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c03EvaluatingProperties.

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148 Chapter 3 Evaluating Properties

final pressure is 8 bar. Kinetic and potential energy effects (a) At p 5 2 MPa, T 5 300C. Find u, in kJ/kg.
are negligible. Determine the work, in kJ, for the process. (b) At p 5 2.5 MPa, T 5 200C. Find u, in kJ/kg.
3.37 As shown in Fig. P3.37, Refrigerant 134a is contained in a (c) At T 5 170 F, x 5 50%. Find u, in Btu/lb.
pistoncylinder assembly, initially as saturated vapor. The (d) At p 5 100 lbf/in.2, T 5 300F. Find h, in Btu/lb
refrigerant is slowly heated until its temperature is 160C. (e) At p 5 1.5 MPa, y 5 0.2095 m3/kg. Find h, in kJ/kg.
During the process, the piston moves smoothly in the 3.43 For each case, determine the specified property value and
cylinder. For the refrigerant, evaluate the work, in kJ/kg. locate the state by hand on sketches of the py and Ty
diagrams.
patm = 1 bar Weight = 471.1 N (a) For Refrigerant 134a at T 5 160F, h 5 127.7 Btu/lb. Find
D = 0.02 m y, in ft3/lb.
Piston
(b) For Refrigerant 134a at T 5 90F, u 5 72.71 Btu/lb. Find
h, in Btu/lb.
Initial: Saturated vapor (c) For ammonia at T 5 160F, p 5 60 lbf/in.2 Find u, in
Final: T2 = 160C Btu/lb.
Refrigerant 134a (d) For ammonia at T 5 0F, p 5 35 lbf/in.2 Find u, in Btu/lb.
(e) For Refrigerant 22 at p 5 350 lbf/in.2, T 5 350F. Find u,
in Btu/lb.
3.44 Using the tables for water, determine the specified
property data at the indicated states. In each case, locate the
state by hand on sketches of the py and Ty diagrams.
Q (a) At p 5 3 bar, y 5 0.5 m3/kg, find T in C and u in kJ/kg.
Fig. P3.37 (b) At T 5 320C, y 5 0.03 m3/kg, find p in MPa and u in
kJ/kg.
(c) At p 5 28 MPa, T 5 520C, find y in m3/kg and h in
3.38 A pistoncylinder assembly contains 0.1 lb of propane. kJ/kg.
The propane expands from an initial state where p1 5 60 lbf/in.2 (d) At T 5 10C, y 5 100 m3/kg, find p in kPa and h in kJ/kg.
and T1 5 30F to a final state where p2 5 10 lbf/in.2 During (e) At p 5 4 MPa, T 5 160C, find y in m3/kg and u in kJ/kg.
the process, the pressure and specific volume are related
by py2 5 constant. Determine the energy transfer by work, 3.45 Using the tables for water, determine the specified
in Btu. property data at the indicated states. In each case, locate the
state by hand on sketches of the py and Ty diagrams.
Using uh Data (a) At p 5 20 lbf/in.2, y 5 16 ft3/lb, find T in F and u in
3.39 Determine the values of the specified properties at each Btu/lb.
of the following conditions. (b) At T 5 900F, p 5 170 lbf/in.2, find y in ft3/lb and h in
Btu/lb.
(a) For Refrigerant 134a at T 5 60C and y 5 0.072 m3/kg, (c) At T 5 600F, y 5 0.6 ft3/lb, find p in lbf/in.2 and u in
determine p in kPa and h in kJ/kg. Btu/lb.
(b) For ammonia at p 5 8 bar and y 5 0.005 m3/kg, determine (d) At T 5 40F, y 5 1950 ft3/lb, find p in lbf/in.2 and h in
T in C and u in kJ/kg. Btu/lb.
(c) For Refrigerant 22 at T 5 210C and u 5 200 kJ/kg, (e) At p 5 600 lbf/in.2, T 5 320F, find y in ft3/lb and u in
determine p in bar and y in m3/kg. Btu/lb.
3.40 Determine the values of the specified properties at each 3.46 For each case, determine the specified property data and
of the following conditions. locate the state by hand on a sketch of the Ty diagram.
(a) For Refrigerant 134a at p 5 140 lbf/in.2 and h 5 100 (a) Evaluate the specific volume, in ft3/lb, and the specific
Btu/lb, determine T in F and y in ft3/lb. enthalpy, in Btu/lb, of water at 400F and a pressure of 3000
(b) For ammonia at T 5 0F and y 5 15 ft3/lb, determine p lbf/in.2
in lbf/in.2 and h in Btu/lb. (b) Evaluate the specific volume, in ft3/lb, and the specific
(c) For Refrigerant 22 at T 5 30F and y 5 1.2 ft3/lb, enthalpy, in Btu/lb, of Refrigerant 134a at 95F and 150 lbf/in.2
determine p in lbf/in.2 and h in Btu/lb. (c) Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the specific
3.41 Using IT, determine the specified property data at the enthalpy, in kJ/kg, of ammonia at 20C and 1.0 MPa.
indicated states. Compare with results from the appropriate (d) Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the specific
table. enthalpy, in kJ/kg, of propane at 800 kPa and 0C.

(a) Cases (a), (b), and (c) of Problem 3.39. Applying the Energy Balance
(b) Cases (a), (b), and (c) of Problem 3.40.
3.47 Water, initially saturated vapor at 4 bar, fills a closed, rigid
3.42 Using the tables for water, determine the specified container. The water is heated until its temperature is 400C.
property data at the indicated states. In each case, locate the For the water, determine the heat transfer, in kJ/kg. Kinetic
state by hand on sketches of the py and Ty diagrams. and potential energy effects can be ignored.
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Problems: Developing Engineering Skills 149

3.48 A closed, rigid tank contains Refrigerant 134a, initially at final temperatures, in C, (b) the work, in kJ, and (c) the heat
100C. The refrigerant is cooled until it becomes saturated transfer, in kJ.
vapor at 20C. For the refrigerant, determine the initial and
final pressures, each in bar, and the heat transfer, in kJ/kg. patm = 100 kPa
Kinetic and potential energy effects can be ignored.
3.49 A closed, rigid tank is filled with water. Initially, the tank
holds 9.9 ft3 saturated vapor and 0.1 ft3 saturated liquid, each
Piston m = 0.1 kg
at 212F. The water is heated until the tank contains only p = 0.2 MPa
saturated vapor. For the water, determine (a) the quality at V1 = 0.0277 m3
the initial state, (b) the temperature at the final state, in F, V2 = 0.0307 m3
and (c) the heat transfer, in Btu. Kinetic and potential energy Propane
effects can be ignored.
3.50 A closed, rigid tank is filled with water, initially at the
critical point. The water is cooled until it attains a temperature +
Hot plate
of 400F. For the water, show the process on a sketch of
the Ty diagram and determine the heat transfer, in Btu/lb. Fig. P3.56
3.51 Propane within a pistoncylinder assembly undergoes a
constant-pressure process from saturated vapor at 400 kPa 3.57 A pistoncylinder assembly contains water, initially saturated
to a temperature of 40C. Kinetic and potential energy effects liquid at 150C. The water is heated at constant temperature
are negligible. For the propane, (a) show the process on a to saturated vapor.
py diagram, (b) evaluate the work, in kJ/kg, and (c) evaluate
the heat transfer, in kJ/kg. (a) If the rate of heat transfer to the water is 2.28 kW,
determine the rate at which work is done by the water on
3.52 Refrigerant 134a expands in a pistoncylinder assembly the piston, in kW.
from 180 lbf/in.2 and 140F to 30 lbf/in.2 The mass of (b) If in addition to the heat transfer rate given in part (a)
refrigerant is 0.5 lb. During the process, heat transfer to the the total mass of water is 0.1 kg, determine the time, in s,
refrigerant from its surroundings is 1.2 Btu while the work required to execute the process.
done by the refrigerant is 4.32 Btu. Determine the final
temperature of the refrigerant, in F. Kinetic and potential 3.58 A closed, rigid tank contains 2 kg of water, initially a two-
energy effects are negligible. phase liquidvapor mixture at 80C. Heat transfer occurs until
the tank contains only saturated vapor with y 5 2.045 m3/kg.
3.53 Ammonia vapor in a pistoncylinder assembly undergoes For the water, locate the initial and final states on a sketch of
a constant-pressure process from saturated vapor at 10 bar. the Ty diagram and determine the heat transfer, in kJ.
The work is 116.5 kJ/kg. Changes in kinetic and potential
energy are negligible. Determine (a) the final temperature 3.59 As shown in Fig. P3.59, a rigid, closed tank having a
of the ammonia, in C, and (b) the heat transfer, in kJ/kg. volume of 20 ft3 and filled with 75 lb of Refrigerant 134a is
exposed to the sun. At 9:00 a.m., the refrigerant is at a
3.54 Water in a pistoncylinder assembly, initially at a
pressure of 100 lbf/in.2 By 3:00 p.m., owing to solar radiation,
temperature of 99.63C and a quality of 65%, is heated at
the refrigerant is a saturated vapor at a pressure greater than
constant pressure to a temperature of 200C. If the work
100 lbf/in.2 For the refrigerant, determine (a) the initial
during the process is 1300 kJ, determine (a) the mass of water,
in kg, and (b) the heat transfer, in kJ. Changes in kinetic and
potential energy are negligible. 9:00 a.m. 3:00 p.m.

3.55 A pistoncylinder assembly containing water, initially a


liquid at 50F, undergoes a process at a constant pressure of
20 lbf/in.2 to a final state where the water is a vapor at 300F.
Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible. Determine
the work and heat transfer, in Btu per lb, for each of three
parts of the overall process: (a) from the initial liquid state to
the saturated liquid state, (b) from saturated liquid to
saturated vapor, and (c) from saturated vapor to the final
vapor state, all at 20 lbf/in.2
3.56 As shown in Fig. P3.56, 0.1 kg of propane is contained
within a piston-cylinder assembly at a constant pressure of Refrigerant 134a
0.2 MPa. Energy transfer by heat occurs slowly to the m = 75 lb
propane, and the volume of the propane increases from V = 20 ft3
At 9:00 a.m.,
0.0277 m3 to 0.0307 m3. Friction between the piston and p1 = 100 lbf/in.2
cylinder is negligible. The local atmospheric pressure and
acceleration of gravity are 100 kPa and 9.81 m/s2, respectively. At 3:00 p.m., saturated
The propane experiences no significant kinetic and potential vapor at p2 > 100 lbf/in.2
energy effects. For the propane, determine (a) the initial and Fig. P3.59
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150 Chapter 3 Evaluating Properties

Refrigerant 22
T1 = !10C
x1 = 80%
T2 = 40C
V = 0.01 m3
Resistor 12-volt battery provides a
5-amp current for
5 minutes.

Fig. P3.63

temperature, in F, (b) the final pressure, in lbf/in.2, and its pressure varies linearly with specific volume. Show the
(c) the heat transfer, in Btu. process of the ammonia on a sketch of the py diagram. For
the ammonia, determine the work and heat transfer, each
3.60 A rigid, insulated tank fitted with a paddle wheel is
in kJ/kg.
filled with water, initially a two-phase liquidvapor mixture
at 20 lbf/in.2, consisting of 0.07 lb of saturated liquid and 3.67 A rigid, well-insulated container with a volume of 2 ft3
0.07 lb of saturated vapor. The tank contents are stirred by holds 0.12 lb of ammonia initially at a pressure of 20 lbf/in.2
the paddle wheel until all of the water is saturated vapor The ammonia is stirred by a paddle wheel, resulting in an
at a pressure greater than 20 lbf/in.2 Kinetic and potential energy transfer to the ammonia with a magnitude of 1 Btu.
energy effects are negligible. For the water, determine For the ammonia, determine the initial and final temperatures,
the each in R, and the final pressure, in lbf/in.2 Neglect kinetic
(a) volume occupied, in ft3. and potential energy effects.
(b) initial temperature, in F. 3.68 Water contained in a pistoncylinder assembly, initially at
(c) final pressure, in lbf/in.2 300F, a quality of 90%, and a volume of 6 ft3, is heated at
(d) work, in Btu. constant temperature to saturated vapor. If the rate of heat
3.61 If the hot plate of Example 3.2 transfers energy at a rate transfer is 0.3 Btu/s, determine the time, in min, for this
of 0.1 kW to the two-phase mixture, determine the time process of the water to occur. Kinetic and potential energy
required, in h, to bring the mixture from (a) state 1 to state effects are negligible.
2, (b) state 1 to state 3.
3.69 Five kg of water is contained in a pistoncylinder assembly,
3.62 A closed, rigid tank filled with water, initially at 20 bar, a initially at 5 bar and 240C. The water is slowly heated at
quality of 80%, and a volume of 0.5 m3, is cooled until the constant pressure to a final state. If the heat transfer for the
pressure is 4 bar. Show the process of the water on a sketch process is 2960 kJ, determine the temperature at the final
of the Ty diagram and evaluate the heat transfer, in kJ. state, in C, and the work, in kJ. Kinetic and potential energy
effects are negligible.
3.63 As shown in Fig. P3.63, a closed, rigid tank fitted with a
fine-wire electric resistor is filled with Refrigerant 22, initially 3.70 Referring to Fig. P3.70, water contained in a piston
at 210C, a quality of 80%, and a volume of 0.01 m3. A cylinder assembly, initially at 1.5 bar and a quality of 20%,
12-volt battery provides a 5-amp current to the resistor for is heated at constant pressure until the piston hits the stops.
5 minutes. If the final temperature of the refrigerant is 40C, Heating then continues until the water is saturated vapor.
determine the heat transfer, in kJ, from the refrigerant. Show the processes of the water in series on a sketch of the
3.64 A rigid, well-insulated tank contains a two-phase mixture Ty diagram. For the overall process of the water, evaluate
of ammonia with 0.0025 ft3 of saturated liquid and 1.5 ft3 of the work and heat transfer, each in kJ/kg. Kinetic and
saturated vapor, initially at 40 lbf/in.2 A paddle wheel stirs potential effects are negligible.
the mixture until only saturated vapor at higher pressure 3.71 A pistoncylinder assembly contains 2 lb of water, initially
remains in the tank. Kinetic and potential energy effects are at 300F. The water undergoes two processes in series:
negligible. For the ammonia, determine the amount of energy constant-volume heating followed by a constant-pressure
transfer by work, in Btu. process. At the end of the constant-volume process, the
3.65 A closed, rigid tank is filled with 0.02 lb of water, initially pressure is 100 lbf/in.2 and the water is a two-phase, liquid
at 120F and a quality of 50%. The water receives 8 Btu by vapor mixture with a quality of 80%. At the end of the
heat transfer. Determine the temperature, in F, pressure, in constant-pressure process, the temperature is 400F. Neglect
lbf/in.2, and quality of the water at its final state. kinetic and potential energy effects.
3.66 A pistoncylinder assembly contains ammonia, initially at (a) Sketch Ty and py diagrams showing key states and the
a temperature of 220C and a quality of 50%. The ammonia processes.
is slowly heated to a final state where the pressure is 6 bar (b) Determine the work and heat transfer for each of the
and the temperature is 180C. While the ammonia is heated, two processes, all in Btu.
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Problems: Developing Engineering Skills 151

patm = 1 bar

0.1 kg of water,
0.03 m initially at 1 MPa, 500C.

Final temperature is 25C.

Piston

Water Fig. P3.75


p1 = 1.5 bar
0.05 m
x1 = 20%
Sketch the two processes in series on a py diagram.
Neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, evaluate for
each process the work and heat transfer, each in kJ.
3.76 A two-phase, liquidvapor mixture of H2O, initially at
x 5 30% and a pressure of 100 kPa, is contained in a piston
Q cylinder assembly, as shown in Fig P3.76. The mass of the
piston is 10 kg, and its diameter is 15 cm. The pressure of
Fig. P3.70 the surroundings is 100 kPa. As the water is heated, the
pressure inside the cylinder remains constant until the piston
3.72 A system consisting of 3 lb of water vapor in a piston
hits the stops. Heat transfer to the water continues at constant
cylinder assembly, initially at 350F and a volume of 71.7 ft3,
volume until the pressure is 150 kPa. Friction between the
is expanded in a constant-pressure process to a volume of
piston and the cylinder wall and kinetic and potential energy
85.38 ft3. The system then is compressed isothermally to a final
effects are negligible. For the overall process of the water,
volume of 28.2 ft3. During the isothermal compression, energy
determine the work and heat transfer, each in kJ.
transfer by work into the system is 72 Btu. Kinetic and
potential energy effects are negligible. Determine the heat
transfer, in Btu, for each process.
Water, Piston
3.73 Ammonia in a pistoncylinder assembly undergoes two initially at D = 15 cm
processes in series. Initially, the ammonia is saturated vapor at x = 30%, m = 10 kg
p = 100 kPa
p1 5 100 lbf/in.2 Process 12 involves cooling at constant
pressure until x2 5 75%. The second process, from state 2 to
state 3, involves heating at constant volume until x3 5 100%.
Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible. For 1.2 lb of
ammonia, determine (a) the heat transfer and work for Process
12 and (b) the heat transfer for Process 23, all in Btu. Q patm = 100 kPa
3.74 Three lb of water is contained in a pistoncylinder assembly,
initially occupying a volume V1 5 30 ft3 at T1 5 300F. The
water undergoes two processes in series:
Process 12: Constant-temperature compression to V2 5 11.19 ft3,
during which there is an energy transfer by heat from the 2 cm
water of 1275 Btu. 8 cm
2
Process 23: Constant-volume heating to p3 5 120 lbf/in.
Fig. P3.76
Sketch the two processes in series on a Ty diagram.
Neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, determine
the work in Process 12 and the heat transfer in Process 3.77 A system consisting of 1 kg of H2O undergoes a power
23, each in Btu. cycle composed of the following processes:
3.75 As shown in Fig. P3.75, a piston-cylinder assembly fitted Process 12: Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated
with stops contains 0.1 kg of water, initially at 1 MPa, 500C. vapor.
The water undergoes two processes in series:
Process 23: Constant-volume cooling to p3 5 5 bar, T3 5 160C.
Process 12: Constant-pressure cooling until the piston face
Process 34: Isothermal compression with Q34 5 2815.8 kJ.
rests against the stops. The volume occupied by the water is
then one-half its initial volume. Process 41: Constant-volume heating.
Process 23: With the piston face resting against the stops, the Sketch the cycle on Ty and py diagrams. Neglecting kinetic
water cools to 25C. and potential energy effects, determine the thermal efficiency.
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152 Chapter 3 Evaluating Properties

3.78 One lb of water contained in a pistoncylinder assembly


undergoes the power cycle shown in Fig. P3.78. For each of
the four processes, evaluate the work and heat transfer, Fspring = kx
Area = 20 in.2
each in Btu. For the overall cycle, evaluate the thermal
efficiency.

Water, initially
at 1000F.
T
Vacuum

700 lbf/in.2
x2 = 16 in.
1 2 x1 = 20 in.
Fig. P3.83
70 lbf/in.2
4 3
v4 = v1 v3 = v2 3.84 As shown in Fig. P3.84, 0.5 kg of ammonia is contained
in a pistoncylinder assembly, initially at T1 5 220C and a
quality of 25%. As the ammonia is slowly heated to a final
v state, where T2 5 20C, p2 5 0.6 MPa, its pressure varies
Fig. P3.78 linearly with specific volume. There are no significant kinetic
and potential energy effects. For the ammonia, (a) show the
process on a sketch of the py diagram and (b) evaluate the
3.79 One-half kg of Refrigerant-22 is contained in a piston work and heat transfer, each in kJ.
cylinder assembly, initially saturated vapor at 5 bar. The
refrigerant undergoes a process for which the pressure-
specific volume relation is py 5 constant to a final pressure
of 20 bar. Kinetic and potential energy effects can be
neglected. Determine the work and heat transfer for the
process, each in kJ.
3.80 Ten kilograms of Refrigerant 22 contained in a piston
cylinder assembly undergoes a process for which the pressure- Initially,
specific volume relationship is pyn 5 constant. The initial and m = 0.5 kg T1 = 20C, x = 25%
final states of the refrigerant are fixed by p1 5 400 kPa, T1 5 Ammonia
25C, and p2 5 2000 kPa, T2 5 70C, respectively. Determine Finally,
T2 = 20C, p2 = 0.6 MPa
the work and heat transfer for the process, each in kJ.
3.81 A pistoncylinder assembly contains ammonia, initially at
0.8 bar and 210C. The ammonia is compressed to a pressure
of 5.5 bar. During the process, the pressure and specific Q
volume are related by py 5 constant. For 20 kg of ammonia, Fig. P3.84
determine the work and heat transfer, each in kJ.
3.82 A pistoncylinder assembly contains propane, initially at 3.85 A gallon of milk at 68F is placed in a refrigerator. If
27C, 1 bar, and a volume of 0.2 m3. The propane undergoes energy is removed from the milk by heat transfer at a
a process to a final pressure of 4 bar, during which the constant rate of 0.08 Btu/s, how long would it take, in minutes,
pressurevolume relationship is pV 1.1 5 constant. For the for the milk to cool to 40F? The specific heat and density
propane, evaluate the work and heat transfer, each in kJ. of the milk are 0.94 Btu/lb ? R and 64 lb/ft3, respectively.
Kinetic and potential energy effects can be ignored.
3.86 Shown in Fig. P3.86 is an insulated copper block that
3.83 Figure P3.83 shows a pistoncylinder assembly fitted with receives energy at a rate of 100 W from an embedded resistor.
a spring. The cylinder contains water, initially at 1000F, and If the block has a volume of 1023 m3 and an initial temperature
the spring is in a vacuum. The piston face, which has an area of 20C, how long would it take, in minutes, for the temperature
of 20 in.2, is initially at x1 5 20 in. The water is cooled until to reach 60C? Data for copper are provided in Table A-19.
the piston face is at x2 5 16 in. The force exerted by the
3.87 In a heat-treating process, a 1-kg metal part, initially at
spring varies linearly with x according to Fspring 5 kx, where
1075 K, is quenched in a closed tank containing 100 kg of
k 5 200 lbf/in. Friction between the piston and cylinder is
water, initially at 295 K. There is negligible heat transfer
negligible. For the water, determine
between the contents of the tank and their surroundings.
(a) the initial and final pressures, each in lbf/in.2 Modeling the metal part and water as incompressible with
(b) the amount of water present, in lb. constant specific heats 0.5 kJ/kg ? K and 4.4 kJ/kg ? K,
(c) the work, in Btu. respectively, determine the final equilibrium temperature
(d) the heat transfer, in Btu. after quenching, in K.