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INTRODUCTION

The period of 18901920 is considered the golden era of educational psychology


where aspirations of the new discipline rested on the application of the scientific
methods of observation and experimentation to educational problems. From 1840
to 1920 37 million people immigrated to the United States. This created an
expansion of elementary schools and secondary schools. The increase in
immigration also provided educational psychologists the opportunity to use
intelligence testing to screen immigrants at Ellis Island. Darwinism influenced the
beliefs of the prominent educational psychologists. Even in the earliest years of the
discipline, educational psychologists recognized the limitations of this new
approach. The pioneering American psychologist William James commented that:
Psychology is a science, and teaching is an art; and sciences never generate arts
directly out of themselves. An intermediate inventive mind must make that
application, by using its originality.

(A) Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology


concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study
of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral
perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual
differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect,
motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role
in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on
quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to
enhance educational activities related to instructional design,
classroom management, assessment, which serve to facilitate
learning processes in various educational setting educational
psychologies can in part be understood through its relationship
with other disciplines
(B) THE FOLLOWING ARE INCLUDED IN THE SCOPE OF
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

(1) Human Behavior: It studies human behavior in educational


situations. Psychology is the study of behavior and education
deals with the modification of behavior and hence, educational
psychology pervades in whole field of education.
(2) Growth And Development: It studies growth and
development of the child. How a child passes through various
stages of growth and what are the characteristics of each stage
are included in the study of Educational Psychology.
(3) Learning Process: It studies the law of learning: learning is a
major phenomenon in education. It studies how learning can take
place most effectively and economically.
(4) Heredity and Environment: To what extent heredity and
environment contribute towards the growth of the individual and
how this knowledge can be used for bringing about the optimum
development of the child, form a salient feature of the scope of
Educational Psychology.
(5) Personality: Educational Psychology deals with the nature
and development of the personality of an individual. In fact,
education has been defined as an all-round development of the
personality of an individual; personality development also implies
a well-adjusted personality.
(6) Individual Difference: Every individual differs from another
and it is one of the fundamental facts of human nature, which has
been brought to light by Educational Psychology. This one fact has
revolutionized the concept and process of education.
(7) Intelligence and its Measurement: The scope of
Educational Psychology includes the study of the nature of
intelligence as well as its measurement. This is of great
importance for a teacher or an educator.
(8) Guidance and Counseling: This is one of the most
important fields or areas of study included in the field of
Educational Psychology. Education is nothing but providing
guidance to the growing child. Thus, guidance forms an important
aspect of Educational Psychology.

REFFERENCE
Snowman, Jack (1997). Educational Psychology: What Do We Teach, What
Should We Teach?. "Educational Psychology", 9, 151-169
Lucas, J.L.; Blazek, M.A. & Riley, A.B. (2005). The lack of representation
of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory
psychology textbooks. Educational Psychology, 25, 34751.
Farrell, P. (2010). School psychology: Learning lessons from history and
moving forward. School Psychology International, 31(6), 581-598.
Berliner, David. "The 100-Year Journey Of Educational Psychology" (PDF).