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BMES451 Winter 2015

Problem Set 1 Due 01/15/2015

Readings: Chapter 9, (there is important information (e.g., kinetics) in 9 that is revision, and we will not
cover deeply. Also read sections 10.2, 10.6 and 11.2 11.6
Ideal gas constant R = 0.08206 Latm/(molK), = 8.206105 m3atm/(molK) = 8.314 m3Pa/(molK) =
8.314 Nm/(moleK)
Boltzmann = 1.38 10-23 Nm/K, 1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa = 760 mmHg, 1M = 1 mol/L = 10-3 mol/m3

Remember, carry your units during calculation! MW stands for molecular weight

New
Critical Thinking Questions (15 pts) (You may need to search for the answer)

1) Define the physical meanings and units of the terms in Ficks first law ( JA and related parameters).
(5)
Ans:
dcA
J Az DAB
dz
or

dxA
J Az cDAB
dz
JAZ = diffusive flux of A in the z direction which is the quantity of A passing through unit area in
unit time. Common units of mol/m2s
DAB is the diffusion coefficient also known as the diffusivity. It is the proportionality constant
between the diffusion flux due to molecular diffusion and

dcA/dz the gradient in the concentration of the species A, also the driving force for diffusion.

c (no subscript) = total concentration, common units mol/L

cA is the concentration of the diffusing species A in dimensions of [amount of substance per unit
volume], commonly mol/m3.

xA is the unitless mole fraction of A.

z is the direction of flux

The negative sign indicated that flux is in the opposite direction to concentration gradient.
BMES451 Winter 2015

2) Write a 1 paragraph review of the article of Modeling Cancer Biology by Kristin Cobb (on
Blackboard) which you can find on Blackboard in the reading materials section. (5)

3) a) In vivo, what are the major oxygen transport mechanisms in large blood vessels, capillaries and
fibroblasts, respectively? Please provide estimates based on Peclet number, assuming ~ 1 m/s.
b) How about proteins in these systems? (10)
Hint: A table would be nic
Ans:
For velocity ~ 1 m/s, assume DAB ~ 10-5 cm2/s for oxygen, and DAB ~ 10-7 cm2/s for protein, since
L
L
Pe
DAB

Characteristic Oxygen Protein


length L (m) Pe Mechanism Pe Mechanism
Large blood vessels 10-2 10 convection 1000 convection
Capillaries 10-4 0.1 diffusion 10 convection
Fibroblasts 10-6 0.001 diffusion 0.1 diffusion

4) How is equilibrium different from steady state? (5)


Ans:
Equilibrium is always steady state but steady state is not always at equilibrium
Foraprocesstobeatsteadystatetheconcentrationsatanygivenpointarenotchanging.
Atequilibriumallchemicalconcentrationgradientsarezero.Atequilibrium,therateatwhichany
processproceedsinthe"forward"directionisexactlybalancedbytherateofthatprocessinthe
"reverse"direction.Itisaspecialcaseofsteadystate.

5) The kinematic viscosity is highly dependent on temperature. The kinematic viscosity of a liquid
usually decreases with increase in temperature whereas the kinematic viscosity of a gas increases with
temperature. (5)
i) True?
ii) False?
Hint: http://www.calculator.org/property.aspx?name=kinematic viscosity
The resistance of a fluid that is being deformed from shear stress or extensional stress is called
viscosity. In general it is the "thickness" of a fluid. It can be thought of as fluid friction or
internal resistance of a fluid to flow, and specifically the kinematic viscosity measures the
resistance to flow of a fluid under the influence of gravity (or some other body force acting on
the mass of the fluid). Usually a thin liquid like water has less viscosity as compared to a thick
fluid like honey having high viscosity. The kinematic viscosity is highly dependent on
temperature. The kinematic viscosity of a liquid usually decreases with increase in temperature
whereas the kinematic viscosity of a gas increases.
6) Biological systems are usually: (5)
i) Highly concentrated
ii) Dilute
BMES451 Winter 2015

7) What % of dry air is oxygen? Show how you would calculate it.? (5)
Ans:
21%
You would need to know the partial pressure of the air pA, the temperature and total pressure then use
xA = pA/P

8) Air is often treated a s single substance. Calculate the molecular weight if dry air in g/mol. Make
good engineering assumptions, state what they are and use realistic significant figures. Show
calculations (5)
Ans:
Roughly,consideringonlynitrogen(MW28)andoxygen(MW32)andusing79%N2and21%O2,the
averageMW(molecularweight)ofairisabout0.79*28+0.21*32=29g/gmol.
BMES451 Winter 2015

Problems:
1. Find the relationship for mean square distance (displacement) <x2>, moved in time t in one
dimension (its in Datta) and use it to calculate the time required for insulin (MW 6,000, Dinsulin-water =
8.2 x 10-7 cm2 sec-1) to: (10)
a) Cross a red blood cell whose diameter is 7 x 10-4 cm
State any assumptions you make

Ans:

x2 = 2Dt

tRBC = (7 x 10-4 cm)2 = 0.3sec.


(2 x 8.2 x 10-7 cm2 sec-1)

b) Traverse the length of a 10 cm long nerve cell?

tnerve = (1 x 10 cm )2 = 6.25 x 107 sec ~ 2 years!!!!!.


(2 x 8.2 x 10-7 cm2 sec-1)

State any assumptions you make

c) Comment briefly on your results as they impact insulin delivery in type 1 diabetics

Ans:
It would take far too long to rely on diffusion for insulin to travel form the site of injection to the
required cellular site, so a combination of diffusion and convection in the blood is required.

2). Diffusion of water through stagnant, non-diffusing air: Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is
held at a constant temperature of 293 K. The total pressure of air (assumed to be dry) is 1 atm and
the temperature is 293 K. Water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube, and the diffusion
path is 0.1524 m long. Calculate the rate of evaporation at steady state. The diffusivity of water
vapor at 1 atm and 293 K is 0.250 x 10-4 m2/s. Assume that the vapor pressure of water at 293 K is
0.0231 atm. (10)
BMES451 Winter 2015

Answer: 1.595 x 10-7 kmol/m2.s

Assumptions:
DAB, c are constant,
B insoluble in A,
A swept away at top so CAL = 0
Steady state,
Rectangular coordinates
No reaction in diffusion path

Standard A through stagnant B

N Az =
DAB P
ln
P - pA 2

RT z2 - z1 P - pA1

Data provided are the following:


DAB = 0.250 x 10-4 m2/s;
P = 1 atm; T = 293 K;
z2 z1 = 0.1524 m;
pA1 = 0.0231 atm (saturated vapor pressure);
pA2 = 0 atm (water vapor is carried away by air at point 2)

Boundary conditions,
Substituting the data provided in the equations given, we get the following:

Boundary conditions:
z = z1, pA = pA1 = 0.0231 atm
z = z2, pA = pA2 = 0 atm

N Az =
DAB P
ln
P - pA2
RT z2 - z1 P - pA1

NA
0.250 x 10 -4
m 2 /s
ln
1atm 0atm
8314 J/kmol.K) (293 K) 0.1524m 1atm 0.0231atm

NA = 1.595 x 10-7 kmol/m2.s

3. The concentration profile for A through stagnant B was derived in class as:

1 x 1 x z/ L
A
A2

1 xA1 1 xA1


BMES451 Winter 2015

a) State clearly the boundary conditions that were imposed to arrive at this solution. (5)

Ans:
B.C. 1 xA = xA1 @ z = 0
B.C. 2 xA = xA2 @ z = L

B.C. xA = xA1 @ z = 0 (1A-1)


dxA N
A dz
1 xA cDAB

First order differential but NA is unknown so need 2 boundary conditions


Integrate both sides between limits xA and xA1 (z = 0 and z)

x NA 1 xA
ln(1 xA ) xA z ln
A1
cDAB 1 xA1

Second boundary condition:

cDAB 1 xA2
NA ln
L 1 xA1
Hence :
z/L
1 xA z 1 xA2 1 xA2
ln ln ln
1 xA1 L 1 xA1 1 xA1
or
z/L
1 xA 1 xA2

1 xA1 1 xA1

b) If species A was so dilute that xA was negligible, compared to unity, what form would the differential
equation that led to the above solution take, and what would the new solution be? (5)

Ans:
For xA <<<<<<1 (1A-1) becomes
BMES451 Winter 2015

which upon integration yields


dxA
NA cDAB
dz

which, using the same B.C. xA = xA1 @ z = 0, xA = xA2 @ z = L, gives:


N
xA A z b
cDAB

xA1 = b and xAz = -NAL + xA1


cDAB

Insert in equation and rearrange:

xA1 xAz z and cD AB


xA xA1
L
NA =
L
xA1 xz

4. DerivetheequationanddrawtheresultfortheconcentrationprofileofgasesAandBinasituation
ofequimolarcounterdiffusion.

Ans:

dcA
NAz DAB
dz
d
N 0
dz AZ
d2cA
0
dz2
cA C1z C2
B.C. z z1, cA cA1
z z2, cA c2
cA cA1 z z1

cA1 cA 2 z1 z2

Linear


BMES451 Winter 2015

5) Estimate the diffusivity of the protein lysozyme in water at 25 oC. The viscosity of water at 25 oC is
0.001 kg/m s and the hydrodynamic radius of lysozyme is 1.89 nm. (10)
Ans:
2 2
According to Stokes-Einstein equation (recall 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kgm /s ),
T 1.38x10 23 kg.m2 / (s2 K )298K
DAB 1.15x1010 m2 / s 1.15x10 6 cm2 / s
6 a 6 1.89x10 m 0.001 / kg(m.s)
9

Problems from the book

Datta:
9.8.5 , and state what the result tells us about evolution of the blood system (10)

One of the primary functions of the blood is to carry oxygen from the lungs to cells in all parts of the body. One
mechanism of transport is to dissolve the oxygen in the plasma as the blood passes through the lungs. The oxygen
concentration equilibrates between the blood and the inhaled air. 1) Find the concentration of dissolved oxygen in
the blood plasma. 2) Does this concentration seem reasonable? 3) What are the other factors involved in the
transport of oxygen to the cells? Assume that blood plasma has the same material properties as water, and that the
concentration of oxygen in the inhaled air is not affected by the transport of oxygen into the blood plasma. In
addition the blood plasma is well mixed so the concentration of dissolved oxygen is constant throughout the
vessel. Mole fraction of O2 at 1 atm and 38C air is 0.145, Henrys constant is 5.21x104 atm/mole fraction of O2 in
water, molecular weight of O2 is 32, and molecular weight of H2O is 18.

Ans:
Assumptions
Properties of plasma same as water
Concentration of O2 in air remains constant (not affected by dissolution in plasma)
Plasma is well mixed, O2 concentration same throughout the vessel.
DAB and C are constant,
isothermal, isobaric,
steady state
BMES451 Winter 2015

Capillary

Aveolus

O2
O2
BMES451 Winter 2015

pO2 = (0.145)(1 atm.) = 0.145 atm.

Steady state, and pO2, plasma = pO2, air


pO2 = HcO2 where cO2= concentration of O2

cO2 = pO2 = 0.145/5.21 x 104 atm/mole fraction O2 / H = 2.783 x 10-6 mole O2 /mole
H2O

2.783 x 10-6 mole O2 x 1 mole H2O x 32 g O2 =4.95 x 10-6 g O2 / g H2O


mole H2O 18.01 g H2O 1 mol O2

cO2 = 4.95 x 10-4 % VERY VERY LOW.shows need for other mechanism.RBCs