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This chapter provides basic information on cable stays. It is Quality control and quality assurance of hardware
not intended as a comprehensive design resource. For components
design requirements and additional information see the
Furnishing to the licensed design professional
PTI Recommendations for Stay Cable Design, Testing and
detailed shop drawings for all cable components,
testing records and quality control documentation
13.2 ENGINEEREVG OF STAY CABLE STRUCTURES Cable hardware performance in accordance with the
contract documents
13.2.1 Design Elements and Responsibility The contractor normally carnes the prime responsibility
for the cable installation. However, cable installation and
The design of cable stays covers five essential elements. stressing require careful planning and monitoring, and
1. Design of cable stays for static loads and fatigue involve all parties. The contractor may subcontract the
2. Design against stay vibration cable installation to a specialty contractor, who often is
also the supplier.
3. Design of anchorage details
4. Design of corrosin protection features 13.2.2 Construction Engineering for Cable-Stayed Structures
5. Design of cable erection procedure
Stay cable erection engineering for construction stages and
The design responsibility for elements 1 to 4 is typically associated geometry control is an essential task for suc-
shared between the bridge Design Engineer and the stay cessful construction. The requirements for an engineered
supplier. The responsibility for element 5 is normally also erection program are described in the PTI Recommenda-
shared with the contractor. tions.13' The basic elements of an engineered construction
The licensed design professional is normally expected to program include:
perform and be responsible for all design-related aspects Establishing permissible construction equipment
of the overall structure. Included are such stay-related loads
tems as:
Developing a system of temporary works for instal-
Specifying design and performance requirements for lation of stays and deck elements
the cables which are applicable for the particular
Developing an erection cycle for girder and stays
structure; often the requirements follow the PTI Rec-
which controls strength requirements for intermedate
ommendations for Stay Cable Design, Testing and
construction stages
Developing a program for stay erection which
Detailing cable arrangement and basic anchorage
provisions; this includes such constructability con- ensures that the completed structure achieves proper
siderations as space requirements for anchorages, deck profile and acceptable cable forces
installation and stressing equipment; it also includes Developing procedures to adjust cable forces if nec-
structural feasibility to remove and replace cables if essary to obtain the correct geometry profile of the
this is a design objective bridge deck at the end of construction
Determining cable sizes and forces
Specifying anchorage placement and assembly tolerances 13.3 STAY CABLE DESIGN
Design of connection details to support the stay
anchorage and to 13.3.1 Design Methodology
ensure the force transfer from the anchorage into the The Third Edition of the PTI Recommendations for Stay
main structure; for steel structures this includes the Cable Design, Testing and Installation^2 uses the conven-
design of force transfer members into the main tional allowable stress design approach for designing stay
structure; for concrete structures this includes the cables. Fatigue was considered by providing allowable
design of confinement and bursting reinforcement in stress ranges for various numbers of load cycles. Section
the anchorage zone 13.3.2 outlines the allowable stress requirements.
The supplier of stay cables is typically responsible for the The Fourth Edition of the PTI Recommendations for Stay
cable hardware, including: Cable Design, Testing and InstallationnA is based on the
Design and testing of the cable system and its com- AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification.]3A It uses the
ponents to meet the design and performance require- strength design methodology and applies it to the design of
ments of the contract documents
Design of Prestressed Barrier Cable Systems


16.1 INTRODUCTION The International Building Code-2003161 (IBC) gives
The selection and design of a vehicle barrier system is an requirements for vehicle impact resistance and states that
important element in the structural design of every parking the barrier system must nave anchorage or attachments
garage. Some type of barrier system must be erected at the capable of transmitting the resulting loads to the structure.
perimeter of the structure and at the open edges of the Because the vehicle impact loads are transmitted to the
ramps to prevent automobiles and pedestrians from falling structure, it is important that the structural designer con-
from the open sides. Due to its high tensile strength and sider the vehicle barrier system in the structure's over-
low relaxation properties, prestressing steel is an ideal all design.
material for constructing these barriers. One option for vehicle barrier systems is the use of pre-
The design of barriers that resist vehicle impact loads dif- stressed 7-wire steel strand conforming to the Post-Ten-
fers from the design of typical pedestrian barriers. Pedes- sioning Institute's Specification for Seven-Wire Steel
trian barriers, handrails, cable guards, etc. are typically Strand Barrier Cable Applications.^2 Steel strands con-
designed by a project's architect to meet applicable code forming to this specification are capable of resisting the
requirements for pedestrian protection and accessibility. high lateral loads produced by the impact of a moving
The materials and methods used to construct barriers vehicle and are economical and flexible in meeting the
meant solely for pedestrian protection will typically not be geometric layout of a specific project.
the same as those used to construct vehicle barriers, due to the Fig. 16.2 shows a typical cost comparison between various
higher strength demands placed on vehicle barrier systems. types of vehicle barrier systems and illustrates why 7-wire
steel strand barrier cable systems are a popular choice for
garages of all types of construction.

Fig. 16.1 Examples of Vehicle Barrier Cable Systems


I Cost per Linear Foot of

Barrier Cable Spandrel
I Cost per Square Foot of


Precast at Site


$80 $100 $120 $140

$0 $20
Fig. 16.2 Cost of Exterior Barrier Systems
This section states that the guard must form a protective
This chart uses the following configuration in its cost com- barrier not less than 42 in. (1067 mm) high, "measured
parisons: vertically from the leading edge of the tread or adjacent
Barrier cable system consists of 11 cables walking surface." Openings in the guard must be limited
such that a 4 in. (102 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass
Masonry and cast-in-place spandrels are 42 in. high and through any opening up to a height of 34 in. (864 mm).
built on the slab Above a height of 34 in. (864 mm) a sphere of 8 in. (203
mm) cannot pass through the opening(s).
Precast spandrels are 60 in. high and extend over the This section also outlines the minimum loading require-
edge of the slab ments for guards for pedestrian protection; however these
loads are not discussed herein as they represent only a small
16.2 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS fraction of the load capacity required for vehicle barriers.
IBC outlines requirements for parking garage barrier sys-
tems in Section 406.2. This section includes requirements 16.2.2 Automobile Restraint
for the barrier system to meet two (2) distinct objectives:
Pedestrian protection (Section 406.2.3) IBC Section 406.2.4 requires vehicle barriers not less than
Automobile restraint (Section 406.2.4) 24 in. (607 mm) in height to be placed at the ends of drive
laes and at the end of parking spaces where the difference
While the Licensed Design Professional will typically only in adjacent floor elevation is greater than 12 in. (305 mm).
be concerned with the barriers that are necessary for auto- Vehicle barriers of all types must meet the physical
mobile restraint, the locations requiring vehicle barriers requirements of IBC Section 1607.7.
will, in most cases, require pedestrian protection as well.
Given this condition, it is logical to design a single barrier This section states that barriers for garages designed for
system that meets both requirements, as discussed in the passenger cars are to be designed to resist a single (unfac-
tored) load of 6000 Ibs (26.70 kN) applied horizontally in
following sections.16.2.1 Pedestrian Protection
any direction to the system. For design purposes, the code
Barrier systems for pedestrian protection are required at assumes the load to act at a minimum height of 18 in. (457
exterior and interior vertical openings where vehicles are mm) above the floor surface on an rea not to exceed 1 sq ft
parked or moved, and along open-sided walking reas or (0.09 m2).
ramps, when the vertical distance to the ground or surface
below exceeds 30 in. (762 mm). The pedestrian barrier system Barriers for garages that accommodate trucks and buses
(guard) must meet the physical requirements of IBC are to be designed in accordance with an approved method
Section 1003.2.12. that contains provisions for larger vehicles. Depending on