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Annotated Bibliography

Armitage, Kenneth B., Inouye, David W., Inouye, Brian D., and Barr, Billy. (2000), Climate
change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. PNAS, 97 (4) 1630-

In this article, the authors wrote about how climate change (which is caused by global warming)
is deeply affecting animals of all sorts. They described about how certain animals who hibernate
tend to stay in longer because winter is reaching into spring, therefore their behavior patterns
change. They research and come to find that lowland animals are experiencing an earlier spring.
The authors see that due to the climate change, animals react in different ways to the changes
which that can cause a problem. It can affect the way they live and their daily lives. Animals who
are migrants and hibernators deal with a big situation like not being able to tell when to hibernate
or not. It is known that global warming has different effects on animals.

The evaluation of whether or not climate change can be a factor to animals living a certain way
has been done very well. The authors give details as to which type of species are affected and
bring the pros and cons into the conversations. They researched far and wide from lowland
animals and highland animals, bringing in the similarities that they shared. It was well thought
out and their research gave a lot of explanation as to why they decided to research their topic.

Boyes, E., Stanisstreet, M., Skamp, K., Rodriguez, M., Malandrakis, G., Fortner, R. W., Kilinc,
A., Taylor, N., Kiran Chhokar, K., Shweta Dua, S., Abdullah Ambusaidi, A., Cheong, I.
P., Mijung Kim, M., and Yoon, H. (2014). An international study of the propensity of
students to limit their use of private transport in light of their understanding of the
causes of global warming. Taylor & Francis

The authors in this article, emphasizes the importance of education in order to do something for
global warming. For their research, the authors conducted studies in different countries and
compared their results. In countries such as USA, UK, and Greece, lower percentages of student
believes global warming exists when compare to other students in Singapore, Turkey, India. The
authors found more females tend to show worried about global warming. One section of their
studies include Students Degree of Willingness to Act where students were asked if they would
give up on private transportation over public transportation such as riding bus to school. In
result, the article includes Overall, rather fewer students (35%) were prepared to undertake this
action (Boyes et al.,2014). This study is related to our global warming issue because it discuss
about the willingness to do something for global warming. The main aim for our group to
educate other with current information and what they can do. This study has very interesting
finding but however, they research was limited to students. Also, the questions they ask were
more in quantitative manner.

Climate Impacts on Human Health. (2017, January 13). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from

Climate will increase heat waves, which can result to more people dying from the heat. Wildfires
will become common. This will release air pollutants. The increase in carbon dioxide will lead to
more allergic pollen. Climate change can affect the water as viruses and bacterias can appear like
Cryptosporidium and Giardia. More diseases will appear because of the change of temperature.
Bacteria can be present in seafood, thus causing harm to humans. Extreme weather can affect the
human system by destroying roads or interrupting transportation. Warmer temperatures can
increase bacteria, such as Salmonella in food. Flooding and droughts can affect waterways,
roads, and agriculture. This will make access to necessities extremely difficult.

Crick, H. Q. P. (2004), The Impact of Climate Change on Birds. Ibis, 146: 4856

The journal article of Humphrey Crick was written about how birds are being impacted by the
climate change. Birds in each country are experiencing changes in their laying times which
makes it harder for them to breed and survive. The author calculated all the different types of
species that was being affected as well. The birds arent laying their eggs or hatching
successfully due to the climate change. Another factor that was in his research was that since
global warming can affect every type of animal, it also reached to the ocean, lakes, and rivers. He
researched that it was hard for the birds to find fish for food. Marine birds are starting to depend
deeply on their main prey which is in the ocean, but warmer and longer summers create
instability for them to find fish.

This journal article, was a little confusing to understand what his point was. Cricks description
about what he was research wasnt specific enough. The authors research was something to re-
read a lot of different times, but once its understood the big issue comes into the picture. There
was a lot of information and he cited in some great sources that also helped him in the end.
Although it was a tough article to read, the ideas and evaluations made a good point and can help
open eyes to bigger issues.

Cullenward, D., (2014). How Californias carbon market actually works. Bulletin of the
Atomic Scientists.

In this article, the author described Californias stand on carbon emission. Danny Cullenward
started off with what that californ used to get their electricity from the Four Corners Power
Plant, a coal-fired facility in northwestern New Mexico (Cullenward 2014). Burning coal not
just add up carbon emission in the air but pollutes air that human breath. Although california
stopped getting electricity from New Mexico but Arizona is their new client according to this
article. This change was not really helpfull for global warming. The author explained that
Almost 10 years ago, Californias legislature passed Assembly Bill 32, the Global Warming
Solutions Act of 2006... AB 32 set the most ambitious legally binding climate policy in the
United States, requiring that Californias greenhouse gas emissions return to 1990 levels by the
year 2020 (Cullenward 2014). Californias legislation assigned California Air Resources Board
(CARB) to main plain out ways to reach that goal. This resource is reliable because it is a
scholarly article that has a reference page. Also, we can rely this for information because it is not
outdated and the author did very well by providing links to the resources that he used.

Davies, E. (2011, January 25). BBC - Earth News - Polar bear's epic nine day swim in
search of sea ice. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/new
This article talks about how, as we know, polar bears are having to swim longer and longer
distances to find food or just to get to the next ice sheet. Scientists have been tagging polar bears
with devices that track where they travel to. They managed to record one polar bear that swam
for nine days straight- a total 426 miles. This is the distance from New York to Brooklyn and a
little longer than the distance from Sacramento to Los Angeles. The mother was swimming with
ther cub and sadly the cub died while swimming.

Epstein, P. (2005). Climate Change and Human Health. The New England Journal of
Medicine, 353, 1433-1436. doi:10.1056/NEJMp058079

This article details some climate changes that affects human health in various ways. One climate
change the article describes is the rising heat wave with statistics of how many people were
affected by it. It accounts the rising level of asthma in the United States due to dust clouds of
respiratory irritants which is caused by rising wind levels due to the warming oceans. There is
also information about how droughts are negatively affecting organisms and crop growth.

Global Warming Effects. (2017, February 16). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from

Compared to 1906, the global temperature has increased from 1.1 degrees to 1.6 degrees
Fahrenheit. Although it may seem like there would only be minor effects, the slight change in
temperature is having a huge effect on the polar regions. The slight change in temperature is
causing ice to melt, changing the weather patterns, and also causing harm to animals. The overall
planet is affected because the heat is causing a rise in sea level. Invasive species such as beetles
are also forming, eating up many trees. Precipitation is also increasing all over the world which
is causing stronger hurricanes and storms. Other effects include increase in floods and droughts,
and rise in sea level as the ice melts. An example of ice melting would be the Quelccaya Ice Cap
in Peru. Droughts are so common in Ethiopia that there will be a 10% decrease of rain in the area
in 50 years. Diseases will also become common such as mosquito-borne Malaria.

Global Climate Change: Effects. (2016, June 16). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from

Glaciers and the ice in rivers are continuing to melt and break earlier than before. Many
scientists believe that global warming will continue because of the greenhouse gases that humans
are releasing to the environment. Over the next century, temperatures will increase from 2.5 to 10
degrees fahrenheit. Global warming overall effects each region differently and the environment
will somehow change to adapt to the change in climate. There are many long term effects. Some
long term effects include increase in temperature. This will make the growing season last longer,
thus the winter season will be shorter. Precipitation patterns also continue to change. The north of
US will continue to have increased precipitation, while the southern states are continuing to have
droughts. In the southwest, the temperature in the summer is rising. Since 1980s, hurricanes
especially in the North Atlantic is getting stronger, as it continues to break records of the
strongest hurricanes. More storms will result as an effect. Sea levels will rise 1 to 4 feet by the
end of the century, while the Antarctic Ocean will become ice free by 2050.

Haines, A., Kovats, R.S., Campbell-Lendrum, D. & Corvalan, C. (2006). Climate change and
human health: Impacts, vulnerability, and public health. Public Health Journal, 120, 585-
596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2006.01.002

This article details many statistics and background information about different weather
conditions caused by climate change and how human health is affected by each one. It discusses
heat waves and numbers of death in different countries caused by rising temperatures. There is
also evidence about floods and droughts and how infectious diseases are heightened due to these
weather conditions. It also includes a section of how fossil fuels are a big factor of climate
change and provides solutions to prevent high fossil fuel usage.

Hughes, T. P., Baird, A. H., & Bellwood, D. R. (2003, August). Climate Change, Human
Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from

The increase in temperature of the ocean and the increase in carbon dioxide is threatening the
coral reefs. These factors are caused by humans. 30% of the coral reef are damaged, while 60%
are believed to disappear by 2030. Overfishing and pollution from agriculture and development
of new buildings have a major impact on the coral reefs. This causes the reefs to change in
pigment, turning pale. In order to prevent coral reefs from harm, it is important to stop
overfishing and control air pollutants.

Malcolm, J. R., Liu, C., Neilson, R. P., Hansen, L. and Hannah, L. (2006),
Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots.
Conservation Biology, 20: 538548.
In this journal article, the authors who were apart of the Faculty of Forestry at University of
Toronto researched and calculated the changes in habitat areas due to global warming. They saw
the changes in the ways global warming induced rates of species. It was the most serious threat
to the planets biodiversity. The researchers used the method that tied in with habitat loss. There
were some parts of the environment that was on the line of being extinct because of deforestation
and as global warming spreaded, it affected the plants and animals to live and grow. They have
seen few efforts being done about the greenhouse gases that were affecting the globe. These
researchers conducted that as the climate shifted, the habitats could easily vanish from those
affected areas.

Reading this journal article, the researchers were very productive in their research. They needed
to calculate a lot of data and information in a certain timeframe. Their word choices made it easy
for non-researchers to understand what was happening and it was well written. They tied in
biology with global warming and had good researching methods that helped them create a stable
background information.

Mawdsley J. R., OMalley R., Ojima D. S. (2009). A Review of Climate- Change

Adaptation Strategies for Wildlife Management and Biodiversity Conservation.
Conservation Biology, 23, 1081- 1087. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-
Summary: This scientific review talks about the effects that climate change is having on
ecosystems and wildlife. The authors have took it upon themselves to develop adaptation
strategies and plans they believe people should facilitate in light of the current climate situation.
They talk about four main points that humans can take action on- land and water protection and
management, direct species management, monitoring and planning, and law and policy. In
land/water protection and management, it is emphasized that people should utilize natural
resource conservation methods to protect the wildlife in the area. Direct species management is
where the authors focus on trying to restore and manage individual species. Monitoring and
planning has to do with monitoring wildlife populations along with the development of the
species and adaptation plans with climate adjustment taken into consideration. Law and policy
explain the complications behind trying to amend policies having to do with wildlife
management and conservation.

McMicheal, A. et al. (2003). Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses.
Retrieved from.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tQFYJjDEwhIC&oi=fnd

This publication is from the World Health Organization and contains information written by
several esteemed researchers and personnel from different branches of World Health
Organizations. It details climate change and the many effects on human health. The publication
includes different perspectives on climate change and its effect on human health. One
perspective accounts the climate change effect on health in different countries and regions. Many
describe diseases becoming grander by climate change and the weather conditions it creates.

Roberts, Karen B. (2016). "Climate Change May Shrink Adlie Penguin Range by End of . .
Century." NASA.

In this article written by Karen Roberts, it talked about climate change being a danger to possibly
extincting a species of penguins in Antarctica. The author used NASAs geologic record to
evaluate whats happening in the North. The glaciers are beginning to expand and cover the
Adelies breeding habitat with sheers of ice, which shows the penguins that its time for them to
abandon their colonies. Once that sheer of ice is melted away from the warmth, the penguins
start to migrate back to their breeding grounds. As it used to be a positive outlook on global
warming, Roberts issued that this type of warming might not be safe for the penguins. Research
and calculations show that these Adelie penguins could be extinct by 2060 because the sea
surface temperatures will most likely decrease the habitats for breeding. When the sea surfaces
rise, the penguins foodsource will either be too far to reach, or gone.

Considering that this is an article from NASA and their technology is reliable, it is very credible
source because it has data that can back it up. Their word diction is easy to interpret and their
information isnt all over the place. It has a lot of explanations and details from what they
researched. They also added in graphs and images for readers to get a glimpse of what the
penguins are going through right now and what theyll go through in the future.

Savory, A. (2013). Allan Savory: How to fight desertification and reverse climate change [Video
file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_green_the_world_
s_deserts_and _reverse_climate_change/transcript?language=en

In this ted talk video, Allan Savory explains one solution to reverse climate change. Allan Savory
did research in different parts of world mainly in Africa on its deserts. He explained that carbon
and fossil fuels are not the only things that impacts climate change. Land that is turning into
desert is one too. When it rains in desert area, the water evaporate back again so no plants grow
back again and it releases carbon from sand to the atmosphere. Most of the world land is turning
into desert which is causing the climate change negatively. Traditionally right after the grass turn
into hay, people burn it which is more bad for global warming and if you dont burn it, the land
turns into desert. Through research, Allan Savory found that instead of burning, let the animals
freely eat the hay. After number of experiences, the result was very surprising. This study can
help us with our research for global warming. It is reliable resource because Allan Savory is an
environmental scientist for past 50 years. He has clear results and more experience.
Schryver, A., Brakkee, K., Goedkoop, M. & and Huijbregts, M. (2009). Characterization Factors
.. for Global Warming in Life Cycle Assessment Based on Damages to Humans and
Ecosystems. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 1689-1695. doi:10.1021/es800456m

This study focuses on 63 greenhouse emissions and how it affects human health and terrestrial
ecosystems. This is accomplished by creating scenarios which are then quantified into endpoint
models. Through the three scenarios created, it shows how effective these greenhouse gases are
on deteriorating human health. Included in the study is the cultural perspective of each scenario
and how different countries and specific regions are affected. The results of the study show that
the climate change has influenced the incidence of diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition.

Shindell, D. et al. (2012). Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and

Improving Human Health and Food Security. Science, 335, 183-189.

This is a research to create measures that will help reduce emissions of black carbon and the
tropospheric ozone. There is also some information on how the emissions have affected many
countries and how the country has suffered from crop production due to the emissions. The
research was conducted through simulations and scenarios through which each measure created
was tested to see if it had reduced the emissions of black carbon. Also, included in the article is
the cost and benefit valuation for each of the measures used and created.

Terry, Mark (Producer), & Terry Mark (Director). (2009). The Antarctica Challenge: A
Global Warming [Motion Picture]. United States: Polar Cap Productions.
The film talks about how the Antarctic ice and how the melting of the ice caps is a bad thing but
the consequences like flooding around the earth are worse. The coastal cities, of course, are
facing the most danger and risk complete submersion into ocean waters. Because the Antarctic
ice caps hold around 70% of the worlds fresh water, the addition of the melted ice into the ocean
is lowering the salinity of the water- endangering the fish and ocean life.

Thang K. (2005, June 21). How Global Warming is Changing the Wild Kingdom. Retrieved . . . .
from http://www.livescience.com/3864-global-warming-changing-wild-kingdom.html

This article, written by Ker Than, talks about conflicting views scientists have on global
warming and the main ways animals react to this climate change. Scientists have been on the
fence for a while about this phenomenon and what humans should do to counteract the effects.
Some scientists claim that we must do something and rather quickly because the consequences,
like the polar ice caps melting, are only getting worse. Migration patterns have shifted by days
and scientists claim that wildlife is showing signs of change compared to patterns a century ago.
Other scientists completely disagree and say that it is natural for animals to be showing signs of
change because wildlife as we know it- evolves. They believe that humans have little to do with
the change in temperatures and there is little we can do to stop these changes to nature. Than then
goes on to talk about the four main ways animals have been reacting to the climate change-
divide and destroy, evolving, having intricate connections, and genetic changes. Divide and
destroy talks about how animals are being forced into isolation due to human inhabitation
breaking their lines of retreat northwards to colder climate. As a result, species are slowly dying
off because of their scattered population. Evolving is a more idealistic type of thinking where
Darwin describes the animals as responding to the changes in climate as a group for self-
preservation. This has been proved false on many accounts and does not have much scientific
background. Having intricate connections incorporates the idea of coevolution and says that
because species rely on each other, even if temperature changes do not affect one specific
species, it will eventually harm them in some other way. Lastly, genetic changes explains how
the global warming can innately affect these wild creatures and this has been scientifically seen
in red squirrels and fruit flies.

United Nations ( 2017) Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
U.N. The Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from
Climate change is 13th sustainable goal. This website has set up path to bring the global warming
back to normal range. Many nations are facing the climate change as an issue. Climate change is
negatively affecting nation's economy, peoples lives, environment, and their animals. Carbon
emission (CO2) increased around 50% since 1990. From 2000 to 2010, CO2 increased quickly
compare to past decades. It is still possible to improve climate change through technology. Also,
this website has list of goals that United Nations set up to reduce the warming. These goals
involves improve education and spread awareness about global warming; collect $100 billion
dollars by developed nations and cover the need of developing nations; promote eco-friendly
mechanisms. This resource also provide document on what a lazy person can do to help climate
change. Things that a lazy person can do is to start using public transport instead of personal,
share out any awareness that you liked on social media, let cloths and hair dry naturally. There
are more call to actions but these are few most important ones that effects climate change a lot.
This resource is reliable because it is an official website of United Nations sustainable goal
number 13 Climate Action.