile loaded with an axial load are

r, z) and KU,(c,

Y, z) are given in the Appendix.

W(r,

2)

= ss

0

0

L

2n

q$aKW,(c,

Y, z) d0 dc+

L 2n

&aKW,(c,

ss

0

0

r, z) d&Jdc

ss

+ ss

0

0

L

0

2R

0

+

b

2n

+,eKW,(L,

r2, z) d6 de

.

.

*

(11)

.

.

*

(12)

L

2n

+,aKU,(c,

up,

2)

=

ss 0 0

~1,

z)

de dc+

&aKU,(c,

b 278

Y, z) de dc

~,EKU,(L,

0

Y,, .z) dB de

ss 0

Equations (11) and (12) can be used to calculate the displacement components at any point within the half space if the distributions of 4,, & and $b are known from prescribed displace- ment boundary conditions at the pile soil interface. A simple numerical treatment of integral equations similar to equations (11) and (12) has been suggested (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1971b) in which the pile shaft is divided into n.equal segments each of thickness G, and the base into m rings each of annular radius G,. The ver- tical and radial displacements of any element i on the shaft can then be written in discrete form (see the Appendix) as

(B’s)* = j$I (&),(Kss)~+

$,

(&),(KRS)ij+

jJ

(+b),tKBs)iI

-

*

(13)

(u.Ji

=

jil

(A)j(KSu)i,+

j21 (+r)AKRU)i,+

j$l

(‘AJAKBU)t~

.

.

(14)

where i=l,

2, 3,.

.

., n.

Similarly the vertical base displacements (wb), are given by

twb)i

=

jjl

(h),(KSf%j+

jgl

(4r)AKW~j+

j$,

($b)AKBB)i,

*

*

(15)

, The integrals involved in the various K factors (see the Appendix) can in general be evaluated by simple quadrature formula, but a fine mesh subdivision of the field is required at the singularities in order to obtain reliable values of the diagonal elements in the Kij matrices (these singularities occur when i = j and the load points and field points coincide).

wherei=

1,2,3 ,

m.

Equations

or

(13), (14) and

{WJ

VJJ

iwb>

SOLUTION

FOR

SINGLE

PILE

II &I

{M

{4b)

.

.

.

.

(15) can be written in matrix notation a

1s

[KBS]

=[KSU] [KRU] [KBU]

[KSS]

[KRS]

H

[KSB]

[KM?]

[KBB]

{W}

=

[K](Q)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(17)

48

which provides a formal solution for {@I

R.

BUTTERFIELD

(@}

=

AND

P.

[KJ-l(w)

K.

BANERJEE

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(18)

where {CD}are the required shaft (vertical and radial) and base stress intensities and {W> are the given shaft (vertical and radial) and base displacements. [K] will always be non-singular and diagonally dominant for the class of problems being discussed (Banerjee, 1970).

For a rigid pile the vertical displacements of all points on the shaft and the base are the same and are equal to the displacement of the head of the pile. The radial displacement at the shaft face is zero. Thus if unit displacement is applied to the head of the pile, from equation (18)

 

{&Z}

=

Kl-l{

i}

.

.

.

.

.

.

If radial

displacement

compatibility

is ignored

 
 

{ii}

= [KJ-‘{ii:>

.

.

.

.

.

.

where

(194

Wb)

. . . . . . where (194 W ’ b ) The results obtained from

The results obtained

from these equations

show that

(a) the solution of equations (19a) and (19b) produces values of {&} and {&,} which agree within 3% for piles with length to diameter ratios greater than 10

(b)

for pile geometries commonly encountered in practice the consideration of radial compatibility has a negligible effect on the determination vertical displacement for a given load

(c)

if accurate evaluation of the stresses arising in the immediate vicinity of the pile is necessary, radial displacement compatibility must be included (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1970).

When

the

distributions

of c$~and &, over the pile shaft

and base respectively

have been

obtained for a prescribed displacement

at any depth below the surface is found from

of the head of the pile, the load P, carried by the pile

P,=

‘Z?ia$$dc+

s L

b27iE#bde

s 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

(20)

The total load P required to produce unit displacement of the head of a rigid pile is given by substituting z= 0 into equation (20). Also once {CD}have been obtained displacements at any field point B(r, z) can be calculated directly from equations (11) and (12) when they are re- stated in discrete form.

Solution fey a colrtpressible pile

The solution

from equation

(19a) will, if applied to a compressible

pile, lead to an under-

estimation of displacement of the pile head for a given load.

of a

shaft element at a depth z will differ from that at a depth z+dz by an amount equal to the

If the pile is assumed to be perfectly

bonded to the medium the vertical

displacement

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 49 Fig. 2. Compressible pile displace- ment

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

PILES

AND

PILE

GROUPS

49

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 49 Fig. 2. Compressible pile displace- ment pattern.
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 49 Fig. 2. Compressible pile displace- ment pattern.
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 49 Fig. 2. Compressible pile displace- ment pattern.
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 49 Fig. 2. Compressible pile displace- ment pattern.

Fig. 2.

Compressible

pile displace-

ment pattern. W is the vertical displacement of the pile of dia- meter D and length L under a

Fig.

3.

Pile

group

co-ordinate

vertical load P

system

elastic compression of the pile length dz (Fig. 2). Since for any pile section the vertical direct stress is much greater than other stresses, to a good approximation

aw

az=-A,E,

P

u

=

-/+&;a

i

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(21)

where A, is the cross-sectional area of the pile shaft, E, is Young’s modulus of the pile material and pLpis Poisson’s ratio of the pile material Equations (21) can be written in finite difference form and used in an iterative scheme for the solution of (16) as follows

(a) The rigid pile solution (19a) is obtained.

(b) Values of P, are found from equation (20) and substituted into equations (21) as a first approximation, giving new {Wi} and { Wi} values.

(4

UK>, 0%)

and W>

are substituted in (16) as an approximation giving new {&}, (c&}

and {c&} values.

(d) A new value PL is obtained for each section of pile and the cycle (b), (c), (a) is

repeated until the value of Pg between two successive iterations differs by an acceptably small value.

ANALYSIS

OF

PILE

GROUPS

The foregoing

analysis can be extended

directly to deal with general pile groups.

following approximations

are introduced to reduce the order of the matrices involved.

The

(a)

Since the introduction of {&} produces negligible effect on the total load required for a

given settlement, radial displacement compatibility

is ignored.

(b)

In general, the surface intensities {&} and {&} will be functions of (c, 0) and (E, ~9)

respectively. Allowing for this greatly increases the number of linear equations involved in the problem and therefore {+J and {&,} are approximated by equivalent rotationally symmetric distributions which are therefore independent of 0. It is thought that these approximations will introduce negligible errors in the cal- culated displacements and loads for pile spacings commonly encountered in practice.

An integral representation of the vertical displacement of a point B(y, 0, z) due to a number

5 0 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE N of arbitrarily spaced piles can be

50

R. BUTTERFIELD

AND P. K. BANERJEE

N of arbitrarily

spaced piles can be written,

by analogy with equation

(7), as (Fig.

3)

 

L

2n

b

2n

W(r,

8,

z)

=

,zl{

so/,

(q$),dW’,(c,

~1,

2)

de

dc

+~,~,

(+b)aEKw2(L,

“2*

2)

de

de

where

rl

=

[yp+ a2 -

2r,a cos O,]l/2

 

Y2 =

[$+E 2-

2TpEcos e,] U2

y,

=

~~2+ S; -

2rs, cos

(e -

e,)]

1’2

>

(22)

, and N is the number of piles in the group.

p=1,2,3

N, s, is the distance

of the 9th

,

pile from the origin

of the global axes

(Fig. 3)

As before

equation

(22) can be written

for discrete

subdivision

of the pile-medium

inter-

faces as

 

(ws)iq

= 2 f?(ds)i~[KSSliipq+

p=l

j=1

2

p=l

2 (+b)jp[KBBltjtw

j=l

.

.

(23)

for the shaft

elements

and

j=l . . (23) for the shaft elements and for the base elements, where [KSS],,,,, [KBS]I,,,

for the base elements, where [KSS],,,,, [KBS]I,,, and so on are analogous to similar matrices developed for a single pile (see the Appendix). The computational effect can often be decreased by using the symmetry of a group, since for piles carrying identical loads the order of the matrices can be reduced proportionately. Equations (23) and (24) can be combined and written as

or

Wi,

= &pq@jjp

{W}= [K]{@}

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(25)

which can be solved for both incompressible and compressible pile groups as before.

its order is

determined only by the number of surface element subdivisions adopted over the pile- medium interfaces. It is therefore of a much lower order than the matrices generated by solution methods involving the use of three-dimensional elements throughout the volume of

the system.

It is interesting

that

although

[K] will in general be a fully populated

matrix

LID

0

20

40

Ml

86

in general be a fully populated matrix LID 0 20 40 M l 8 6 l

loo

be a fully populated matrix LID 0 20 40 M l 8 6 l o o
be a fully populated matrix LID 0 20 40 M l 8 6 l o o

100

1,”

D =

W

=

Fig. 4.

Diamcterofrhafc

Vertical

displacement

of head of pile

Load displacement curves for compressible piles

52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ

52

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ 4

k/PI

x 100

52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ 4
52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ 4
52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ 4

60

52 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE k/PI x 100 60 0 2 0 [PJPJ 4

0

20

[PJPJ

40.

x

IO0

60

80

100

Fig. 7 (above and left). for compressible

Base load contribution

underreamed

piles

for compressible Base load contribution underreamed piles Fig. (a) Effect of L/D action between piles, (b)
for compressible Base load contribution underreamed piles Fig. (a) Effect of L/D action between piles, (b)
for compressible Base load contribution underreamed piles Fig. (a) Effect of L/D action between piles, (b)

Fig.

(a) Effect of L/D

action between piles, (b) effect of com- pressibility on interaction between piles

the inter-

8 (below).

on

I.0

1.4

I.8

RX

,'

2.2

,-

,----

/'

2.6

0

on interaction between piles the inter- 8 (below). on I.0 1.4 I.8 RX ,' 2.2 ,-
on interaction between piles the inter- 8 (below). on I.0 1.4 I.8 RX ,' 2.2 ,-
on interaction between piles the inter- 8 (below). on I.0 1.4 I.8 RX ,' 2.2 ,-

31

I

I

I

(a)

(b)

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE Again, once {@I has been determined the actual PILES AND displacements

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

Again, once {@I has been determined

the actual

PILES

AND

displacements

53

occurring at any field point

PILE

GROUPS

B(r,

19,z) can be calculated

from the discrete

form of equation

(22).

DISCUSSION

OF

RESULTS

In the following Figs 4-7 refer to single compressible plain and underreamed piles and Figs 8 and 9 to groups of plain compressible piles under a rigid floating pile cap. In all cases a range of 6000 < X 6 co is considered which covers the range of material properties of major practical interest. (X= E,/G where G is the shear modulus of the half space material.) Figure 4 shows the effect of the compressibility ratio X on the load displacement behaviour of plain piles over a range of LID ratios. The two significant features of the curves are the negligible effect of h for shorter piles (L/D < 20) and the fact that the results converge to the rigid surface disc solution as LID approaches zero. The effect of pile compressibility on the shaft surface shear stress distribution is shown in Figs 5(a) and 5(b). For the shorter pile (L/D=20, Fig. 5(a)) the effect of h is seen to be negligible and the stress distribution agrees closely with that obtained by more approximate analyses (Mattes and Poulos, 1969; Poulos and Davis, 1968). Fig. 5(b) shows similar curves for a longer pile (L/D = 80) in which the h= 60 000 and h= 00 results are almost identical and

similar to the short pile results. However, the shear stress distribution is radically altered in the more compressible system (X=6000). (An accurate assessment of the direct radial stress (u,) at the pile-medium interface can be made by obtaining the limiting value of the radial stress at points in the medium as they approach the interface asymptotically, Butterfield and Banerjee, 1970.) Comprehensive load displacement curves are presented in Figs 6(a)-6(c) for compressible underreamed piles over a range of base to shaft diameter ratios (16 D,/D, < 6). Whereas these curves enable the absolute value of the pile head displacements to be estimated, the relative influence of (Do/OS) and X can be seen more clearly in Fig. 6(d) where they are related to the ratio of the settlement of an underreamed pile to that of a plain pile under the same load (R,).

In all cases

system (i.e. decrease in R,) achieved by enlargement of the base is also very small for the longer piles (L/D,=SO) and even for the shorter piles (L/D,=20) R, 1s. only reduced to around 0.8 for DJD, =4. The accurate inclusion of a rigid pile base in the analysis has the effect of increasing R, by about 10% above more approximate predictions and also indicates a small increase in R, with decreasing h, for shorter piles, reversing the trend of earlier analyses (Mattes and Poulos, 1969; Poulos and Davis, 1968). This is also reflected in the proportion of the total load carried by the base PE/P (Figs 7(a)-7(c)) wh’ICh is considerably decreased in the more rigorous analysis for underreamed piles with DJD, > 24. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) relate the settlement ratio R, for groups of N compressible plain piles (N=2, 3, 4) under a rigid cap for LID ratios of 20 and 40 and h values of 6000 and co, where R, is the ratio of the vertical displacement of the pile cap under a load of N x P to that of a single pile under a load P. Although R, is strongly influenced by LID the effect of h is negligibly small for all the shorter piles (L/D < 40). It is interesting that R, remains at about 1.5 for the longer piles even when the pile spacing exceeds 32 diameters, and also that the principle of superposition (Poulos, 1968) applies less well to the results for compressible piles. Curves showing both the load-displacement behaviour and the individual pile load sharing of larger groups of compressible piles under a rigid floating cap are presented in Figs 9(a)-9(g). These results have been obtained without using Poulos’s superposition approximation for the non-symmetrical groups. A standard close spacing of s/D=23 has been adopted throughout to indicate the likely worst case values of R,. Variation of h is seen to have a considerable effect on the load sharing between the piles

the effect of h on R, is seen to be very small (6000 < h < co). The stiffening of the

5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d

54

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

I

I

I

,

5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d

aMS/d

am/d

5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d
5 4 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE I I I , aMS/d am/d clMi3/d

clMi3/d

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

PILES

AND

PILE

GROUPS

55

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 5
5 6 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE Table 1. s/D ~2.5, L/D =25, y=0*5

56

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

Table

1. s/D~2.5, L/D =25, y=0*5

Table

I

2.

s/D =2*5,

L/D=25,

-

~=0*5

Type

NIR,

 

of group

2x2

I

3x3

I

4x4

5x5

 

-

 

h=co*

0672

0.541

0.460

0.403

 

~~

 

h=coT

0.665

0.550

0.456

0.396

I

x=6OOOt

j 0.620

0500

0.420

0.371

Type

of

Pile

number

pIpave*

--

I.520

0.74

0.050

(tension)

2.020

0.960

0.05

2.580

I.180

1.160

0.010

0.010

0.190

I

plpavet

group

3x3

::

3

1

4x4

 

3

1

5x5

:

4

:

X=03

1.510

0.750

0.060

ltension)

2.020

0.965

0.044

2.520

1.190

1.160

0.048

0.106

0.095

X=6000

1.380

0.765

0.120

I.840

0.965

0.180

2.300

I.190

1.141

0.145

0.119

0.095

* The results were obtained using a uniform stress distribution under the pile base and superposition principle by Poulos (1968). t The results were obtained using the analysis outlined in this Paper.

were obtained using the analysis outlined in this Paper. L within the groups but a much

L

within the groups but a much smaller effect on the overall group response. A reduction in I\ from co to 6000 produces only about 10% reduction in R, (Table l), whereas the individual pile load sharing pattern changes markedly (Table 2). As X decreases the load carried by the internal piles in a group increases although the contribution of these piles in 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 groups (Figs 9(f) and 9(g)) is still generally less than 10% of that of the outer piles.

COMPARISON

WITH

EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

Figures 10 and 11(a)-1 1(c) are comparisons of the previous analytical results with published test data from model and full-scale pile tests. The upper curve in Fig. 10 which relates LID to the percentage of load taken by the base for plain piles (D,JDs= l), calculated for G=4000 lbf/sq. in. and ~=0*45, is a reasonable fit to the results of Whitaker and Cooke (1966) and a rather similar test reported by Sowers et al. (1961), both on full-scale piles. Measurements from full-scale underreamedpile tests (Whitaker and Cooke, 1966) are also plotted and the theoretical curve, for Db/Ds= 2 and the elastic para- meters given, is now an acceptable prediction of these results. The analysis has therefore extrapolated the plain pile test results successfully to predict the response of the underreamed piles. The curved marked slip in this Fig. 10 refers to an extension of the analysis to include incremental slip at the pile-soil interface (Banerjee, 1970). Figures 1I(a) and 11(b) are comparisons of calculated and measured settlement ratios for small-scale model tests on pile groups generally at factors of safety of about 2 on ultimate load. Unfortunately the lack of published detailed load displacement curves obtained from single piles concurrently with the group test results, together with the variety of definitions of R, used by different authors and the considerable scatter of the measured data, makes conclusive com- parison of theory and experiment difficult. However, in Fig. 1l(a) the results of Saffery and Tate (1961) are shown, relating pile spacing (s/D) to R, for 3 x 3 groups of 2 in. dia. piles in remoulded London Clay, and compared with calculated curves. Agreement with the lower curve (H/L = 18) is quite good. H is the total thickness of the compressible layer above the rigid base of the bin and H/L N 1.8 is the experimental value. Comparison with the H/L = co curve emphasizes the considerable effect of bin depth on R, in model tests. (The inclusion of H/L in previous analyses is straight- forward, Banerjee, 1970.)

e l t e s t s . ( T h e inclusion of H/L in

Load takenby the bare:%

Load takenby the bare:% .$I E E i = ” 1 6 4 1 Fig. 10.

.$I

E

E

i

=

1

6

4

1

Load takenby the bare:% .$I E E i = ” 1 6 4 1 Fig. 10.
Load takenby the bare:% .$I E E i = ” 1 6 4 1 Fig. 10.
Load takenby the bare:% .$I E E i = ” 1 6 4 1 Fig. 10.

Fig. 10.

Comparison

between

calculated

and mea-

sured end loads on plain and underreamed

piles

 

Comparison

with test results

on 3 x 3

Fig. 11 (right). pile groups:

(a) and (b) settlement

ratios, (c) load

sharing

between piles

results on 3 x 3 Fig. 11 (right). pile groups: (a) and (b) settlement ratios, (c)
results on 3 x 3 Fig. 11 (right). pile groups: (a) and (b) settlement ratios, (c)
results on 3 x 3 Fig. 11 (right). pile groups: (a) and (b) settlement ratios, (c)
results on 3 x 3 Fig. 11 (right). pile groups: (a) and (b) settlement ratios, (c)

58

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

Figure

11(b)

is a similar

comparison

with

model

tests

by

Whitaker

(1957,

1960)

on

groups

of

& in.

dia.

piles

also

in

remoulded

London

Clay.

Again

when

H/L is taken

3 x 3 into

account

reasonable

agreement

with

the

theoretical

curves

is

obtained,

although

Whitaker

defines

R,

as the

ratio

of the

settlement

of the

pile

group

to the

settlement

of a single

pile

at

half

the

ultimate

load

of each.

 

A

more

stringent

test

of the

theoretical

model

is to compare

the

calculated

and

measured

load

distributions

between

individual

piles in the group

and

this

has been

done

in Fig.

11 (c) for

the

3 x 3 pile

group

tests

of Whitaker

(1957) and

Sowers

et al. (1961).

Once

more

the

patterns

of calculated

and

measured

loads

are

similar

although

the

general

trend

is for

the

load

to

be

more

evenly

distributed

between

the

piles

than

the

elastic

analysis

predicts

with

h= co.

Points

are

also

shown

indicating

how

a more

even

load

distribution

is produced

when

h

is

reduced

to 6000.

Poulos

(1968) has

made

comparisons

similar

to those

shown

in Figs

ll(a)-

1I (c) using

his

less

rigorous

analysis

with

h =

co

and

he

arrived

at

essentially

identical

con-

clusions.

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

A

rigorous

elastic

analysis

of bonded

compressible

plain

and

underreamed

piles

and

com-

pressible

piles

in

general

groups

under

a rigid

floating

cap

has

been

presented

in which

the

truly

rigid

pile

base

and

radial

deformation

compatibility

conditions

can

be included.

The

results

of the

refined

analysis

of this

Paper

have

been

compared

with

analyses

by

Poulos

(1968) in which

at least

the

final

two

conditions

were relaxed.

 

Overall load-displacement

behaviour

 

For single

plain

piles

the more

rigorous

results

differ

from

those

of Poulos

by less than

5%

whenever

LID

2 5.

For single underreamed

piles

with

D,/D,-3,

this

analysis

predicts

a reduction

in system

stiffness

relative

to that

given

by

Poulos

of 5-25%

as LID

is varied

between

20 and

5.

For

the

groups

of plain

piles

the

value

of R, is essentially

the

same

in this

Paper

as that

given

by

Poulos

and

the

effect

of

h (6000 < h < co) is negligible.

 

Local load distribution

within and around the piles

 

For

single

piles

and

particularly

underreamed

piles the

full analysis

in this

Paper

is neces-

sary

if accurate

values

of direct

stresses

are to be obtained.

 

If

only

the shaft

and

base

load

division

is required

then

this

analysis

with

the

relaxation

of the

radial

compatibility

requirement

is adequate.

 

These

remarks

also

apply

to

the

pile

group

analyses

where

additionally

the

load

sharing

between individual

piles

in the

group

is strongly

influenced

by

h, the

loads

being

more

evenly

distributed

between

compressible

piles

in

a group.

Comparisons

with

published

 

experimental

data

suggest

that

the

elastic

analyses

may

be

applicable

to the

extrapolation

of single

pile test

data

to predict

the

response

at working

loads

of underreamed

piles and

pile groups

and

also to the prediction

of group

settlement

ratios

(RJ.

APPENDIX

It can be shown

KW,(c,

v, 2)

=

directly

from

Mindlin’s

(1936)

(3-44r)+8(1-p)Z-(3-4p)

R2

equations

that

I (z-c)~ I (3-4~)(~+~)~--2~~+6~~(~+~)~

R?

RZ

G 1

P-3

(z-c)

r+

(3-4$-c)_4(1-p)(l-2~) ----+Rjl

2

R,(R,+z+c)

6c++c)

I

cosa

.

.

.

(27)

where

17, = [Y:+(z-c)~]~‘~ R, = [Y?+(z+c)~]~‘~

2 R,(R,+z+c) 6c++c) I cosa . . . (27) where 17, = [Y:+(z-c)~]~‘~ R, = [Y?+(z+c)~]~‘~

II

=

[r2+ a2-22ra cos S,]l’Z

ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS 5 9 Also   (3-44r)(z-c) where RI

ELASTIC

ANALYSIS

OF

COMPRESSIBLE

PILES

AND

PILE

GROUPS

59

Also

 

(3-44r)(z-c)

where

RI

=

[xa+ya+(z-c)a]l’a

R,

=

[xa+y2+

(z+c)~]“~

x

=

rcos

&-a

y

=

--rsin&

 

Integrals

for the various

K matrices

are as follows.

 

[KSS],,

=

2s;;;1,0,s;

aKWl(c,

+,I,2) de dc

 

[KRS],,

=

2s;;:

,,,,-1

aKW,(c,

y, 3) de dc

[KBS],,

=

2/:,G-“,,,,/;

cKW,(L,

r2, z) de

de

[KSUlif= 2~~~~I,GI/~aKUI(c.rl,4 de dc

 

[KRUI,,=~:,o;I,GI-;aKG(c,y,2)de&

 

LKB7-3,=

2f;t1,0,s;cKU,(L +,a2)de de

 

where

z =

(i-&)G,

Also

6cz(z+c)+4(1-_c~)(1-2~)

1

y1 =

?f=Od

Ye =

y1 =

Y=CZ

7, =

r1 =

[2a2--2a

cos ep

[~2+~2-2~~

cos e,y

[2a2-22a2 cos ep

[9+2--

2ar cos ep

[r2+a2-2ar

cos eC11'2

- (28)

(29)

y1 =

r2 =

p2+9-

[rr”+ 3

-

2ar cos e,y

2rr cos e,y

(29) y1 = r2 = p2+9- [rr”+ 3 - 2ar cos e,y 2rr cos e,y REFERENCES

REFERENCES

BANERJEE, P. I<. (1970). A contribution to the study of axially loaded pile foundations. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton. BOUSSINESQ, J. (1885). Application of potentials to the stud-v of the equilibrium and mozlements in elastic soils. Paris : Gauthier-Villars. BUTTERFIELD, R. & BANERJEE, P. I<. (1970). A note on the problem of a pile reinforced half space. Ge’otech- nique 20, No. 1, 100-103.

BUTTERFIELD, R. & BANERJEE, P. K.

Gdotechnique

(1971a).

The problem

of pile group-pile

cap interaction.

21, No.

2.

BUTTERFIELD,

R.

&

BANERJEE,

mitted

for publication.

P.

K.

(1971b).

A

rigid disc embedded

in

an elastic

half

space.

Sub-

D’APPOLONIA,

E.

& ROMUALDI, J. P.

(1963).

Load

transfer

in end bearing

steel

H-piles.

J.

Soil Mech.

Fdns Div. Proc. Am.

Sot. civ. Engrs 89,

SM2,

l-25.

MATTES, N. S. (1969). Correspondence on The influence of radial displacement compatibility on pile settle- ments. GCotechnique 19, No. 1, 157-159.

Fdns Div.

MATTES, N.

S. & POULOS, H.

G. (1969).

Settlement

of single compressible

pile.

J. Soil Mech.

Proc. Am. Sot. civ. Engrs 95, SMI, 189-207.

MINDLIN, R.

RAIR,

D.

K.

(1963).

(1936).

Force at a point

in the interior of a semi-infinite

solid.

J. Physics

77, &lay, 195.

A theoretical

investigation

of the load settlement

characteristics

of a single pile.

Ph.D.

thesis,

Ohio State

University.

60 R. BUTTERFIELD AND P. K. BANERJEE POULOS, H. G. (1968). P O U L

60

R.

BUTTERFIELD

AND

P.

K.

BANERJEE

POULOS, H. G. (1968).

POULOS, H.

Analysis

H.

G.

& DAVIS, E.

of the settlement

of pile groups.

(1968).

The

settlement

behaviour

GCotechnique 18, No.

4, 449-471.

of single axially-loaded

incompressible

piles and piers.

GCotechnique 18, No.

SAFFERY, M. R. & TATE, A. P. K. (1961).

3, 351-371. Model tests on pile group in a clay soil with particular

reference

to the behaviour of the group when it is loaded eccentrically.

Proc.

5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. 2, 129.

SALAS, J. A. J. & BELZUNCE,J. A. (1965).

Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. 2, 309-313. SEED, H. B. & REESE, L. C. (1955). The action of soft clay around friction piles.

28 pp. & WILSON, L. L.

SOWERS, G. F.,

Resolution

theorique

The

de la distribution

bearing

capacity

2,

155.

81, Paper 842, December,

MARTIN, C. B.

(1961).

5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech.

homogeneous clay from model studies.

Proc.

des forces dans les pieux.

Proc.

Am.

of friction

Sot. civ.

Eflgrs

pile groups

in

THERMAN, A. G. (1964). Computed load capacity and movement of friction and end bearing piles embedded

in uniform and stratified soils.

Ph.D.

thesis, Carnegie Institute

of Technology.

THERMAN, A. G. & DAPPOLONIA, A. (1965). bedded in uniform and stratified soils.

Computed

Proc.

6th Int.

movements

of friction

and end bearing

Conf, Soil Mech.

2, 323-327.

piles em-

TURNBULL, W. J., MAXWELL, A. & AHLVIN, R. G. (1961).

Stresses

and deflections

in homogeneous

soil

 

masses.

Proc.

5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech.,

Paris

2, 337-346.

WHITAKER, T. (1957). Experiment with model piles in groups.

Gdotechnique 7, No. 4, 147-167.

 

WHITAKER, T. (1960). Some experiments on model piled foundations.

Pile foundations,

Proceedings

of

symposium

held by the International

Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Stockholm,

p.

124.

WHITAKER, T. & COOKE, R. W. (1966). An investigation of shaft and base resistances of large bored piles

in London Clay. Large bored piles, pp. 7-49.

London:

Institution

of Civil Engineers.