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The Pioneers of Film Editing and Devices

Film Editing. Cutting. Film Editing is the Art, Technique, and Practice of
Assembling Shots into a Coherent Sequence
Over The last 120 years editing has developed incredibly. From the Lumiere
Bothers to The La Nouvelle Vogue, (The French New Wave). We will also explore
the types of editing devices.

Pioneers
Lumiere Brothers
The Lumiere Brothers were some of the first Film makers, but they did not
engage in any real film editing, they preferred to use static Shots
Insert Larrivee Dun Train a La Ciotat
The Larrivee Dun Train a La Ciotat (Arrival of a Train) 1896, was one of the first
films ever made. The Film showed audiences a train moving towards a platform.
The audience which was unfamiliar to Film, ran from the seats as they were
scared the train would hit them.
The Louis Lumiere is now classed as the father of film, although his brother made
massive contributions to their films.
The Lumiere Brothers saw no future in film production
The Lumiere Brothers inspired others to capture Film, one of these people was
George Melies

George Melies
Georges Melies was one of the first cinemagicians. Melies specialised in creating
special effects straight on to the film. His most famous film was called Le Voyage
Dans La Lune (A Trip to The Moon) 1902. The Film Featured some of the first
Special effects
Insert Le Voyage Dans La Lune
Melies asked the Lumiere brothers to sell him a camera but they refused as they
saw no future in film, so he built his own camera.
Melies would paint straight on to the film, to add colour and to make special
effects. Melies Made Countless Films, however he saw no future in Film. In 1914
Melies Became bankrupt and couldnt make films anymore so he shut his
production company, Star Films Company
Insert Hugo Scene

Edwin S Porter
Insert The Great Train Robbery
Edwin S Porters most famous film is The Great Train Robbery, which is classed as
the first edited film. Porter used cross cutting, or parallel editing to show what
occurs in to different places. He Did this to create effect on the viewer. In his
famous film The Life of an American Fireman, Porter showed a Fireman sitting in
a chair, while showing clips of a woman running around in a burning building.
When watching the viewer, feels scared for the woman, and wishes the fireman
will get there quick to save her.
Insert The Life of an American Fireman
Though Porter didnt use the technology to its full potential, he was the first to
introduce the concept of cross cutting to American cinema. This allowed others
to use it or develop it.

D W Griffith
Griffiths used different camera angles to create effect in his films. When editing
his films Griffiths would use all the camera shot footage using different angles
where he wanted.
The Birth of a Nation is classed as one of his best works. The film tells the story
of a group of KKK Members rushing into save the day. Although this film shows
racism Griffiths later apologised for the films meaning.
The film used different camera shots, CU ECU and mid shots and more. It was
one of the first films to use multiple shots.
Insert The Birth of a Nation

Kuleshov
Kuleshov discovered that the Audience Derive More Meaning Through the
Sequence of Images by Creating Emotional Connections Rather Than the Actual
Performance of an Actor
Insert The Kuleshov Effect
When People Watched the Kuleshov Effect, they congratulated the Actor on his
Performance. However, what they didnt know, was that the shot of the man was
actually the same shot used over and over.
It is a mental phenomenon by which the viewers derive meaning from the
interaction of two shots sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.

Eisenstein
Eisenstein Inspired by Griffith and Kuleshov, made powerful Montages to
Manipulate Audiences Emotions and Feelings.
Eisenstein was from Russia, so he was limited at what he could film. His most
famous film is Battleship Potemkin. Its Famous because of one scene
Battleship Potemkin Massacre at The Odessa Steps
The Massacre Is famous due to its emotional force on the audience. The use of
shots showing the Chaos, the Citizens Running down the Stairs, the Soldiers
killing People. When Audiences watch this they feel deep emotions.

La Nouvelle Vogue
The French New Wave Directors Took the Rules established by Hollywood, and
Threw Them Out the Window. They Created a Fresh Editing Style and Techniques
such as the Jump Cut, and Breaking The 180 Degree Rule. This Caused Their
Movies to Look Unfinished, and Didnt Make Sense.
Insert Breathless
By Breaking The 180 Degree Rule, The Audience/Viewer Becomes Confused. The
180 Degree Is essential, it keeps a constant flow between Characters. Example
Two People Are Talking a Camera on Each. But if you were to take a Third Camera
and put it behind The 180 Degree Line, it begins to confuse the Viewer.

The Evolution of Modern Editing


In Camera Editing
Simply Starting and Stopping filming with the film in the camera allowing the
filmmakers to move the camera between shots or to create special effects
This Meant that Actors had to stay in the exact same position till the camera was
in place. This was a Slow Way of Producing the Film
An Example Film is Voyage Dans Le Lune.

Early Editing
Film Maker Realised They Could Glue and Cement Pieces of Fil Together to Make
Different Films Run Together
Editors would of used Scissors, Magnifying Glass, Tape and Cement.
This was a very early method and took a lot of time to do.

Moviola and Flatbeds


The First Moviola was sold to Douglas Fairbanks, one of the first movie stars, on
September 16th 1924 for $125
This Allowed Editors to for the first time, view individual shots. This was done so
they could decide where to make the cut. It also allowed two tracks of sound to
be synced and played alongside the picture
Flatbed More or Less did the same, but it was controlled by two foot pedals and a
handbrake, which was useful for cutting shots

Video
Birth of Non-Linear Editing.
Allowed editors to watch shots and then record them on to a second tape.
This method may still be used to day

Digital
This is the most Modern form of editing. Its a Computer Program/Software.
Which allows an editor to quickly and accurately Cut shots?
It Made it easier to create special effects
It also allowed an editor to work where ever as he wasnt tied to an edit suite
Types Digital Editing Software are Adobe Premiere, Sony Vegas Pro, Final Cut Pro.

Non Linear and Linear Editing


Linear
Linear Video Editing is a video editing post production process of selecting,
arranging and modifying Images and sound in a predetermined, ordered
sequence

Non Linear
In Digital Editing, Non Linear editing is a method that allows you to access Any
frame in a digital video clip regardless of sequences in the clip.