BUTTERFIELD,R. & BANERJEE, P. K. (1971).
_{G}_{d}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{2}_{1}_{,} _{N}_{o}_{.} _{1}_{,}_{4}_{3}_{}_{6}_{0}_{.}
THE
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIBLE
PILE
R. BUTTERFIELD*
GROUPS
and P. K. BANERJEEt
PILES
AND
SYNOPSIS
The response of rigid and compressible single piles embedded in a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic
medium has been obtained by a rigorous analysis based on Mindlin’s solutions for a point load in the interior of an ideal elastic medium.
The analytical
method
is described
and is extended
to analyse axially loaded rigid and compressible pile
groups with floating caps spaced in an arbitrary manner.
The
results
are
presented
as
a series
of
graphs
showing the effect of variation of the ratios of pile length to a diameter, the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the pile to the shear modulus of the medium E,/G and the effect of base enlargement on the load displacement characteristics of single
axially
of
length to diameter ratio, pile spacing and E,/G ratio
on the response
loaded
piles.
Graphs
are also
presented
showing
the
effect
of a range of typical
pile groups.
data from
more approximate solutions and laboratory and full scale pile loading tests, The latter indicate that the analyses may usefully calculate group settlement ratios and allow the extrapolation of load displace ment data on single piles to predict group behaviour.
The results are compared
with published
La reponse de pieux simples, rigides et compres sibles noyes dans la masse d’un milieu tlastique lineaire isotrope a &.e obtenue par une analyse rigou reuse basee sur les solutions de Mindlin pour charge ponctuelle & l’interieur d’un milieu elastique ideal. La methode analytique est Btendue a l’analyse de groupes de pieux rigides et compressibles, charges axialement avec casques flottants. espaces d’une manibre arbitraire. Les resultats sont represent& par une gamme de graphiques montrant l’effet de la variation des rap ports entre la longueur du pieu avec le diametre, le rapport de module d’elasticite du pieu avec le module de cisaillement du milieu E,/G et l’effet de l’agran dissement de la base sur les caracteristiques de deplacement de pieux simples, charges axialement. Des graphiques montrent egalement I’effet du rapport longueur a diametre et du rapport E,/G et de l’espacement des pieux, sur la reponse d’une gamme de groupes de pieux typiques. Les resultats sont compares avec les informations publiees d’apres des solutions plus approximatives et de laboratoire et des essais en vraie grandeur de charge de pieux. Ces derniers indiquent que l’analyse peut utile ment permettre le calcul du rapport de tassement de groupe et faciliter l’extrapolation des donnees de deplacement de charge pour des pieux simples pour predire le comportement des groupes.
INTRODUCTION
The reliable prediction of foundation displacements at working load remains a major civil engineering problem. However, the results of a long series of experiments at the Waterways Experimental Station, summarized by Turnbull et al. (1961), showed for saturated clays close agreement between experimentally determined values of the stresses under surface loads and the values computed from elastic solutions based on the analysis given by Boussinesq (1885). There is therefore some justification for attempting to obtain useful predictions of load dis placement characteristics of piles and pile groups based on elastic theory. Several investigators (D’Appolonia and Romualdi, 1963; Mattes and Poulos, 1969; Nair, 1963; Poulos and Davis, 1966; Poulos, 1968; Saffery and Tate, 1961; Salas and Belzunce, 1965; Seed and Reese, 1955; Sowers et al., 1961) outlined approximate methods based on elastic theory for analysing different aspects of the load displacement behaviour of single axially loaded piles and piers. Poulos and Davis (1968) and Mattes and Poulos (1969) published more
* 
Senior Lecturer, 
Civil 
Engineering 
Department, 
University 
of Southampton. 

t 
Senior Scientific 
Officer, Highways 
Engineering 
Computer 
Branch, 
Ministry 
of Transport. 
43
44
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
NOTATION
A,
crosssectional area of pile shaft _{s} spacing of piles in a group
diameter
diameter
_{Y}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{g}_{’}_{s}
of base
of shaft
modulus
material
of
shear
material weighting functions
modulus
of
half
over
and base respectively
_{p}_{i}_{l}_{e}
space
shaft
prescribed vertical 
shaft 
dis 

placement 

prescribed 
_{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} 
_{b}_{a}_{s}_{e} 
_{d}_{i}_{s}_{} 
placement 
prescribed
ment
length
number of piles in a group
number of intervals
radial shaft displace
of integra
of pile
tion
the base respectively
over the
shaft
and over
total
load on pile and end load
respectively
_{W}_{,}
_{2}_{)}
^{W}^{(}^{r}^{,} ^{4}
_{(}_{W}_{A}_{*}
_{(}_{U}_{S}_{)}_{,}
^{C}^{w}^{l}^{J}^{i}
w,
r~
(w;)
_{’}
^{a}^{w}^{l}^{@}^{,}
_{x}_{’}_{y}_{J}
^{4}^{,}
_{6}_{U}_{,}_{(}_{r}_{,}
_{4}
load carried by shaft 
at 
any 
depth z below the surface 

nth iterated value of P, 
for 

compressible pile 

ratio of displacement 
of under 

reamed pile to that 
of plain 
radial
displacement
at
(7, z) due to a loaded pile
a radius of pile shaft
b radius of pile base depth of point load
point
vertical 
displacement 
at 
point 
(y94 vertical 
displacements 
of shaft 
radial displacements of shaft
vertical displacements of base
pile
elements
of
discrete
medium interface vertical and radial displacement
of any shaft element iterated values of {W,} local Cartesian coordinate system
elementary vertical and radial
displacements
at point
(r, 2)
elementary
quantities
in e,
and E directions
respectively
.z
global cylindrical coordinate
system
local
system fictitious vertical shaft, radial
coordinate
cylindrical
shaft
base intensities
and
vertical
resultant
respectively
&,
WG
Poisson’s
& for 9th
ratio
pile
of
elastic
half
il
&h
J%
G
GI, G,
fi(4
_f1m
fi(4
L
N
12,fn
P,
PZ
P,”
P,
RCl
pile
space
R, displacement of a pile group
of a
Poisson’s
vertical
ratio of pile material
stress,
shear stress
and
under load N x P to that single pile under load P
radial stress respectively
accurate analyses which included the effects of the pile length to diameter ratios, base enlarge ment, thickness of the elastic layer, and pile compressibility. Their analysis was based on the following assumptions, in addition to those of ideal elasticity.
(a) The pile shaft load was replaced by uniform vertical shear stress on the surface of
each of a suitable
number
of small cylindrical
pile elements.
(b) The pile base was assumed to be a smooth disc, not necessarily of the same diameter
as the shaft,
across which the base load was uniformly
distributed.
(c) The disturbance of the continuity of the elastic half space due to the presence of the piles was ignored.
The analysis presented in this Paper is capable of eliminating assumptions (b) and (c) and shows that assumption (b) has asignificant effect on the response of underreamed piles and very
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
PILES
AND
PILE
GROUPS
45
short plain piles and that appreciable errors occur in the calculated values of radial stress com ponents in the immediate vicinity of a loaded pile due to assumption (c). Poulos (1968) has also presented an approximate general study of axially loaded groups of incompressible piles incorporating assumptions (u)(c). It is shown that pile compressibility is important in group behaviour and that the load dis tribution between the piles can be markedly different from that predicted by incompressible pile analyses. The analysis deals with arbitrarily spaced compressible piles under a rigid pile cap where the cap is not in contact with the ground surface, although the cap group interaction problem has been studied (Banerjee, 1970) and will be dealt with (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1971a). Whereas the elastic analyses incorporate gross idealizations of any field situation and intro duce parameters which are inevitably imprecise, comparisons with published experimental results have been made which show encouraging agreement in situations where either data from single plain pile load tests are to be extrapolated to estimate the working load response of single underreamed piles and groups of piles or group settlement ratios are to be estimated. An attempt has also been made to present the theoretical analysis in an elegant and general way since it offers a novel, powerful and versatile means of attacking many associated prob lems of interest to the foundation engineer which are less tractable by other methods.
METHOD
OF
ANALYSIS
Figure 1(a) represents an outline of a cylindrical pile of length L and radius a inscribed in a homogeneous isotropic elastic half space defined by G and II. The essence of the analysis is to find a fictitious stress system + which, when applied to the boundaries of the figure inscribed in the half space, will produce displacements of its boundaries which are identical to the speci
fied boundary conditions of a real pile system of the same geometry and also satisfy identically the stress boundary conditions on the free surface of the half space. The stresses 4 are fictitious in that they are to be applied to the boundaries of the fictitious half space figure and are not necessarily therefore the actual stresses acting on the real pile surfaces (Banerjee,
However, once the + values have been determined it is a simple matter to calculate the
1970).
0
t
I
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} 
_{1}_{.} 
Integration 
of 
Mindlin’s 

(1936) 
equations 
for 
(a) 
& 
(b) 
4
and
(c)
4%
b
t;
6
,
I
Elemental
/aSBSc
I
area =
(a)
_{4}_{6}
actual stresses and displacements they produce anywhere in the half space, including those on the real pile boundaries. Let 4, be a vertical fictitious stress acting in the half space along the pile shaft boundary at a depth c below the surface, the vertical and radial displacements SW,(r, z) and 6U,(r, z) respectiveIy at a point B(r, z) due to & acting on the surface of an eIementa1 cylinder of height 6~. The radius a can be obtained by integrating Mindlin’s point load solution (Mindlin, 1936) for (c$,&&) over the surface of the elemental cylinder. The results can be expressed as
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
SW,(Y, z) = 
2n s a&(KW,(c, 0 
2A 

iw,(Y, z) = 
a&{KU,(c, 
s 0 
rl, z) 6c}d6 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 

yl, 
z) 
Sc} do 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
where KW,(c, yl, z) and KU,(c, I~, z) derived from Mindlin’s soIution are given in the Appendix.
Mindlin’s solution is used here in the kernels of the integrals since it automatically satisfies the stress boundary conditions on the unloaded surface of the half space.
The total vertical
and radial displacements
at B(r,
sities are then obtained by integration as
_{W}_{,}_{(}_{y}_{,} _{z}_{)} _{=} ss
0
0
L
2n
~,aKW,(c,
L 2n
U,(y, z) = ss
0
0
$,aKU,(c,
z) due to all such elemental
shaft inten
rl, 
z) de dc 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
rl, z) dBdc 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
Similarly taking & to be the fictitious vertical stress over the base area of the pile acting at a
point O’(E, 0, L)
expressed by analogy with equations (3) and (4) as
(Fig. l(b)) the vertical and radial displacements at B(Y, z) due to &, can be
c$~EKW,(L, r2, z) de de 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

,eKU,(L, 
Y,, z) dt’da 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
where KW,(L, y2, z) and KU,(L,
r2, z)
can
be
obtained
by
substituting
C=L
and
rz=
_{l}_{y}_{2}_{+} _{E}_{2}_{} _{z}_{y}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{s} _{e}_{,}_{]}_{u}_{2} for rl in equations (26) and (27) respectively 

Thus 
the 
total 
vertical 
and radial 
displacements 
at 
a point in the Appendix. B(Y, z) due to both 

shaft and base intensities 
are given by 

W(Y, z) =/:s; 
[+,aKW,(c, 
~1, z) de dc+/;/; 
[&KW,(L> 
y2, z)] de de 
vertical
_{}
_{(}_{7}_{)}
U(Y, z) = ss
_{L}
0
_{2}_{n}
[&dW,(c>
0
yl, 41dedc+
b
21~
[$,EKU,(L,r2,Z)l de de
ss
0
0

(8)
Equations (7) and (8) can be solved for the following boundary conditions. _{A}_{t} _{B}_{(}_{r}_{,} _{0}_{)}_{,} _{o}_{,}_{=}
~,~=0, 
at 
B(a, z), O<z<L, 
W(a, 
z)=.fi( 
z 
) 
and 
at B(Y, L), 
0 <Y <<6, W(Y, 
L) =fi(L) 
= con 
stant 
for a rigid base. In these conditionsf,(z) is the prescribed vertical displacement of the 

shaft 
face andf,(L) is the value of fi(z) at z=L. However, the solution does not take into 
account the lateral restraint of the pilesoil interface, i.e. the effect of the pile reinforcement
on the half space. In order to satisfy this additional requirement (that U(a, z) =fi(z), 0 <z < L) a fictitious radial stress intensity & is applied over the pile shaft. This is a mathe matical device and is not the interface radial stress due to the loaded pile. The vertical and radial displacements at B(r, z) due to & can be obtained by integrating over the pile shaft
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
PILES
AND
PILE
GROUPS
_{4}_{7}
surface, Mindlin’s (1936) solution for an embedded point load acting parallel to the surface of an elastic half space. The displacements (Fig. l(c)) are given by
W&a
U,(r,
2)
z)
^{=}
L
ss 0
2n
0
a#,KW,(c,
=ILj2’a&KU&,
0
0
Y, z) dBdc
r, z) dB dc
. 
. 
. 
. 
_{*} 
_{(}_{9}_{)} 

^{.} 
^{.} 
^{.} 
^{.} 
. 
(10) 
where KW,(c,
Thus from equations (7)(10) the total vertical and radial displacements at a point B(r, z) due to a pile loaded with an axial load are
r, z) and KU,(c,
Y, z) are given in the Appendix.
W(r,
2)
= ss
0
0
L
2n
q$aKW,(c,
Y, z) d0 dc+
L 2n
&aKW,(c,
ss
0
0
r, z) d&Jdc
ss
_{+} ss
0
0
L
0
2R
0
^{+}
b
2n
+,eKW,(L,
r2, z) d6 de
. 
. 
_{*} 
_{(}_{1}_{1}_{)} 
. 
. 
_{*} 
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)} 
L
2n
+,aKU,(c,
up,
2)
=
ss 0 0
~1,
z)
de dc+
&aKU,(c,
b 278
Y, z) de dc
~,EKU,(L,
0
Y,, .z) dB de
ss 0
Equations (11) and (12) can be used to calculate the displacement components at any point within the half space if the distributions of 4,, & and $b are known from prescribed displace ment boundary conditions at the pile soil interface. A simple numerical treatment of integral equations similar to equations (11) and (12) has been suggested (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1971b) in which the pile shaft is divided into n.equal segments each of thickness G, and the base into m rings each of annular radius G,. The ver tical and radial displacements of any element i on the shaft can then be written in discrete form (see the Appendix) as
(B’s)* = j$I (&),(Kss)~+ 
$, 
(&),(KRS)ij+ 
jJ 
(+b),tKBs)iI 
 
* 
(13) 

(u.Ji 
= 
jil 
(A)j(KSu)i,+ j21 (+r)AKRU)i,+ 
j$l 
(‘AJAKBU)t~ 
. 
. 
(14) 
where i=l,
2, 3,.
.
., n.
Similarly the vertical base displacements (wb), are given by
twb)i
=
jjl
(h),(KSf%j+
jgl
(4r)AKW~j+
j$,
($b)AKBB)i,
*
*
(15)
, The integrals involved in the various K factors (see the Appendix) can in general be evaluated by simple quadrature formula, but a fine mesh subdivision of the field is required at the singularities in order to obtain reliable values of the diagonal elements in the Kij matrices (these singularities occur when i = j and the load points and field points coincide).
wherei=
1,2,3 ,
m.
Equations
or
(13), (14) and
{WJ
VJJ
iwb>
SOLUTION
FOR
SINGLE
PILE
II ^{&}^{I}
{M
{4b)
.
_{.}
_{.}
.
(15) can be written in matrix notation a
1s
[KBS]
=[KSU] [KRU] [KBU]
[KSS]
[KRS]
H
[KSB] 
[KM?] 
[KBB] 

{W} 
= 
[K](Q) 
. 
.
.
.
.
.
.
_{(}_{1}_{7}_{)}
_{4}_{8}
which provides a formal solution for {@I
R.
BUTTERFIELD
(@}
=
AND
P.
[KJl(w)
K.
BANERJEE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(18)
where {CD}are the required shaft (vertical and radial) and base stress intensities and {W> are the given shaft (vertical and radial) and base displacements. [K] will always be nonsingular and diagonally dominant for the class of problems being discussed (Banerjee, 1970).
For a rigid pile the vertical displacements of all points on the shaft and the base are the same and are equal to the displacement of the head of the pile. The radial displacement at the shaft face is zero. Thus if unit displacement is applied to the head of the pile, from equation (18)
{&Z} = 
Kll{ 
i} 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

If radial 
displacement 
compatibility 
is ignored 

{ii} 
= [KJ‘{ii:> 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

where 
(194
_{W}_{’}_{b}_{)}
The results obtained
from these equations
show that
(a) the solution of equations (19a) and (19b) produces values of {&} and {&,} which agree within 3% for piles with length to diameter ratios greater than 10
(b) 
for pile geometries commonly encountered in practice the consideration of radial compatibility has a negligible effect on the determination vertical displacement for a given load 

(c) 
if accurate evaluation of the stresses arising in the immediate vicinity of the pile is necessary, radial displacement compatibility must be included (Butterfield and Banerjee, 1970). 

When 
the 
distributions 
of c$~and &, over the pile shaft 
and base respectively 
have been 
obtained for a prescribed displacement
at any depth below the surface is found from
of the head of the pile, the load P, carried by the pile
P,=
‘Z?ia$$dc+
s L
b27iE#bde
s _{0}
.
.
.
.
.
.
(20)
The total load P required to produce unit displacement of the head of a rigid pile is given by _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{z}_{=} _{0} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{2}_{0}_{)}_{.} Also once {CD}have been obtained displacements at any field point B(r, z) can be calculated directly from equations (11) and (12) when they are re stated in discrete form.
Solution fey a colrtpressible pile
The solution
from equation
(19a) will, if applied to a compressible
pile, lead to an under
estimation of displacement of the pile head for a given load.
of a
shaft element at a depth z will differ from that at a depth z+dz by an amount equal to the
If the pile is assumed to be perfectly
bonded to the medium the vertical
displacement
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
PILES
AND
PILE
GROUPS
49
Fig. 2.
Compressible
pile displace
ment pattern. W is the vertical displacement of the pile of dia meter D and length L under a 
Fig. 
3. 
Pile 
group 
coordinate 
vertical load P 
system 
elastic compression of the pile length dz (Fig. 2). Since for any pile section the vertical direct stress is much greater than other stresses, to a good approximation
aw
az=A,E,
P
u
=
/+&;a
i
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
_{(}_{2}_{1}_{)}
where A, is the crosssectional area of the pile shaft, E, is Young’s modulus of the pile material and pLpis Poisson’s ratio of the pile material Equations (21) can be written in finite difference form and used in an iterative scheme for the solution of (16) as follows
(a) The rigid pile solution (19a) is obtained.
(b) Values of P, are found from equation (20) and substituted into equations (21) as a first approximation, giving new {Wi} and { Wi} values.
_{(}_{4}
_{U}_{K}_{>}_{,} _{0}_{%}_{)}
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{W}_{>}
are substituted in (16) as an approximation giving new {&}, (c&}
and {c&} values.
(d) A new value PL is obtained for each section of pile and the cycle (b), (c), (a) is
repeated until the value of Pg between two successive iterations differs by an acceptably small value.
ANALYSIS
OF
PILE
GROUPS
The foregoing
analysis can be extended
directly to deal with general pile groups.
following approximations
are introduced to reduce the order of the matrices involved.
_{T}_{h}_{e}
(a) 
Since the introduction of {&} produces negligible effect on the total load required for a 

given settlement, radial displacement compatibility 
is ignored. 

(b) 
In general, the surface intensities {&} and {&} will be functions of (c, 0) and (E, ~9) 
respectively. Allowing for this greatly increases the number of linear equations involved in the problem and therefore {+J and {&,} are approximated by equivalent rotationally symmetric distributions which are therefore independent of 0. _{I}_{t} _{i}_{s} thought that these approximations will introduce negligible errors in the cal culated displacements and loads for pile spacings commonly encountered in practice.
An integral representation of the vertical displacement of a point B(y, 0, z) due to a number
_{5}_{0}
R. BUTTERFIELD
AND P. K. BANERJEE
N of arbitrarily
spaced piles can be written,
by analogy with equation
(7), as (Fig.
3)
L 
2n 
b 
2n 

W(r, 
8, 
z) 
= 
,zl{ 
so/, 
(q$),dW’,(c, 
~1, 
2) 
de 
dc 
+~,~, 
(+b)aEKw2(L, 
“2* 
2) 
de 
de 
where 
rl 
= 
[yp+ a2  
2r,a cos O,]l/2 

_{Y}_{2} _{=} 
_{[}_{$}_{+}_{E} 2 
2TpEcos e,] U2 

y, 
= 
~~2+ S;  
2rs, cos 
(e  
e,)] 
1’2 
>
(22)
, and N is the number of piles in the group. p=1,2,3 N, s, is the distance of the 9th , pile from the origin of the global axes 
(Fig. 3) 

As before 
equation (22) can be written for discrete 
subdivision of the pilemedium 
inter 

faces as 

(ws)iq = 2 f?(ds)i~[KSSliipq+ p=l j=1 
2 p=l 
2 (+b)jp[KBBltjtw j=l 
_{.} 
_{.} 
(23) 

for the shaft 
elements and 
for the base elements, where [KSS],,,,, [KBS]I,,, and so on are analogous to similar matrices _{d}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{i}_{l}_{e} _{(}_{s}_{e}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{A}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{x}_{)}_{.} The computational effect can often be decreased by using the symmetry of a group, since for piles carrying identical loads the order of the matrices _{c}_{a}_{n} _{b}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y}_{.} Equations (23) and (24) can be combined and written as
or
Wi,
= &pq@jjp
{W}= [K]{@}
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(25)
which can be solved for both incompressible and compressible pile groups as before.
its order is
determined only by the number of surface element subdivisions adopted over the pile medium interfaces. It is therefore of a much lower order than the matrices generated by solution methods involving the use of threedimensional elements throughout the volume of
the system.
It is interesting
that
although
[K] will in general be a fully populated
matrix
LID
0
20
40
_{M}_{l}
_{8}_{6}
_{l}_{o}_{o}
100
1,”
D =
W
=
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{4}_{.}
Diamcterofrhafc
Vertical
displacement
of head of pile
Load displacement curves for compressible piles
52
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
k/PI
x 100
60
^{0}
^{2}^{0}
[PJPJ
^{4}^{0}^{.}
x
IO0
60
80
100
Fig. 7 (above and left). for compressible
Base load contribution
underreamed
piles
Fig.
(a) Effect of L/D
action between piles, (b) effect of com pressibility on interaction between piles
the inter
8 (below).
on
I.0
1.4
I.8
RX
,'
2.2
,
,
/'
_{2}_{.}_{6}
0
31
^{I}
I
I
(a)
(b)
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
Again, once {@I has been determined
the actual
PILES
AND
displacements
_{5}_{3}
occurring at any field point
PILE
GROUPS
B(r,
19,z) can be calculated
from the discrete
form of equation
(22).
DISCUSSION
OF
RESULTS
In the following Figs 47 refer to single compressible plain and underreamed piles and Figs 8 and 9 to groups of plain compressible piles under a rigid floating pile cap. In all cases a range of 6000 < X 6 co is considered which covers the range of material properties of major practical interest. (X= E,/G where G is the shear modulus of the half space material.) Figure 4 shows the effect of the compressibility ratio X on the load displacement behaviour of plain piles over a range of LID ratios. The two significant features of the curves are the negligible effect of h for shorter piles (L/D < 20) and the fact that the results converge to the rigid surface disc solution as LID approaches zero. The effect of pile compressibility on the shaft surface shear stress distribution is shown in Figs 5(a) and 5(b). For the shorter pile (L/D=20, Fig. 5(a)) the effect of h is seen to be negligible and the stress distribution agrees closely with that obtained by more approximate analyses (Mattes and Poulos, 1969; Poulos and Davis, 1968). Fig. 5(b) shows similar curves for a longer pile (L/D = 80) in which the h= 60 000 and h= 00 results are almost identical and
similar to the short pile results. However, the shear stress distribution is radically altered in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m} _{(}_{X}_{=}_{6}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{)}_{.} _{(}_{A}_{n} accurate assessment of the direct radial stress (u,) at the pilemedium interface can be made by obtaining the limiting value of the radial stress at points in the medium as they approach the interface asymptotically, Butterfield and Banerjee, 1970.) Comprehensive load displacement curves are presented in Figs 6(a)6(c) for compressible underreamed piles over a range of base to shaft diameter ratios (16 D,/D, < 6). Whereas these curves enable the absolute value of the pile head displacements to be estimated, the relative influence of (Do/OS) and X can be seen more clearly in Fig. 6(d) where they are related to the ratio of the settlement of an underreamed pile to that of a plain pile under the same load (R,).
In all cases
system (i.e. decrease in R,) achieved by enlargement of the base is also very small for the longer piles (L/D,=SO) and even for the shorter piles (L/D,=20) R, 1s. only reduced to around 0.8 for DJD, =4. The accurate inclusion of a rigid pile base in the analysis has the effect of increasing R, by about 10% above more approximate predictions and also indicates a small increase in R, with decreasing h, for shorter piles, reversing the trend of earlier analyses (Mattes and _{P}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{o}_{s}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{6}_{9}_{;} _{P}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{o}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{D}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{6}_{8}_{)}_{.} This is also reflected in the proportion of the total load carried by the base PE/P (Figs 7(a)7(c)) wh’ICh is considerably decreased in the more rigorous analysis for underreamed piles with DJD, > 24. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) relate the settlement ratio R, for groups of N compressible plain piles (N=2, 3, 4) under a rigid cap for LID ratios of 20 and 40 and h values of 6000 and co, where R, is the ratio of the vertical displacement of the pile cap under a load of N x P to that of a _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{i}_{l}_{e} _{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} _{a} _{l}_{o}_{a}_{d} _{P}_{.} Although R, is strongly influenced by LID the effect of h is negligibly small for all the shorter piles (L/D < 40). It is interesting that R, remains at about 1.5 for the longer piles even when the pile spacing exceeds 32 diameters, and also that the principle of superposition (Poulos, 1968) applies less well to the results for compressible piles. Curves showing both the loaddisplacement behaviour and the individual pile load sharing of larger groups of compressible piles under a rigid floating cap are presented in Figs 9(a)9(g). These results have been obtained without using Poulos’s superposition approximation for the nonsymmetrical groups. A standard close spacing of s/D=23 has been adopted throughout to indicate the likely worst case values of R,. Variation of h is seen to have a considerable effect on the load sharing between the piles
the effect of h on R, is seen to be very small (6000 < h < co). The stiffening of the
_{5}_{4}
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
I
I
I
,
aMS/d
am/d
clMi3/d
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
PILES
AND
PILE
GROUPS
^{5}^{5}
_{5}_{6}
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
Table
1. s/D~2.5, L/D =25, y=0*5
Table
I
2.
s/D =2*5,
L/D=25,

~=0*5
Type
NIR,
of group 
2x2 
I 
3x3 
I 
4x4 
5x5 

 

h=co* 
0672 
0.541 
0.460 
0.403 

~~ 

h=coT 
0.665 
0.550 
0.456 
0.396 

_{I} 
x=6OOOt 
j 0.620 
0500 
0.420 
0.371 
Type
of
Pile
number
pIpave*

I.520
0.74
0.050
(tension)
2.020
0.960
0.05
2.580
I.180
1.160
0.010
0.010
0.190
I
plpavet
group 

3x3 
:: 
3 

1 

4x4 

3 

1 

5x5 
: 
4 

: 
X=03
1.510
0.750
0.060
ltension)
2.020
0.965
0.044
2.520
1.190
1.160
0.048
0.106
0.095
X=6000
1.380
0.765
0.120
I.840
0.965
0.180
2.300
I.190
1.141
0.145
0.119
0.095
* The results were obtained using a uniform stress distribution under the pile base and superposition principle by Poulos (1968). t The results were obtained using the analysis outlined in this Paper.
L
within the groups but a much smaller effect on the overall group response. _{A} _{r}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{I}_{\} from co to 6000 produces only about 10% reduction in R, (Table l), whereas the individual pile load sharing pattern changes markedly (Table 2). _{A}_{s} _{X} _{d}_{e}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{o}_{a}_{d} _{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} internal piles in a group increases although the contribution of these piles in 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 groups (Figs 9(f) and 9(g)) is still generally less than 10% of that of the outer piles.
COMPARISON
WITH
EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS
Figures 10 and 11(a)1 1(c) are comparisons of the previous analytical results with published test data from model and fullscale pile tests. The upper curve in Fig. 10 which relates LID to the percentage of load taken by the base for plain piles (D,JDs= l), calculated for G=4000 lbf/sq. in. and ~=0*45, is a reasonable fit to the results of Whitaker and Cooke (1966) and a rather similar test reported by Sowers et al. (1961), both on fullscale piles. Measurements from fullscale underreamedpile tests (Whitaker and Cooke, 1966) are also plotted and the theoretical curve, for Db/Ds= 2 and the elastic para meters given, is now an acceptable prediction of these results. The analysis has therefore extrapolated the plain pile test results successfully to predict the response of the underreamed piles. The curved marked slip in this Fig. 10 refers to an extension of the analysis to include incremental slip at the pilesoil interface (Banerjee, 1970). Figures 1I(a) and 11(b) are comparisons of calculated and measured settlement ratios for smallscale model tests on pile groups generally at factors of safety of about 2 on ultimate load. Unfortunately the lack of published detailed load displacement curves obtained from single piles concurrently with the group test results, together with the variety of definitions of R, used by different authors and the considerable scatter of the measured data, makes conclusive com parison of theory and experiment difficult. However, in Fig. 1l(a) the results of Saffery and Tate (1961) are shown, relating pile spacing (s/D) to R, for 3 x 3 groups of 2 in. dia. piles in remoulded London Clay, and compared with calculated curves. Agreement with the lower curve (H/L = 18) is quite good. H is the total thickness of the compressible layer above the rigid base of the bin and H/L N 1.8 is the experimental value. Comparison with the H/L = co curve emphasizes the considerable effect _{o}_{f} _{b}_{i}_{n} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{n} _{R}_{,} _{i}_{n} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l} _{t}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{s}_{.} _{(}_{T}_{h}_{e} inclusion of H/L in previous analyses is straight forward, Banerjee, 1970.)
Load takenby the bare:%
.$I
E
E
i
=”
1
6
4
1
Fig. 10.
Comparison
between
calculated
and mea
sured end loads on plain and underreamed 
piles 

Comparison with test results 
on 3 x 3 

Fig. 11 (right). pile groups: (a) and (b) settlement ratios, (c) load 
sharing
between piles
_{5}_{8}
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
Figure 
11(b) 
is a similar comparison 
with 
model 
tests 
by 
Whitaker (1957, 1960) 
on 

groups 
of 
& in. 
dia. piles also 
in remoulded 
London 
Clay. 
_{A}_{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{H}_{/}_{L} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{n} 3 x 3 _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} 

account 
reasonable agreement 
with 
the 
theoretical 
curves 
is obtained, although 
Whitaker 

defines 
R, 
as the 
ratio of the settlement 
of the 
pile 
group 
to the settlement of a single 
pile 
at 

half 
the 
ultimate 
load of each. 
A 
more stringent 
test 
of the theoretical model is to compare 
the calculated and 
measured 

load 
distributions between 
individual piles in the group 
and 
this has been done in Fig. 
11 (c) for 

the 
3 x 3 pile 
group 
tests 
of Whitaker (1957) and Sowers 
et al. (1961). _{O}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{p}_{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{n}_{s} 
of calculated and measured 
loads 
are similar 
although 
the general 
trend 
is for 
the 
load 
to 
be 

more 
evenly distributed 
between 
the 
piles 
than 
the 
elastic analysis 
predicts 
with h= co. 

Points 
are also shown indicating 
how 
a more 
even 
load 
distribution 
is produced 
when 
h 
is 
reduced to 6000. 
Poulos (1968) has made 
comparisons similar 
to those shown in Figs ll(a) 

1I (c) using his 
less rigorous analysis with 
h = 
co 
and he arrived 
at essentially identical 
con 

clusions. 

CONCLUSIONS 

A 
rigorous 
elastic analysis of bonded 
compressible plain 
and 
underreamed 
piles 
and 
com 

pressible piles 
in general groups under a rigid 
floating cap 
has 
been presented in which 
the 

truly 
rigid pile 
base and radial deformation 
compatibility conditions can be included. 

The results 
of the refined analysis of this 
Paper have 
been 
compared 
with analyses 
by 

Poulos 
(1968) in which at least the final two 
conditions were relaxed. 

Overall loaddisplacement behaviour 

For single 
plain piles the more rigorous 
results 
differ from 
those of Poulos 
by less than 
5% 

whenever LID 
2 5. 
For single underreamed piles 
with D,/D,3, 
this analysis 
predicts 
a reduction in system 

stiffness 
relative to that given 
by 
Poulos of 525% 
as LID is varied between 
20 and 
5. 

For 
the groups of plain piles 
the value of R, is essentially 
the 
same 
in this 
Paper 
as that 

given by 
Poulos and 
the effect 
of 
h (6000 < h < co) is negligible. 

Local load distribution 
within and around the piles 

For 
single piles and particularly 
underreamed 
piles the full analysis 
in this 
Paper 
is neces 

sary if accurate values 
of direct 
stresses are to be obtained. 

If only the shaft 
and base load 
division is required 
then 
this 
analysis 
with 
the relaxation 

of the radial compatibility requirement is adequate. 
These 
remarks 
also 
apply 
to 
the pile 
group analyses where 
additionally 
the 
load 
sharing 

between individual 
piles 
in the 
group is strongly influenced 
by h, the 
loads 
being 
more 
evenly 

distributed 
between compressible 
piles 
in 
a group. 

Comparisons 
with published 
experimental 
data suggest 
that 
the 
elastic 
analyses 
may be 

applicable 
to the 
extrapolation 
of single 
pile test data to predict 
the response 
at working loads 
of underreamed
piles and
pile groups
and
also to the prediction
of group
settlement
ratios
(RJ.
APPENDIX
It can be shown
KW,(c,
v, 2)
=
directly
from
Mindlin’s
(1936)
(344r)+8(1p)Z(34p)
R2
equations
that
I (zc)~ I (34~)(~+~)~2~~+6~~(~+~)~
R?
RZ
_{G} _{1}
P3
(zc)
r+
(34$c)_4(1p)(l2~) +Rjl
2
R,(R,+z+c)
6c++c)
_{I}
cosa
.
.
.
(27)
where
17, = [Y:+(zc)~]~‘~ R, = [Y?+(z+c)~]~‘~
II
=
[r2+ a222ra cos S,]l’Z
ELASTIC
ANALYSIS
OF
COMPRESSIBLE
PILES
AND
PILE
GROUPS
_{5}_{9}
Also 

(344r)(zc) 

where 
RI 
= 
[xa+ya+(zc)a]l’a 

R, 
= 
[xa+y2+ 
(z+c)~]“~ 

x 
= 
rcos 
&a 

y 
= 
rsin& 

Integrals 
for the various K matrices are as follows. 

[KSS],, 
= 
2s;;;1,0,s; aKWl(c, 
+,I,2) de dc 

[KRS],, 
= 
2s;;: ,,,,1 aKW,(c, 
y, 3) de dc 

[KBS],, 
= 
2/:,G“,,,,/; cKW,(L, 
r2, z) de 
de 

[KSUlif= 2~~~~I,GI/~aKUI(c.rl,4 de dc 

[KRUI,,=~:,o;I,GI;aKG(c,y,2)de& 

LKB73,= 
2f;t1,0,s;cKU,(L +,a2)de de 

where 
z = 
(i&)G, 

Also 
6cz(z+c)+4(1_c~)(12~)
1
y1 =
?f=Od
Ye =
y1 =
Y=CZ
7, =
r1 =
[2a22a
cos ep
[~2+~22~~
cos e,y
[2a222a2 cos ep
[9+2
2ar cos ep
[r2+a22ar
cos eC11'2
 (28)
(29)
y1 =
r2 =
p2+9
[rr”+ 3

2ar cos e,y
2rr cos e,y
REFERENCES
BANERJEE, P. I<. (1970). A contribution to the study of axially loaded pile foundations. _{P}_{h}_{.}_{D}_{.} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{,} University of Southampton. BOUSSINESQ, J. (1885). Application of potentials to the studv of the equilibrium and mozlements in elastic soils. Paris : GauthierVillars. BUTTERFIELD, R. & BANERJEE, P. I<. (1970). A note on the problem of a pile reinforced half space. Ge’otech nique 20, No. 1, 100103.
BUTTERFIELD, R. & BANERJEE, P. K.
_{G}_{d}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e}
(1971a).
The problem
of pile grouppile
cap interaction.
21, No.
2.
BUTTERFIELD,
R.
&
BANERJEE,
mitted
for publication.
P.
K.
(1971b).
A
rigid disc embedded
in
an elastic
half
space.
_{S}_{u}_{b}_{}
D’APPOLONIA,
E.
& ROMUALDI, J. P.
(1963).
Load
transfer
in end bearing
steel
Hpiles.
_{J}_{.}
_{S}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{M}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{.}
Fdns Div. Proc. Am.
Sot. civ. Engrs 89,
SM2,
l25.
MATTES, N. S. (1969). Correspondence on The influence of radial displacement compatibility on pile settle ments. GCotechnique 19, No. 1, 157159.
Fdns Div.
MATTES, N.
S. & POULOS, H.
G. (1969).
Settlement
of single compressible
pile.
J. Soil Mech.
Proc. Am. Sot. civ. Engrs 95, SMI, 189207.
MINDLIN, R.
RAIR,
D.
K.
(1963).
(1936).
Force at a point
in the interior of a semiinfinite
solid.
_{J}_{.} _{P}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{s}
_{7}_{7}_{,} _{&}_{l}_{a}_{y}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{5}_{.}
A theoretical
investigation
of the load settlement
characteristics
of a single pile.
_{P}_{h}_{.}_{D}_{.}
thesis,
Ohio State
University.
60
R.
BUTTERFIELD
AND
P.
K.
BANERJEE
POULOS, H. G. (1968).
_{P}_{O}_{U}_{L}_{O}_{S}_{,} _{H}_{.}
Analysis
_{H}_{.}
_{G}_{.}
_{&} _{D}_{A}_{V}_{I}_{S}_{,} _{E}_{.}
of the settlement
of pile groups.
_{(}_{1}_{9}_{6}_{8}_{)}_{.}
The
settlement
behaviour
_{G}_{C}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e} _{1}_{8}_{,} _{N}_{o}_{.}
_{4}_{,} _{4}_{4}_{9}_{}_{4}_{7}_{1}_{.}
of single axiallyloaded
incompressible
piles and piers.
GCotechnique 18, No.
_{S}_{A}_{F}_{F}_{E}_{R}_{Y}_{,} _{M}_{.} _{R}_{.} _{&} _{T}_{A}_{T}_{E}_{,} _{A}_{.} _{P}_{.} _{K}_{.} _{(}_{1}_{9}_{6}_{1}_{)}_{.}
3, 351371. Model tests on pile group in a clay soil with particular
reference
to the behaviour of the group when it is loaded eccentrically.
Proc.
5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. 2, 129.
_{S}_{A}_{L}_{A}_{S}_{,} _{J}_{.} _{A}_{.} _{J}_{.} _{&} _{B}_{E}_{L}_{Z}_{U}_{N}_{C}_{E}_{,}_{J}_{.} _{A}_{.} _{(}_{1}_{9}_{6}_{5}_{)}_{.}
Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. 2, 309313. SEED, H. B. & REESE, L. C. (1955). The action of soft clay around friction piles.
28 pp. & WILSON, L. L.
SOWERS, G. F.,
Resolution
theorique
_{T}_{h}_{e}
de la distribution
_{b}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}
2,
155.
81, Paper 842, December,
MARTIN, C. B.
(1961).
5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech.
homogeneous clay from model studies.
Proc.
des forces dans les pieux.
Proc.
Am.
_{o}_{f} _{f}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
Sot. civ.
Eflgrs
_{p}_{i}_{l}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{p}_{s}
_{i}_{n}
THERMAN, A. G. (1964). Computed load capacity and movement of friction and end bearing piles embedded
in uniform and stratified soils.
Ph.D.
thesis, Carnegie Institute
of Technology.
_{T}_{H}_{E}_{R}_{M}_{A}_{N}_{,} _{A}_{.} _{G}_{.} _{&} _{D}_{’}_{A}_{P}_{P}_{O}_{L}_{O}_{N}_{I}_{A}_{,} _{A}_{.} _{(}_{1}_{9}_{6}_{5}_{)}_{.} bedded in uniform and stratified soils.
Computed
Proc.
6th Int.
movements
of friction
and end bearing
Conf, Soil Mech.
2, 323327.
piles em
TURNBULL, W. J., MAXWELL, A. & AHLVIN, R. G. (1961). _{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{h}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} 
_{s}_{o}_{i}_{l} 

masses. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Soil Mech., 
Paris 
2, 337346. 

WHITAKER, T. (1957). Experiment with model piles in groups. _{G}_{d}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e} _{7}_{,} _{N}_{o}_{.} _{4}_{,} _{1}_{4}_{7}_{}_{1}_{6}_{7}_{.} 

WHITAKER, T. (1960). Some experiments on model piled foundations. Pile foundations, 
Proceedings 
of 

symposium held by the International 
Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Stockholm, 

p. 
124. 
WHITAKER, T. & COOKE, R. W. (1966). An investigation of shaft and base resistances of large bored piles
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London:
Institution
of Civil Engineers.
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