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KDN PP 11720/4/2013 (032270) B OA RD OF E NGI NEERS MALAYSIA


Clean Energy



YBhg. Datuk Ir. Adanan bin Mohamed Hussain
BOARD MEMBERS YBhg. Datuk Ir. Adanan bin Mohamed Hussain
YBhg. Datuk Wira Ir. Md Sidek bin Ahmad
YBhg. Dato' Ir. Dr Abdul Rashid bin Maidin CHAIRMAN
YBhg. Dato' Prof Ir. Dr Hassan bin Basri YBhg Dato Prof. Ir. Dr Hassan bin Basri
YBhg. Dato Ir. Lim Chow Hock
YBhg Dato Ir. Mohtar bin Musri EDITOR
Ir. Prem Kumar Vasudevan YBhg. Dato Ir. Fong Tian Yong
Ir. Zuraimi bin Sabki
Ir. Amrullah bin Kamal EDITORIAL MEMBERS
Ir. Zainal Abidin bin Saidun Prof. Ir. Dr K S Kannan
Ir. Sundraraj Krishnasamy Ir. Prem Kumar
Ir. Tan Yean Chin Ir. Chan Boon Teik
Ir. Dr Ahmad Anuar bin Othman
Ir. Ishak bin Abdul Rahman
Prof. Madya Ir. Hayati binti Abdullah
Pn Nik Kamaliah Nik Abdul Rahman
Ar. Dr Tan Loke Mun
Sr. Nik Zainal Alam bin Hasan

Ir. Ruslan bin Abdul Aziz

Ir. Hizamul-din bin Ab. Rahman

The Ingenieur is published quarterly by the Board of Engineers Malaysia (Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia) and is
distributed free to registered Professional Engineers. The statements and opinions expressed in this publica-
tion are those of the writers. BEM invites all engineers and readers to contribute relevant articles and views
to the Publisher.

Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia
Tingkat 17, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50580 Kuala Lumpur.
Tel: 03-2698 0590 Fax 03-2692 5017
e-mail: nikkamalia@bem.org.my
website: www.bem.org.my

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4 Presidents Message Cover Feature

15 Hydropower Development
Announcement in Sarawak
5 Publication Calendar 26 Flying Without Fuel
6 Washington Accord Status 32 Global Direction on
Extended Renewables
40 Push for Renewable
Meeting Energy in the Asia-Pacific
8 Opening Address at the Region
International Engineering
Alliance Meeting 2016 Do You Know?
12 Welcome Remarks 37 Energy

15 26

26 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
In Brief 58
48 What Others Say About Clean Energy

51 Sustainable Development Goals That
Involve Engineers
58 ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Co-
Operation 2016-2025

64 Promoting HELE Coal Technologies in
Electricity Generation
70 Energy Efficiency Technology Towards

76 Evolution of Satellite Technology for 51
Global Communication

Engineering Nostalgia
80 Federal Highway Upgrading in

76 40


Clean Energy

ubsequent to the 2015 UN Climate Change to venture into new technologies associated with
Conference, Conference of the Parties clean energy.
21 or COP 21 held in Paris, the landmark Renewable energy is gradually increasing
event was when 174 countries including Malaysia its share of the pie in total energy production
signed the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016 in as illustrated in the article Global Direction on
New York. The Agreement set the goal of limiting Renewables and Push for Renewable Energy in
global warming to less than 2C compared to the Asia-Pacific Region. In this regard, Malaysia
pre-industrial levels. There, Malaysia reiterated can pride herself as the worlds third largest
her commitment towards reducing her carbon producer of solar PV panels. With advancement of
intensity by 40% by 2020. technology and greatly reduced cost, renewable
Against this initiative, Clean Energy will be energy will gain greater popularity in a matter of
among the main contributors towards the above time.
goal. In this issue of The Ingenieur, the article on On the ASEAN level, the ASEAN Economy
What Others say about Clean Energy highlighted Community or AEC takes effect from 2016
some of the global initiatives taken towards clean onwards. It is interesting to note the initiative
energy in a structured manner. Clean energy is under the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy
also one of the aspects emphasised under the Co-operation 2016-2025. The article on this
UN Sustainable Development Goals for which topic details co-operation towards enhancing
engineers have an important role in designing energy security, accessibility, affordability and
and implementing projects in that direction. With sustainability under the framework of the AEC in
world attention focusing on clean energy for future the designated period.
projects, competition among the engineering
fraternities in the region lies in cutting edge Datuk Ir. Adanan bin Mohamed Hussain
technologies in clean energy. It is henceforth wise President BEM

46 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
KDN PP 11720/4/2013 (032270) BO ARD O F ENG INEERS M A L AY S I A

INGENIEUR The Ingenieur is published quarterly by the Board

of Engineers Malaysia. The following are the
themes for the coming issues.


Vol. 68 Oct Dec. 2016

Engineering Innovation
Vol. 69, Jan Mar 2017
Transformation of Construction Industry

Water Power Vol. 70, Apr June 2017

Drive Safe Work Safe
Vol. 71, July Sept. 2017
Building Current Trends
Vol. 72, Oct Dec 2017
Engineering Education

Articles and other contributions relevant to the

themes are welcomed, but the decision to publish
rests with the Editorial Board.
Photo courtesy of Ir. Fong Chew Chung

Advertising inquiries are also welcomed. Please

refer to the BEM advertisement in this issue for
the latest rate card and booking form.


THE INGENIEUR can now be read on smartphones as well as iPads. Read anywhere,
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The Ingenieur Vol 66 The Ingenieur Vol 67 July- The e-magazine may be viewed
April-June 2016 September 2016 natively on iPads and iPhones using
the Joomag Apps. Download for free. 5


Malaysias engineering education achievement is a significant milestone for the

engineering profession as Malaysia is poised to
meets international benchmark become a global education hub.

as the countrys signatory to the

Washington Accord has been
Applications for Sydney Accord and
extended for another six years from Dublin Accord
June 2016.
It is to be noted that the Washington Accord is not
The Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) the end of the continuous quality improvement
continuously ensures that our engineering effort. Malaysia through EAC and BEM has
professionals are on a par with their global commenced application for similar signatory
counterparts. Malaysia, through the Engineering status for the remaining agreements under the
Accreditation Council (EAC), BEM, has been a full IEA. These agreements are the Sydney Accord
signatory to the Washington Accord (WA) since (for engineering technology education), Dublin
June 18, 2009. Accord (for Engineering Technicians education),
As a full signatory to the WA, all engineering International Agreement for Engineering
degree qualifications accredited by BEM have Technologists and Agreement for International
been recognised by 17 other signatories to the WA Engineering Technicians.
as academically qualified to practice engineering It is our fervent hope that engineering
at the entry level in their countries subject technology education and engineering technicians
to meeting the local licensing requirements. education in Malaysia are on a par with global
Australia, Canada, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, standards.
India, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand,
Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey,
United Kingdom, United States and China are the BACKGROUND
signatory countries.
Also, as a full signatory member of the WA, In the international arena, there are moves
BEM is subject to intermittent reviews which are towards global standards for accreditation
aimed at establishing whether the Malaysian of engineering degrees and recognition of
Bachelor of Engineering degree qualifications professional engineering status. It has been
meet international benchmark standards. Such encouraged by the stated intention of members
a review was conducted in September 2015, of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the
where a team of international experts from other Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC) Forum.
signatory countries observed EACs accreditation This was done with the intention to progressively
processes at the University Malaya and the eliminate barriers to trade in professional services
Monash University Malaysia Campus. between the countries they represent.
The Board of Engineers Malaysia is pleased In Malaysia, the Board of Engineers Malaysia
to announce that Malaysias signatory status to (BEM) registers graduates and professional
the Washington Accord has been approved for engineers, engineering technologists and
a further period of six years from June 2016. inspectors or works (engineering technicians)
This decision was taken at the meetings of the under the Registration of Engineers Act 1967. The
International Engineering Alliance (IEA) held in prerequisite for registration as a graduate engineer
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on June 2, 2016. This is upon successful completion of an accredited

66 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
engineering programme. BEM has a duty to ensure programmes, student assessment, the internal
the quality of engineering education/programme quality assurance mechanisms maintained by
attains the minimum standard comparable to the universities, the academic and professional
global practice; hence the necessity to establish expertise of the faculty, and the level of physical
the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) in year and financial resources available to deliver the
2000. programmes.
The EAC is the body delegated by BEM for The Washington Accord is a multinational
accreditation of engineering degrees in Malaysia. It agreement that recognizes the substantial
is represented by BEM, the Institution of Engineers equivalency of engineering degree programmes
Malaysia (IEM), the Malaysian Qualification Agency accredited by the responsible bodies in each of the
(MQA) and the Public Services Department. It signatory countries. It recommends the graduates
also includes representatives from the Malaysian of accredited programmes be mutually recognized
Council of Engineering Deans and Quality as having met the academic requirements for
Assurance Unit of Ministry of Higher Education, entry into the practice of engineering in any
Malaysia. member country; and establishes that graduates
of programmes accredited by the accreditation
organizations of each member nation are prepared
Washington Accord to practice engineering at the entry level.
Admission to the Washington Accord is an
In the late 1980s, accreditation authorities in the endorsement that the engineering education
United Kingdom and the United States of America systems of the member nation have demonstrated
realized that there would be mutual benefit in a strong long-term commitment to quality
harmonization of standards and processes. assurance in producing engineers ready for
If standards in one country were accepted by industry practice in the international scene.
another, then mobility of engineers could be
made easier and qualifications recognized more
quickly. Sydney Accord
Equivalence at the level of a licensed or
registered engineer need not imply equivalence Taking cue from the Washington Accord, a similar
at each prior level, since different countries place Agreement was developed for Bachelor degree
different emphases on the nature and extent of programmes for Engineering Technologists or
the experience and knowledge to be acquired after Incorporated Engineers, called the Sydney Accord
graduation. However the emerging convergence (SA), which was signed in June 2001. Signatories
in engineering practice, driven by globalization, have full rights of participation in the Accord;
is being reflected in university engineering qualifications accredited or recognised by other
education, and achieving recognition of the signatories are recognised by each signatory
substantial equivalence of the outcomes from as being substantially equivalent to accredited
engineering degree programmes has become a or recognised qualifications within its own
practicable option, not only within the countries jurisdiction.
which have traditionally been linked by a common
language and traditions. Such recognition is the
key objective of the agreement known as the Dublin Accord
Washington Accord.
The Washing ton Accord achieves its The Dublin Accord is an agreement for the
primary objective by mutual verification of the international recognition of Engineering Technician
accreditation procedures and criteria applicable qualifications. Currently there are eight signatories
to academic programmes in each country. to the Dublin Accord; Australia, Canada, Ireland,
These procedures and criteria address issues Korea, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom
such as the content and mode of delivery of the and the United States.


Opening Address at the

International Engineering
Alliance Meeting 2016

By Dato Sri Haji Fadillah Bin Haji Yusof, Minister Of Works Malaysia

The International Engineering

Alliance Meeting (IEAM 2016)
was held from May 30, 2016 to
June 3, 2016 in Kuala Lumpur.

Dato Sri Haji Fadillah Bin Haji Yusof, Minister Of Works Malaysia
Let me begin by expressing delivering his opening address
my ap p re c iat ion to t he
Organising Commit tee for International Professional mobility within the engineering
making this occasion possible Engineers Agreements profe s sion through clear
and giving me the honour to (IPEA) standards and references
launch this historic event of International Engineering in which 24 countries are
the International Engineering Technologist Agreement signatories to the seven
Alliance (IEA) Meeting 2016. (IETA) A g re e m e n t s w hi c h we re
Malaysia is indeed honoured to The A g re ement for mentioned earlier. Malaysia is
be the chosen venue for such an International Engineering already an active signatory to
important gathering of leaders Technicians (AIET) the Washington Accord, IPEA
and minds of the engineering Before I proceed further, and APEC Engineers Agreement
profession. I would like to record my and it is our intention to
I am made to understand appreciation to the Chairman of move forward in ratifying the
that the IEA is grounded by seven the Governing Group as well as remaining four agreements.
international agreements which the Chairmen of the respective I am humbled by this
govern the mutual recognition Agreements for devoting their gathering of key leaders of the
and mobility of professionals time and expertise in upholding, global engineering fraternity
amongst the international protecting and guarding the who are important drivers and
engineering fraternity. These integrity of the educational contributors of nation building by
agreements are the: standards and professional ensuring continuous sustainable
Washington Accord competencies of the engineering development. Malaysia has
Sydney Accord profession globally. enjoyed tremendous growth
Dublin Accord The Government of in infrastructural development
The APEC Engineers Malaysia applauds the IEA since her independence and
agreement for championing cross-border has progressed well through

86 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
the various phases of its
development. All this would
not have happened had it not
been for the contributions of
our engineering professionals
in enabling Malaysia through
the development of a
comprehensive network of
highways, buildings, seaports,
airports, electrical power, water
and sanitation infrastructures
which are comparable to the
best in the world.
Indeed the roles of
engineers, engineering
Dr David Kolger, Chairman of IEA Governing Group addressing the
technologists and technicians audience
are an integral part of any
nations development. With an
inter-connected world through
trade in goods and services,
the engineering standards and
benchmarking among nations
become more critical for mutual
acceptance of each others
services. Connectivity among
nations is the order of the day
as evident in the APEC CEO
Summit, BOAO Asian Forum,
World Economic Forum and
ASEAN Economic Community
which is why we must embrace
it religiously in capturing the
essence of its value.
Among the key components of
connectivity is the development YB Dato' Sri Haji Fadillah bin Haji Yusof, Minister of Works Malaysia
and upgrading of infrastructure officiating the International Engineering Alliance Meeting
facilities which require massive
engineering inputs. As such
the impact of such connectivity
within the region is the mobility
of engineering professionals in
ensuring the right standards and
competencies of the engineering
profession being employed. This
becomes even more important
as our policy moves towards self-
regulation, to promote greater
efficiency and productivity of
our delivery systems by reducing
Group photo of IEA Governing Group

In the context of Malaysia, aspirations of joining the ranks registered 16,103 Professional
we introduced a self-regulatory of top trading nations to be on Engineers of whom 9,208
system of occupation of newly par with the best of the world. are Professional Engineers
constructed buildings in 2007 In this regard, I am proud with Practising Certificates
where in the past the Certificate to inform that Malaysia is the while 89,980 are Graduate
of Fitness of Occupation (CFO) first ASEAN country to have Engineers. The BEM has
must be obtained from local its engineering services fully proactively extended the scope
authorities before any newly liberalised. The Registration of of registration of engineering
completed building can be Engineers Act 1967 which was professionals with the registering
occupied. This process has amended in early 2015 to allow of Engineering Technologists
created problems of timeliness foreign firms and professional and Inspector of Works so that
in local authorities processing engineers from the ASEAN the engineering professionals
develop er s ap p lic at ion s , Economic Community (AEC) ecosystem is properly regulated.
hence causing undue stress to have 100% ownership and Taking cognisance of the
and inconveniences to home directorship of engineering need for the international
owners in occupying their newly consultancy firms in Malaysia mobility of profes sionals,
constructed buildings. With the has triggered a transformation Malay sia is continuously
introduction of a new occupation in the sector. It is my fervent emp ha si sing t he qu ali t y
permit called the Certificate of hope to see more nations open of education of its tertiary
Completion and Compliance their doors by liberalising their education institutions. Through
(CCC), the authority can now engineering services to allow rigorous quality assurance
issue it by transferring the onus for a level playing field and systems which have been put
onto the professional engineers hence greater mobility and in place for more than 20 years,
and architects. It was this opportunities for our mutual the education standards of
paradigm shift which gave the benefits. our engineering courses must
industry a sense of assurance There are indeed clear not be compromised. For this,
on the accountability, reliability advant age s in p roviding I am proud to note that the
and integrity of the professional greater mobility for engineering recent World University Ranking
engineer s and architect s p ro fe s sio n al s whi c h are has ranked nine Malaysian
involved. beneficial to recipient nations in engineering schools in the top
The export of services is part coping with the delivery of their 100 universities in the world,
of Malaysias Economic Blue economic impetus. with two in the top 50.
Print as we aim to be a high To date, the Board of Malaysia through BEM will
income economy by 2020 in our Engineers Malaysia (BEM) has be applying to be a signatory of

10 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
the two education agreements
namely the Sydney Accord for
engineering technologists and
the Dublin Accord for technicians.
This will be consistent with
the Governments aspiration
of developing competent and
quality human capital that is
necessary to propel the nation
towards becoming a developed
high income economy and
making Malaysia a global hub for
education. By being a signatory
to the above Accords, our
graduates will be internationally
recognised and help attract
foreign investments into our
It is my hope that this
auspicious gathering will
have fruitful deliberations in
transforming our engineering
educational standards,
professional recognition and
mobility which are vital as we
push in driving excellence for
global competitiveness.
Once again, I would like
to thank the IEA for choosing
Malaysia as the venue for IEAM
2016 and hope that you will all
have an enjoyable experience
and stay in Malaysia.

From top: Registration, Minister chatting with participants, Visit to

Petronas Twin Towers, Cultural performance, Group photo.
Left: Various delegates participating in the proceedings

By Datuk Ir. Adanan Bin Mohamed Hussain,
President, Board of Engineers Malaysia

Examination in order to entitle

them to submit relevant
documents, such as plans,
drawings, engineering surveys,
designs and feasibility studies,
to any person or authorities.
Datuk Ir. Adanan Bin Mohamed Hussain, President, Board of BEM will continuously strive
Engineers Malaysia welcoming delegates to the Meeting to ensure that engineering
services provided in the country
On behalf of the engineering Registration of Engineers Act are of high quality, delivered
fraternity in Malaysia, it is indeed of 1967. Its primary role is to with due diligence, conforming
a great pleasure for me to facilitate the registration of to professional ethics and
welcome you, all delegates and engineers and regulate the benchmarked to the best
observers to the International profes sional conduct and practices. This commitment is
Engineering Alliance (IEA) Meeting practice of registered engineers necessary for BEM to attain our
2016. The Board of Engineers in order to safeguard the safety vision to be a highly respected
Malaysia, in collaboration with the and interest of the public. authoritative body that ensures
Institution of Engineers Malaysia, In carrying out this primary public interest and safety in
is indeed very honoured to be role, BEM places the utmost engineering work and services.
able to host this event, held here importance on assuring the Such commitment will also
in Kuala Lumpur for the first time. quality of engineering graduates facilitate the safe and efficient
I trust that all the arrangements and the c omp e tenc y of movement of cross-border
our Secretariat made ensures practicing engineers. engineering activities; and this
that you will experience a smooth, At the professional level, mobility is now legally allowed for
enjoyable and fruitful gathering. BEM ensures that all registered by the new amendments to the
For the benefit of our professional engineers are Act, enforced since July 31, last
international gue s t s and sufficiently competent and year. As such, it is evident that
delegates, allow me to introduce always maintain a high standard the role and objectives of BEM
the role and function of The of professional conduct. The are consistent with that of the
Board of Engineers Malaysia (or recent amendments to the IEA, as articulated by the tagline
BEM). BEM was established Registration of Engineers of the IEA - Working Together
in 1972 by the Malaysian Act in 2015 requires all to Advance Benchmarking and
Parliament, as a statutory Professional Engineers to pass Mobility in the Engineering
body constituted under the the Professional Competency Profession.

12 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
On the education front, better outside Malaysia. The and along the much promoted
BEM places great emphasis in Washington Accord label is a Maritime Silk Road. Hence we
ensuring the right standards symbol of quality in engineering are expected to attract more
and competence of local education, but more importantly Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
universities when of fering it has become an effective from the surrounding region,
engineering courses. In this driver for continuous quality particularly China. There are
context, BEM has set up the improvement, for engineering already several such industries
Engineering Accredit ation schools to excel in their delivery that have set foot in Malaysia.
Council (EAC) for 16 years now, of engineering education. For example, we are currently
since its inception in 2000. Taking cognisance of the the third largest photovoltaic
BEM through the EAC conducts demand from the industry and (PV) manufacturing hub in the
accreditation of engineering the rapid changes in technology world after China and Taiwan,
degree programmes offered by development, the Malaysian with an annual production
institutions of higher learning Government has produced an capacity of 9,043MW and
within Malaysia. Accreditation Education Blueprint 20152025. employing 13,000 people.
is done by evaluators, from This Blueprint emphasises, The recently launched US$2
both academia and industry/ among others, an industry-centric billion Regional Centre for China
practice. The evaluators visit education approach whereby Railway Engineering Corporation
the institutions to assess the industry champions will be (CREC) in Bandar Malaysia Kuala
curriculum, facilities and the invited to participate in selected Lumpur will cater for all South
quality management system university education modules. East Asian countries. CREC
and interview management, In the same vein, Malaysia is one of the largest railway
academic and suppor t is also promoting a strong construction companies in the
staff, students and industry pool of professionals in the world. Huawei Technologies has
stakeholders. Technical, Vocational, Education also chosen Malaysia as the
The BEM accreditation and Training (TVET) sector to regional hub for South East Asia.
process is necessarily rigorous support these industries. With The list goes on and this merely
and benchmarked against the important role of TVET in demonstrates the confidence
international best practice, which supporting industrial growth of multinational companies in
since 2009 has allowed Malaysia and innovation, BEM will work Malaysias ideal investment
to be a full signatory of the towards its education meeting environment, including
Washington Accord. To date 294 the appropriate standards set adequacy of the local talent pool
engineering programmes from 39 by IEA, that is for engineering to support the industry and ease
local universities and four foreign technologists and technicians. of doing business, for which
university branch campuses in It is thus our intention to apply Malaysia is ranked very highly.
Malaysia have been accredited. to become signatories of both Once again, Selamat Datang
W i t h t h e Wa s h i n g t o n the Sydney and Dublin Accords. to Malaysia. The secretariat will
Accord st atus, Malaysian This effort, we believe, will endeavour to make your stay
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r am m e s assist in positioning Malaysia as comfortable as possible. If
ar e n ow r e c o g ni s e d a s as the nation of choice in the you need any assistance, the
substantially equivalent to setting up of high tech industries secretariat will be most happy
the best in the world. It also in the region. Malaysia is to assist in any way we can to
means that these universities strategically located in the make your stay in Malaysia a
can market their products middle among ASEAN nations, memorable one.

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Hydropower Development
in Sarawak
By Tony Kismoor Sasak, Hydro Department, Sarawak Energy Berhad

This article outlines an overview of the hydropower potential of Sarawak and

the current status of hydropower development in the state with the main
focus on the Murum Hydroelectric Project (HEP). It provides some background
information and project features including design and construction challenges
faced. The Murum HEP impoundment and power generation are also briefly

Area Land Surface Gross Surface Hydropower Potential
Area Total Potential Density % Total
x 103 km2 TWh/a GWh/km2
Kuching & Kota 9.0 3.3 0.37 1.7
Samarahan Division
Sri Aman Division 10.7 3.6 0.34 1.9
Rajang Catchment 50.8 104.9 2.06 54.6
Rajang to Baram 24.2 6.5 0.27 3.4
Baram Catchment 22.2 60.8 2.74 31.7
Limbang Division 8.3 12.9 1.55 6.7

Table 1: Hydropower Potential Distribution in Sarawak

he first preliminary survey on the estimation to maximise the natural head from the source
of the gross hydropower potential of Sarawak to the mouth of the river, taking into account the
was undertaken in 1962 by the Snowy possibility of inter-basin water transfer.
Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority of Australia After the desktop study, a field
(SMEHA) under the Colombo Plan aid programme. reconnaissance of the identified dam sites
The study by SMEHA indicated that the gross was undertaken. Project layouts were adjusted
hydropower potential is about 192 TWh per to actual field information based on site
annum with 86% of the gross potential in Rajang topography and geology. Subsequently, water
and Baram catchments as shown in Table 1. The management computations were carried out and
study was primarily limited to the assessment cost estimates prepared.
of hydropower potential available in the State A subsequent evaluation of the optimum
and identification of potential sites which could be development chains for all the river basins
economically developed for power generation. was carried out to determine the best means of
In 1979, a more detailed and comprehensive harnessing their respective hydropower potentials.
study known as the Master Plan for Power System According to the Master Plan for Power System
Development was initiated with the main emphasis Development, a total of 52 projects could be
on the hydropower potential. This Master Plan for developed with a potential of 20,000MW and
Power System Development was completed in energy output of some 87,000GWh/year based on
1981 and was carried out jointly by a project team a plant factor of 0.5. A summary of the results
from the Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation of the evaluation and optimisation exercises is
(SESCO), now a subsidiary company under given in Table 2.
Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), and a group
of West German and Swiss consultants, known
as the SAMA Consortium. The consortium was CURRENT DEVELOPMENT STATUS
sponsored under a Technical Aid Programme
extended to Malaysia by the German Technical To date, three large hydropower projects, Batang
Co-operation Ltd. (GTZ) on behalf of the Ai, Bakun and Murum have been completed in
Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Sarawak. The Batang Ai plant (see Figure 1) began
The general procedure adopted in the survey full operation in 1986 with an installed capacity
started with a desktop study of all available of 108MW and annual energy of 620GWh per
topographical, hydrological and geological year; Bakun (see Figure 2), commenced operation
information to identity potential dam sites. Each in 2011 with an installed capacity of 2,400MW
river was considered as a whole and the and annual energy of 16,784GWh per year and
study went into necessary details to determine Murum commenced full operation in 2015 with an
the power output and other relevant physical installed capacity of 944MW and annual energy of
features of each site. The basic criterion was 5,952GWh per year (See Figure 4).

16 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
River Basin No. of Potential Installed Capacity Annual Energy Output
Project (MW) (GWh)
Lupar 1 54 240
Anap 1 118 507
Kanowit 1 110 485
Katibas 4 436 1,898
Upper Rajang 16 10,725 46,770
Baleh 6 2,811 12,245
Baram 6 2,878 12,612
Tutoh 5 1,048 4,590
Tinjar 2 253 1,091
Limbang 4 582 2,537
Trusan 5 786 3,436
Lawas 1 165 702
Total 52 19,966 87,113

Table 2: Potential Hydropower Projects in Sarawak

Bakun HEP
Catchment Area 14,750km2
Reservoir Area 695km2
Full Supply Level 228masl
Dam Type Concrete Faced
Rockfill Dam (CFRD)
Dam Height 205m
Installed Capacity 2,400MW

Figure 1: Batang Ai Hydroelectric Plant

Figure 2: Overall view of

Bakun Hydroelectric Plant

Sarawaks first hydroelectric plant stands the MURUM HYROELECTRIC PROJECT
test of time producing reliable, renewable energy
after 30 years in operation. The Murum Hydroelectric Project (Murum HEP)
On August 21, 2015 Batang Ai hydroelectric is located on the Murum River, a tributary of the
plant celebrated 30 years of operational mighty Rajang River, upstream of Bakun HEP (See
excellence. Figure 5) in the Belaga District, approximately
Nine mini hydropower schemes with a total 200 km from Bintulu. The scheme layout of the
installed capacity of about 2,550kW and two Murum HEP was developed to suit the favourable
small hydropower schemes with a total installed topographic conditions of the project site. A large
capacity of 4,500kW have also been implemented reservoir was created by an impounding structure
in the State. (the dam) located in the narrow gorge at the
Currently, the Baleh HEP (see Figure 3), dam site of the Murum River. The reach of the
another large hydropower scheme with an installed river downstream of the dam site with numerous
capacity of 1,285MW, has been developed to the waterfalls and rapids provides further head for
pre-engineering phase and is pending approval development. The powerhouse is located well
to begin construction. The initial generation is downstream of the dam site taking advantage of
expected in 2024. the natural head in the river for power generation.
The current development status of hydropower
development in Sarawak is presented in Figure
5. The next section of this article will describe the Baleh HEP
Murum HEP development. Catchment Area 5,625km2
Reservoir Area 588km2
Full Supply Level 220masl
Dam Type Concrete Faced
Rockfill Dam (CFRD)
Dam Height 188m
Installed Capacity 1,285MW
Construction Period 8 9 years

Figure 3: An artist impression of Baleh

Hydroelectric Project
Murum HEP
Catchment Area 2,750km2
Reservoir Area 245km2
Full Supply Level 540masl
Dam Type Roller
Dam (RCC)
Dam Height 140m
Installed 944MW

Figure 4: An artist impression of Murum Hydroelectric Project

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Figure 5: Current hydropower
development in Sarawak

Figure 7: An aerial view of Murum River near

the project site prior to construction

Figure 6: Murum HEP Reservoir

The Murum HEP is the second largest in central eastern Sarawak, adjacent to the border
Sarawak (after Bakun). It is the first large-scale with Kalimantan, Indonesia. The catchment has
sustainable energy project developed by Sarawak an area of 2,750 km2 at the Murum dam site, and
Energy Berhad on behalf of the State Government comprises mountainous terrain characterised
as part of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable by ridges of sandstone, shale and mudstone
Energy (SCORE) development. outcrops. Ground elevation varies from 420m
SCORE is a major development initiative at the dam site to over 2000m at the border
designed to elevate Sarawak to developed with Kalimantan. Soils are shallow but support
state status by harnessing the states abundant a cover of a dense rainforest, parts of which are
hydropower resources to attract energy-intensive in the process of being selectively logged. The
industries into designated areas such as Samalaju, catchment is drained by two major tributaries of
by providing competitively priced, renewable and the Murum, namely the Danum and Plieran rivers
reliable energy, resulting in business and industrial (see Figure 6), about 37 km downstream of the
growth, and raising incomes and living standards dam site, the Murum joins the Balui River just
overall. before it enters the gorge of the old Bakun rapids
and now the Bakun reservoir.
The reservoir lies between the foundation
MURUM CATCHMENT AND RESERVOIR elevation of 400masl at the dam site and
maximum operating level of elevation 540masl
The Murum river catchment comprises the giving a depth of 140m. The total storage volume
uppermost sub-basin of the Rajang River in at the maximum operating level (540masl) is

12,043 million m3. The reservoir covers an area channel section, tunnel body section and outlet
of about 245km2, is about 35% of Bakun HEP channel section with length of 88.5m, 810.5m
reservoir (695km2) and will have a great potential and 109m respectively. The diversion tunnel is
for eco-tourism and aquaculture developments. horse shoe shaped with an inclined wall and a
flat bottom plate. The floor elevation of the inlet
channel section is 418 to 420masl. The height
CONSTRUCTION of tunnel is between 13.6m to 15.9m from the
bottom plate (see Figure 8).
The Three Gorges Development Company (M) The upstream cofferdam for the main dam
Sdn Bhd and Yangtze Three Gorges Technology & is a RCC cofferdam which is about 415masl at
Economy Development Co. Ltd were awarded the its lowest foundation level and has a crest
Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) elevation at 445masl with crest width 6m and
contract to build the Murum HEP after an extensive a height of 30m. The diversion tunnel design
tendering process. They are the Malaysian peak flow is 2,080m3/s with an annual frequency
subsidiary of the Chinese civil engineering arm of of possible flooding of 20%. The downstream
the group that built the worlds largest hydropower cofferdam is an earth rock cofferdam with filling
project, the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze material including silt soil material of inclined core,
River in Yichang, China. The main construction filter material, transition material, rock fill material
works of Murum HEP commenced in early 2009. and rubble material for slope protection. The crest
elevation is at 412masl (see Figure 9).

River Diversion

The project is located in a high rainfall area

of Sarawak, averaging 4,000mm a year, and
differences between dry and wet seasons are
small. The average flow of the river is 236m3/s.
The rise and fall of the river levels are rapid and
unpredictable, including ground water during
tunnel excavation. This posed a serious challenge
to the river diversion scheme for the Murum HEP,
which consists of a single diversion tunnel. The
view of Murum project site is as shown in Figure 7.
The Murum HEP diversion tunnel is located
on the left bank along the riverbed with an Figure 9: Fill placement of outlet or downstream
axis length of 1,008m which consists of the inlet cofferdam above EL400m

River Diversion Works

Length of diversion tunnel 1,008m
Diversion tunnel height 13.6m to 15.9m
Height of upstream cofferdam 30m
Height of downstream 12m

Figure 8: Overview of diversion tunnel


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The main features of the Murum HEP are a 146.3m

high roller compacted concrete dam (RCC), a
2,160m3/s capacity ungated spillway, twin
2.65km power tunnels and two power intakes,
an ecological power station and a 944MW
surface powerhouse over 13km downstream from
the main dam (see Figure 12 and Figure 13). The
main project features are outlined below:

Main Dam Figure 10: Batu Tungun, a rock formation sacred

to the local Penan community in Murum.
The main dam is located in a straight river reach
of the Murum River and the dam axis is an arc
line 430.3m long. The main dam is a 140m high
RCC with crest length of 473m and fill volume of
1.61 million m3 (approximately 4 million tonnes)
of concrete, is one of the highest RCC dams in
Malaysia. Conserving Batu Tungun an unusual
rock formation revered by the local community,
the beddings and alternation of hard sandstone,
greywacke, siltstone, mudstone and shale geology
of the site including vast amount and supply of the
cement and fly ash posed some serious challenges
to the design and construction of the RCC dam.
The Batu Tungun rock formation is considered
by the project affected Penan community to Figure 11: View of riverbed: Dewatering concerns
(Prior Excavation)
be sacred. It was of paramount importance,
therefore, that the construction design kept Batu stopped. Otherwise, it would increase the water to
Tungun, located on the right abutment of the cement ratio thus affecting the quality of concrete.
dam axis (see Figure 10), intact out of respect In order to achieve construction economy and
for the communitys belief. In order to preserve maintain the project schedule, considerable
Batu Tungun, an alternative dam axis on the right efforts were made in design and construction
abutment was considered and the dam crest was of the RCC dam, including extensive laboratory
carefully re-designed after an extensive geological and trial tests on RCC materials to guarantee
mapping survey, rock mass stability assessments, the quality of interlayer combinations.
consultation and thorough analysis on the dam
axis under this restriction had been done. Murum Main Dam
Construction of a haul road, dewatering in
Maximum Height 146.3masl
the foundation (see Figure 11) and control of
Crest Level 546.3masl
surface run-off were some of the difficulties
faced by the contractor during the initial stages Crest Length 473m
of construction. In addition, the high temperature RCC Volume 1.61 M m3
and rainy climate had a great influence on RCC Upstream Slope 1H:0.02V below
construction. During construction, weather 470masl
conditions and air temperature were strictly 1H:0.00V Above
monitored. Where rainfall exceeded 3mm within 470masl
one hour, placing or roller compacting was Downstream Slope 1H:0.75V

Figure 12: Overall
view of Murum
project area:
Main dam
Diversion outlet


A 54m wide stepped chute spillway of the Murum

HEP was incorporated into the downstream of
the dam body and designed for the Probable
Maximum Flood (PMF) event with a discharge
capacity of 2,160m3/s. It is currently the worlds
tallest stepped chute spillway designed to carry
any overflow safely downriver, terminating in flip
buckets, which further dissipate the water energy Figure 13: Longitudinal section of power tunnel
before ending in a plunge pool (see Figure 14 and
Figure 15). The chute step dimensions are 1m
high and 0.85m wide. A bridge, with three piers,
crosses the spillway directly above the ogee crest.
This type of spillway is designed to massively
reduce the amount of kinetic energy passed
into the river below and equipped with aeration
slots to aerate the flow to reduce the possibility
of cavitation occurring in the spillway structure
especially during the high flow (high velocity)
Murum Spillway
Type Ungated Overflow Crest Figure 14: View of the flip bucket and plunge
Elevation of weir 540m pool in the river downstream of the spillway
Width of weir 54m construction
Discharge capacity 2,160m3/s

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Power Intake

The intake tower is a reinforced concrete structure

bank-tower type. There are two intakes; each
with a design discharge capacity of 172m3/s and
dimension of 50m wide x 18.6m long x 54.5m
high (see Figure 16 and 17). The top and base
surface elevation is 547masl and 492.5masl
respectively with a total discharge capacity is
344m3/s. The intakes are controlled by a set of
hydraulic operated fixed wheel gates that can
Figure 15: Murum spillway view post close automatically under emergency conditions.
impoundment The intake structure is protected by a floating log
boom to stop debris or logs from impacting its
performance by entering the intake.

Murum Power Intake

Type Surface
Dimension 18.6m long x 50m wide x
54.5m high
Rated Flow 172 m3/s per bay

Power Tunnels

The twin 2.65km underground water tunnels

connect the power intakes to the powerhouse.
Each tunnel consists of a 1,445m long and 8m
diameter upper horizontal section (see Figure
Figure 16: Overview of power intake after 18), a 60m high, 25m diameter surge tank, a
construction. Intake for Tunnel No.1 on right. 174m long 6.2m diameter shaft and a 1,229m
long 5.5m diameter horizontal section (see Figure
19). In-situ tests were carried out to determine
the design parameters of the rock for the
design of the concrete and steel liners, and
to determine the extent of the steel liner. The
in-situ tests carried out included plate load
tests to determine in-situ deformation of the
rock mass, hydro-fracturing and hydro-jacking
tests to determine in-situ stresses of the rock
mass, etc.

Murum Power Tunnel

No. of tunnel 2
Type of lining Concrete and Steel
Tunnels diameter 8m to 3.4m
Figure 17: View of power intakes post Length of tunnel 2.65km


Figure 18: View of Upper Shaft of Waterway

Tunnel No.2 construction

Figure 19: View of penstock installation in

Waterway Tunnel No.1

Figure 21: Murum ecological power station

adjacent to the spillway.

Figure 20: Completion of Murum powerhouse

Powerhouse Murum Powerhouse

Type Surface
Murum HEP has a surface powerhouse to Dimension 102.5m long, 43.5m wide
accommodate four turbines complete with and 53.9m high
the associated electrical and mechanical Type of Turbine Vertical Axis Francis
installations, an erection bay and an unloading Rated Turbine Flow 86m3/s per unit (4 x 86m3/s
bay (see Figure 20). The powerhouse is 102.5m = 344m3/s)
long, 43.5m wide and 53.9m high. A three-storey
Rated Generator 4 x 236MW = 944MW
administration building is annexed to the Capacity
downstream of the unloading and erection bays.
The installed turbines are vertical axis Francis
Turbines with a rated capacity of 236MW per
unit at a flow rate of 86 m3/s.

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Ecological Power Station IMPOUNDMENT AND POWER
To meet Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
requirements, an ecological flow of 8m3/s is Once the main civil works were completed, the
required to ensure that the ecosystem of the upper reservoir was impounded on September 21,
reach of the Murum River between the dam and 2013, i.e. the diversion tunnel was closed to allow
the downstream power station is sustained. An the reservoir to fill. On November 25, 2014, over
ecological power station was developed to meet a year later, the reservoir reached its full supply
this requirement and at the same time generate level.
electricity. It houses two 3.75MW horizontal shaft While the reservoir was filling, installation
Francis turbines with a total installed capacity of and commissioning of the generating equipment
7.5MW (see Figure 21). commenced. The four Francis turbines, each
capable of generating 236MW, were carefully
installed. When the reservoir reached the
RESETTLEMENT generation minimum operating level on March 29,
2014, the turbines were tested and commissioned
Based on the Social and Environmental Impact under real operating conditions. The first turbine
Assessment (SEIA) study which commenced in was declared fit and ready for commercial
2009, a total of seven communities comprising operation on Christmas Day 2014, and the Murum
1,302 Penan (335 households) and 113 Kenyah HEP began delivering regular power to consumers.
Badeng (18 households) in Plieran, Seping and On June 8, 2015, the fourth and final turbine was
Danum would be affected by the Murum HEP. declared fully operational.
After extensive consultation, the seven
affected communities identified and confirmed Murum Power Generation
their choice of the two resettlement sites at Max. Installed Capacity 944MW
Metalun and Tegulang and provided input on the Firm Generation Capacity 635MW
location and facilities of their new longhouses. The Firm Annual Energy Generation 5,782GWh
relocation process was successfully completed on
December 2, 2013.

The power demand in the State of Sarawak

is expected to increase rapidly, predominantly
because of the on-going development of energy-
intensive industries in the State via SCORE. The
core of the corridor is the development of energy
resources, based on hydropower generation to
meet the power demand in Sarawak in the long
The Murum HEP is a valuable addition to
energy production and contributes further to the
Sarawak Governments SCORE agenda, to attract
energy intensive industries to the state, providing
View of the Murum resettlement area job opportunities, transferable skills and other
benefits that drive Malaysias economy particularly
for Sarawak.




The Solar Impulse flew Despite this momentous achievement, Piccard

points out that this landmark journey was not to
40,000 km around the world revolutionise air travel but to awaken minds to the
power of clean energy and energy efficiency. The
without fuel in a unique Solar Impulse was not built to carry passengers, but
to convey messages. We do not plan to revolutionise
and super robust, light and the aviation industry but instead to demonstrate that
alternative energy sources and new technologies can
extremely energy efficient achieve what some consider impossible, he says.
Indeed, the Solar Impulse could only accommodate
aircraft. This tremendous one person the pilot. Major civil and military aircraft
feat was achieved with many makers were highly sceptical that a plane could fly
solely on solar energy.
engineering and technical To fly with solar energy only, we needed to
find a way to build an aircraft that is super robust
innovations. and super light at the same time, and above all
extremely energy efficient, so as to need only
minuscule amounts of energy in order to fly,

wiss engineer Andr Borschberg and notes Borschberg. The Solar Impulses record-
medical doctor Bertrand Piccard have made breaking flight across the Pacific and Atlantic
history by flying 40,000 km around the world completed in July this year was made possible
on a plane that uses only the power of the sun and by many technical innovations. An estimated 10
not a drop of fuel. They were the pioneers behind innovations have already been patented by the
the Solar Impulse project and took turns to fly a partners of the project and will find applications in
plane powered by the suns energy, photovoltaic everyday life, such as home insulation, electrical
cells and electric motors. motors, batteries, solar elevators and LED lighting.

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Piccard (L) and Borschberg the two pioneers
and pilots who flew the Solar Impulse

The team of engineers and technicians behind

the success of the Solar Impulse


Piccard initiated the Solar Impulse project in

November 2003 after undertaking a feasibility
study in partnership with the Swiss research
institute cole Polytechnique Fdrale de
Lausanne (EPFL) . Borschberg directed the
construction of the aircraft and preparation of
flight missions. By 2009, they had assembled
a multi-disciplinary team of 50 engineers
and technical specialists from six countries,
assisted by about 100 external advisers and 80
technological partners.
The project, financed by a number of private
companies and individuals, also received
around CHF 6 million (US$6.4 million) in funding
from the Swiss Government. Financial backers
included Omega SA, Solvay, Schindler, ABB and
Peter Diamandis. The EPFL, the European Space The Solar Impulse flying over different parts
Agency and Dassault Systemes provided technical of the world. Top to bottom: New York, Cairo,
Mandalay and Seville
expertise, while SunPower provided the aircrafts

photovoltaic (PV) cells. The entire project from its TECHNICAL CHALLENGES
beginning in 2003 until mid-2015 had cost 150
million. It raised another 20 million in late 2015 Solar Impulses engineers and technicians,
to continue the round-the-world flight. under Andr Borschbergs leadership, had to
apply innovative solutions to create the unique
solar-powered plane. They faced many technical
FLIGHT PATH challenges before being able to make a plane as
big as a Boeing 747 but as light as a car, and one
Two solar powered planes, Solar Impulse 1 and that could fly without fuel over long distances.
Solar Impulse 2 were manufactured. Prototype
Solar Impulse 1 made its maiden flight in 2009 Energy to cross oceans and continents
and its first inter-continental 19-hour flight in During the day, the plane flies only by the energy
2012 from Madrid, Spain to Rabat, Morocco. from the sun. But in the morning and evening,
Solar Impulse 2 began its round-the-world when sunshine is not so strong, and especially at
journey in March 2015 starting and ending in Abu night, it must tap into its reserve of energy stored
Dhabi, UAE (with stops in 16 legs). By the end of in its batteries. So every evening, the pilot must
May 2015, the plane had traversed Asia.It made make sure that the planes batteries are 100%
an unscheduled stop in Japan to await favourable charged so that it can fly until the next sunrise.
weather over the Pacific. With Borschberg in the To e n sure e n e r g y sup p l y, 17, 24 8
cockpit, it reached Hawaii on July 3, 2015 setting monocrystalline silicon cells each 135 microns
new records for the worlds longest solar-powered thick was mounted on the wings, fuselage
flight both by time (117 hours, 52 minutes) and and horizontal tail plane, providing the best
distance (7,212km). During that leg, however, the compromise between lightness, flexibility and
planes batteries were damaged by overheating. efficiency. Each solar cell was tested three times.
The plane was grounded in Hawaii until new The energy collected by the solar cells is stored
batteries were made and installed. Test flights in lithium polymer batteries, whose energy density
began in February 2016 and the plane resumed is optimised to 260 Wh/ kg. The batteries are
its journey landing in California in April, 2016. insulated by high density foam and mounted in
Additional legs of the flight were added in the US the four engine nacelles, with a system to control
with the Solar Impulse 2 arriving in New York City charging thresholds and temperature. Their total
on June 11, 2016. Piccard then piloted the aircraft mass amounts to 633 kg, or just over a quarter of
across the Atlantic Ocean, arriving in Seville, the aircrafts all-up weight.
Spain, on June 23, 2016. The final stop was During the first ascent on day one of the flight
inCairo, Egypt, on July 13, 2016 before returning from Nagoya to Hawaii, the battery temperature
to Abu Dhabi. increased due to a high climb rate and an over

Flight route of the Solar Impulse 2

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Table 1 - Specifications of the Solar Impulse 2

Capacity 1 pilot
Wingspan 72 m
Weight 2.3 tons
Number of solar cells 17,248
Number of propellers and batteries 4
Total energy produced from 5644 kWh
Abu Dhabi to Hawaii
Maximum flight time achieved 117 hours 52 minutes
Maximum altitude 28,000 feet
Average airspeed 75 km/h
Maximum recorded ground speed 216 km/h
Fuel consumption 0 litre

Table 2 - How does the Solar Impulse fly by day as well as by night?

6am: The sun has just risen. The airplane is on the runway. Its batteries, charged by the sun on the
previous day, are nearly full. So it can take off using that stored energy...

6am-6pm: It gains altitude. The four motors turn at maximum power as the plane must create lift (the
force that allows the plane to climb) to reach a thinner layer of air where there are fewer clouds. Despite
the steady energy consumption, the batteries are charging.

Nearing 6pm: It reaches 9,000m, its maximum altitude. The suns rays fade. The motors are throttled
down and the plane starts to glide down to an altitude of 1,500m, which takes about four hours, during
which time it consumes almost no electricity...

Nearing 10 pm: At 1,500 m of altitude, the pilot powers up the motors again, but this time they will
take their energy from the batteries. The airplane flies like this until daybreak when solar energy again
feeds power to the motors and recharges the batteries. A new cycle begins.

Making of Solar Impulse : Solar panels (R) and propeller (L)



Technology Partner Function in the Solar Impulse 2 Application on the ground

Protective Transparent Resin - Protect cells from harsh weather Domestic roof solar cells which
Solvay conditions last longer and are adaptable to
more areas
Allow the cells to be moulded into
the wing curvature
Composite Material with Carbon Lighten many parts of the plane Lightweight cars save fuel/
Fibre + Carbon fibre alone - including the fastening, screws, Material savings for wind
Solvay, North TPT, Decision pneumatic cylinders to raise and turbines
lower the landing gear, the light
fittings on the wings, and the
gondolas protective hulls
Ultralight Efficient Solar Cells - Convert solar energy into More efficient solar cells for
Sunpower electricity with an efficiency of domestic roofs
Energy-dense batteries - Solvay Store more energy with less Efficient electric cars or battery-
weight powered devices
Intense and Lightweight LEDs - Light up the runway for landing at Domestic and public lighting to
Omega night replace traditional inefficient
electric bulbs
Ultra-lightweight High-density Insulate the cockpit and the Walls, windows and doorways
Thermal Insulation Foam - batteries for extreme cold insulation to seal air leaks in
Solvay, Covestro conditions buildings

Smart Energy Dispatcher Systems Optimise the energy use of the Smart grid dispatch systems
- Omega plane

Prevent/secure engine failing


Energy Efficient Engines- Solvay Decrease mechanical loss Lubricant for any motors could
of energy to 6%, thanks to a be upgraded

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JUNE 2013 2016
insulation of the gondolas. Although the Mission Robustness
Team was monitoring the flight closely, there The upper wing surface of the plane is covered
was no way to decrease the temperature for the by a skin consisting of encapsulated solar cells,
remaining duration as each daily cycle requires and the lower surface by a high strength, flexible
an ascent to 28,000 feet and descent for optimal skin. A total of 140 carbon fibre ribs spaced at 50
energy management. cm intervals give the wing its aerodynamic cross-
The damage to the batteries was not a section, and also maintain its rigidity.
technical failure or a weakness in the technology To be resistant to wind, water, mold and large
but rather an evaluation error in terms of the temperature variations, chemists and engineers
profile of the mission and the cooling design invented especially light insulating materials.
specifications of the batteries. The temperature of These included a rigid polyurethane foam
the batteries in a quick ascent/descent in tropical (insulation made of alveolate foam) for protecting
climates was not properly anticipated. the cockpit and the pods housing the motors and
To avoid the batteries overheating again, batteries; high performance polycarbonate sheets
engineers upgraded the whole battery system and (derived from plastic) for the windows, and an
integrated a cooling system. ultrathin polymer film (a kind of resin) to protect
the photovoltaic cells from water and UV radiation,
Flying over 35,000 km and allow them to adopt the curvature of the wings
The Solar Impulses motors have an average power without breaking.
over 24 hours of a small motorbike (15 hp) with a
maximum power of 70 hp (four 17.5 hp engines). Energy efficiency
Four brushless, sensorless motors, each The systems on the airplane for collecting and
generating 17.4 hp, were mounted below the storing energy were designed to minimise energy
wings, and fitted with a reduction gear limiting loss. The solar cells, batteries and motors have
the rotation speed of a 4m diameter, two-bladed record beating energy efficiency: 23% for the solar
propeller to 525 rpm. The entire system is 94% cells, and 97% for the motors, which only lose 3%
efficient, setting a record for energy efficiency. of energy against 70% for standard thermal motors.
Solar Impulse can fly at the same speed as a With so many technical innovations on board,
car, between 36 km/h (20 Kts) and 140 km/h (77 Borschberg described the Solar Impulse as a
Kts). At sea level, minimum speed is 45 km/h (20 flying laboratory full of clean technologies. These
Kts) and maximum speed 90 km/h (49 Kts). At technologies are now opening up new industrial
maximum altitude, speed can pick up to between markets and offering an opportunity for economic
57 km/h (31.5 Kts) and 140 km/h (77 Kts). development and job creation. ( see Table 3).
Many hearts and minds have been captivated
Being as a light as a feather or a car by Solar Impulses flight around the world this year.
The engineering team managed to build the entire Although commercial aviation powered by the sun
structure proportionately 10 times lighter than is still far way, the plane has inspired innovations
that of the best glider. Every gram added had to and pushed the limits of solar energy and energy
be deducted somewhere else, to make room for efficiency. If an airplane can fly several days
enough batteries on board, and provide a cockpit and nights in a row with no fuel, then clean
in which a pilot can live for a week. In the end, it technologies can be used on the ground to reduce
had the weight of a small van or 2,300kg, using a our energy consumption, Borschberg explains .
combination of ultralight materials: carbon fibre He believes that clean technologies, such as the
weighing 25 g/m2 (three times lighter than paper) ones developed and tested for Solar Impulse,
and alveolate foam in the form of a honeycomb. could cut energy consumed on a daily basis by
These two materials, assembled in a sandwich, 50%. Inforeach
are used in the whole frame of the plane: fuselage
(body of the plane), cockpit and spars (central REFERENCE
beam representing the spinal column of the www.solarimpulse.com
wings). Wikipedia


Global Direction on
By Foo Mee Sim

The Renewable Energy Policy Framework for the 21 st Century

in its recent Global Status Report (Renewables 2016) provides
comprehensive and timely information on renewable energy matters.

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he clean energy initiative in Malaysia has consumption in 2014, and growth in capacity and
taken a steeper upward curve recently generation continued in 2015.
through the various action plans and Employment in the renewable energy sector
programmes by Government agencies as well (excluding large-scale hydropower projects)
as various private initiatives. An example of increased in 2015 to an estimated 8.1 million
such an initiative is clean energy deployment by jobs (direct and indirect). Solar PV and biofuels
mandating the adoption of a renewable energy provided the largest numbers of renewable
feed-in-tariff (FiT) mechanism under the countrys energy jobs. Large-scale hydropower projects
2011 Renewable Energy Act. This effort was accounted for an additional 1.3 million direct jobs.
supported by the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) Considering all renewable energy technologies,
service, which facilitated a partnership between the leading employers in 2015 were China, Brazil,
the Malaysian Sustainable Energy Development the United States and India.
Authority (SEDA) and the Clean Energy Regulators
Initiative (CERI), in collaboration with the CEMs MAINSTREAMING RENEWABLES:
Clean Energy Solutions Center, Leonardo Energy, GUIDANCE FOR POLICY MAKERS
and 21st Century Power Partnership. Ire-Tex
Packaging Sdn Bhd announced that it had been The universal nature of energy was emphasised
granted the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) approval by SEDA to in the international political sphere in 2015. In
develop and operate solar photovoltaics (solar PV) September 2015, the United Nations General
with 1MW power capacity to produce electricity Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development
for distribution to licensees in Malaysia under the Goal in ensuring access to sustainable energy for
new venture. all (SDG7). Furthermore, 195 countries adopted
Renewables are now established around the the Paris Agreement to address climate change
world as mainstream sources of energy. Rapid in December 2015, committing to increasing
growth, particularly in the power sector, is being renewables and energy efficiency as part of the
driven by several factors, including improving goal to limit global temperature rise to two degrees
cost-competiveness of renewable technologies, Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
dedicated policy initiatives, better access to There is a clear link between environmental
financing, energy security and environmental protection, poverty reduction, economic growth
concerns, growing demand for energy in and technology development, and this work on
developing and emerging economies, and the cross-cutting issues cannot be done in silos.
need for access to modern energy. Consequently, In order to meet the agreed targets, it will be
new markets for both centralised and distributed necessary to work across the various domains,
renewable energy are emerging in all regions. including increasing dialogue, using multi-
2015 was a year of firsts for high-profile stakeholder approaches and cross-cutting
agreements and announcements related to educational programmes, and suppor ting
renewable energy. These include commitments inter- minis terial c ollab or ation. National
by both the G7 and the G20 to accelerate access budgeting structures must also contain cross-
to renewable energy and to advance energy cutting aspects; finance and potentially other
efficiency, and the United Nations General Ministries must be included in climate and
Assemblys adoption of a dedicated Sustainable energy decision-making processes alongside
Development Goal on Sustainable Energy for All energy Ministries.
(SDG 7). Outside of the political sphere, civil society
Although many of the initiatives announced demonstrated its overwhelming support for
in Paris and elsewhere did not start to affect a transition to renewable energy, including
renewable markets in 2015, there were already through the Popes environmental encyclical and
signs that a global energy transition was the Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist declarations
underway. Furthermore, renewable energy on climate change, all of which called on
provided an estimated 19.2% of global final energy



34 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
communities of faith to commit to a zero or low- favoured over clean energy in many instances,
carbon future. Pressure is also being placed particularly when short-term gains are the
on the more reluctant energy sector players. primary consideration and long-term thinking is
Even shareholders in fossil fuel companies are discounted. This can occur when politicians think
increasingly pushing for their companies to only in terms of the next election cycle, or when
become greener. The private sector is taking companies attempt to provide shareholders with
advantage of the falling costs of renewable quick returns. Furthermore, fossil fuels are more
energy technologies, and new initiatives have institutionalised and have long-standing, well-
emerged that include both public and private financed lobbies.
sector actors, acknowledging that all have a role Conversely, renewables are still less known and
to play in energy transition. often suffer from negative images and messages
In parallel, increasing energy access for 1.2 that are widely communicated, such as the idea
billion people without access to electricity is an that that investing in large renewable projects is
international priority. In order to meet the target of unrealistic. Simultaneously, renewable energy
limiting global temperature increase to below two policy changes and uncertainties undermine
degrees Celsius, while at the same time increasing investor confidence, inhibiting investment and
energy access, remaining fossil fuel reserves will deployment in some markets. Investors consider
have to be kept in the ground, and both renewable all of these factors in their decision making, as
energy and energy efficiency will have to be scaled do insurers (demonstrated by the increasing
up dramatically. presence of insurance addressing climate change
risks). Likewise, policy makers should think on a
long-term basis in order to increase investment in
LEVELLING THE PLAYING FIELD clean energy and advance the energy transition in
their countries.
Fossil fuel subsidies have to be phased out, as
they distort the true costs of energy and encourage
wasteful spending and increased emissions. Fossil THINKING BEYOND THE POWER SECTOR
fuel subsidies also present a barrier to scaling up
clean energy by: More emphasis needs to be placed on
decreasing the costs of fossil fuel-powered strengthening the role of renewable energy in the
electricity generation, thereby blunting the heating, cooling and transport sectors, as well as
cost-competitiveness of renewables; on sector coupling. Policy support for the use of
creating an incumbent advantage that renewables in these sectors has advanced at a
strengthens the position of fossil fuels in much slower pace over the past 10 years than it
the electricity system; and has in the power sector. Currently renewable heat
creating conditions that favour investments obligations exist in only 21 countries and biofuel
in fossil fuel-based technologies over mandates exist in only 66 countries, compared
renewables. with 114 countries with renewable energy
regulatory policies in the power sector. Not only
Fossil fuel subsidies were estimated to be over should policy support for renewables increase in
US$490 billion in 2014, compared with subsidies general, but interaction among the three sectors
of only US$135 billion for renewables. also needs to increase, and national policies
Policy design should discourage investments should strengthen local capacity, particularly in the
in fossil fuel and nuclear energy, while removing heating and cooling sector due to its distributed
risks from investments in renewable energy. This nature and to its large reliance on local resources.
is crucial for scaling up renewables, which can Policy makers need to remove barriers that
help close the energy access gap. Although there are preventing the increased share of renewables
has been some divestment from fossil fuels and in heating, cooling and transport. Current policy
advances in renewable energy investment, fossil initiatives in both sectors are not sufficient to
fuel and nuclear investments continue to be drive the transition from fossil fuels. Policies in the


heating and cooling sector, in particular, have not a change in existing infrastructure needs to take
progressed, although heat represents nearly half place. In developing countries, the concept of
of annual final energy consumption. To resolve a distributed resources should be taken into account
structural problem of this magnitude, both supply in planning and investment, rather than defaulting
and demand-side barriers to increasing the use of to the traditional model of connecting everyone
renewables in both sectors must be addressed, to a centralised grid. To provide proper guidance
such as a lack of trained personnel, costs to retrofit to decision makers, tools need to be developed
or upgrade existing facilities, a lack of awareness or that reflect these new renewable energy realities
knowledge of renewable alternatives, the reluctance and changing business models, and that help to
to change and low consumer confidence. These plan for the integration of distributed renewables
barriers and others can and should be tackled in developing and developed countries alike.
through a suite of programmes and policy support Rather than resorting to an either or mentality,
options, including public awareness campaigns, off-grid and on-grid solutions can be pursued
training programmes and renewable energy simultaneously.
incentive policies. The private sector also should plan for a
decentralised energy landscape, as the rapid
and exponential growth of renewable power
PLANNING FOR A DISTRIBUTED FUTURE generation and distributed resources comes
with both opportunities and challenges, resulting
It is imperative to plan proactively for a future with in both winners and losers. In response to new
a higher amount of distributed energy generation. competition and the disruption of traditional
There is a growing trend towards generation business models, some utilities and electricity
closer to the consumption point, and the use of suppliers are resisting change. Others, however,
distributed renewable energy is rising in both are repositioning themselves and taking
developing and developed countries. In developing advantage of renewable energy opportunities,
countries, the use of distributed renewables is by shifting more towards renewable assets and
primarily a tool for increasing energy access, new markets and embracing the idea of a much
particularly in rural areas. In developed countries, more decentralised future power system, with less
it is in response to a demand for self-sufficiency emphasis on fossil fuels.
and a desire for more-reliable electricity for those
connected to the grid, with an increasing number
of prosumers emerging. ADAPTING TO THE NEW, COMPLEX
This change necessitates advanced planning ENERGY SYSTEM
that incorporates a transition to new business
models and several policy incentives, while also Systemic, cross-cutting approaches are needed
taking into account the expansion of rooftop solar for scaling up renewables. Policies have often
installations, decreasing storage costs, increasing focused on a single sector source or technology
energy efficiency measures, the development of and were envisioned in the context of centralised
community energy projects and the involvement power (infra)structures, which no longer reflect the
of a new smart technology industry. It will also reality of an increasingly complex energy system
require a scaling up of infrastructure investments with increasing crossover and decentralisation.
to maintain and build stable grid networks ready Planning should occur across sectors and across
to integrate high shares of variable renewables. Government departments and Ministries; policy
Comprehensive energy planning is needed to design should be performed in close dialogue
intensify research, development and deployment with the public and private sectors; and policies
of enabling infrastructure for distributed at different levels of Government should be
resources, including strengthened electricity complementary and reinforcing.
networks, energy storage, demand response and Scaling up renewables is often less a
flexible power plants. In industrialised countries, problem of finance, and more one of political will

36 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
and of capacity. However, in many developing without increases in both renewables and energy
countries, policies and Government support are efficiency. Greater synergies between the two
still necessary to establish stable conditions to are possible in all sectors, and strengthening
ensure that finance can reach projects and to measures for one often will, in turn, strengthen
enable private investors to engage. In addition to the other. To expand energy access, decision
robust policies that are adapted to the complexity makers must also make use of both renewable
of the new energy system, strong leadership is energy and energy efficiency across all sectors.
necessary to advance the energy transition, as By building both renewables and efficiency into
ambitious policies require political support, skilled energy access policies and programmes from the
direction and a vision for the future. beginning, available energy supply can effectively
To support systemic, cross-cutting approaches be increased, and more-reliable supply can be
to energy, capacity needs to be built at both the provided at a lower cost.
political and the technical levels. Training has
to be made available for both current and future Note: The above article is an extract from
decision makers, but also to build up the technical Renewables 2016 Global Status Report and
workforce to expand technological and economic used with permission from REN 21 Secretariat
solutions and to remove barriers that are standing
in the way of energy transition. Such training REN21 stands for Renewables Energy Policy
could include streamlining energy efficiency and Network for the 21st Century. It is a multi-
renewable energy courses into university curricula, stakeholder network which shares its insight
and interdisciplinary/ inter-sectoral internships that and knowledge, helping the REN21 Secretariat
link research, markets, businesses and the public produce its annual Renewables Global Status
sector. Report (GSR) as well as regional reports. Today
Addi tionall y, renewable s should b e the network stands at 700 renewable energy,
considered alongside energy efficiency and energy access and energy efficiency experts.
energy access. Just as the energy transition For GSR 2016, 180 experts were involved in the
cannot occur if everything is focussed on a report process, equivalent to the total number of
single sector, likewise it cannot be achieved GSR experts in 2012.

Do You Energy
Know? By Cheo Hong Keyong

Do you know that the first settlement in Malaysia to be lit up at night

with electricity was at Kampung Rawang Tin near Rawang before the bigger
towns such as Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh had that luxury? It was in 1894 when a coal-powered
generator was installed at a tin-min site nearby to light up the tin-mining area and its vicinity,
including this village free of charge.
The coal for the generator was supplied from nearby Batu Arang. Along with it, the Rawang
railway station became the first railway station in Malaya that had electricity supply.

Where Engineers Excel THE

2015 1
KDN PP 11720/4/2013 (032270)


The Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM),



A 01
G 3 (0

Z 32
IN 27

E 0)


formed in 1972, is a statutory body




constituted under the Registration ofof



Engineers Act 1967. BEM falls within the


ambit of responsibility of the Minister of of

Works. Its primary role is to facilitate the
registration of engineers and regulate the the BUILDING
professional conduct and practice of
registered engineers in order to
safeguard the safety and interest of of the
ingenieur 2015 July-FA.indd 1 7/31/15 8:46 PM

The content in this magazine, written mainly

Under BEMs registration record are by the engineering community and
16,000 Professional Engineers and
15,000 technical professionals, provides first-hand
87,000 Graduate Engineers in various
71,000 and valuable knowledge. There is a wealth
disciplines and industries throughout of information on:
Malaysia. Infrastructure design and
Published quarterly by BEM, The Ingenieur,
Ingenieur, Professional practice
reaches out to the engineering community Government policies and guidelines
via a 13,500 print version as well as to
to Legal issues
other readers via an e-format. Engineering personalities
Readership is estimated at 50,000. Continuous development of engineers.

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Push for Renewable Energy


in the Asia-Pacific Region

By Pang Soo Mooi

t the 3rd International Sustainable Energy worlds total, which at current production rates will
Summit (ISES) 2016 held on April 5, 2016, last 34 years. Natural gas reserves are 106,357
the Malaysian Minister of Energy, Green billion m3, accounting for 55.8% of the worlds
Technology and Water stressed that the Malaysian total, which will last 76 years at current production
Government places great importance on the rates. The Asia-Pacific region shares 55.4% of
development of sustainable energy as a solution the global coal reserves, and will last 89 years at
for Malaysia to achieve energy autonomy and current production rates.
ultimately, ensuring energy security for Malaysia. Among the Asia-Pacific countries, reserves of
Against this backdrop, it is interesting to examine oil, natural gas and coal are unevenly distributed.
the efforts taken by the United Nations Economic Countries with the most abundant fossil fuel reserves
and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific may not be countries with highest consumption
(ESCAP) in promoting Renewable Energy (RE) in rates, implying the need for regional co-operation on
the region. energy production and energy trade.

Energy Security Energy self-sufficiency varies

Energy security is an important prerequisite Creating measures for energy self-sufficiency

for development (ESCAP, 2013). Although its is one of the most important policy options
definition varies across countries, generally it for establishing national security. Energy self-
refers to long-term, sufficient and affordable sufficiency is estimated by the ratio of indigenous
energy supply that meets demand. Limited years energy production over Total Primary Energy
of reserves to production ratio for fossil fuels in Supply (TPES). A country is self-sufficient in energy
the region, various energy self-sufficiency levels, supply and may be able to export energy if the
plus differentiated influence of the fluctuating ratio is greater than or equal to 1. A country is not
international oil prices are all significant factors that self-sufficient in energy supply and has to rely on
call for regional collaboration on energy access, energy imports if the ratio is less than 1.
trade, connectivity, technology development and Two sub-regions significantly increased their
transfer, as well as fiscal strategies to enhance net energy imports from 1990 to 2012:
energy security for sustainable development in the East and North-East Asia doubled net
Asia-Pacific region. energ y impor ts during the period,
increasing from 429.6 Mtoe to 1139.9, and
South and South-West Asia grew from a net
Fossil fuel reserves are limited and energy export of 44.5 Mtoe in 1990 to a
unevenly distributed net importer of 282.7 in 2012.
South-East Asia, the Pacific and North and
Fossil fuels have been the major energy resource Central Asia have been net energy exporters, with
for the Asia-Pacific region. Oil reserves in the various levels of increase in TPES exports. North
Asia-Pacific region account for only 19.3% of the and Central Asia recorded a strong increase in

40 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
energy export, growing from 447.2 Mtoe in 1990 opportunities for importers such as Indonesia and
to 739.7 in 2012. Overall, however, the Asia-Pacific India to reform their programmes on fuel subsidies
region became a net TPES importer in 2007, and (ADB, 2014). It also provided a good opportunity
in the next five years, the net TPES imports for the for high-subsidy countries to adjust policies on
region increased to 385.5 Mtoe in 2012. fossil fuels. For oil-exporting countries, such as
the Russian Federation and other Central Asia
countries, growth would be negatively impacted
Impact of fluctuating oil prices depending on the role of the energy sector in the
differentiated national economy.
Oil price fluctuations have significant
Due to the extraordinary economic growth in macroeconomic, financial and policy implications.
recent decades, energy demand for the Asia- They support economic activity and reduce
Pacific region has risen significantly, and it is inflationary, external and fiscal pressures for
expected to grow continuously in the foreseeable oil-importing countries, but affect oil-exporting
future. Fossil fuels have been and will continue countries adversely by weakening fiscal and
to be the major energy source in the region, external positions and reducing economic
accounting for more than 60% of the total final activity (World Bank, 2015). They also provide a
energy consumption (ESCAP, 2014). The soaring significant opportunity to reform energy taxes and
energy demand, plus unevenly distributed fossil fuel subsidies, as well as reinvigorating reforms to
fuel reserves in the region, make many developing diversify oil-reliant economies.
countries dependent on imported fossil fuels and
therefore expose them to energy price volatility in
the international market. Integration of Renewable Energy in
Electricity Systems

The power generation sector continues to evolve,

specifically with regard to effectively integrating an
increased share of renewable energy and variable
renewable energy (VRE) within the electricity mix.
Renewable energy share of electricity
production in Asia and the Pacific increased
from 666 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 1990 to
1,869TWh in 2012, representing 17% of
the 2012 electricity mix within the region
(ESCAP, 2015).
Many developing countries dependent on VRE share of electricity production in Asia
imported fossil fuels and the Pacific increased from less than
By early 2015, international oil prices declined 38 GWh in 1990 to nearly 164,000 GWh
dramatically by 47% although it has rebounded (164 TWh) in 2012, representing 1.5% of
since February (EIA, 2015). Because of combined the 2012 electricity mix within the region
consequences of slowing growth in major (ESCAP, 2015).
economies and steadily declining oil intensity and Globally, share of VRE sources within the
expected weak growth in 2015, relatively low oil electricity mix have risen from 0.04% of
prices may persist. The overall impact of falling oil electricity production in 1990 to 2.8% in
prices will depend on the nature of oil-dependence 2012 (ESCAP, 2015).
(oil-importing or oil-exporting) of national The cost-competitiveness of VRE for
economies. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) power generation has reached historic levels,
estimated that net oil importers in the region approaching parity with fossil fuel generation.
could see an additional 0.5% growth in 2015 GDP Solar photovoltaic (solar PV) module prices
if oil prices remain low (ADB, 2014). The low oil in 2014 were 75% lower than their levels at
prices also lowered inflation rates and presented the end of 2009 while wind turbine prices

decreased by nearly a third over the same
period (The International Renewable Energy
Agency or IRENA, 2015).
From a purely economic standpoint, the
levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of utility-
scale solar PV has been cut in half from
2000 to 2014 (IRENA, 2015).
With all externalities considered, including
health and environmental costs associated
with fossil fuel combustion, renewables
become even more attractive.
According to the International Energy Agency LCOE of utility-scale solar PV has been cut in half
(IEA), CO2 emissions from the generation of energy smarter with more flexible energy systems that
during combustion accounts for approximately can efficiently accommodate new intermittent VRE
60% of global emissions (IEA, 2013a). To combat generation capacity. A number of barriers stand in
the rise of global emissions, energy generation the way, but these barriers are lowering.
from renewable energy, including VRE sources, Accelerating VRE integration requires a multi-
forms a strong alternative option. faceted approach, including development of
VRE sources produce far less air pollution strong policy frameworks, long-term planning
than traditional generation. In fact, the perspectives in power plant and transmission
energy payback period for a solar PV infrastructure investments, advancement of grid
panel ranges from as little as one to four operations and increased engagement with civil
years while wind turbines produce more society and the private sector. Fluctuating oil
(clean) energy than was used in their prices may not heavily impact VRE installation
manufacturing in less than a single year. figures in the near-term as oil accounts for only
As mentioned, when negative externalities 4.10% of electricity production in the Asia-
are considered, the case for increased Pacific region (ESCAP, 2015). Many policymakers
generation from renewable sources from have made commitments towards achieving
an economic and social welfare standpoint established goals of renewable energy capacity
becomes even stronger. that are less likely to be influenced by short-term
fluctuations in fossil fuel prices.

The barriers to capturing and integrating

VRE resources are getting lower Renewable Energy
If the energy available from solar and wind could There are strong and impressive indications of the
be captured on a large scale, annual energy needs Asia-Pacific regions large and ever-rising interest
could be met within days, or even hours. However, in renewable energy as a fundamental component
technology for capturing and storing energy, of a secure and sustainable electricity mix.
stability of distribution systems, capital costs and Renewable energy encompasses many different
even physical space have presented challenges to sources of energy derived from natural processes,
VRE uptake within the worlds energy systems. But which are replenished at a faster rate than they are
today, technology is advancing at unprecedented consumed. Examples include energy from biomass,
speeds and costs, particularly for solar PV, and flowing water (i.e. rivers and the ocean), heat from
prices are dropping more rapidly than predicted the Earths interior, sunlight and wind. Whether in
just a few years ago. the power, building, industry or transport sectors,
Current trends and future outlook clearly point renewable energy can be used for electricity
to continued expansion of VRE globally and in generation, heating/cooling and fuel for mobility.
the Asia-Pacific region; however, the evolution of In such ways, renewable energy exists as a viable
the electricity mix will require grids to become alternative and complement to fossil fuels.

42 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
The power generation sector continues to the production and adoption of VRE technologies.
evolve, with increasing support policies propelling Led largely by China, the region is driving
increased renewable energy deployment, which the global trend in production of solar and wind
in turn leads to technological improvements as power and shaping the global markets for these
well as continual cost reductions. Despite this technologies.
virtuous cycle, renewable energy deployment Increasingly, the benefits of generating
and integration is not increasing rapidly enough electricity from VRE rather than fossil fuels are
to meet the worlds ambitious goals for a truly recognised. Recent developments in policy,
sustainable power system (IRENA, 2015). investment, generation and capacity additions
As of 2012, renewable energy accounted for point strongly in the direction of a significant
approximately 17% of electricity production in increase in future VRE integration within the
the Asia-Pacific region, down slightly from 18% regions power systems.
in 1990. In absolute terms, renewable energy Thirdly, the Asia-Pacific region has the
production increased from 666 TWh in 1990 to opportunity to transition to more flexible, stable,
1,869 TWh in 2012. Over this period, however, cleaner and cost-effective future energy systems
generation from VRE sources increased from 38 that can better integrate the power resources of
GWh of electricity production in 1990 to nearly both today and tomorrow. The regions dynamic
164,000 GWh (164 TWh) in 2012, accounting power systems are leading the increase in global
for 1.5% of total electricity production within the electricity demand, yet many countries struggle
region as of 2012. Total electricity production to generate base levels of electricity. Tremendous
nearly tripled from 3,743 TWh in 1990 to 10,739 investment is needed to expand and refurbish
TWh in 2012 (ESCAP, 2015). the regions electricity systems, and incentives
exist to turn to the cheapest and easiest fuel
and technology solutions to meet this need.
Variable Renewable Energy However, not planning for long-term economic,
social and environmental costs, or not developing
VRE sources include wind, solar PV and energy systems that can better integrate shifting
concentrated solar power (CSP), wave and tidal resources and emerging technologies, may result
energies. Globally, shares of VRE sources within in the inability to meet future demand in an
the electricity mix have risen from 0.04% of economically cost-effective manner.
electricity production in 1990 to 2.8% in 2012,
significantly higher than the 1.5% share that
VRE accounts for in the Asia-Pacific region. The Renewable Energy Outlook
emergence of VRE is due in part to the fact that
the cost-competitiveness of these technologies According to the IEA World Energy Outlook
has reached historic levels. 2014, cumulative power plant capacity additions
Three factors make VRE a critical theme between 2014 and 2025 will be dominated by
requiring in-depth examination within the context renewables within the Asia-Pacific region with
of energy development in the Asia-Pacific region. 777 GW of added capacity, followed by coal (506
Firstly, the barriers to capturing VRE resources GW), gas (303 GW), nuclear (125 GW) and oil (4
are getting lower. Technology for capturing and GW). In terms of generation shares within the
storing energy, stability of distribution systems, electricity mix, renewable energy within the Asia-
capital costs and even physical space continues Pacific region will increase from 17.4% in 2012 to
to advance at unprecedented speeds, while 28% in 2040 according to the IEA New Policies
costs - particularly for solar PV - continue to fall Scenario (NPS). VRE will jump from 1.5 to 10%
more rapidly than predicted just a few years ago. over this same period, within the region.
Secondly, Governments, the private sector and In order for renewable energy supply to
the general public are increasingly turning towards reach these NPS targets by 2040, a cumulative
VRE for power production. The Asia-Pacific region investment of US$7.8 trillion is needed, with
has emerged in the past few years as a leader in approximately 95% to be spent on power


On a purely economic basis, VRE is becoming competitive with conventional fossil fuel generation with
further decreases in price coming from reduced balance of systems cost.

generation technologies (IEA, 2014a). At US$2.5 operations and maintenance (O&M) costs,
trillion, wind power attracts the largest amount financing costs and an assumed utilisation rate
of capital expenditure, followed by hydropower for each plant type.
(US$1.9 trillion) and solar PV (US$1.7 trillion; According to the IEA (2013a), CO2 emissions
(IEA, 2014a). Over the period 20142040, average from the generation of energy during combustion
annual investment in renewables for power will accounts for approximately 60% of global
amount to approximately US$270 billion, 75% emissions. In this regard, two topics addressed
higher than the average investment annually over at the 2014 Policy Dialogue on Energy for
2000-2013 under the NPS. Sustainable Development for the Asia-Pacific
region include the promotion of high efficiency,
low emissions (HELE) coal-fired power generation
Variable Renewable Energy becoming and VRE power generation as part of a flexible and
competitive secure power grid that will allow for more efficient
and sustainable power generation.
On a purely economic basis, VRE is becoming
competitive with conventional fossil fuel
generation with further decreases in price Variable Renewable Energy Innovations
coming from reduced balance of systems cost
(BoS). As mentioned above, the LCOE of utility- VRE boasts quicker deployment than large
scale solar PV has been cut in half from 2000 hydropower projects as the latter can take years
to 2014 (IRENA, 2015). LCOE is one measure or even decades to commission. By comparison,
of overall competitiveness used to compare wind projects can be sited and erected in as little
electricity generation costs across various as two to three years. Utility-scale PV solar projects
sources. Key inputs to calculating LCOE include can be constructed in less than six months, and
capital costs, fuel costs, fixed and variable distributed PV systems can be added to rooftops

44 VOL
JUNE 2013 2016
in a day or less. Solar and wind resources are hydropower have provided low-cost electricity
also more readily available on a wider geographic where untapped economic resources exist
scale and may have less environmental impact for many years. The most cost-effective utility-
than hydropower projects. In short, these VRE scale solar PV projects are currently capable of
technologies are poised to make an immediate delivering electricity for just US$0.08 per kilowatt-
impact on energy supply and access in the hour (kWh) without financial support, compared
developing world (Climate scope, 2014). with a range of US$0.045 to $0.14/kWh for
More advanced forecasting technology has fossil fuel power. Onshore wind is now one of the
made maintaining grid stability more feasible. most competitive sources of electricity available.
Load forecasting techniques are very mature, Technology improvements are occurring at the
typically with a mean absolute error of 1% to 2% same time as installed costs continue to decline,
a day. However, while load forecasting is usually meaning that the LCOE of onshore wind is now
highly accurate, there remains a residual amount within the same cost range, or even lower, than
of unpredictable fluctuation in real-time demand. for fossil fuels. The best wind projects around
Where load is particularly sensitive to weather the world are consistently delivering electricity for
conditions due to electricity demand for electric US$0.05/kWh without financial support (IRENA,
heating and air conditioning, load uncertainty can 2015).
also be considerable. The quality of forecasts has Regional weighted average costs of electricity
seen important improvements over recent years from biomass for power, geothermal, hydropower
(IEA, 2014d). and onshore wind are all now in the range of, or
Distributed solar PV can provide electricity even span a lower range than, estimated fossil
to those who lack access to the grid (where fuel-fired electricity generation costs. Because
grid extension remains unfeasible). However, of striking LCOE reductions, solar PV costs
these distributed systems require upfront capital increasingly fall within that range.
investments that act as a barrier to widespread Within Asia, weighted average costs of
adoption. Storage solutions are also cost- generating on- and off-shore wind have become
prohibitive, but diesel or liquefied natural gas especially competitive, with solar PV continuing
could be used during periods of low or absent solar to improve as solar cell efficiencies increase
irradiance. Distributed solar PV systems may be a and equipment and BoS costs decline. It should
more cost-effective solution than diesel generation be noted that when considering which sources
for many, especially when considering LCOE. of electricity generation to pursue, countries
VRE component costs have fallen as efficiency must take into account their unique situations
has increased. Solar PV module prices in 2014 and resources, including solar insolation, wind
were 75% lower than their levels at the end of availability, regulatory framework, composition
2009, while the total installed costs of utility-scale and flexibility of their grid, and geographic
PV systems have fallen by between 29% and 65% balancing areas. There is no one size fits all
between 2010 and 2014 depending on the region approach to effective VRE integration. However,
(IRENA, 2015). Renewable power generation when integrating a higher share of VRE, grid
technologies are now competing head-to-head systems as a whole must be examined and VRE
with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation options should be seen as one piece of a dynamic and
and generation costs are falling. flexible grid puzzle.

Cost comparison between power Increased Integration of Variable

generation technologies Renewable Energy

Installed costs for onshore wind power, solar By covering a large geographic area, variations
PV and concentrated solar power (CSP) have from different VRE plants cancel out and the
continued to fall, while their performance has overall generation profile is smoother. Ideally their
improved. Biomass for power, geothermal and footprints will not be exposed to the same weather

continued expansion of VRE integration within an
evolving power sector will require grids to advance
into smarter and more flexible energy systems that
can efficiently accommodate new VRE generation
VRE electricity generation is considered
expensive. However, with the continuing trend
of falling technology prices, investment costs
are rapidly decreasing for solar PV and wind
power. When considering the LCOE of building
Average costs of electricity from biomass for and operating a power-generating plant over an
power span a lower range than fossil fuel-fired assumed financial life and duty cycle, utility-scale
electricity generation costs solar and wind are already competing with fossil
system at any point in time. The forecasting fuels. Prices are expected to continue to fall in
techniques are more accurate if a larger number the coming decades (IEA, 2014b), and therefore
of power plants are included and they are not investment cost considerations can be expected
concentrated in one location. This means that to be eliminated as a significant obstacle.
the system will need relatively fewer reserves to Grid instability is another commonly cited
guarantee the same level of reliability. However, barrier to VRE integration. However, recent
these benefits will only materialise if the system experience in Germany and Denmark suggest that
is operated in the appropriate way. Whatever the high levels of grid stability with increased share
source of electricity, whatever resources exist to of VRE are possible. In 2010 and 2011, these
balance supply and demand, the sub-area of the countries, behind only Luxembourg, boasted
power market over which balance is maintained the lowest rates of system disruption 1915.91
in real time (the balancing area) is central to the and 14.75 minutes per year, respectively while
challenge. integrating some of the highest shares of VRE
Balancing areas are defined to a large electricity generation in the EU at 12% and 20%
extent by the historical development of the grid (CEER, 2014). Enabling this are a number of other
(often originally unconnected parts), and by the factors, including advanced weather (wind and
distinct utilities and institutions that drove that sun) forecasting, generation spread over a large
development and have subsequently endured. geographical area, large system balancing areas
Protocols will need to be created to govern the achieved through the use of international power
flow of electricity across these boundaries, and markets and the use of advanced transmission
long-term collaboration may have to exist, but not system operators.
necessarily ones that allow for interchanges of As more advanced grid technologies are
electricity inside the balancing timeframe. Coupled adopted through the Asia-Pacific region, and
with congestion in (weaker) border areas, this will as power grids become more integrated, the
hinder shared balancing activities. ability to maintain stable grids while upping the
Co-operation between balancing areas can share of VRE will increase. Still, cost-effective
significantly reduce the operational costs of power integration of VRE will require long-term planning
systems. The benefits of larger balancing areas and a system-wide transformation. Typically, four
tend to be more pronounced when VRE is part of specific flexibility considerations are needed
the generation portfolio (IRENA, 2015). when integrating VRE, including flexible power
plants, electricity storage, grid infrastructure and
demand-side management. Each country may
Lowering barriers to VRE integration possess diverse challenges when integrating an
increased share of VRE, and there is no one-size-
When analysing current trends and future outlook, fits-all approach, but rather a slate of options
the continued expansion of VRE globally and in to achieve meaningful energy transformation.
the Asia-Pacific region remains highly likely. This Simply adding VRE generation into an inflexible

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grid without addressing the impacts on the system be located across vast geographical distances or
as a whole may substantially increase electricity across international borders. At the same time,
prices while reducing grid stability. dis-incentivising polluting and carbon-intensive
power generation could boost VRE development
while reducing a number of social, economic and
Accelerating VRE Integration environmental costs.

Accelerating VRE integration requires a multi-

faceted approach, including development of Grid Flexibility for Stability and Cost
strong policy frameworks, long-term planning Control
perspectives in power plant and transmission
infrastructure investments, advancement of grid When integrating a diverse set of resources
operations and increased engagement with civil and significant shares of VRE, grid flexibility is
society and the private sector. fundamental for maintaining system stability,
Although capital costs for VRE technology are enabling increased market competition and
falling along with the need for high-cost subsidies, controlling electricity prices. Achieving high levels of
lacking, complicated or even conflicting policies flexibility requires a combination of strategies and
create unpredictable and unattractive investment policies. Comprehensive system planning is needed
environments, and can lead to unintended along with optimisation of power system features.
and potentially unfavourable outcomes for The use of integrated power markets supports
VRE integration. The national policy framework system flexibility and can provide a large geographic
provides the underpinnings for successful balancing area. Keys to this include the removal
integration, and its level of comprehensiveness, of cross-border tariffs, as well as congestion
alignment with national context and pairing with management through the use of a system
concrete measures to promote VRE will largely operator, which acts as the interface between
determine the ability to advance the use of VRE energy producers and consumers, operating
within power systems. and expanding the power transmission grids or
The Asia-Pacific region is clearly moving balancing frequency and voltage to allow electricity
forward on the development of VRE, and ESCAP to flow more freely and efficiently. For isolated
member States continue to adopt a variety markets, the use of demand resources, such as
of policies to promote renewable energy grid demand response used during net load events can
integration. Incentives to encourage investment enable grid balancing while integrating VRE. For all
have been introduced in several countries, systems, the integration of advanced forecasting
such as tax deductions, feed-in-tariffs, funding systems reduces the impact of renewable energy
mechanisms and publicly sponsored research variability to improve system reliability.
and development. Steps towards removal of non-
economic barriers are also evident, including
co-ordinated and expedited permitting and grid Conclusion
connection procedures. Clearly, lessons in VRE
integration can already be shared. However, With ESCAP actively promoting RE for the region,
experience in the region also points to the Malaysia can be credited for similar efforts
significant need for the further development of beyond the FiT ( Feed-in-tariff) by expanding the
comprehensive policy frameworks and enabling RE Agenda via the NET Energy meeting and large
environments that can support ambitious targets scale solar initiatives and introducing the National
being set. Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2016-2025.
Furthermore, investment in the expansion and
reinforcement of transmission infrastructure and Source: ESCAP Regional Trends Report on
advanced grid operations is required to connect Energy for Sustainable Development in Asia and
generation sources, which may be located in areas the Pacific 2015. For more info, refer to www.
with little population, to demand centres that may unescap.org


What Others
Say about
Clean Energy

By Samniang Saenram

nergy is a hot topic in most regional forums energy industry, and highlighted energy
and announcements in respect of fuel storage, advanced and safe nuclear, energy
security, climate change, energy efficiency, efficiency, and clean coal as investment
renewable energy etc. The salient points of hotspots for possible breakthroughs.
interests relevant to the theme Clean Energy are
listed below for general reference.
BOAO Asia Forum: The Emerging Clean
Energy Revolution
BOAO Asia Forum: Asian Energy and
Resources Partnership Like oil companies, electric utilities have
built their fortunes on a fragile business
The era of low price volatility is over and the model that ties their revenues and profits
industry must develop new forms of energy to selling more electricity.
to fight against price volatility and carbon That wasnt Thomas Edisons original
emissions. concept. In the 1880s, he didnt sell
Technology innovation, breakthroughs, and electricity; he sold light. He charged
small advancements will drive the future of one cent to light a lamp for an hour.
the energy industry. But as electric motors became popular
Natural gas and solar power are expected and meters available, New York Edison
to rise in demand and be more viable as Company wanted to switch to selling kWh.
alternatives in the next decade. Edison knew that lamps would become far
A practical framework is urged for global more efficient, so to profit from their lower
energy co-operation. operating cost, he wanted to keep selling
Dennis Barcy, CEO of the US-China lighting services, not kWh.
Clean Energy Forum, cited the launch He was overruled in 1892, and utilities
of the Breakthrough Energy Coalition, have been making the same mistake
an investment fund established by tech ever since. As a result, greater customer
leaders including Bill Gates and Mark efficiency cuts their revenues, not their
Zuckerberg to promote zero-emission costs. Utilities now sell a commodity, not an
technologies. Energy CEOs believe that infrastructure nor the services customers
technology will drive the future of the want. So entrepreneurs are building

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successor industries that save electricity, players are both aware and interested in
provide it differently, and could displace the Malaysia.
old model. Appropriate technology to facilitate the
Since 2012, prices for installed photovoltaic opportunity is being developed: Biofuels
solar modules and lithium-ion battery packs from lignocellulosic biomass are expected
fell respectively by about 31% and 40%. to reach commercial scale around 2015,
New solar power now often beats even bio-based chemicals between 2015 and
power made from coal, nuclear energy, or 2020. Malaysian biomass owners have
inexpensive American natural gas. the opportunity to use their biomass to
Bloomberg New Energy Finance projects participate in additional downstream value
that by 2030, global fossil-fueled and creation, instead of simply supplying it to
nuclear growth will halve, not counting the open market.
their bigger retirements, while non-hydro
renewable growth will triple.
Malaysias Biodiesel Programme
Ministry of Plantations Industries &
Malaysia - National Biomass Strategy Commodities Media Statement
The Malaysian Government on May 27, 2016
First generation bioethanol and bio-based agreed to strengthen the implementation
chemicals using food crops such as of the Biodiesel Programme by increasing
sugarcane, cassava or corn as feedstock the blend for the transport sector to B10
are already produced on a commercial scale (blending of 10% palm methyl ester with
today, at plants such as the 400,000-tonne 90% petroleum diesel).
ethanol plant and 100,000-tonne lactic The biodiesel programme was first
acid plant in Thailand based on cassava introduced through the B5 Programme
and sugarcane feedstock, or similar (blending of 5% palm methyl ester with
ethanol plants in Brazil based on sugarcane 95% petroleum diesel) in June 2011 for the
feedstock. transport sector in phases and completed
In contrast to these existing technologies in March 2014 in Peninsular Malaysia.
that use food biomass as inputs, in the case of the industrial sector, covering
emerging second generation technologies the commercial and power generation
are exploring the use of non-food, sectors, the implementation of the B7
lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. forest Programme will be introduced for the first
and agricultural residues). The term time.
lignocellulosic biomass refers to the main The implementation of the B10 programme
building blocks of plant matter: lignin, for the transport sector and the B7
cellulose and hemicellulose. Programme for the industrial sector
The National Biomass Strategy (NBS) 2020 is expected to contribute to annual
could translate into an incremental RM30 consumption of 709,000 tonnes of crude
billion in GNI and an additional 66,000 new palm oil domestically.
jobs by 2020.
The outlook is positive. The NBS has looked
into the availability and cost of acquiring Renewable Energy - International
oil palm biomass in Malaysia and found Renewable Energy Agency
that 25 million tonnes of biomass could
potentially be mobilised across Malaysia at A boom in solar and wind power jobs in
competitive cost today. the US led the way to a global increase
An additional five million tonnes could move in renewable energy employment to
to higher value uses by 2020. International more than eight million people in 2015.

Across the world, employment in renewable In line with our strategic thrust to
energy grew by 5% in 2015, boosted decarbonise the energy sector under the
by supportive Government policies and 11th Malaysian Plan, we have embarked
subsidies including tax credits in the US, on two new initiatives to scale up the
although jobs in renewables fell in Europe. generation of renewable energy (RE)
Even without a price on carbon, renewable in the country through the net energy
energy is competing with dirty energy and metering (NEM) and large scale solar (LSS)
winning, said Ben Schreiber, at Friends of mechanisms.
the Earth US. The question isnt whether These two initiatives will contribute an
renewable energy supplants fossil fuels, additional 1,500MW of RE by 2020. Under
but whether fossil fuel companies can these initiatives, coupled with the FiT
delay the transition long enough to destroy mechanism that was introduced in 2012,
the climate. RE installed capacity in 2020 is expected
to reach 2,080MW or 7.8% of the overall
installed capacity.
G7 Leaders Declaration 2016

The G7 nations have for the first time Innovative Flywheel Energy Storage -
set a deadline for ending most fossil fuel Freiburg, Germany
subsidies, saying Government support for
coal, oil and gas should end by 2025. A flywheel at a tram terminal loop is being
The leaders of the UK, US, Canada, France, tested as a means of energy storage in the
Germany, Italy, Japan and the European city of Freiburg. The flywheel stores the
Union encouraged all countries to join braking energy of arriving trams and gives
them in eliminating inefficient fossil fuel it back to departing trams. Up to 250,000
subsidies within a decade. kWh of electric energy is expected to be
Given the fact that energy production and saved this way.
use account for around two-thirds of global In a one-year project, the municipal
greenhouse gas emissions, we recognise transport company Freiburger Verkehrs AG
the crucial role that the energy sector has (VAG) is testing a flywheel energy storage
to play in combating climate change, said system at a terminal loop. Right now
the leaders at the end their summit in Freiburgs trams are already feeding the
Japan. electric energy network while braking, but
when no other tram is around this energy
is lost.
3rd International Sustainable Energy This often happens on lines with low
Summit 2016 frequency and near terminal stations. For
this reason, a terminal loop in Landwasser
As of February 2016, SEDA Malaysia had was chosen for a new flywheel energy
approved a total of 8,796 Feed-In-Tariff storage system. Whenever energy for
(FiT) applications with a total capacity of acceleration of a tram is needed the
1,185.85MW, of which 334.03MW has flywheel system sends it back to the
achieved commercial operation up to 2018. overhead wire.
The economic, social and environment
benefits expected to be gained from SOURCE
FiT implementation include the total BOAO Asia Forum
investment worth billions, a total of 23,823
Ministry of Plantations Industries & Commodities
green jobs created and the green house
(MPIC) media statement 31.5.2016
gas (GHG) Emission Avoidance estimated
at 3.5 million tonnes. The Guardian

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By Lee Hon Boon

he year of 2016 is significant as it marks Headquarters in New York to adopt the United
the end of the UN declared Millennium Nations Millennium Declaration.
Development Goals 2015 (MDG) and the The Declaration committed nations to a new
beginning of the Sustainable Development Goals global partnership to reduce extreme poverty, and
2030 (SDG). Compared with MDGs eight goals, set out a series of eight time-bound targets - with
SDG has 17 goals. Many of these goals and a deadline of 2015 - that have become known as
implementation plans involve engineering works theMillennium Development Goals.
to achieve their objectives. The eight MDG Goals are:
The engineering fraternity should have a Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
general of view of the achievements of MDG and Achieve universal primary education;
what is in store with SDG where their contributions Promote gender equality and empower
will be appreciated. women;
Reduce child mortality;
Improve maternal health;
In September 2000, building upon a decade of Ensure environmental sustainability; and
major United Nations conferences and summits, Develop a global par tnership for
world leaders came together at the United Nations development.

ACHIEVEMENTS In 2015, 91% of the global population used
improved drinking water sources, up from
Thefinal MDG Reportfound that the 15-year effort 76% in 1990.
has produced the most successful anti-poverty Since 1990, 2.1 billion people have gained
movement in history: access to improved sanitation, and the
Since 1990, the number of people living proportion of people practising open
inextreme povertyhas declined by more defecation globally has fallen almost by
than half. half.
The proportion ofundernourished peoplein The proportion of the urban population
developing regions has fallen by almost half. living in slums in developing regions fell
Primary school enrolment ratein developing from 39.4% to 29.7% between 2000 and
regions has reached 91%, and manymore 2014.
girls are now in schoolcompared with 15
years ago.
Remarkable gains have also been made TRANSFORMING OUR WORLD
in thefight against HIV/AIDS, malaria and
tuberculosis. Heads of State, Heads of Government, and High
The under-five mortalityrate has declined Representatives, meeting at the United Nations
by more than half, andmaternal mortalityis Headquarters in New York from September 25-
down by 45% worldwide. 27, 2015 as the Organisation celebrated its 70th
The target of halving the proportion of anniversary, decided on new global Sustainable
people who lack access to improved Development Goals.
sources of waterwas also met. They adopted a historic decision on a
The concer ted ef for ts of national comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred
Governments, the international community, set of universal and transformative Goals and
civil society and the private sector have targets.
helped expand hope and opportunity for
people around the world.
Deforestation has slowed, but global NEW AGENDA
greenhouse gas emissions continue
theirupward trend. They announced the 17 Sustainable Development
In recent years, the net loss of forest Goals with 169 associated targets which are
area has slowed, due to both a slight integrated and indivisible. Never before have world
decrease in deforestation and an increase leaders pledged common action and endeavours
in afforestation. Deforestation, forest across such a broad and universal policy agenda.
degradation and poor forest management The new Goals and targets came into effect on
release carbon into the atmosphere, January 1, 2016 and will guide the decisions we
contributing to climate change. take over the next 15 years. All of them will work to
A continual rise in greenhouse gas implement the Agenda within their own countries
emissions is projected to further warm the and at the regional and global levels, taking into
planet and cause long-lasting changes in account different national realities, capacities
the climate system threatening severe and and levels of development and respecting
irreversible consequences for people and national policies and priorities. They will respect
ecosystems. national policy space for sustained, inclusive and
Ozone-depleting substances have been sustainable economic growth, in particular for
virtually eliminated, and the ozone layer is developing states, while remaining consistent with
expected to recover by the middle of this relevant international rules and commitments.
century. They acknowledge also the importance of the
Global emissions of carbon dioxide have regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional
increased by over 50% since 1990. economic integration and interconnectivity in

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Heads of State, Heads of Government, and High
Representatives, meeting at the United Nations Headquarters
in New York from September 25-27, 2015 as the Organisation
celebrated its 70th anniversary, decided on new global
Sustainable Development Goals.

sustainable development. Regional and sub- Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all
regional frameworks can facilitate the effective women and girls;
translation of sustainable development policies Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
into concrete action at the national level. management of water and sanitation for all;
Each country faces specific challenges in
its pursuit of sustainable development. The Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable,
most vulnerable countries, in particular African sustainable and modern energy for all;
countries, least developed countries, landlocked Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and
developing countries and small island developing sustainable economic growth, full and productive
states deserve special attention, as do countries employment and decent work for all;
in situations of conflict or post-conflict. There
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote
are also serious challenges within many middle-
inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and
income countries.
foster innovation;
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements
Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere; inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable;
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and
improved nutrition and promote sustainable production patterns;
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well- change and its impact;
being for all at all ages;
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable
education and promote lifelong learning development;
opportunities for all;


By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries
to make them sustainable, with increased resource-
use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and
environmentally sound technologies and industrial
processes, with all countries taking action in accordance
with their respective capabilities

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable 7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and
use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage upgrade technology for supplying modern
forests, combat desertification, and halt and and sustainable energy services for all
reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity in developing countries, in particular
loss; least developed countries, small island
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies developing states, and land-locked
for sustainable development, provide access to developing countries, in accordance with
justice for all and build effective, accountable and their respective programmes of support.
inclusive institutions at all levels; and
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and
and revitalise the global partnership for foster innovation:
sustainable development. 9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and
resilient infrastructure, including regional
and trans-border infrastructure, to support
DETAILS OF GOALS THAT INVOLVE THE economic development and human well-
ENGINEERING FRATERNITY being, with a focus on affordable and
equitable access for all;
Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, 9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable
sustainable and modern energy for all: industrialisation and, by 2030, significantly
7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to raise industrys share of employment
affordable, reliable and modern energy and gross domestic product, in line with
services; national circumstances, and double its
7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share share in least developed countries;
of renewable energy in the global energy 9.3 Increase the access of small-scale
mix; industrial and other enterprises, in
7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of particular in developing countries, to
improvement in energy efficiency; financial services, including affordable
7.a By 2030, enhance international co- credit, and their integration into value
operation to facilitate access to clean chains and markets;
energy research and technology, including 9.4 B y 2030, upgrade infras truc ture
renewable energy, energy efficiency and retrofit industries to make them
and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel sustainable, with increased resource-use
technology, and promote investment in efficiency and greater adoption of clean
energy infrastructure and clean energy and environmentally sound technologies
technology; and

54 VOL
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and industrial processes, with all countries 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of
taking action in accordance with their deaths and the number of people affected
respective capabilities; and substantially decrease the direct
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the economic losses relative to global gross
technological capabilities of industrial domestic product caused by disasters,
sectors in all countries, in particular including water-related disasters, with a
developing countries, including, by 2030, focus on protecting the poor and people in
encouraging innovation and substantially vulnerable situations;
increasing the number of research and 11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita
development workers per one million environmental impact of cities, including
people and public and private research and paying special attention to air quality and
development spending; municipal and other waste management;
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient 11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to
infrastructure development in developing safe, inclusive and accessible, green and
countries through enhanced financial, public spaces, in particular for women and
technological and technical support children, older persons and persons with
to African countries, least developed disabilities;
countries, landlocked developing countries 11.a Support positive economic, social and
and small island developing states; environmental links between urban, peri-
9.b Support domestic technology development, urban and rural areas by strengthening
research and innovation in developing national and regional development
countries, including by ensuring a planning;
conducive policy environment for, inter alia, 11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number
industrial diversification and value addition of cities and human settlements adopting
to commodities; and and implementing integrated policies
9.c Significantly increase access to information and plans towards inclusion, resource
and communications technology and strive efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to
to provide universal and affordable access climate change, resilience to disasters,
to the Internet in least developed countries and develop and implement, in line with
by 2020. the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk
Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements management at all levels; and
inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable: 11.c Suppor t least developed countries,
11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, including financial and technic al
safe and affordable housing and basic assistance, in building sustainable and
services and upgrade slums; resilient buildings utilising local materials.
11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable,
accessible and sustainable transport Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate
systems for all, improving road safety, change and its impact:
notably by expanding public transport, 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity
with special attention to the needs of the to climate-related hazards and natural
vulnerable including women, children, disasters in all countries;
persons with disabilities and older persons; 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into
11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable national policies, strategies and planning;
urbanisation and capacity for participatory, 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and
integrated and sustainable human human and institutional capacity on climate
settlement planning and management in change mitigation, adaptation, impact
all countries; reduction and early warning;
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard 13.a Implement the commitment undertaken
the worlds cultural and natural heritage; by developed-country parties to the United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate and unregulated fishing and refrain
Change to a goal of mobilising jointly from introducing new such subsidies,
US$100 billion annually by 2020 from all recognising that appropriate and effective
sources to address the needs of developing special and differential treatment for
countries in the context of meaningful developing and least developed countries
mitigation actions and transparency on should be an integral part of the World
implementation and fully operationalise Trade Organisation fisheries subsidies
the Green Climate Fund through its negotiation;
capitalisation as soon as possible; and 14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits
13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity to small island developing states and least
for effective climate change-related developed countries from the sustainable
planning and management in least use of marine resources, including
developed countries and small island sustainable management of fisheries,
developing states, including focusing on aquaculture and tourism;
women, youth and local and marginalised 14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop
communities. research capacity and transfer marine
technology, taking into account the Inter-
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use Governmental Oceanographic Commission
the oceans, seas and marine resources for Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of
sustainable development: Marine Technology, in order to improve
14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce ocean health and to enhance the
marine pollution of all kinds, in particular contribution of marine biodiversity to the
from land-based activities, including marine development of developing countries, in
debris and nutrient pollution; particular small island developing states
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect and least developed countries;
marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid 14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal
significant adverse impacts, including by fishers to marine resources and
strengthening their resilience, and take markets;and
action for their restoration in order to 14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable
achieve healthy and productive oceans; use of oceans and their resources by
14.3 Minimise and address the impacts of ocean implementing international law as reflected
acidification, including enhanced scientific in the United Nations Convention on the
co-operation at all levels; Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which provides
14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting the legal framework for the conservation
and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and and sustainable use of oceans and their
unregulated fishing and destructive fishing resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of
practices and implement science-based The Future We Want.
management plans, in order to restore
fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote
least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems,
sustainable yield as determined by their su s t ainabl y manage fore s t s , c ombat
biological characteristics; desertification, and halt and reverse land
14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10% of coastal degradation and halt biodiversity loss:
and marine areas, consistent with national 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation,
and international law and based on the restoration and sustainable use of
best available scientific information; terre strial and inland fre shwater
14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fishery ecosystems and their services, in particular
subsidies which contribute to overcapacity forests, wetlands, mountains and dry-
and overfishing, eliminate subsidies lands, are in line with obligations under
that contribute to illegal, unreported international agreements;

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Goal 13 is to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation 15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent
of sustainable management of all types the introduction and significantly reduce
of forests, halt deforestation, restore the impact of invasive alien species on
degraded forests and substantially increase land and water ecosystems and control or
afforestation and reforestation globally; eradicate the priority species;
15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore 15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and
degraded land and soil, including land biodiversity values into national and local
affected by desertification, drought planning, development processes, poverty
and floods, and strive to achieve a land reduction strategies and accounts;
degradation-neutral world; 15.a Mobilise and significantly increase financial
15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of resources from all sources to conserve
mountain ecosystems, including their and sustainably use biodiversity and
biodiversity, in order to enhance their ecosystems;
capacity to provide benefits that are 15.b Mobilise significant resources from
essential for sustainable development; all sources and at all levels to finance
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce sustainable forest management and
the degradation of natural habitats, halt the provide adequate incentives to developing
loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect countries to advance such management,
and prevent the extinction of threatened including conservation and reforestation;
species; and
15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the 15.c Enhance global support for efforts to
benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic combat poaching and trafficking of
resources and promote appropriate access to protected species, including by increasing
such resources, as internationally agreed; the capacity of local communities to pursue
15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and sustainable livelihood opportunities.
trafficking of protected species of flora
and fauna and address both demand and Source: UN - Transforming Our World: The 2030
supply of illegal wildlife products; Agenda for Sustainable Development



By Lim Tau Wee

When Malaysia hosted the ASEAN Summit nergy is key to the realisation of the ASEAN
in 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, the issue of Economic Community (AEC), which calls for a
well-connected ASEAN to drive an integrated,
connectivity was deliberated in depth
competitive and resilient region.
for all areas and, in particular, for the ASEAN is now one of the most dynamic and
infrastructure aspects involving highways, fastest growing economic regions in the world,
railways and ports, among others. and through the implementation of the AEC at the
end of December 2015, this growth is expected
Connected with this, the initiative towards
to continue. The region is projected to grow by at
co-operation on energy connectivity among least 4% per year on average over the next five
ASEAN nations will be one step closer to years, but growth could be as high as 6% provided
the realization of the ASEAN Power Grid. ASEAN moves towards greater integration, where
The ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Co- Member States continuously implement domestic
structural reforms to raise their productivity and
operation (APAEC) kicked off this year competitiveness under the framework of the AEC.
coinciding with the official formation of the To fuel this growth, the demand for primary
ASEAN Economic Community in 2016. energy is expected to grow by an average of 4.7%
APAEC is the product of collaborative work per year from 2013 to reach 1,685 Mtoe in 2035,
according to the ASEAN Centre for Energys (ACE)
by all ASEAN Member States, the different
4th ASEAN Energy Outlook (AEO4). Addressing
sub-sector networks and specialised energy this growing demand for energy, which is driven
bodies together with the ASEAN Centre For by both economic and demographic growth, has
Energy (ACE). It provides comprehensive been a challenge for ASEAN ahead of the AEC.
Against this backdrop, the 32nd ASEAN
documentation and details of action plans
Ministers Energy Meeting (AMEM) held on
for the implementation of the APAEC. September 23, 2014 in Vientiane, Lao PDR,

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endorsed the theme of the new ASEAN Plan of
Action for Energy Cooperation (APAEC) 2016-2025
as Enhancing Energy Connectivity and Market
Integration in ASEAN to Achieve Energy Security,
Accessibility, Affordability and Sustainability for
All. The theme also reflects the central elements
of connectivity and energy security captured
in the Nay Pyi Taw Declaration on the ASEAN
Communitys Post 2015 Vision adopted by the
ASEAN Leaders at the 25th ASEAN Summit in Nay
Pyi Taw, Myanmar, on November 12, 2014.
The key initiatives under the APAEC include
embarking on multilateral electricity trading
to accelerate the realisation of the ASEAN
Power Grid (APG), enhancing gas connectivity
by expanding the focus of the Trans-ASEAN Gas
Pipeline (TAGP) to include Liquefied Natural
Gas (LNG) regasification terminals as well as
promoting clean coal technologies. It also includes
strategies to achieve higher aspirational targets
to improve energy efficiency and increase the
uptake of renewable energy (RE) sources, in
addition to building capabilities on nuclear energy.
Plans to broaden and deepen collaboration with
ASEANs Dialogue Partners (DPs), International
Organisations (IOs), academic institutions and the
business sector will be stepped up to benefit from
their expertise and enhance capacity building in
the region.
The APAEC 2016-2025 will be implemented in
two phases. Phase I will cover the period 2016-
The key strategies of the seven Programme
Areas of the APAEC 2016-2025 Phase I are:
1. ASEAN Power Grid (APG) To initiate multilateral electricity trade in at least one sub-region
by 2018.
2. Trans ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) To enhance connectivity for energy security and accessibility via
pipelines and regasification terminals.
3. Coal & Clean Coal Technology To enhance the image of coal through promotion of clean coal
technologies (CCT).
4. Energy Efficiency & Conservation To reduce energy intensity1 by 20% in 2020 based on 2005 levels.
5. Renewable Energy Aspirational target to increase the component of renewable
energy2 to 23% by 2025 in the ASEAN Energy Mix 3.
6. Regional Energy Policy and Planning To better profile the energy sector internationally.
7. Civilian Nuclear Energy To build capabilities in policy, technology and regulatory aspects
of nuclear energy.

1 Energy Intensity is calculated as TPES per GDP PPP at constant 2005 US$.
2 All sources of renewables, including hydro power of all sizes, but excluding traditional biomass.
3 Energy Mix is based on TPES.


Multilateral electricity trading enhances the ASEAN Power Grid

Development of the APAEC review of Phase I will be conducted in 2018 when

there will be a stock take of the progress of Phase
APAEC is a series of guiding policy documents to I, which will guide ASEAN in charting the pathways
support the implementation of multilateral energy and directives for Phase II (2021-2025).
co-operation to advance regional integration and
connectivity goals in ASEAN. It serves as a blueprint
for better co-operation towards enhancing Global Energy Landscape
energy security, accessibility, affordability and
sustainability under the framework of the AEC for Several key global trends could impact
the designated period. developments in ASEANs energy landscape. Firstly,
APAEC 2016-2025 has been developed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts
building on the progressive achievements of the that global growth will rise moderately at 1.6%
previous plans which have been initiated since per year for the Organisation for Economic Co-
1999. This laid the foundation for sound policy operation and Development (OECD) countries and
frameworks and implementation modalities for 5.2% per year for emerging economies during the
energy co-operation within ASEAN and for co- period 2015-2020. Secondly, geopolitical factors
operative partnerships with relevant DPs and IOs. are increasingly influencing oil markets. Oil prices
APAEC 2016-2025 will implement outcome- have fallen by more than 50% since mid-2014.
based strategies and action plans through the The impact of this could translate into lower costs
seven Programme Areas mentioned above. and support economic activities for oil importing
Extended over a longer period of 10 years, the countries including ASEAN. However, prolonged
plan will be implemented in two phases, namely low energy prices may adversely impact global
Phase I: 2016-2020, which will focus on the short- economic growth in the long term. Thirdly, new
to medium-term strategies required to achieve carbon schemes are being introduced in many
energy security co-operation and move towards countries to improve energy and environmental
greater connectivity and integration. A mid-term security. Finally, the rebound in oil and gas

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Figure 1. World Total Primary Energy Supply (IEA, 2014)

production in North America, driven by upstream Post 2015 will be critical for global energy
technologies that are unlocking light and tight oil markets as countries around the world address
and shale gas resources, is stimulating economic challenges related to burgeoning energy
activities and shaping the role of North America as consumption, and security of energy supply in a
a major energy exporter in global energy trade. sustainable manner to address environmental
While global energy demand is expected to effects. The 2015 United Nations Framework
grow by 37% by 2040 , growth slows markedly, Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
from above 2% per year up until 2025, but declines Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris set
to 1% per year after that. This is the result of both objectives for reaching an international agreement
price and policy effects, and a structural shift in on addressing climate change. As such, 2015 is
the global economy towards services and lighter a crucial time to improve policy frameworks for
industrial sectors. The global distribution of energy encouraging responsible energy consumption,
demand is shown in Figure 1. In the early 2030s, higher efficiency, and international standards for
China will become the largest oil-consuming emissions, while supporting the growth of energy
country, crossing paths with the United States, markets and ensuring security of supply.
where oil consumption falls back to levels not
seen for decades. But, it is India, Southeast Asia,
the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa that will ASEAN Energy Development
take over as the engines of global energy demand
growth. Since the signing of the 1986 Agreement on
By 2040, the worlds energy supply mix is made ASEAN Energy Co-operation, the ASEAN leaders
up of almost four equal parts, i.e. oil, gas, coal have expressed their strong support to advance
and low-carbon sources (IEA, WEO 2014). While ASEAN energy connectivity, an important issue
resources are not expected to be a constraint that ASEAN must address, especially given the
over this period, each of these faces a distinct growing demand for energy in the region. They
set of challenges. Policy choices and market expressed their support for regional energy
developments that bring the share of fossil fuels in connectivity projects such as the APG and the
primary energy demand down to just under three- TAGP and provided instructions to look into the
quarters in 2040 are not enough to stem the rise next level of details, and seriously consider how to
in energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, harmonise regulatory frameworks and standards
which is expected to grow by one-fifth. to facilitate regional energy connectivity. The


Figure 2. ASEAN Total Primary Energy Supply under the BAU and in APS (ACE, 2015)

Energy Ministers also emphasised the important renewable energy, these best practices could
role of private sector participation in enhancing be shared with all ASEAN Member States. The
energy investments to support the AEC. aspirational targets set for renewable energy
Under the Business as Usual (BAU) scenario, and energy intensity should be used as drivers
ASEAN is expected to see its Total Primary Energy to foster stronger regional co-operation and
Supply (TPES) increase from 619Mtoe in 2013 economic integration.
to approximately. 1,685Mtoe by 2035. This
corresponds to an average growth rate of 4.7%
per annum. In the Advancing Policy Scenario (APS) Implementation Arrangement
which takes into account the progressive policies
and action plans of the ASEAN Member States The ASEAN Ministers of Energy Meeting (AMEM)
(AMS) in achieving the official national targets for provides overall guidance and advice on the
renewable energy and energy efficiency, ASEANs implementation of APAEC 2016-2025. The AMEM
TPES is expected to reach 1,468Mtoe in 2035, also provides guidance to address key issues,
resulting in a slower average growth of 4% p.a., challenges and concerns of common interest and
which is 0.7% lower than in the BAU scenario. to set policy directions to achieve the goals of the
As shown in Figure 2, coal is expected to play a energy co-operation under the framework of the
dominant role, increasing the share of ASEANs AEC.
energy mix from 20% in 2013 to 33% under the The Senior Officials Meeting on Energy (SOME)
BAU scenario or 26.4% under the APS in 2035. collectively determines the implementation
Increasing energy demand over the next priorities and provides direction and advice to
two decades will require joint efforts within the APAEC 2016-2025 to ensure co-ordination and
ASEAN region beyond the targets set by individual integration of APAEC strategies and actions.
nations. In particular, ASEAN should step up co- In addition, SOME guides the formulation and
operation in the field of policy development and implementation of the yearly Work Plan of each
harmonisation. As several countries have already of the APAEC Programme Areas and provides the
successfully deployed effective policy instruments annual progress updates to AMEM. To encourage
in various areas, such as energy efficiency and the transfer of latest technologies, SOME provides

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guidance on deepening engagement with DPs, IOs Monitoring Mechanism
and the private sector.
The relevant sub-sector networks (SSNs) and REPP-SSN, jointly with ACE, acts as the
specialised energy bodies (SEBs), namely; monitoring body and will undertake regular
Heads of ASEAN Power Utilities/Authorities monitoring and evaluation of the progress of
(HAPUA), APAEC for submission to the annual SOME/AMEM
ASEAN Council on Petroleum (ASCOPE), meetings. A monitoring mechanism has been put
ASEAN Forum on Coal (AFOC), in place to systematically track progress of the
Energy Efficiency and Conservation Sub- activities undertaken by the SSNs and SEBs to
sector Network (EE&C-SSN), ensure the timely completion of projects, and
Renewable Energy Sub-sector Network (RE- will provide reports annually through electronic
SSN), communications and presentations at the various
Regional Energy Policy and Planning Sub- annual meetings within ASEAN.
sector Network (REPP-SSN) and
Nuclear Energy Cooperation Sub-sector
Network (NEC-SSN) Conclusion

will serve as SOMEs implementation arms APAEC 2016-2025 is a dynamic and living
in their respective Programme Areas. They will document which identifies outcome-based
convene their respective meetings as necessary, strategies and actions to enhance energy
to identify priorities and implementation connectivity and market integration in ASEAN to
arrangements, fur ther develop the work achieve energy security, accessibility, affordability
programmes and prepare the necessary project and sustainability for all under the framework of
proposals and documents. the AEC.
The ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE), in co- The commitment of the AMS and strong
ordination with the ASEAN Secretariat, will assist leadership through the specialised energy bodies
SOME, SSNs and SEBs in carrying out the above and sub-sector networks, including ACE as the
mentioned responsibilities, including technical implementing secretariat, are crucial to the
support and assistance in the supervision, successful implementation of APAEC 2015-2026,
co-ordination and review of the co-operation which is expected to bring benefits to all AMS and
programmes and activities. ACE will provide achieve the aspirations of the ASEAN Community
technical co-ordination, facilitate and integrate the under the ASEAN Charter.
tasks of the implementing organisations, such as Enhanc ed energ y c o - op er ation and
the planning and fund sourcing, and provide policy collaboration with DPs/IOs, industries and the
analysis and statistics. The ASEAN Secretariat will academia will play an important role in the
be responsible for policy co-ordination and other implementation of APAEC. The preparation of
requirements with the other ASEAN co-ordinating APAEC 2016-2025 Phase II (2021-2025) will
bodies and ASEAN DPs. be initiated in 2018 taking into consideration
Each Programme Area will be enhanced the various aspects of the implementation and
by engagement with DPs and IOs to achieve progress of APAEC 2016-2025 Phase I.
their respective outcome-based strategies.
Recognising the contribution of ASEANs DPs, IOs, Note: The extract of this article is from the
and other partners, such as academic institutions document ASEAN PLAN OF ACTION FOR
and industries, to the completion of the APAEC ENERGY COOPERATION (APAEC) 2016-2025 with
2016-2025, ASEAN welcomes any interest and permission from ASEAN CENTRE FOR ENERGY,
collaborative partnerships to implement influential Jakarta . For further information and to download
the full APAEC document, please refer to www.
initiatives towards enhancing energy connectivity
and market integration under the framework of
the AEC.


Promoting HELE Coal

Technologies in Electricity

By Chua Foong Lean

t was reported that Peninsular Malaysias
installed 22 GW power generation at the start
of 2015 was approximately 42.3% coal-fired
and 51.8% natural gasfired. The country, which
says it cannot depend on renewables to provide
base load power and recognises that hydropower
capacity in Peninsular Malaysia is nearly fully
developed, is exploring nuclear power. If it does
not go the nuclear route, it will be forced to depend
heavily on fossil fuels to meet power demand,
which is expected to soar by 2.3%, on average,
per year until 2030. By 2020, forecasts foresee Coal fired power plant
coal dominating the countrys power mix (at 53%),
with gas playing a more minor role (29%), and the hazardous emissions and reduce resource
remainder made up by hydro, renewables, and oil. use is to raise efficiency getting more
Given the abundance of coal in the region, energy per unit of input.
the use of this resource is likely to remain a Clear policy structure is needed to allow the
major source of energy for the Asia-Pacific in the power sector to make long-term decisions
foreseeable future. However, its negative impact and investments with respect to advanced
on the environment is of major concern. It will pose generation technologies in order to
some challenges to the 21st Annual Conference of increase efficiency and reduce emissions.
the Parties (COP21) conclusion on CO2 emissions Global average CFPP efficiency was 33%,
target. There are technologies to abate these as of 2011, well below the 45% efficiency
impacts but the promotion of such technologies achievable with commercially viable
has been hindered by high up-front investment technology for ultra-supercritical (USC)
requirements. Research by the United Nations generation.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Economic considerations, when choosing
the Pacific (ESCAP) showed that ultra-supercritical the type of coal-fired generation, should include
coal technologies are more cost-efficient in the lifetime costs of generation rather than simply
long run. considering upfront capital costs. One common
Coal-fired power plant (CFPP) efficiency metric used is levelised cost of electricity (LCOE),
increases will play an important role in improving which represents the per-kilowatt hour (kWh) cost
local air quality as well as curbing CO2 emissions of building and operating a power plant spread
regionally and globally due to the robust role coal- over an assumed financial life and duty cycle
fired generation plays in the electricity mix. (typically 40 years for CFPPs).
The most important and cost-effective In general, upfront capital costs are lower
ways to improve productivity, decrease for less efficient subcritical CFPPs than

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Figure 1 Electricity production by resource in the Asia-Pacific region in 1990, 2012 (TWh)

for higher-efficiency supercritical, USC or (PM) and mercury, along with other toxic
advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) CFPPs. pollutant emissions.
Variable operations and maintenance According to the International Energy
(O&M) costs are also generally lower for Agency (IEA), in 2011, electricity and heat
subcritical plants than for supercritical, generation accounted for 42 % of global
USC, or A-USC CFPPs due to the lower CO2 emissions, of which 72% was derived
pressures and temperatures required for from one source CFPPs (IEA, 2013a).
combustion. The share of coal in Asia-Pacifics energy
LCOEs, however, are generally lower for mix has drastically increased over the past
supercritical, USC and A-USC CFPPs when decade, accounting for approximately 55%
compared with subcritical CFPPs because of electricity generation as of 2012 (see
they require less fuel in order to generate Figure 1) (ESCAP, 2015).
the same amount of electricity. Thus, when Per kWh, coal has nearly 20% more
a long-term view is taken, high-efficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than oil,
low emission (HELE) generation is more more than twice as much GHG emissions
cost-effective over the lifetime of a CFPP as gas, and almost 22 times more GHG
than less-efficient subcritical generation, emissions than solar photovoltaics (PV).
due to lower fuel requirements. Consumption of energy is directly tied to
Adverse externalities of coal-fired generation water consumption, with 15% of the worlds
should be considered when deciding which type total water withdrawals used for energy
of generation technology to employ. The costs production in 2010. Within the energy
associated with negative externalities are not sector, thermal power plants (burning fossil
included in LCOE calculations; meaning HELE fuels and nuclear) are the most intensive
generation would be even more attractive if they users of water.
were considered. To allow for the integration of increasing shares
Globally, coal-fired power generation is a of variable renewable energy (VRE), coal assets
leading source of sulphur oxides (SOx), must increase operating flexibility by improving
nitrous oxides (NOx), particulate matter performance in the following areas:


Increased generation turndown capabilities The majority of power plants using coal in
when loads are low (e.g. due to a spike in the region use pulverised coal (PC) combustion
VRE generation); technology, which encompasses subcritical,
Faster generation start-ups with less supercritical, USC and A-USC. A number of
damage to plant equipment when loads countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including
are high (e.g. due to a decrease in VRE China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea
generation); and Thailand, are using fluidised bed combustion
Faster load changes to allow for flexible (FBC) technology. Integrated gasification combined
load-following due to the variable output of cycle (IGCC) technology can be found in select
VRE; and countries in the region including China, Japan and
Reserve shutdown at minimal cost. Cold, the Republic of Korea.
and to a lesser extent warm, starts can With respect to PC combustion technology,
significantly add to coal-fired generation the main parameters to consider when profiling
costs, including variable O&M costs, when the global stock of CFPPs are size (nameplate
compared with consistent generation. power generation capacity in MW), age (based on
when the power plant was built) and performance
level (combustion technology differentiated by
Coal-fired Power Generation temperature). The typical maximum efficiency
can vary significantly depending on site-specific
Coal-fired electricity generation will remain a factors such as weather conditions, extent of
substantial part of the Asia-Pacific region, as maintenance and type of operating regimes.
well as global, energy mix for decades to come.
Coal remains the most abundant fossil fuel on
earth, with proven global reserves of nearly High-efficiency, low-emissions coal-fired
one trillion metric tons. At current consumption Power Generation
rates, this would allow for another 150 years of
generation. Reserves of coal are much greater Average global coal-fired plant efficiency rests at
than those of natural gas and oil in terms of around 33%, as of 2012 (IEA, 2013b). In order to
energy content as well. Recoverable reserves increase these efficiencies, a transition towards
of coal are present in over 75 countries and more efficient HELE coal-fired generation should
mining and combustion have remained relatively take place. HELE coal-fired generation includes
inexpensive, which has led to coal being an supercritical, USC and A-USC PC technologies,
important component of the global energy mix typically in the range of up to 42% for supercritical,
for many decades. 45% for USC and up to 50% for A-USC (IEA,
As of 2012, coal-fired generation accounted for 2013b). The aim of deploying HELE technologies is
approximately 55% of electricity production in the twofold: to increase conversion efficiencies and to
Asia-Pacific region, up from 32% in 1990. More reduce CO2 emissions. Both supercritical and USC
than 92% of this electricity is generated using technologies are available now, with even higher
hard coal bituminous, some anthracite and a efficiencies possible when A-USC becomes more
small portion of coking coal. In absolute terms, readily available.
coal-fired generation increased from 1,207 TWh in Poorer quality or low-grade coals (such
1990 to 5,888 TWh in 2012, a compound annual as lignite) are candidates for more efficient
growth rate (CAGR) of 7.47%. Over this period generation, notably by employing pre-combustion
however, generation from VRE sources increased drying. Global shares of supercritical and USC
from 38 GWh of electricity production in 1990 to coal-fired generation rest at approximately 28%
nearly 164,000 GWh (164 TWh) in 2012, a CAGR as of 2012. With coal-fired generation comprising
of 46.3%. Total electricity production from all 55% of electricity production in the Asia-Pacific
sources nearly tripled from 3,743 TWh in 1990 to region as of 2012, addressing more efficient coal-
10,739 TWh in 2012. fired generation is a necessity.

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Figure 2 Global electricity mix 2011, 2035 (New Policies Scenario)

Global Coal-Fired Power Generation decline of eight percentage points, from 41% to
33%, as many countries continue to diversify their
Growth in global coal demand will see a CAGR of power mixes (see Figure 2). Despite the drop in
1.05% from 2011 through 2035 under the IEA share to 33%, coal will remain the leading source
Current Policies Scenario (CPS) and a CAGR of of electricity generation in 2035. Coal production
0.46% under the IEA New Policies Scenario (NPS), today is dominated by non-OECD countries, whose
which assumes the cautious implementation of share of output will continue to rise over the next
announced policy measures (IEA, 2013c). This is 24 years (IEA, 2013c).
much lower than the past 25 years, which saw a
2.5% average annual growth rate globally. Coal
demand is forecasted to expand from around 5,390 Why High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal
Mtoe in 2011 to 7,764 Mtoe under the CPS and
6,326 Mtoe under the NPS, by 2035. Regarding the In order to produce electricity in a more efficient
NPS, two-thirds of this growth occurs in the period and cost-effective manner while reducing
from 2011 to 2020, with demand growing by only emissions, a progression towards HELE coal
0.4% per year from 2020 to 2035. generation is essential. A key metric for comparing
Growth in global coal demand for electricity will various electricity generation technologies based
continue to rise under the NPS, going from 9,140 on overall competitiveness, including HELE and
TWh of generation in 2011 to 12,312 TWh of traditional coal-fired generation as well as VRE,
generation in 2035, a CAGR of 1.2%. This growth is LCOE. The LCOE of HELE power generation
rate is less than what was seen between 1990 technologies, including supercritical and USC,
and 2011, where electricity generation from coal decreases as the CFPP efficiency increases,
saw a CAGR of 3.35%. meaning less coal is needed to generate the same
Over the same period, OECD will see a drop in amount of electricity. In general, these HELE CFPPs
coal-fired electricity generation from 3,618 TWh consume up to 15% less coal per kWh of electricity
to 2,775 TWh while non-OECD will increase from generated, when compared with less efficient
5,522 TWh of coal-fired generation in 2011 to subcritical coal-fired electricity generation (IEA,
9,537 TWh in 2035 under the NPS (IEA, 2013c). 2013c). In addition to lowering possible LCOEs
The power sector accounts for nearly three- with HELE electricity generation, increasing the
quarters of the increase in global coal demand efficiency of CFPPs also reduces GHG emissions,
over the period 20112035, even though coals as well as air pollutants including SOx and NOx per
share of global electricity generation sees a kWh of electricity generation. In order to witness

these benefits, the construction of new CFPPs
must evolve from subcritical to supercritical, USC
and A-USC. A less capital-intensive alternative
to the construction of new HELE CFPPs includes
the retooling of aging CFPPs to produce electricity
more efficiently. By upgrading plant machinery
including boilers and turbines, as well as improving
operational practices, including preventative O&M
to increase plant reliability, efficiency gains can be
had without the high upfront capital requirements
associated with the construction of a new CFPP. As
CFPPs age, their efficiency can become degraded; Coal remains a major energy source
however, with O&M investment and retooling,
emissions of PV technology but one-tenth of
these effects can be mitigated. In addition to
current lifecycle emissions.
increasing CFPP efficiency, flexibility must also
Operating CFPPs also consume vast quantities
be addressed by improving the ability of CFPPs to
of water, a cause of major concern in arid regions
quickly adjust power generation levels in order to
and regions where water resource issues are
balance the increasing integration of intermittent
gaining prominence. Non-GHG pollutants, such as
generation sources such as VRE. Dispatchable
NOx, SOx and mercury, can cause severe health
coal-fired generation from flexible HELE CFPPs
issues and often harm local infrastructure and,
will form an essential part of a stable and flexible
consequently, the local economy.
electricity grid alongside flexible generation
Though technologies are available for reducing
including hydropower and natural gas.
such emissions, not all countries deploy them
effectively yet.
Externalities in Coal for Power
Generation Conclusion
In general, HELE produces 10% less air pollution, Coal will remain the major source of
including NOx, SOx and mercury, than traditional
electricity generation in the Asia-Pacific
generation (per kWh) due to its more efficient
region for decades to come due to the
combustion, requiring fewer fuel inputs (coal) in
continued growth in energy demand. The
order to generate the same amount of electricity.
region has relied on coal to accomplish
However, these externalities can be difficult
much of its economic growth, which has
to quantify, and various factors need to be
enabled infrastructure development,
considered when determining the most efficient
leading to poverty reduction. Policy makers
generation technology based on (long-term) cost.
are aware of the need to shift towards
In general, externalities such as adverse impacts
more efficient coal-fired power plants
on health and local environment are not included
to minimise social and environmental
when calculating generation costs, including
impacts. However, the region has not
LCOE. When these external costs are included,
widely adopted HELE CFPP technologies
the case for more efficient electricity generation
for cleaner energy.
technologies becomes clearer. Although high upfront capital costs of
Given the intensity of GHG emissions from
HELE technology represent a large barrier,
coal combustion, end-of-pipe solutions including
the per unit electricity generation cost of
carbon capture and storage (CCS) are critical to
HELE technologies are lower compared
making coal-fired power generation sustainable
with subcritical CFPPs when operations,
by reducing up to 99% of CO2 emissions. This
management and fuel costs are taken into
would make coal combustion emit less than
consideration over a 330-year period. LCOE,
100g per kilowatt-hour, which is still double the
incorporating the long-term perspective

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on costs, is a useful tool for comparing regulations, and targets could facilitate
across various generation technologies, further development of HELE. Funding
but cannot be the sole metric used when initiatives to encourage HELE generation
analysing power plant costs due to various may also be established.
factors such as fluctuating coal prices and In Japan, all of the coal-fired power
utilisation rates. stations are equipped with air pollution
A cold war exists between coal and control equipment. Their emissions are
renewable energy, which places interests controlled by strict regulations. Power
at odds. Instead, these interests need to station operators comply with the
be aligned. VRE requires a stable base load regulations strictly and sincerely during
in order to balance power systems due to operation. As a result, Japan gains
various factors such as fluctuating coal cleaner air without air pollution from the
prices and utilisation rates. combustion of coal. Japan has coal-fired
Climate change is a global issue, which plants, such as ultra-supercritical plants,
could be better tackled better as a region, and promotes utilisation of HELE coal-fired
not country by country. The barriers to power generation technology in addressing
broader HELE adoption need to be lowered climate change.
so that climate change can be addressed The Russian Federation is overhauling its
on a regional level. The technology, with power generation sector and is looking
both its local and global benefits should at integrating best practices not only
not be possessed solely by those with from within the Russian Federation, but
higher technical and financial capacities. also from around the world, in an effort
The responsibility to address the causes to invest in the most cost-effective and
of climate change is the responsibility of all efficient technologies. Working with the
member States and broader co-operation private sector and paying for licenses
is required. in order to acquire the most efficient
With vast numbers of subcritical CFPPs generation technologies is also an
currently in operation, it may take decades option, in addition to technology transfer
to phase out these inefficient plants. and knowledge sharing from member
The economics covering the entire value States, including China and India. Power
chain, including employment, need to be producers within the Russian Federation
taken into account before power plants are asking the Government to provide
are shut down in favour of new generation costbenefit analyses as well as risk
technology. calculations associated with these higher
Long-term sustainable development goals efficiency generation technologies in order
need to be reconciled with short-term to determine the cost effectiveness. This
electrification needs in order to avoid illustrates a willingness to move toward
locking into technologies for the next 40 more efficient generation technologies.
years that will create an abundance of
emissions, creating environmental impacts With more coal-fired power generation plants on
at local and global levels. Best practices the drawing board for Malaysia such as the recently
from the region and globally need to be announced 2,000MW ultra-supercritical coal-
replicated and improved upon to increase fired power plant by Chugoku Electric Power Co.,
options for member States. it is important to take cognisance of the efficient
Regional co-operation and knowledge generation technologies as promoted by ESCAP.
sharing can help reduce some of the
technological gaps between member Source: UN ESCAP Regional Trends Report on
States with respect to HELE coal-fired Energy for Sustainable Development in Asia and
generation. In particular, sharing of policies, the Pacific 2015.


Energy Efficiency
Technology towards

By Dato Prof. Ir. Dr. Eric Goh, Universiti Sains Malaysia &
Ir. Lee Kam Fatt, Institute of Quarrying Malaysia

The objective of energy efficiency is the

reduction of energy consumed by equipment in
successfully carrying out a range of tasks. Owing
to the importance of the sustainability concept
worldwide, equipment manufacturers have
carried out extensive improved energy efficiency
research towards economic savings whilst
ensuring compliance with global environmental
legislation. The pro-active Board of Engineers
Malaysia and the engineering profession
likewise are receptive to the implementation of
innovative economic and environment-friendly
technology to help enhance energy efficiency usage of raw materials, machine production
towards world class sustainability. and overhaul phase,
in-depth assessment of the carbon footprint

wing to the challenging economic scenario of each transport machine with the aim of
worldwide, the industrial sector while trying obtaining a practical perspective of the CO2
their best to support sustainability, needs emissions from the equipment, and
to be assisted by enterprising and resourceful optimisation of equipment life cycle.
equipment manufacturers in the design of the
appropriate energy efficient equipment to get the
task done effectively while minimising the owning EFFICIENT EQUIPMENT SELECTION
and operating costs. At the same time with the
added benefit of recovering more economic value Some of the key criteria to be considered for
at the end of equipment life. effective and economic equipment selection at
any designated industrial site are:


- Presence of multiple loading faces
Some of the innovative policies proposed for - Blending requirements
successful sustainability worldwide include: - Loading area support needs
optimum usage of energy during operations, - Environmental conditions at site
transparent reporting of site conditions, - Material characteristics;
working closely with internal and external Equipment performance
stakeholders to create mutual benefits, - Productivity (tonnes/day)
product life cycle assessments to optimise - Cycle time/Speed

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- Power required and Reliability; NEW FRONTIERS IN EQUIPMENT FLEET
- Quality and Efficiency
- Competency of Operators Some of the recent proven innovative energy
- Control System setup; efficiency technology successfully used in
Effectiveness of Maintenance setup industrial fleet transport is concisely depicted in
- Quality of service Figure 2. The aim of effective fleet management
- Ready availability of spare parts is to provide real-time detailed asset information
- Competency of Technical Team; for any selected industrial site operation so that
Economic Cost Factors top management can quickly carry out energy
- Capital, Operating and Fuel Costs efficiency reviews on the operating efficiency for
- Maintenance/ Spare Parts costs all the various site equipment used from anywhere
- Salaries of Skilled Operators. in the world. Equipment productivity is defined
as the monitoring of their on-going production
Figure 1 shows the types of equipment enabled complemented with the management of their
solutions for a range of various daily industrial site corresponding jobsite efficiency.
operations; complemented with a typical working The productivity solution enables industrial
envelope for the various potential equipment with development management to specifically control
respect to the suitability of the task for various production in real-time to meet the specifications
optimum site operations. Effective equipment as required by the customer via the use of high-
management include knowledge on equipment precision technology to increase the accuracy
efficiency and site characteristics; complemented and efficiency in the monitoring phase of payload
by the economics of cost savings via fleet information collection (Figure 3). Some of the
optimisation, life cycle planning and the setup of benefits of on-line real-time equipment monitoring
preventive maintenance during their usage. are:

Figure 1: Types
of equipment
and their


Figure 2: Effective high-tech fleet management

Figure 3: Performance data upload via internet

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access to accurate real-time information
on daily energy usage and equipment
indicators on whether the payload targets
are being consistently achieved;
ability to boost production with optimum or
faster equipment cycle times;
compliance to tyre load rating with the aim
to extend tyre life and save fuel;
benefit in being able to use the production
data collected to enhance equipment
productivity and savings in energy/fuel
usage for equipment. Figure 4: Satellite linkup increases energy
efficiency and site productivity
1. Energy Efficiency Strategies
Some of the latest engineering innovations, 2. Fuel Saving Initiatives
complemented by their corresponding advantages, Some of the top fuel saving initiatives available
in sustainable energy-efficiency technology for optimum energy usage during equipment
aimed towards an environment-friendly and safe operations in the industry include concepts of
industrial work site are: Adaptive Economy, Speed Limiting and Engine
advanced satellite linkup of equipment Idle Shutdown. The Adaptive Economy Mode (AEM)
monitoring and efficient information installed in any transport equipment is aimed
management (Figure 4), at speed reduction during material transport to
design and manufacture of the unique achieve a set percentage in fuel savings without
electric drive systems, a drop in the performance threshold. For optimum
usage of bio-fuels which help reduce usage of this innovation, the truck has to hold a
excessive gaseous emissions to a steady speed, for about three seconds, in second
maximum of 20%, gear or higher before the AEM is engaged. This
resourceful eco-training modules for initiative is most effective during full production
transport operators which aim to increase scenarios at sites with steady grade haul roads.
staff efficiency, optimum equipment usage The Speed Limiting Mode (SLM) allows any
and maximise fuel efficiency. This has transport equipment the option to use the most
resulted in cost reductions of up 30% in efficient gear for any given speed selected. An
fuel savings in some case studies, equipment operating at optimum engine speed for
increased quality of work and cost savings any selected task can improve energy usage via
for any engineering project via accurate avoiding energy wastage from heat loss, wear and
landform re -landscaping /re -grading unnecessary high engine revolutions per minute
management based on the respective due to jamming the throttle pedal down when
equipment specifications, locked out of gear.
effective machine fluids management such The Engine Idle Shutdown (EIS) mode is
as the usage of biodegradable hydraulic oil automatically activated to save energy and fuel
and extended life coolants, when the equipment is left idling for a long time
installation of quick couplers setup to with no operator in the cabin. The delay time
maximise machine utilisation, period before equipment shutdown can be set by
usage of scrap shears system as a solution management or the operator. Some of the in-built
to support metal recycling, features for automatic safe idle shutdown are the
strategic enhancement of work equipment engagement of the parking brake, transmission
ergonomics for operators to help increase is in park and the engine ambient temperature is
work and energy efficiency. excessively above the norm.

3. Systematic Preventive Maintenance 4. Lubricating Oil and Coolant Analysis
Owing to the challenging work environment at Systematic scheduled analysis of the lubricating
various industrial sites worldwide, some of the oil and coolant for any site equipment will
proposed systematic preventive maintenance assist management towards in-depth detailed
measures helpful in optimising equipment energy understanding of equipment performance.
efficiency include: Figure 5 shows an example of the results from
500 hours engine oil change and a lubricating oil and coolant analysis - Overall
1,000 hours hydraulic oil change. Machine Criticality Risk Profile Matrix. Some
of the useful information obtained from this
The frequency towards equipment preventive crucial equipment analysis includes component
maintenance has to be site specific since some wear rate, oil condition and cleanliness after a
of the work conditions are very demanding. The designated period of usage, optimisation in the
site specific maintenance service schedule could economic frequency of oil change and the study
include the following items: on the option in using extended life coolant.
primary and secondary air intake filters, The benefits of using extended life coolant
engine lubricating oil filter, include cost savings via increased equipment
primary and secondary fuel filters, and component life, less maintenance required
water separator and brake oil filter. and also reduction in stress to the environment
since less coolant is used thus less is disposed.
The proposed usage of this unique engineered
Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil, formulated from a
fully saturated Hydraulic Environmental Synthetic
Ester base stock and selected additives, for
daily equipment operations would be helpful in
resisting high-temperature oxidation, excessive
wear conditions and corrosion prevention. Other
advantages of this special oil is that it offers
applications over a broad range of temperatures,
possess a high viscosity index, offers excellent
cold flow characteristics and
does not affect conventional seal
materials. After usage this special
biodegradable hydraulic oil can
eventually be decomposed by soil
and water microorganisms.

Figure 5: Machine Criticality

Risk Profile Matrix

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Figure 6: Unique electric
drive equipment for
improved performance and

Increased Job Site Increased Job Site
Velocity Quality
2cm was applied
Figure 8: Ergonomic design of operator control Conventional: Accugrade:
24:32 hours On Grade 98% of the
AccuGrade: Time 1st Time
11:50 hours Conventional:
On Grade 45% of the
Time 1st Time
5. Economic energy efficiency technology
Other energy efficiency technology include: Reduced Job Site Environmental & Safety
Costs Impact
electric drive transpor t equipment
(Figure 6), Accugrade: Less fuel, lower
accurate landform re-landscaping/grading 1007 litres emissions
consumed Less risk of jobsite
technology (Figure 7),
Conventional: injuries
ergonomic design of operators control
1753 litres consumed Savings in materials used
system setup for improved operator 43% fuel savings
alertness and efficiency (Figure 8).
Figure 7: Benefits of innovative landform re-
landscaping technology
Acknowledging the importance of energy Caterpillar, 2016. Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil.
efficiency and sustainability, the engineering http://www.toromontcat.com/pdf/biohydro.pdf
professions vision and contribution is that the
industrys economic requirements need to be Fitch, J. 2016. A new look at criticality analysis
met while the benefits of sustainability need to for machinery lubrication. http://www. Machinery
be enhanced. For the eventual success of the lubrication.com/Read/29346/ machiner y-
sustainable development concept worldwide; criticality-analysis
engineers, the industry and manufacturing sector
need to continuously provide leadership in the Komatsu. 2016. Intelligent machine control.
design of energy efficient and environment-friendly http://www.komatsuamerica.com/ innovation/
technology for the benefit of the global community. intelligent-machine-control


Evolution of Satellite
Technology for Global
By Farah Aniza Mohd Nazri, J.S Mandeep, Hafizah Husain, Mardina Abdullah,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

atellite technology has greatly enhanced
What is a satellite? A satellite is the public telephone system, the internet,
an object that rotates and revolves broadcasting, radio, weather, military and
navigation systems among others, such that it has
around a planet. Satellites not now changed the way in which humans interact.
only refer to artificial satellites Satellites receive signals from ground stations and
released in space that serve as bounce the signal back to another earth station.
Communication via satellite occurs either actively
a medium of communication, but or passively. The function of passive satellites
also natural satellites that orbit is only to bounce radio waves received by the
satellites ground stations; additionally, they also
the earth such as the moon. serve as active repeater agents that amplify radio
waves, before sending them back to the ground
station. However, most modern day satellites
are used as active satellites [1]. Several types
of active satellites exist such as navigation and
remote sensing satellites. In this article, our focus
is only on communication satellites which are

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satellite, Explorer 1 in a LEO on January 31,
1958. The satellite, Explorer 1, which is shown in
Figure 2 carried a small charge for the purposes
of scientific research which ultimately led to the
discovery of magnetic radiation belts around the
Earth [2].
Experimentation of satellites that serve as a
medium for communication was also active in the
60s and 70s. It was pioneered by the SCORE
satellite (signal communication by orbital relay)
which was built by the US Army Signal Corp on
December 18, 1958 and it operated for 35 days
[3]. It also broadcast a Christmas message from
President Eisenhower [4]. The chronology of
important discoveries in satellite communication
systems is as follows:
1960: passive communication satellite were
Figure 1: Sputnik 1 launched into space by the United States
Source: National Geographics website (Echo I and II).
1962: An active satellite communication Telstar I
was first launched into middle-earth-orbit
(MEO) by a non-Government agency.
1963: The first satellite launched into
g e o s t a t i o n a r y - e a r t h - o r b i t (G EO)
was named Syncom 1. Though the
communication between the satellite
and the Earth ground station was initially
successful, it failed when attempting to
approach a synchronous orbit.
1964: Syncom 3 was successfully launched and
achieved GEO.
1964: International Telecommunication Satellite
Organisation (INTELSAT) was established.
1965: The first communication satellite was
successfully launched into a GEO for
Figure 2: Explorer 1 model held by JPL Director
commercial use; it was assigned the name
William Pickering, scientist James Van Allen, and
Early Bird and later renamed INTELSAT 1.
rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun
Source: NASA JPLs website
This race for satellite launching has enhanced
rapidly emerging with the development of wireless satellite technology whereby many experiments
technology. have been carried out. The elements researched
The explor ation of sp ac e s atelli te include sufficiency of the power level and lifespan
communication systems has been taking place for of the satellite in order for it to operate effectively
decades. in space. This is because unlike natural satellites,
According to NASAs Jet Propulsion Lab, the artificial satellites rely on self-generated power.
man-made satellite race began when the Soviet Satellites need to maintain a certain position,
Union launched their first satellite, named Sputnik better known as the designated orbit orientation.
1, on October 4, 1957 in a low-earth-orbit (LEO). In addition, satellite systems require robust
Sputnik 1 is shown in Figure 1. The United States technology that will not be affected by any
of America followed suit by launching their first radiation or meteorite collisions. Furthermore, the

Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Middle-Earth-Orbit (MEO) Geostationary-Earth-
Orbit (GEO)
Altitude 600-1,600 km 9,000-15,000 km 37,000 km
Rotation Time 90 minutes - 3 hours 24 hours per day elliptical 24 hours, synchronous
orbital with the Earths rotation

Advantages - Reduces signal delay. - Simple satellite design. - Able to cover the entire
- Eliminates the need for large - Requires very few Earth using only three
equipment such as antenna handovers. satellites.
receiver. - The antenna does not
need to be adjusted by
simply setting it to a fixed
- Longer life expectancy
(15 years).
- Provides an overview of
climate change on Earth.
- Broadcast television
without disruptions.

Disadvantages - Covers only a small area. - Requires specific - Requires larger antenna
- Has a short lifespan (5-8 antenna. for the northern and
years). - Requires higher power southern hemispheres of
transmission. the earth.
- High-rise buildings can
weaken the transmission
- Costly to send GEO
satellites into orbit.

Application Little LEO (0.8 GHz) - Orbits are primarily - Observations of climate
- Vehicle tracking, reserved for change on Earth and in
environmental monitoring and communications satellites communications systems.
two-way data communication. that cover the North and
- Used for short, narrowband South Poles.
communications. - The navigation system
Big LEO ( 2 GHz ) of GPS (Global Positioning
- The main uses are data Systems) that covers the
communications and real-time entire planet.
voice delivery to hand-held
- Used for technology
devices such as high-
speed, high-bandwidth data
communications, and video
Mega LEO (20-30 GHz )
- Mainly handles broadband
data. These systems are
optimised for packet-switched
data rather than voice.
Main types of orbits and their specifications

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satellite must have high durability and robustness Figure 3:
to maintain an optimal operating temperature MEASAT-3b
because of exposure to the sun and the cold Source: MEASAT
infinite dark space [5]. Unpredictable space website
weather conditions can change the satellite
manoeuvre which may cause the satellite to drift
from its orbit.
Each satellite has its own specific function
and is launched into a designated orbit. The three
main orbits are LEO, MEO and GEO.
Malaysia, like other developing nations,
is keeping pace with the advancement in
satellite technology. Satellite communications
infrastructure in Malaysia is the brainchild of Tun
Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, the former Prime Minister
and is part of the bold plan to realise and achieve
Vision 2020. With the help of a group of certified
experts, Binariang Sdn Bhd has successfully contributing and leading to the improvement of
built the first satellite communications system a countrys economy. The evolution of satellite
for Malaysia. The company was later renamed technology has produced better performing
MEASAT (Malaysia East Asia Satellite). The technology such as high durability, longer lasting
companys efforts paid off with the successful power sources, reliable speed signal bounces and
launch of Malaysias first satellite on January 12, many others. However, there are still weaknesses
1996, named MEASAT-1, followed by MEASAT-2 in satellite technology that are difficult to handle.
on November 13 of the same year from Kourou, Thus, the exploration of new technologies
French Guaina. The launch of MEASAT-1 and continues to be conducted by researchers to
MEASAT-2 drove rapid development in satellite overcome these weaknesses so that greater
communications systems and infrastructure in benefits can be generated for mankind.
Malaysia. They also enabled recognisable DTH
services (direct-to-home) to be provided by Astro, a REFERENCE
television broadcasting company, through the use
[1] Asas Sistem Satelit Komunikasi | ANGKASA.
of advanced digital technology. These satellites
[Online]. Available: http://www.angkasa.gov.
not only cover Malaysia but also cover areas from
my/?q=node/265. [Accessed: 11-Jan-2016].
India to Hawaii and from Japan to East Australia
[2] Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Infographics.
[Online]. Available: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/
In line with the rapid development of satellite
communications technology, MEASAT-3a was
[Accessed: 11-Jan-2016].
launched to help complete MEASAT-3s functions.
[3] Communications Satellite, SCORE | National
The MEASAT-3 series of satellites was the latest
Air and Space Museum. [Online]. Available:
edition to enable coverage of a wider area.
ht tp://airandspace.si.edu/collections/
MEASAT-3b, as shown in Figure 3, was launched
in September 12, 2014 and is currently the latest
[Accessed: 12-Jan-2016].
satellite delivered to orbit in synchronous space.
[4] NASA History - Communications Satellites.
MEASAT-3b had to undergo tests for a month
[Online]. Available: http://history.nasa.gov/
before being commercialised. All three satellites
commsat.html. [Accessed: 12-Jan-2016].
are placed at 91.5E and form one of the regions
[5] Elbert, B. R. Introduction to satellite
that have strong signal and strong orbit.
communication, Third. Artech House Inc., 2008.
Satellite technology plays a major role in
[6] MEASAT Company History. [Online].
the emergence of global communication and
Available: http://www.measat.com/corp_
influences international communications network,
profile_history.html. [Accessed: 11-Jan-2016].


Federal Highway
Upgrading in Stages
By Cheo Hong Keyong

Photo taken on 14.4.1978

showing the completion of the
second stage of the upgrading
work of the Federal Highway
viewed from Angkasapuri
(Kuala Lumpur) towards
Petaling Jaya showing the
familiar buildings of Jaya Puri
(now the Hilton PJ) and Asia
Jaya. The Ministry in charge
Photo taken on 29.9.1958 showing the Minister for Works, Posts then was the Ministry of Works
and Telecoms, YB Tun Sardon bin Jubir (with coat and songkok) and Public Utilities.
talking to an engineer on the dual-carriage way construction Source: Jabatan Penerangan
beginning from Bangsar Road to the Sungei Way traffic Malaysia
roundabout. This road was opened on 14.1.1959 by the Minister of
Works, Post and Telecoms.
Source: Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia

The first stage of upgrading expressway in Malaysia.

the Federal Highway started The se c ond s t age of
in 1956 when the Malaysian upgrading works was carried
Government decided to upgrade out as part of the Kuala Lumpur
the Kuala Lumpur to Klang Traffic Dispersal Scheme in
road to a highway for smoother 1974 by JKR with a loan from Federal Highway, 2016.
access to Port Swettenham (Port the World Bank. The upgrading
Klang), the first national port of work from Kuala Lumpur to the
Malaysia. The construction work Subang Airport Interchange
undertaken by the Public Works star ted in 1974 and was The Federal Highway was
Department (Jabatan Kerja completed in 1977. Most upgraded again in 1992 by
Raya, JKR), started in 1956. sections of the highway were Projek Lebuhraya Usahasama
Completed on 14.1.1959, the upgraded to four lanes except (PLUS) Bhd into a full six-lane
Federal Highway, with a design for the six-lane segment near highway with two toll plazas at
speed of 60 mph, was the first Petaling Jaya. Batu Tiga and Sungei Rasau.

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