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Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology-

AE-225 Fluid Mechanics
Topics: Buoyancy and conservation of mass

1. In an estuary where the fresh water of a river meets the sea it is observed that fresh water
maintains a distinct layer above the saline water fore quite some length into the sea, after
which it loses its identity. Thus, close to the shore we can model the density variation as
shown in figure 1. A sphere of 40 cm diameter weighting 33.8 kg floats near the interface
of the fresh and saline water. Find the location of its center with respect to the in the


Interf ace

1000 1025
Density(kg/m3 )

Figure 1:

2. A tank of volume = 100m3 is fitted with two pumps, one at the entrance and the other
at the exit of the tank, as shown in figure 2. Each pump is a positive displacement pump,
i.e., it pumps at a fixed volume flow rate of the fluid entering the pump. The inflow pump
sucks air from the atmosphere and delivers it to the tank, while the outflow pump sucks air
from the tank and delivers it to a pipeline.
Initially, neither pump is working and the vessel is filled with air at atmospheric density
a = 1.2kg/m3 . At t = 0 both pumps are switched on, instantaneously drawing a volume
flow rate Qin = 2m3 /s into the inflow pump and Qout = 1m3 /s into the outflow pump.
Because the mass inflow and outflow rates are different initially, the density t of the air
in the tank changes with time. After a long time, however, the air density inside the tank
reaches a steady value.
(a) Calculate the value of the air density s in the tank after the steady state has been
(b) Derive and solve a differential equation for t for any time t 0.

Qin Qout

a pump pump

Figure 2:

3. As shown in figure 3, a flat plate is hinged at point 0 to a horizontal surface. The hinged
plate is slowly rotated toward the horizontal at a clockwise angular velocity = 0. 1s1 ,
squeezing out the air between the two plates. Calculate the radial velocity u(x) at x = 0.
1m when = 0.1. (Assume that the flow is incompressible and that the dimension of the
plate in a direction normal to the plane of figure is so great that the fluid flows only in the
plane of the figure.)

u(x, t)

Figure 3:

4. A thin flat plate is dipped into honey to a depth L = 0.1m and then lifted out, being held
stationary while the honey drains off. The draining flow is a plane flow in the plane of figure
4. The width b(t) of the honey layer at the bottom of the plate decreases with time t, but
the layer of honey retains its triangular shape, as shown in figure. The honey velocity at
the bottom of the plate, u(y), varies linearly with distance from the plate

u(y) =

where U = 1E 3 m/s is a constant. If the initial value of b at time t = 0 is b0 = 1.E 2

m, derive an expression for b(t).

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u(y, t)

Figure 4:

5. In figure a stationary combustible mixture of air and fuel is ignited at the point o at time t
= 0 by a spark, which initiates a spherical flame front moving outward from the point 0 at a
constant speed Vf . The combustible mixture ahead of the flame front, which has a constant
density c . is converted in the very thin flame front to hot products of combustion that has
a much lower density p . Because the volume of a fluid element enveloped by the flame
front is increased, the combustible mixture is pushed radially outward by the expanding
flame front, although the combustion products remain stationary. Thus the gas outside the
flame front is moving radially outward while that inside is stationary.
(a) Selecting a spherical control volume of fixed radius r > Vf t surrounding the flame front,
apply the equation of mass conservation and derive an expression for the radial outflow
velocity ur, t of the combustible mixture at r for any time t prior to the arrival of the flame
front at r, i.e., t < r/Vf
(b) Derive an expression for the velocity u just in advance of the flame front as a function
of c , p and Vf .

f lamef ront


control surf ace


u(r, t)

Figure 5: