Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

For this reason students need extensive help and exposure to the English

language. Hashim (2006) argues that learning a language flourishes most when
learners are in positive environment and are given
opportunities to communicate in authentic situations.

As our students have a limited exposure to using English outside the classroom,
task-based activities offer them an opportunity to develop cognitive processes.
During their task activities they are required to do a creative/ critical thinking,
problem solving, work in a team and use the language communicatively. Nunan
(2004) suggests that task-based learning encourages student-centered learning,
helps learners develop individual differences and supports learning autonomy.

Furthermore, (Larsen-Freeman 2000:114) said that Task-based language

teaching is an approach seeking to provide learners with a natural context for
language use. As learners work to complete a task, they have abundant
opportunity to interact. Such interaction is thought to facilitate language
acquisition as learners have to work to understand each other and to express
their own meaning.

TBLT makes students feel as if they are not in the atmosphere of the classroom, and instead
puts them in different situations that require communicative use of the language. Tasks are
used with the objective of creating contexts that promote the communicative use of different
L2 skills and components simultaneously.

The term task, which is one of the key concepts in task-based learning
teaching, is described by many researchers as activities that will be
completed while using the target language communicatively by focusing
on meaning to reach an intended outcome (Bygate, Skehan and Swain,
2001; Canale, 1983; Lee, 2000; Nunan, 1989; Prabhu, 1987; Richards &
Rodgers, 2001; Skehan 1996).

In order to promote the meaning-focused and communicative nature of

tasks, Skehan (1996) proposes that tasks be designed to have a relation
to the real world. This relation to real life creates more meaningful and
authentic focus.

Prabhu (1987) defines a task as an activity which required learners to arrive

at an outcome from given information through some process of though, and
which allowed teachers to control and regulate that process (p 24).
A task refers to a language learning effort that requires learners to
comprehend, manipulate and produce target language as they perform the set
task, involving real-world language (Richards, 1986).
According to Willis (1998), tasks are activities in which the target language is
used for a communicative purpose to achieve an outcome.
On the other hand; Nunan (2004) uses the word task instead of activity.
Ellis (2003) defines tasks as activities that are primarily focused on meaning
whereas exercises are activities that are primarily focused on form.
Through tasks, students are provided with a purpose to use the target
language (Lee, 2000, p. 30). In this purposeful learning process, learners
are not instructed to use certain language forms. Instead, they are
encouraged to build and use the target language on their own, with
teacher support but without immediate teacher correction. The role of the
teacher is to observe and facilitate the process of task-based
communication (Lee, 2000).

The effectiveness of the task-based learning in Developing students speaking skills in
academic Settings on the efl classroom-a study conducted at South East European University
(SEEU) by Merita ismaili. The participants in this study are SEEU undergraduate
students which consists of 60 students. The research design is experimental and
the instruments of the research are test and questionnaire. The result revealed that
students can learn more effectively when their attention is focused on the task;
therefore they are focused more on the language they use than on the
grammatical form. The classroom atmosphere is comfortable, cooperative and
there is a lot of interaction
among students.

There are two main sources of evidence which justify the use of tasks
in language classes cited in Murad, (2009). The first source
of justifications for Task-Based Learning is what it might be termed the
ecologic alone: the belief that the best way to promote effective learning
is by setting up classroom tasks that reflect as far as possible the real
world tasks which the learners perform, or will perform. Task performance is seen as
rehearsal for interaction to come Lynch and Maclean (2000) said that.

The second source of evidence comes from SLA research. Those arguing for TBL,
drawing on SLA research, have tended to focus on issues such as
learnability, the order of acquisition of particular L2 structures, and the
implications of the input, interaction and output hypotheses (Lynch and

Statement of problem
Often, when faced with various problems, language teachers are in search of finding
something that could create a difference in their classroom. The problems are generally
caused by students lack of motivation to the lesson. Increasing learners motivation and
performance has always been the primary concern of language teachers. A new approach,
TBL, is applied to a traditional classroom situation with the aim of finding solutions to
certain problems such as poor learner motivation. Implementing a TBL approach in EFL
classes creates variety for the students. Moreover, it enhances their learning, since TBL tasks
encourage student involvement and lead to significant improvements regarding their language
performance; and the students can find enough opportunities to express themselves in the
target language.

Richards and Renandya (2002: 204) state that effective oral communication requires the
ability to use the language appropriately in social interactions that involves not only verbal
communication but also paralinguistic elements of speech such as pitch, stress, and
intonation. Moreover, nonlinguistic elements such as gestures, body language, and
expressions are needed in conveying messages directly without any accompanying speech.

Brown and Yule in Nunan (1989) also differentiate between two basic language functions, i.e.
the transactional and the interactional functions. The former basically concerns the transfer of
information. Then according to Nunan (1989: 32) successful oral communication involves:
a. the ability to articulate phonological features of the language comprehensibly
b. mastery of stress, rhythm, intonation patterns
c. an acceptable degree of fluency
d. transactional and interpersonal skills
e. skills in taking short and long speaking turns
f. skills in the management of interaction
g. skills in negotiating meaning
h. conversational listening skills (successful conversations require good listeners
as well as good speakers)
i. skills in knowing about and negotiating purposes for conversations
j. using appropriate conversational formulae and fillers

Brown (2001: 275-276) states that there are seven principles for designing speaking
a. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language based
focus on accuracy to message-based on interaction, meaning, and fluency.
b. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques.
c. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.
d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.
f. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication.
g. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.

Speaking is thus regarded as a critical skill in learning a second or foreign

language by most language learners, and their success in learning a
language is measured in terms of their accomplishment in oral
communication (Nunan, 1998; Nunan, 2001).