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Peoplev.

Mallari(GRnoL58886,Dec13,1998)
Facts:ConsueloMallairtogetherwith3otherswerechargedwithEstafathruFalsificationofPublic
DocumentduetotheactstheycommittedwhentheyfeloniouslydefraudJuliaS.Saclolobyofferingher
thetitleofthelandownedbyLeonoraBalderasasacollateralwhowastheninneedofmoney.Thesaid
titlewasforgedandfalsifiedbeforeCelestinoHallazgo,notarypublic,bymakingitappearthatBalderas
signed thedocumentwhich JuliaSaclolopaid fortheamountof1,500.The samealsohappenedto
RemegioTapawan.ItwaswhenTapawanfoundoutthathewastolledbecausethepersonwhoposedas
LeonoraBalderaswasamanbythenameofCarlosSungathatledtofilethecaseagainstMallariand3
others involved. Petitioner Consuelo Mallari was sentenced toimprisonment before the CFI. Mallari
appealed beforethe CourtofAppeals whoaffirmedthe RTCs decisionwith modification as tothe
penalty.ShethencontendedthatthesaiddecisionofCAputhertwiceindoublejeopardy.

Issue:WONtheactsdonebyMallariconstituteacontinuingcrime

Held:ThecourtsetasidetheassaileddecisionofCAonthegroundofdoublejeopardy.
A continuedcrimeis a singlecrimeconsisting ofaseries ofacts butallarising fromonecriminal
resolution.Itisacontinuous,unlawfulactorseriesofactssetonfootbyasingleimpulseandoperatedby
anunintermittentforce.Andalthoughthereareseriesofacts,thereisonlyonecrimecommittedhence
onlyonepenaltyshallbeimposed.
The crime of estafa thru falsification of public document committed by Consuelo Mallari, although
consummatedthroughaseriesofacts,wasdonebythesingleintentorimpulsetodefraudRemegio
Tapawan. And contrary to the appellate court's observation, there was only one deceit practiced by
petitioneronthetwo(2)victims,thatbeinginneedofmoney,LeonoraBalderaswaswillingtomortgage
two(2)lotsassecurityforaloan.Itwas,infact,bymereplayoffatethatthesecondvictim,Julia
Saclolo,shouldbedraggedintotheswindlebyreasonofTapawanhavingonlyP1,500.00atthattime.
That there were two (2) victims, however, did not accordingly convert the crime into two separate
offenses,asthedeterminativefactoristheunityormultiplicityofthecriminalintentorofthetransactions
for"thefactshouldnotbelostsightofthatitistheinjurytothepublicwhichacriminalactionseeksto
redress,andbysuchredresstopreventitsrepetition,andnottheinjurytoindividuals.
The singularity of the offense committed by Mallari is further demonstrated by the fact that the
falsificationofthetwo(2)publicdocumentsasameansofcommittingestafawereperformedonthesame
date,inthesameplace,atthesametimeandonthesameoccasion.InthecaseofPeoplev.deLeon,10
thecourtheldthattheactoftakingtwoormoreroostersinthesameplaceandonthesameoccasionis
dictatedbyonlyonecriminaldesignandtherefore,thereisonlyonecrimeofthefteveniftheroostersare
ownedbydifferentpersons.