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Fundamental of frequency domain migration

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Fundamental of frequency domain migration

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I ABSTRACT

Frequency domain migration is founded upon the wave

1 The advantagesof this method include fast computing time good

performance under low SIN ratio conditions, and excellent per-

equation, and so includes diffractions and other effects. formance for steep dip. Disadvantages include difficulties with

This paper seeks to motivate and illuminate frequency do- widely varying velocity functions. Others discussing aspects of

main migration using straightforward geometric techniques frequency domain migration include Bolondi et al (1978), Hood

and simple frequency domain observations. (1978). and Whittlesey and Quay (1977).

This article is meant as an overview for those working in the

I I

geophysical industry who wish to know more about migration. In

INTRODUCTION particular, the authorshope to provide new insights into the funda-

mental aspects of migration with emphasis upon frequency do-

Migration of seismic data is a processof mapping one time sec-

main migration. There will be much reliance upon the geometry

tion onto a second time section in which events are repositioned

behind the usual physical and mathematical treatments of migra-

underthe appropriatesurface location and at the correct time Thus,

tion. The intimate geometric relations between the migration of a

a migration output should be a time section of the geologic depth

dipping event in time and the counterpartmigration in the frequency

section. No current migration technique handles all the difficulties

domain will be explained. Certain general effects of migration

of noise, rapidly varying velocities, steepdips, and other problems

upon seismic data will be considered. Some specific parameters

perfectly. Techniques vary greatly in performance relative to these

are considered to determine how they affect migration.

problems.

Migration in the frequency domain has been known for some

Three of the major techniques of migration are diffraction,

time Stolts insights have made it a practical method. We intend

finite-difference, and frequency domain migration. Diffraction

to illuminate his results from the geometric viewpoint.

migration is also known as Kirchhoff integral migration when

This article covers the fundamentals of migration. Any imple-

high-order approximationsare used. The finite-difference approach

mentation has problems of its own. Frequency domain migration

is commonly known as time domain or wave equation migration.

has the usual problems of finitely sampled data. Working in the

Frequencydomain migration may also be referred to as frequency-

frequency domain has special problems. These can be handled

wavenumber migration or Fourier transform migration.

effectively, but it is not our purpose to cover such material.

The diffraction type migration process is often described as a

statistical approach. A particular datum might have originated

from many possible subsurfacelocations. All suchpossibleorigins

are treated as equally likely in this approach. The major ad-

vantage of diffraction migration is good performance with steep

dip. One disadvantage is poor performance under low signal-to-

A -x 0

noise (S/N) ratio conditions.

Finite-difference migration is a deterministic approach (Claer-

bout, 1976). The migration procedure is modeled by the wave

equation. This equation is then approximated by a simpler type

of equation appropriate for migration. This last equation is then

approximated by a finite-difference algorithm. An advantage of

the finite-difference method is its good performance with a low

S/N ratio. Disadvantagesof this method include a relatively long

computing time and difficulty in handling steep dip data.

Frequency domain migration is also based upon a deterministic

(a) (b)

approachvia the wave equation (Stolt, 1978). Instead of utilizing FIG. I. A 90.degree reflector model. (a) Earth section, (b) record

finite-difference approximations, the two-dimensional (2-D) section.

Presentedat the 31st AnnualMidwest SEG Meeting, March 8, 1978, in Midland. Manuscript received by the Editor May 19. 1978; revised manuscript

receivedSeptember12, 1980.

*SeismographServiceCorp., P.O. Box 1590,Tulsa, OK 74102.

0016-8033/81/0501-717$03.00. 0 1981 Societyof Exploration Geophysicists.All rights reserved.

717

718 Chun and Jacewitz

A -x

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\

\

\ 1 1

z z

90" 80"

(4 (b)

(a) (b)

section.

FIG. 3. The fan earth model. (a) Some representativeearth dips-

open fan. (b) Corresponding record section-folded fan.

MIGRATION IN THE DEPTH DOMAIN tance AC is mapped vertically on the x-z plane as in Figure 2b

We will begin the study of migration fundamentals with special to the segment AC. The travel distance is thus AC = AC. The

cases, then work toward a complete understandingof the geometry earth model in Figure 2a is superimposedon Figure 2b as a dotted

of migration. A step-by-step procedure for performing migration line. From Figure 2b. we easily see the following relationship:

of a seismic event will be discussed. This procedure is similar AC AC

to mapping used in the frequency domain to accomplish migration. sin Ly, = ~ = - = tan oh. (1)

OA OA

Consider the vertical earth model (o., = go-degree reflector)

of Figure la. Suppose a seismic source is at A with the signal The equation above is a familiar description of the relationship

recorded at the same point. Then the only energy that can be re- between the migrated dip (a,) and recorded dip angle (oh). Since

corded at A is from the horizontal path in the ray theory approach. C maps to C under migration, this process moves data updip.

Any nonhorizontally traveling wave will be reflected downward The useof reflections explains many of the observedphenomena.

and not reach A. Map the travel distance of the horizontally The concept of diffraction is required for deeper understandingof

traveling ray on the depth plane (x-z) in the z-direction as in migration. Diffractions are usually associatedwith discontinuities.

Figure lb. Since OA = AC, the dip angle ob of the reflection is Reflections may be considered as a superposition of diffractions.

equal to 45 degrees. Thus, for a 90-degree reflector the reflection We are using geometric ideas to motivate and explain the exact

takes place only at one point at the surface and the recorded re- solution. For this purpose, the term reflection will generally be

flections are mapped along a 45.degree line on the depth plane as adequate. Thus, given a reflector, the reflection processgives rise

A moves along the surface. Migration maps the 45.degree re- to a reflection event on the record section. Since sections will be

flection of Figure I b onto the 90.degree reflector of Figure la. considered before and after migration, the general process of

Next, consider the dipping earth model in Figure 2a. Again. mapping a reflector or diffractor to the record section will be

assumethat source and receiver are both at A. The wave from A described as the diffraction process. Migration proceeds from a

will be reflected at C and will be recorded at A. The travel dis- record section to the earth model. Diffraction proceeds in the di-

0 -x A B

I I

\

\ I I

\

\ \ I I

(W

FIG. 4. A bounded dipping reflector. (a) Record section, (b) construction for migration.

Frequency Domain Migration 719

(4) From point D draw a horizontal lint toward the circle

10" 10"

I

and find the intersecting point between the circle and the

z

20

30

40

J

z

line (point E).

(5) Connect origin 0 and point E, to find the migrated dip

angle a,.

(6) Construct point D by making ED = ED. D is the

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50

migrated point of D. The angle of line DD is F =

70

o,/2. By projecting line CD with this angle to line

6 OE, the migration process is completed.

Thus. migration requires a two-step procedure. The first is to

FIG. 5. A correspondencebetween the record section and the depth

tind the correct line which gives the migrated dip angle, and the

section. (a) Wedge of events before migration. (b) half-disc of

events after migration. second is to map reflection points to their appropriate migrated

points linearly. This linear mapping property is important for

understandingfrequency domain migration.

The seismic section is a bounded diffraction model (the lengths

rection opposite to migration. For example, given a point diffrac- in x and 2 are limited). Consider the bounded fan diffraction model

tor. the diffraction processgives rise to a diffraction on the record of Figure 5a. By migrating this section. we obtain the section of

section. Just as reflection may refer to the reflection process or Figure Sb. For this model, an event inside the triangle ABO is

reflection data, so too with diffraction. The context should make migrated within a semicircle whose diameter is equal to OA.

the distinction clear. To understandthe correspondencebetween Figures 5a and 5b.

Consider an earth model with varying dip angles. This fan the reader should review Figure 2b. In this figure, the raypath

model appears in Figure 3a. In this model. the velocity is con- AC is perpendicular to the reflector OC. Return to Figure 5.

stant for each layer between the reflectors or ribs of the fan. Each The triangles of Figure 5a correspondto a traveltime and diffracted

layer has a different density. A reflection will be received from line pair. In Figure Sb the distance from A to the endpoint of a

each boundary because of the density contrast. If the source and segment corresponds to the raypath as in Figure 2a. Thus. each

receiver are placed at the same point along the surface, the recorded angle in Figure 5b (A to endpoint to 0) must be a right angle. Recall

seismic section will be a diffracted seismogram of Figure 3b. For the geometric fact that the collection of all points representing an

this fan earth model, one can view the migration process as an apex of a right triangle formed with a fixed hypotenuse OA must

unfolding (extcndirtg) of a folded fan (diffraction model). The necessarily form a semicircle. This should help explain the rela-

diffraction processcan be viewed as a folding of a fully extended tionship between Figures 5a and 5b.

fan (the earth model). Note that the intensity of folding is such The basic concept of migrating a fan model in the depth domain

that the steeper the dip of the unfolded fan, the more densely it is useful for understandingthe relationship between the migration

is folded on the diffraction model and vice versa. procedure in the time domain and a similar procedure in the fre-

A simple mechanical method of migration is illustrated in quency domain.

Figures 4a and 4b which uses equation (I ). An understandingof

this method is helpful for understanding frequency domain MIGRATION IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN

migration. A reflection segment to be migrated appears in Figure We have discusseda special type of seismic section, which was

4a. To migrate the event. one may follow this procedure: described as a fan model. This meant that the unmigrated section

closely resembled a partially opened oriental fan. A real seismic

(I) Extend line segment CD toward the surface to inter- section does not resemble this, but it can be imagined as being a

section point 0. set of scattered diffraction fans. A curved event may be con-

(2) From point D draw a vertical line to the surface. The sidered as consisting of many very small StKIight-linCsegments.

point of intersection is B in this example. A most important aspect of the 2-D Fourier transform is that, how-

X(t) xctr

t

0 -t

-t

P-

0

FIG. 6. Review of Fourier transforms-time domain. frequency domain amplitude, and phase. (a) Spike at time 0, (b) spike shifted in time

and (c) boxcar.

720 Chun and Jacewitz

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f(x.2) F&,.z)

(a) UN

>L

IF&, , k,)l

(c)

FIG. 7, A 3-D sketchofthree

boundedhorizontal reflectors. (a) Line spike model in the depth domain. (b) Fourier transform in the x-direction.

(c) Typical amplitude contours in the 2-D frequency domain.

ever scattered events are in the depth domain, the Fourier trans- the Fourier transform of a rectangularpulse (boxcar) is a sine func-

formed data will be well organized and become a nicely gathered tion in the frequency domain as in Figure 6c.

fan. Thus, by applying the migration process to the gathered fan Consider the seismic section f(_r, z) of Figure 7. Assume that

while in the frequency domain, all the scattered dipping events there are three horizontal reflections (line spike series) located at

in the depth domain are handledeasily. We will review a few funda- Z1. Zz, and Z,. Figure 7a is a three-dimensional (3-D) sketch of

mental properties of the Fourier transform in both the I- and 2-D this section, The Fourier transform of this 2-D section with respect

cases, then consider how the folded fan earth model can be un- to the variable x appears in Figure 7b. This is a bounded seismic

folded in the frequency domain. section. In this figure, as the range of .r tends to x, the sine func-

It is well known that an impulse (spike) at I = 0 in the time tions located at Z1, Zz, Z3 wil! be reduced to spikes. If we per-

domain transformsto a constantfor all frequencies in the frequency form the Fourier transform once again in the :-direction, we would

domain as in Figure 6a. When the spike is located at I # 0. the obtain the 2-D transform of ,f(.~, -_)of Figure 7c. Since F (k,, k,)

amplitude spectrum remains the same but the phase spectrum is a complex function, we have only presented the contoursof the

changes. Thus, information regarding the time of the spike is pre- amplitude spectrum IF(k,. k,)l in Figure 7c. Thus. we see

served in the phase spectrum as in Figure 6b. It is also known that that a horizontal event in the x-z plane is mapped along the k,-axis.

FIG. 8. A 3-D sketchofthree boundedvertical reflectors. (a) Line spike model in the depth domain. (b) Fourier transform in the depth direction.

and (c) typical amplitude contours in the 2-D frequency domam.

Frequency Domain Migration 721

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depth domain, (b) frequency domain representation.

length of the horiiontal event in the X-Z plane. For the width of

(W

an event, one might use the size of a band containing 90 percent

!+dddddd X

of the energy. By applying the same logic, if there are three vert-

cal events on the f(s, z) section of Figure 8a, they will be mapped

along the &-axis as in Figures 8b and 8c.

These examples illustrate that the 2-D transform maps normal to 2

the dip direction of the events in the X-Z plane. In other words,

horizontal events are mapped along the k,-axis and vertical events

are mapped along the k,-axis. The width of a mapped event is

inversely proportional to its extent in the X-Z plane.

t

Consider the dipping reflection in the X-Z plane of Figure 9a. It

will be mapped on the k, - k, plane along the normal direction Cc)

to the dip angle in Figure 9b. The width will be inversely propor-

tional to the extension of the event in the x-2 plane. FIG. IO. Migration mapping. (a) Depth domain mapping. (b) con-

Thus, any event in the X-Z plane is mapped normal to its dip struction of frequency domain mapping, and (c) preservation of

angle in the k, - k, plane. Therefore, the dip angle of both spatial frequency.

diffracted and migrated events in the .X-Zplane must be preserved

in the k, - k, plane. Also, all events of the same dip are gathered

together in the frequency domain along a single line.

When events on the X-Z plane are not line spikes but have some

waveform, the mapping of such events is more complex.

Figure IOb shows the Fourier transform of the diffracted and

migrated events of Figure IOa. As mentioned before, the dif- point on the Vb line (point B).

fracted event (OD) and migrated event (OD) of Figure IOa will (3) Draw a vertical line from point B and find the inter-

be mapped along the V, and V, normal vectors of Figure lob. In seating point with the circle (point C).

the frequency domain, if V, is given, the V, vector may be found (4) Draw a line that passesthrough the origin and point C.

by following a procedure similar to that of the depth domain. This

procedure is: This will give us a migrated dip line (V,).

Note that frequency components along line V, must be mapped

(I) Draw a circle whose radius is equal to OA (A is an along the line V, after migration. However, we do not know

arbitrary point on the k,-axis). The center is at 0. exactly where the point B is mapped on the line V,. If we follow

(2) Draw a horizontal line from A and find the intersecting the same procedure used for the depth domain migration, it

722 Chun and Jacewitz

line V,. That procedure was illustrated by Figures 4a and 4b

earlier. However. in the frequency domain. point B is directly

mapped to C. In other words, this is a \~erticn/ mapping (pro-

jection) while it was a slanted projection with the angle of a,/2

in the depth domain (see Appendix B). The basic reason for this

vertical mapping is illustrated in Figure 10~. The dark lines repre-

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KX are indicated by the dashed lines. The spacing between these lines

is unchangedby migration. Thus. for such a-seismic section with

(a) (w a single dip, the frequency in the .r-direction is the same before

and after migration. In terms of k, and k, as in Figure lob. this

FIG. I I, Migration mapping in the frequency domain. (a) A line means the component of k, cannot change under the migration

of constant K, frequency and its migrated mapping. (b) a grid of

mapping. This mapping must be vertical in the k, - k, plane.

curves of constant K,.

In Figure I la. the horizontal line intersects all the dipping

lines. If we project frequency componentson this line to the circle,

all the points on the line are properly migrated. Therefore. if we

(a) (w

(4 (b)

FIG. 12. Wedge of dips prior to migration. (a) A wedge of events

in the depth domain, (b) the frequency domain representation of FIG. 13. Wedge of dips after migration. (a) A semi-disc in the depth

the wedge. domain, (b) the frequency domain equivalent.

(4

(b) w

FIG. 14. The full fan earth model. (a) The full fan, (b) the bounded fan of the record section. and (c) the migrated correspondenceof(b).

Frequency Domain Migration 723

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UN w

FIG. 15. The frequency domain representationof Figure 14. (a) Fourier transform of the full fan, (b) Fourier transform of the bounded fan

with representativepulse spreading, and (c) migration of(b). Note the dotted lines in (b) and (c) correspondunder the migration mapping. as

do points A. A. B, and B.

project frequency components on a series of horizontal lines to ened line as explained before. For simplicity. it is presented as

their corresponding circles vertically as in Figure 1lb, the migra- a series of dipping lines (Figure 12b).

tion process in the frequency domain is completed. A mathe- Figure I3 shows a Fourier transform pair of the migrated fan

matical expression of this process may be written as model obtained from the diffracted fan model of Figure 12. Note

that the frequency domain migration may be viewed as unfolding

k,

F(k,, k,) = F(k,. w 1. (2) (Figure 13b) of the folded fan (Figure 12b). Also, in the depth

4TF

x z domain the triangle ABO of Figure l2a is mapped within a semi-

circle of Figure l3a whose diameter is equal to OA. In the fre-

Function F is the 2-D Fourier transform of the original section.

quency domain, the triangle A B 0 of Figure 12b is mapped

The transform of the migrated section is given by F. Thus the

within an area of quarter of a circle of Figure l3b.

migrated section may be computed directly in terms of the ori inal

We thus conclude the following:

seismic section. The reason for the scaling factor k,/ * k, + k,

in the frequency domain migration is explained in Appendix B.

(I) The dip angles of reelectors, both diffracted and

The Fourier transform pair of the diffracted fan earth model of

migrated, in the depth domain are preserved in the fre-

Figure 5a is presented in Figure 12. Since the model is bounded

quency domain. However, they are normal to the depth

in both X- and z-directions, the real transform should be a broad-

domain dip angle.

(2) The point-to-point mapping from the diffracted event

to a migrated event is a slanted projection with the

-X

angle of a,/2 in the depth domain. It is a vertical pro-

jection in the frequency domain.

(3) For the case of a complete I go-degree fan earth model

case of Figure 14a, the diffracted fan model is a split

45.degree folded fan model as in Figure l4b. If we im-

pose boundaries ABCD as in Figure l4b and migrate

back, then the fans are confined within two semi-

circles as in Figure 14~. The Fourier transform of the

models in the depth domain are presented in Figure 1.5.

Figure 15a is the Fourier transform of Figure l4a, and

Figure l5b is that of Figure l4b. Imposing the bound-

aries shown in Figure 14b results in broadening of

frequency components of each dipping event as ex-

plained before. Figure 15~ is the Fourier transform of

FIG. 16. Synthetic data: record section Figure l4c

724 Chun and Jacewitz

if the fan model of Figure 14b were scattered across the section.

Migrating the scattered fan in the depth domain, by extending

each reflection to the surface and using the geometric migration

construction. is cumbersome. Because the Fourier transform

gatherstogether events of the same dip, the transform of Figure 16

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The most important aspect of frequency domain migration is

that the scattered fan in the depth domain becomes a nicely

gathered fan in the frequency domain. The information regarding

the spatial position of a dipping reflection in the depth domain is

preserved in phase relations within the complex numbers in the

frequency domain. By applying the simple migration process to

the model of Figure I6 in the frequency domain, then performing

an inverse Fourier transform, we obtain the migrated scatteredfan

model of Figure 17. FIG. 17. Migrated section from Figure 16.

MIGRATION PARAMETERS -X

7

For real data. there are many unknowns. We must consider the

effects each of these parameters has upon migration. Then, there

will be a coherent picture available of the interaction among these

variables and their relative importance.

I

T

et

1

Z

To consider various migration parameters. it is necessary to

distinguish the dip angles on the time and depth sections. Our

notation will be et for the dip angle on the time section, BZfor the

correspondingdip angle in depth, 8, for the migrated dip angle in

depth, and 6, for the migrated dip angle in time (Figure 18).

Converting from time to depth via velocity yields tan 0, = (a) (W

(V tan 8,)/2. The time is the two-way time while the depth is

the one-way depth. hence the division by 2. Migration in the

depth domain yields the usual formula sin BZ = tan 8,. Reconver-

sion to time is performed via tan 6, = (2 tan 6,)/V.

operations combine to produce:

These 1

z

tan G, = (2 tan{sin~[V(tan ft,)/2]})/V, (3)

so that

G, = tan- (2 tan{sin~[V(tan 0,)/2]}/V). (4)

w (d)

6, depends upon the velocity of conversion V, not merely the FIG. 18. Migration from time section to time section. (a) Input

original dip angle et. The velocity V does not cancel in this record section, (b) conversion to depth domain. (c) migration in

equation. An alternate formula from Appendix C is depth domain. and (d) reconversion to the time domain.

0 -x B -x

1 i

2

T

FIG. 19. Migration path as a function of velocity. (a) Components of migration in the depth domain, (b) migration of a point under different

velocities.

Frequency Domain Migration 725

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UN

(4

FIG. 20. Freql :y changes under migration. (a) Frequency domain, (b) time domain-migrating a seismic pulse.

tan tit the time section is a function of velocity, one can derive (see

tan Cl, = (5) Appendix E)

JI - /:jzlantl,

tan tit

d, = V2T ~

From this formula, for any fixed tit, 6, will approach 8, for small 4

velocities. That is, small velocities produce little noticeable and

change in dip angle. As the velocity is increased, e, will become

90 degrees. Beyond this range, there is no real angle for migration. dt = T [I - \:I - ii tan 0,) (IO)

Next, consider the migration position as a function of the angle

on an apparent depth section tlZ and the apparent depth of a point

The first equation indicates that a reflection segment on a seismic

Z. The following fundamental formulas from Appendix D are

time section migrates a horizontal distance proportional to the

illustrated in Figure 19a. If d = (d,, d,) represents the com-

square of the migration velocity. The second equation is more

ponents of the displacement of a point P by migration, then

difficult to visualize. Instead, we may eliminate the variable

d = (dl = 2 z sin(8,/2) = m, (6) tan tit to study the migration path of a point (see Appendix F).

Let us describe the migration path of a point P on a dipping

d, = z sin e,, (7)

reflection segment of a time section as velocity changes. The

migrated point P is on the parabolic path connecting P and 0 and

d, = ~(1 - cos 6,). symmetric about the I-axis (Figure l9b). For small velocities,

(8)

P will be found near P, while for large velocities. ? will be

These relations are only of preliminary interest as we are interested found near 0.

in changesfrom a time section to a migrated output time section. The change of frequency as a function of velocity can be ex-

However, note that in a depth section, a point on a dipping re- plained more easily from the frequency domain viewpoint. The

flection is displaced by migration linearly and proportional to its 2-D frequency domain mapping given for migration in equation

depth before migration. We can also leave the velocity and dip (2) leaves the k, component unchanged. Velocity changes also

angle constant. but vary the depth. For a constant velocity, a uni- leave the k, component unchanged. Therefore, in migration of

form change in time is equivalent to a change of depth (with no a dipping reflection on a seismic time section, only the k, com-

change in 6,). Thus, in the time section. the corresponding dis- ponent will be affected by velocity variation. Using a notation

placements d, d,, and d, are linearly proportional to the time of F,. F, for input frequencies in k, and k,. one can apply the

shift. conversions and mapping to determine

We may return to the time domain again to see how a point

migrates as a function of velocity. Using the same fundamental (I 1)

equations, and the fact that the depth of a reflection segment on

726 Chun and Jacewitz

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I -x

\

\

\ \

o\\,

w /

0

FIG. 21. Reflections with a single dip. (a) Before migration, (b) /// \\

\\

after migration. /

/

I

I

-0

for the output time frequency Fi. As is expected for a small (3 Cd)

velocity, F, = F,. As discussed, this reflects the fact that the

seismic time section is only slightly ahered under migration by a FIG. 22. Diffraction of a bounded reflector. (a) Depth domain

low velocity. For V large enough, F, = 0. The dip of the re- earth model, (b) frequency domain, (c) diffracted (inverse process

flection is now 45 degrees in the depth section, so that it migrates of_migration), and (d) back to depth domain (record section).

to a vertical event with F f = 0. For velocities above the velocity

which would make the dip of a reflection 45 degrees in the depth

section, the reflection will be eliminated from the resulting sec-

tion. This phenomenon will be described in detail later. It is not mapping. Start with a geologic section, then consider a record

merely conversion to depth that alters F,. Migration itself will section. Figure 22a is a representativegeologic section. This event

alter this frequency even if one works only in depth domain. In is a bounded dipping reflector. In the frequency domain, as seen

this case the mapping is earlier, the event will be modulated by a sine function. An example

is drawn with two points A and B labeled in Figure 22b.

(12) Consider a record section generated by the diffraction mapping

Figure 20a illustratesthe two key points of the frequency domain which is the inverse of migration mapping (take V = 2 for

mapping. First, the mapping takes lines of one apparent dip into simplicity). Note in Figure 22c that the entire area occupied by

lines of the true dip. Second, the mapping is vertical. That is, dips steeper than 45 degrees (suprrsreep) has been zeroed. This

the frequency in .Y is unchanged by the migration mapping. is because line OA, which has a 90.degree dip in Figure 22b.

Let us return to the time domain to understandthese two points. is mapped to a 45.degree line on Figure 22~. No dip greater than

Figure 20b shows an event with a single dip. The associated 45 degrees can exist on a record section. Also, note that no infor-

waveform is complex. Nonetheless, after migration, the event mation has been lost via the diffraction mapping. The representa-

still has a single dip. The preservation of spatial frequencies is tive sine function of Figure 22b has merely been split in Figure

illustrated in Figures 2la and 21b. The horizontal spacing of the 22~. No part of it has been lost. Figure 22d showsthe section which

dipping reflections is unchanged by the migration process. How- resultsfrom such a typical geologic model. These figuresillustrate

ever, spacings A, B, and C before migration must be the same that the diffraction patterns of Figure 22d must be related to the

as A, B, and C after migration, respectively. Thus. the spac- distortion of the sine function in Figure 22~.

ings A, B, and C must be greater. This shows that the frc- If one performs migration via the frequency domain approach

quency in the time direction must be reduced by migration. This with the input section of Figure 22d, one merely retracesthe steps

may be confirmed by reconsideringthe frequency domain mapping successivelyto Figure 22c, Figure 22b. and, finally, Figure 22a,

directly. the correct geologic model. Migration appearsto entail no loss of

We may follow the processing through a complete cycle to information. but there is a more subtle consideration.

investigate the loss of input data under the frequency domain Proceed in a different direction. Start with the bounded dipping

Frequency Domain Migration 727

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KZ

\

\\

\

\

Kx KX

\\

/ \\

/ \\

-.\\\

08 (c)

/

r/ I

IA

KX

(d) (e)

FIG. 23. Bounded dipping reflection model without edge diffraction. (a) Depth domain model (record section), (b) frequency domain. (c)

truncation, (d) migration, and (e) back to depth domain after migration.

reflector on the section of Figure 23a. The frequency domain model because of the supersteepdips shown in Figure 23b.

illustration in Figure 23b is again modulated by a representative The cause of the supersteepdata which is not of geologic origin

sine function. The migration mapping will not use any data in the is worth investigating. One cause of supersteepevents is clearly

supersteepregion indicated by 0 in Figure 23~. These data are noise which can occur at any dip, even supersteep. A second

lost. Figure 23e illustrates the result when viewed in the geologic cause of supersteepevents is a velocity which is too high. Any

plane after the migration. The dashed curves of Figure 23e repre- event will become supersteepif the velocity used for processing

sent low-amplitude data caused by the zeroing and stretching of is taken high enough. Thus, a poor choice of velocity may cause

the sine function of Figure 23b. If we start with the geologic geologically valid data to be interpreted as supersteep, and hence

model of Figure 23e and retrace the steps, we never recover the it will be discarded.

original section of Figure 23a. This is as it should be. The record We have seen how migrated seismic sections change as one

section of Figure 23a cannot be generated from any geologic varies certain parameters. Some results which might appear

Chun and Jacewitz

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,_ ^_

. .

--. .._.

--

__ . _---

_ ._. ._. I

FIG. 24. Synthetic sections. (a) Top, before migration, (b) bottom, after frequency domain migration

Frequency Domain Migration 729

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(a) UN

FIG. 25. Complex synthetic section. (a) Before migration, (b) after frequency domain migration.

negative have been seen to be natural consequences of the quency domain easily handles events of any dip and location.

migration process. Migration with a nonconstantvelocity is a delicate and complicated

problem in itself. Still, even the simple approximations using

APPLICATIONS TO REAL AND SYNTHETIC DATA

smoothed stacking velocities did a reasonably adequatejob.

A few frequency domain migration examples are presented to

show that the scattered fans were migrated correctly.

CONCLUSIONS

The section in Figure 24 contains bounded dipping reflections.

Notice the separation between the terminators of corresponding Whenever one is dealing with problems of a mathematical

events in Figure 24a. After migration, the events have been nature, it is always prudent to select the natural coordinate

connected making the reflectors continuous. Furthermore. the system if possible. In this coordinate system, the statement of

events have moved updip and the dips themselves have increased. the problem and methods of solution should become exceptionally

This section is relatively easy to visualize as a scattered fan. It clear. We pursuethe idea that the coordinatesof the Fourier trans-

has been gathered in the frequency domain and migrated in the form domain are the natural coordinates for dealing with migra-

simple manner we have discussed. Note that the reflections do tion. In particular, no matter where they are located in space, all

not terminate sharply. Sharp terminations on the geologic section events of the same dip appear along lines normal to that dip when

generate diffractions on the record section. But these synthetic viewed in the frequency domain. Events of the same dip are

reflections were sharply terminated, and the necessary diffrac- migrated together. Thus, dip lines through the origin in the

tions were absent. Note also the lowering of frequency along the Fourier transform domain are part of a coordinate system natural

time axis after migration. This effect follows from the frequency to migration. In the diffracted transform domain, straight lines of

domain migration mapping being downward toward lower k,. constant frequency in depth are quite natural. These transform

This effect increaseswith increasing dip. into circles, which are curves of constant frequency along the

The section of Figure 25 is more complex. Before migration. normal.

Figure 25a is a bewildering collection of crossing arcs. After The use of events of a single dip greatly simplifies our under-

migration in Figure 25b, the reflectors are seen to be smooth standing of migration. Using the Fourier transform, every event

curves. This section contains few straight-line segments. In- on a seismic section may be considered as a sum of events of a

stead, the curved lines may be considered to be short line seg- single dip and the section a sum of all of such events. Although it

ments of rapidly changing dip. Of course, the principle of super- may be more difficult to visualize what is occurring in this more

position allows an easy treatment of even this complicated complicated case, one knows that the principle of superposition

section. applies. Thus, the entire migration process may be considered

A real seismic section of Figure 26 is the most complicated as the simple procedure just described applied to a vast sum of

section in our illustrations. Nonetheless, migration via the fre- simple events.

730

Chun and Jacewitz

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

The authors wish to thank the management of Seismograph Bolondi.G.. Rocca.F., and Savelli. S.. 1978, A frequencydomainap-

Service Corp. for their cooperation and encouragement during preachto two-dimensional migration:Geophys.Prosp..v. 26. p. 750-

the preparation of this paper. Also, we wish to thank the many 772.

Claerbout,J. F.. 1976. Fundamental5 of data processing:New York,

other colleagues who provided both help and data as valuable in- McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc.

put to our work. In particular, the editors and reviewers of GEO- Hood, P., 1978,Finite differenceand wavenumbermigration:Geophys.

PHYSlCS have been most helpful. Dr. Enders A. Robinson deserves Prosp.,v. 26, p. 773-789.

Downloaded 01/14/15 to 157.211.3.15. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

special thanks for his advice and encouragement. p. 23-48.

Whittlesey.J. R.. and Quay. R. G.. 1977, Wave equationmigration:

FIG. 26. Real seismic section. (a) Before migration. (b) after frequency domain migration,

Frequency Domain Migration 731

Presented at the 47th Annual InternationalSEC Meeting. September by the geometric procedure. Now apply the principle of superposi-

20. in Calgary.

tion. Since each section of dip c(b is a combination of lines of this

dip, such a section must migrate to a section of dip (Y,.

APPENDIX A One need consider only sectionswith a single dip. Under migra-

MIGRATION MAPPING IN THE DEPTH DOMAIN tion, each line is moved about its intersection with the surface.

This point of intersection remains fixed. In particular. this means

Appendix A servesto prove the validity of the constructionillus-

that the frequency in X, the spatial frequency, is unchanged by

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migration. Thus. if the mapping which implements migration

procedures. Because of construction of a circle in step (3).

takes the form

OB = OE. Let d be the distance from E to the .x-axis. By step (4).

(1 = BD. Thus, combining these facts. (K,. K,) 4 (K,. K,).

BD one must have K, = K,. The mapping leaves the spatial fre-

=os

tancub quency invariant.

A point (K,, K,) in the frequency domain corresponds to an

d event of dip 0 with tan 8 = -K,/K,, This is becausethe Fourier

OE transform maps events to their normals. Thus the relation

This justifies step (5). may be applied to the case of one point (I?,. K,) to give

Now one must show that e = a,/2 and that D is the migrated f?,/i?, = K,/cKz.

counterpart of D. It is somewhat easier to demonstrate these re-

sults in reverse. That is, supposeD is the migrated point, making Since I?, = K,, this may be rewritten

BD = BD. What are the angle E and the distance ED? Note &z f K; = K;

that BD is perpendicular to OE. Thus, BDE and BDE are both

right triangles. Since they have the same hypotenuse BE. and or

have one other side equal in length, the third sides must be equal. K, zz d/K; - c2X.

Thus ED = ED as required. Computing F is then easy. Since

This validates mapping points vertically in Figure lob. In addition.

ED is horizontal, it is parallel to OB. Thus the exterior angle at

the equivalence between equation (2) and the geometric construc-

E is cx,. The interior angle is then 180 degrees - a,. Since the

tion of Figure IOb has been demonstrated.

triangle is isosceles, the remaining angles are both F. The angles

We still must discussthe weighting factor in equation (2). This

of a triangle sum to 180 degrees. Thus, 180 degrees - (Y, +

is not included in the geometric construction, but only in the

F + F = 180 degiees or E = a,/2.

algebraic formulation. Recall that each section with a single dip.

no matter how complex, migrates to another section with a single

APPENDIX B dip. Under the mapping of Figure 4b. the points of triangle OBD

MIGRATION MAPPING IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN migrate to those of triangle OBD. But

Appendix B has two purposes. The first is to show the corrcct- Area (OBD) = (I /2)(BD)(OD)

ness of the geometric procedure described for migration in the = (I/2)(BD)(OB cm q,)

frequency domain. The second is to indicate the validity of the = cm a, Area (OBD).

algebraic equivalent of equation (2).

This means, roughly. that before migration the event occupies

To validate the procedure, the relation tan ah = sin (Y, must

more area so that it is overemphasized. Thus. after migration,

hold in the construction. Referring to Figure lob, by step (I),

the event must be multiplied by the factor of cos (Y, to restore the

OA = OC. Let d be the perpendicular distance from C to the

k,-axis. By steps (2) and (3), d = AB. Thus correct balance. In the frequency domain, the event maps to its

normal so that

AB

tan

(yb= OA

cos a, = K,/dK; + K;.

d

oc

THE time SECTION ANGLE BEFORE AND AFTER MIGRATION

This shows the construction produces the correct migrated angle

cx, when starting with (Yb. Thus, when considered as a mapping Appendix C derives a formula relating Bt (the premigration dip

between lines through the origin, the construction takes lines of angle on the time section) with 6, (the postmigration angle). The

dip (Ybto lines of dip cx,. One must still show the construction is notation follows migration parameters. Begin with the basic

correct as a mapping between points in the frequency domain. migration relation for dip angles on the depth section:

There are many ways to indicate the validity of migration tan 8, = sin e,

mapping. Stolts important paper (1978) first established this via

sin i!l

the wave equation and a change of variables in the Fourier trans- = cos A, z

form. Since the formula holds, a more descriptive indication of cos Fi,

why it shouldhold basedupon a raypath approachwill be presented. I

First, the mapping must map sections of dip (Ye to sections of zz- tan 6,.

dip ~1,. Certainly, each line of dip (Ybis mapped to one of dip (Y, VI + tan6,

732 Chun and Jacewitz

Here we have used the relations displacement in the time section. Equations (9) and (IO) will be

proved here. Consider a fixed point at time T on a reflector of

sin 0

tan 0 = - dip fit on the time section. Note that d, is the same whether mea-

cos 0 suredon the time section or on the depth section. After converting

and to depth. the point is located at depth 2 = (V/2) 7 on a reflector

dip tll. From Appendix D.

cos 0 = l/u/r + tantl.

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d, = ; sin HZ.

The first is the definition of the tangent. The second is easily

checked by using

= (T) tan Oz.

sin8 + cos20 = 1.

One has, after converting from depth to time = (F) (: tan 0,).

or

I Also. the displacement in ; is given from Appendix D by

V2

tan 8, = tan G,

l

1 I + 4 tan8,.

d, = -_(I - cos e,,.

Then solve for tan e,. The result is Using the relation between cosine and sine.

VT

tan G, = tan HI/ Jybz (i, = -[I - (I - sin8 * )12]

2

APPENDIX D

d, = :[I - iI - tan2tl,112].

DISPLACEMENT OF A POINT UNDER MIGRATION

Appendix D refers to Figure 19a. Here we derive the formulas Reconverting to time

for rl, and d,. Let h be the length from p to the -r-axis, and let

; = BP. Migration means in particular that BP = BP. The angle d, = T {I - [I - (V tanfl,)/4])

OBP is 90 degrees - e,. L

h = BP sint90 degrees - 6,).

and dt = 1.

V

d,.

h = zcos g,.

d, = T{l - ]I - (V tan2ti,l/4]12}.

Therefore.

d, = 1 - h,

d,=z-:cosA,. APPENDIX F

MIGRATION OF A POINT AS A FUNCTION OF VELOCITY

and

Appendix F refers to Figure l9b and the proof that a point

d, = :(I - cos G,). migrates along a parabola as the migration velocity changes. Con-

The relation for d, also follows from basic trigonometry: tinuing from Appendix E. one has

so that 4

d, = z sin G,

Drop a perpendicular from B to PP. Then one sees that

- = z sin(e,/2).

12

2

T(l -Ttanflt) = T - d,.

or

APPENDIX E

Thus,

MIGRATION OF A time SECTION AS A

FUNCTION OF VELOCITY V

4 T tanfl, = 2Trl, - c/f

Appendix E usesthe notation of Figure 19a. In addition, d, is the

Frequency Domain Migration 733

From the expression for d,. one has (d, - 7) = T - T tan H,c/,

4 T tanHt = T tan Otd,

0 = T - T tan H,d,

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Rearranging this equation. Hence, the point (X. T) has migrated to (0. 0).

The form of the relation shows that rl, has a maximum when

d: - 2Tll, + T tan etd, = U

d, = T. Thus. the parabolic path is uniquely defined by the follow-

This is a parabolic relation between d, and dt. Clearly for V = 0. ing two prop&es: (I) The parabola passes through (X, T) and

d, = 0 and d, = 0. One may rewrite the relation as (0. 0). and (2) the parabola is tangent to the r-axis at (0. 0).

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