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On the Total Curvature of Immersed Manifolds

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Source: American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 79, No. 2 (Apr., 1957), pp. 306-318

Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press

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ON THE TOTAL CURVATURE OF IMMERSED MANIFOLDS.*

space E an importantrole is played by the normalmapping of Gauss: Let

M be an orientedsurfacewhich has at everypoint x a well-definedunit

normal vector v(x). Then the normal mapping s': M-o->80 is the mapping

of M into the unit sphereS0 about the originof E, which sends x to v(x).

For differentiablyimmersedsubmanifolds in an Euclidean space of higher

dimensionthe followingis a generalizationof the Gauss mapping: We con-

sider a CO-manifoldMll'of dimensionn, and a C--mapping x: 3fn >Eil+N

into the Euclidean spase En+N of dimensionn + N (N ? 1). Mn, or rather

Mn and the mapping x, is called an immersedsubmanif old, if the induced

mappingof the tangentspace is univalenteverywhere, or, what is the same,

if the Jacobianmatrixof x is everywhere of rank n. The submanif old Mn

is said to be imbedded,if x is one-one; that is, if x(p) ==x(q), p,q E Mn,

impliesthat p = q. Let B, be the bundle of unit normalvectorsof x(Mgl),

so that a point of B, is a pair (p, v(p)), wherev(p) is a unit normalvector

to x(Mn) at x(p). Then B, is a bundle of (N-1) dimensionalspheres

over Mn and is a CO-manifoldof dimensionin + N -. The mapping

v: Bv So

-* n+N-1 of Bv into the unit sphere S(X,,+N-:1of E,,+N definedby

io(p,v(p)) v(p) is the mapping with which we will be concernedin this

paper.

Let dV be the volumeelementof Mn. There is a differential formduN1:

of degree N - 1 on Bv such that its restrictionto a fiberis the volume

element of the sphere of unit normal vectors at a point p C Mn; then

dcrN-/ A dV is the volume elementof Bv (for detail see Sectionl2). Let

dZ,n+N-1be the volumeelementof S0n+N-1. The functioniG(p, v(p)) G(p, v)

definedby

(1) 7,*dyn+ l G(p,Jv)duN_l1A dV,

formsinduced by v,,is a func-

tion in Bv. It generalizesthe Gauss-Kroniecker

curvatureand we will call

* Received January 4, 1957.

Work done when the first-namedauthor is under partial support from a contract

1

with the National Science Foundation.

306

THE TOTAL CURVATURE OF IMMERSED MANIFOLDS. 307

pretationwhichwe will discuss below. It is zero at a point (p, v(p)) E B,

if and onlyif T.has a criticalvalue at this point. We call the integral

over the sphere of unit normal vectorsat x(p) the total curvatureof Mn

at p, and defineas the totalcurvatureof Mn itselfthe integralJK* (p) dV,

if it converges.

The main resultsof this paper are concernedwiththe conclusionson Mn

when its total curvatureis "small." They can be stated as the following

theorems:

THEOREM 1. Let Mn be a compactorientedC--manifoldimmersedin

En+N. Its total curvaturesalisfiesthe inequality:2

thenMn is homeomorphic

to a sphereof n-dimensions.

THIEOREM if

3. Under the same hypothesis,

ln

imbeddedas a conzvexhypersurfacein E'l+'. The converseof thisis also true.

These theoremsgeneralize known results of Fenchel, Fary [2], and

AIilnor[3] forcurvesand sharpensome resultsof Milnorand one of us [1].

Theorem3 can be interpretedas a characterizationof convexhypersurfaces

among all immersedsubmaniifolds of a given dimensionin an Euclidean

space of arbitrarydimension. A large part of our paper is devotedto a

proofof this theorem.

in En1+N we mean a point x and an orderedset of mutuallyperpenldicular

+?AT.

308 SIIIING-SHEN CHERN AND RICHARID K. LASHIOF.

unit vectors e,- , e,+N, such that their orientation is coherent with that

of En+N. Utnless otherwisestated,we agree on the followingranges of the

indices:

(6) 1<i,j,l c n, n+1< r,s,t< i+T, 1A, B, C n+N.

Then we have

(7F) eAeB-=AB,

space of all framesin En+N, so that dimF (n, N) = (n + N) (n + N + 1) /2.

In F (n, N) we introducethelineardifferentialformsW'A, W(AB bytheequations

B A

where

( 9) (D AB + W'BA-?- 0

(10) dw'A =

w'B A 0 BA, dwAB = ()AC A w'ci?.

B C

in En+N an abstractCO-manifoldMn and a CO-mappiligx: M1l' - Enl+N, such

that the inducedmappingx* on the tangentspace is everywhere univalent.

Analytically,the mappingcan be definedby a vector-valuedfunctionx(p),

p C Mn. Our assumptionimpliesthat the differential dx(p) of x (p), which

is a linear differential

formin Mln, withvalue in En+N, has as values a linear

combinationof n vectors,t1,,- t, and not less. Since x* is univalent,

we can identifythe tangentspace of Mn at p with the vectorspace spanned

by t,,* , tn. A linear combinationof the latteris called a tangentvector

and a vectorperpendicularto themis called a normalvector. The immer-

sion of Mn in En+N gives rise to the followingfiberbundles over Ml,:

1) The tangent bundle BT, whose bundle space is the subset of

Mn X En+N, consistingof all points (p, v), such that p C31 and v is a unit

tangentvectorat x(p).

2) The normal hundle B^, whose bundle space is the suibsetof

MnX En+N, consistingof all points (p, v), such that p C M and v7is a iuit

normalvectorat x (p).

3) The bundle B, whosebundle space is the subsetof M11n

X FP(it,N).

consistingof (p, x(p)e, C M1n

enen+1 en+N) X F(n, AT) such that e1, ,el

THE TOTAL CURVATURE OF IMM1ERSED MANIFOLDS. 309

are tangent vectorsand e+1,.* , en+N are normal vectorsat x (p). The

projection B -* M4 we denote by i.

place.3 We define the mappings

by

. . .

(12) q'T(p, x(p)ei en,+N) (p, en), 0,(p, x(p)e 1* en+N) = (p, en+N).

We also remarkthat the Whitneysum BT e B, over Mn is equivalentto the

productbundle Mn X Sn+N1 -l MIn.

Considerthe mappings

wherei is inclusionand A is the projectioninto the second factor. Put

A, -AB (Ai)* AB,

(15) (AB+WBA =,

B C

From our definitionof B it followsthat wr=0 and that w are linearly

independent. Hence the firstequation of (16) gives

owi A Wir 0-

?

( 17 ) Wir= Ariijij Arij-A

framesis to considerthe bundle space B, and to constructdifferential

forms

3 The bundle B can also be defined as follows: Let Qn+YN be the group of all

orientation-preservingmotions in En+N and Rn X RN the subgroup of Q,n+S consisting of

all motions which leave fixed the origin 0 of En+N and a given oriented linear space of

dimension n through 0. Then Qn+N-* Qn+N/RnX RN is a bundle whose structure group

is R,,X RN and whose base space is the space of all elements consisting of a point and

an oriented linear space of dimension n through it. The bundle B is induced by the

mapping which sends p E M to the point x (p) and the oriented tangent space at x (p).

In particular, the structural group of B is RftX RN. Similarly, we can define the

bundles Br and BP.

310 S111ING-SHiEN CH-ERN AND RICI[ARD K. LAkSII0F.

formsin Mn and B^, under

the mappings t and f, respectively.In particular,the volume elementof

All,can be written

(18) dV--=w A A wn,

and the volumeelementof B, is

(19) dV A da.N-lo= AA A orin+.v,nwA A (?)nIX,,i+X--i

dwNi beilngequal to the productof the last N-_1 factors. On the other

hand,we have

. n+N. N

&n+N,n +A -

UTsing(17), we get

v*dy-?,+.'Vi

= (- 1) A

det(An+N,Vj)wl A on A Wn+N,n+1A ' A

Wni*N,n+.X t-

that

(20) G(p,v) -( 1) 13et(An+N,i.j).

To see how G(p, v) depends on v, we take a local cross-sectionof M11'

in B, describedby the functionseA(q) for q in a neighborhood of p. Then

for any frame eA(q) in B at x(q), we have eA =cAABeR(q) ai(l

E =sj@@ z CsrArfj@$j6j~

i,j r.ij

ticular,if forv= e,,+Nwe writev=> v,? we haveat p:

(p))

second

differential

d2X on B

(22) d 'AjwXj

v d2= E

i,r p. k

(23) -dvddx= v d2X = *'rArijwtci

r,i,j

the determinant

of the

secondfundamental formof a surface.

If N_= 1, i. e., if Mn is an immersed orientedhypersurface

in En+1'its

THE TOTAL CURVATURE OF IMMERSED M1ANIFOLDS. 311

curvatureof M at p.

Then G (p, v (p) ) = G (p) is called the Gauss-Kronecker

Any otherunit normalvectorat p is of the formv(p) = + vo(p), and

It followsthat,for n even, G (p, v(p)) is independentof the orientationof

the hypersurface Ml'land of the space En+l. Naturally,G(p) reducesfor

n= 2 to the classical Gaussian curvature.

In the general case G(p,v) admits the followinggeometricalinterpre-

tation in termsof the Gauss-Kronecker curvature:Let L(v) be the linear

space of dimenisionn+ 1 spanned by the tangentspace to x(Mn) at x(p)

and the normalvectorv(p). Then G(p,v) is equal to the Gauss-Kronecker

curvatureat p of the orthogonalprojectionof x(Mln) into L(v).

Since the theoremis local, we take a local cross-sectioneA(q) of Mn

in B in a neighborhood of p, such that V(p) = ej+N (p). We write

x'(q) is defined by the equations

_ (xO - x(q)) -

(n> ($(q) -$x(q) )(jn+x)o 0

(an+x)o <C N-I

If p is fixedand q varies on the manifoldMA,we have

dx. dx + , den+X(jn+X)o-dx (dx (n,+X)o)()n+X)o,

THEOREM (Sard) 4 Let V and W be two Cl-manifoldsof the same

dimensionand f a mappingof class C' of V into W. The image f(E) of

the set E of criticalpoints of f is a set of measurezero in W.

312 SHIING-SHEN CHERN AND RICHARD K. LASHOF.

at least twice by T. In fact, for a fixedunit vectorvo,the scalar product

vO x (p) as a continuousfunctionon Mn has at least one maximumand

one minimum,at which + vodx(p) =-0. If, on the otherhand,the maximum

and minimumpoints are the same then Mn is containedin a hyperplane

perpendicularto vo,and everypoint of Mn has vo as a normalvector.

The set of critical points of v is the set E of points in B, such that

G (p, v) = 0. Hence

By Sard's theoremand by the above remarkthat everypoint of S0"1+N-1 is

coveredat least twice by v, we have immediately

jK*(p)dV ?>2+N1

we wish

Mn

impliesthat thereexists a set of positivemeasureon Son+N-1 such that if vo

is a unit vectorin this set, vO x(p) has just two criticalpoints. For if not;

everypoint of Son+N-1, except for a set of measure zero, would be covered

at least threetimesby v and hence as in Section 3 we would have

1 is of measurezero,thereis a unit vectorvo such that vo x(p) has exactly

two criticalpointson Mn and such that vOis the image of non-criticalpoints

of B, under i. The latter means that G (p, vo)#/0 at each critical point

p E M of the functionvOxx(p), whichis equivalentto sayingthat vo d2x is

a quadratic differentialformof determinantnot zero. In otherwords,the

x

function v *(p) on Mn has exactly two non-degeneratecritical points.

Now a theoremof Reeb [51 (see also [4], p. 401) assertsthat if a compact

differentiable manifold M has a real-valueddifferentiable functionon it

with only two critical points which are non-degenerate, then M is homeo-

morphicto a sphere. It followsfromthis that Mn is homeomorphic to a

sphere,and our theoremis proved.

SED MANIFOLDS.

OF IMANIER

THE TOTAL CURVATURE 313

LEMMA 1. Under the hypothlesisof Thleorem3, M1nis immersedin a

n + 1 of 1En+lN.

subvarietyof dimensiomt

liinear)

We may assume N> 2, since otherwisethereis nothingto prove. We

will firstshowthat 11iis containedin a hyperplaneof En+N. In doing this,

ve show that the hypothesisof Theorem 3 and the assumptionthat Mll

does not lie in a hyperplaneof E,,-,Nlead to a contradiction.

Let (p, vo(p)) C B,, be such that G(p, 's) 0; such a point exists by

Theorem1. Choosea local cross-section of J111in B; i.e., the vectors jA(q),

wheve q belongs to a neighborhood of p, anid that efl+,(p) = v,. Then any

other unit normal vector at p may be written v v='Vrevr (p) and by equation

r

(21), Section 3, we have G(p,v) (-1) det (EvrA,rij(p)). Holding p

ourselvesto normalvectorsv(0) such that

fixedanldrestricting

we have G(p, v) = f(0), where f(O) is a polynomial in cos 6 and sin0 and

is hence an analytic function of 0. f(0) is not identically zero, sinice

f(0) G (p, vo)7L 0-

Let Ho be the tangenthyperplaneat x (p) perpendicularto v=- v(0).

Since X(Mn) does not belongto a hyperplane, thereexisttangenthyperplanes

1l Hn,2, 901 < 0, and C such

poinlts q1,q2 All, that x(q1) E Ho, x(q2) C Ho,

x(ql) ? H-16!, X(q2) < H1. Since f(0) does not vanish identically,there is

a tangenthyperplaneHo3, such that f(0) 74 0 and that x(q1) and x (q2)

lie on different sides of the tangenthyperplaneHo,. The conditionf(0) # 0

implies that the mapping i is one-onein a neighborhoodW of (p, v(03))

of B,. We can choose W so small that for (q',v') E W, x(q1) and X(q2)

lie oni differentsides of the tanigenthyperplane perpendicular to v' at x (q').

The functionv' x in MnIIhas at least threepointat whichv' dx 0; namely,

the maximim,the miinimum, and the poillt q'. The last point q' is distinct

fromthe maximumand the minimum,since, by our construction, thereare

points of x (MI?) on different

sides of the tangenthyperplaneat q' perpen-

dicular to v'. It followsthat a neighborhoodof Son+N-1is coveredby the

image of v at least three times. As every point of Son+N-1is covered at least

twice,we concludethat the total curvatureof x (Mn) is strictlygreaterthan

2Cn+N1l. But this is a contradiction.

It followsfromthis contradictionthat x (Mn) belongsto a hyperplane

Ev+N-1of En+N. We wish to showthat its total curvaturein En+N1- is equal

314 SHIING-SHEN CHERN AND RICHARD K. LASHOF.

2Cn+N-2.

Son+N-2 the unit spherein En+N-1. The sphereSon+N-2 can be imaginedas

the equator of Sn+N-1 with v as the northpole. Let B.' be the bundle of

unitnormalvectorsof X(Mn) in En+N-1. Then B.' C B, and v(BP') C Son+N-2.

Denote by v' the restrictionof v to BP'. It suffices to provethat,with the

exception of a set of measure zero on Son+N-2, the points of Son+N-2 are

coveredby v' exactlytwice.

Suppose the contrarybe true. There is thus a set A of positivemeasure

on SOn+N-2 whose points are coveredby v' more than twice. To any tC A

thereare distinctpointspi< - p- , kC Mn, k > 3, forwhichx (p1), * , (Pk)

have normal vectorsparallel to,,. All the unit vectorsin the great circle

spanned by ,u and v are theninormal to x(Mn) at x(p1),. ,x(pk). It

.

and the pointsof A are coveredby v'morethan twice. Since A has positive

measure on Son+N-2 this set has positivemeasure on Son+N-1, which is a

contradiction.

Thereforex (llip) belongsto En?+N-1and has, as a submanifoldof En+N-1,

a total curvatureequal to 2CG+N-2. By inductionon N we see that x (Ml,?)

mustbelongto a linear subvarietyEn+l of dimensionn + 1 and has in El'+

the total curvature2cc.

LEMMA 2. Let x: Mn -* Enl+' be an immersionof a compactoriented

manifoldand let v: Mn.-* S0n be the normal map of Gauss. Let J(p) be the

Jacobian matrix of v at p, and let Um=- {pE Mn I rank J(p) = n- mr . Then,

if Urn containsan open set V, its image under x is generatedby rn-dimen-

sional planes. Every boundarypoint of Ur,nwhich is at the same time a

limit point of an mr-dimensional generatingplane, belongsto Ur.

The fact that the image under x of V is generatedby m-dimensional

planes is a classical result; we include a proof for completeness. At any

interiorpointp of U,, the assumptionon the rank of J impliesthat we mllay

choose coordinateson M?? in the neighborhoodof p, say, ti<. . tn) such

thatif v is the unit normalvectorat p, thenav/ata = 0, and dv/Itaare linearly

independent. Here, and for the remainderof this section,we make the

followingconventionconcerningindices:

l?x,c/3,y<m, nm+ 1 ?a,b,c<n, 1 ?i, j,k?n.

v -2X/Xtiata = 0, av/at., -3X/at, + V(02xl/ti8ta) = 0, &v/8t& OX/ta = 0.

THE TOTAL CURVATURE OF IMMERSED MANIFOLDS. 315

rn-dimensional

planes in El'+'. Since av/0ta,=0, the tangenthyperplaneremainsconstant

alolngan rn-dimensional generatingplane.

Consider now the sub-bulndleB' of B consistingof all those frames

el, en+1 suCh that ea are in the m-dimensional generatingplanes. Then,

as in Section 1, we have

dx == nwej, de6-

= @ fej+ w,n+jen+j5 de-n+1

j=Yo)-,t+jjej

where

Win+i Y,Ajzjwj Aij == Aji.

j

The above assumptionon the bundle of framesB' is equivaleintto assuming

(24) -a,n+l - Wn+la 0;

i. e., that the miiatrix

(Aij) takes the form

(0 Aab) det(Aab) = D =, 07

which is an (it X n) -matrixwhose elementsare zero, except possiblythose

of the (n -m)X(n-m) block in the lower right-hand corner. Our proof

dependson studyingthe behaviorof D along the rn-dimensional

generating

plane.

From (24) we have

0- dwa,n+i = A

wa-ae o1k,n+1 = ctaA (1,n+i +? waa A Wam1+i

k f a

Our assumptionimplies

== a, 2Y

1):,6,n+1-? 05 = Aab(Ob5

a,b a c

we get Waa A Hw- 0. Hence we can put

c

( 25 ) (1)aa haabw)b-

b

a

D II co,. Exteriordifferentiation

of thisequation

c

gives

a-m-ft,,f+1,+ A . . .

A wn,-n+i

a

=dD , + aD-n-1

AT(17I-o? D A

,i,1+i . . A dwa A * A n) -

c a

But

d(oa,n+l = Wak A (0k,n+1

= Y (Oab A ObT,n+i,

k b

k a,b b

316 SHIING-SHEN CHERN AND RICHARD K. LASHOF.

G a,a c

(26) dD + D( I haaawa)-O, modc-.

a,a

To completethe prooflet p C Mn be a boundarypoint of U., such that

x(p) is a limit point of a generatingm-dimensionalplane L. We choose

a neighborhood V of p, in whichx is one-one,and we supposethatx- (L) C V.

Let &i(q), ,n+, (q), q C V, be a local cross-sectionof V into B, such

that,for q C x1 (L), e (q), - - - (q) span L. Such a cross-section clearly

exists. If w;,Cijare the restrictionsof wi,wH respectively

to this cross-section,

then Us are linearlyindependentand we will have

oa a= hctakwk.

for q C x-1(L). Let y be a curvein x-1(L) abuttingat p. We have,along y,

dD+D(jhaaawa) 0.

a.a

It followsby integrationof this differelntial

equatiointhat

D (q) = Do exp(-f I hcaaa()),

D (q) is a continuousfunctionand since h ,a? is bounded,we concludethat

D (p) #0. This completesthe proofof Lemma 2.

We now completethe proofof Theorem3 as follows:

Let H be the space of hyperplanesof E4+1 (with the obvioustopology).

A tangenthyperplaneof x(Mn) is said to be of rank m, if it is tangentto

x (Ml,)at a point of x (U.) and at no point of x (U,), I < m. By the argu-

mentused in the proofof Theorem2, a tangenthyperplaneof rank zero does

not separate the set x (Mn). For otherwisetherewould be a neighborhood

of Son, whose points are coveredat least threetimes by v, whichwould be

contraryto the assumptionthat Mn has the minimumtotal curvature2c,.

We will showthat in everyneighborhood(in the space H) of a tangent

hyperplaneXr of x(Ms) thereis a tangenthyperplaneof rank zero. In fact,

let W be such a neighborhood.Suppose x(p), p E U., be a point of contact

of 7r. Either there is a neighborhood of p in X whichbelongscompletely

-toU. or thereare pointsof U,, I < m, in everyneighborhood of p. In both

cases we can finda point p7 such that the tangenthyperplane7r1at x (p,)

belongsto W and such that p, has a neighborhood in Mn whichbelongscom-

pletely to U,, I - m. The image under x of this neighborhoodof pl is

TIIE TOTAL, CIURVATURE OF IMAIEIBSED MANIFOLDS. 317

along the generating1-dimensionalplane throughx (pi) is 7 If x (p2)7

p2 E,Mn, is a boundarypoint of this to

1-plane,p2 belongs U1 by Lemma 2

and is not an interiorpointof Ul. Hence thereexistsin everyneighborhood

about P2 an open set whose points are in Uk, kc< 1, and which containsa

pointp3 E Uk such thatthe tangenthyperplaneat x (p,) is in W. Continuing

this process,we see that W containsa tangenthyperplaneof rank zero of

x(Mn).

This meansthat everyneighborhood of 7rin H containsa tangenthyper-

plane such that x (Mn) lies on one side. It followsthat the same is true

for7ritself. If vOis any unit vectorin Eon+l,v0 x (p) has a maximumanld

a minimumon Mn, which must be distinct,since Mn cannot be immersed

in an m-dimensionalhyperplane. Hence the intersectionof all the half-

spaces of En+' boundedby a tangenthyperplaneof x (Mn) and containing

points of x(M'l) is a closed convexset with a non-emptyinteriorand with

x(Mfn) on the boundary.

Since the inducedhomomorphism x* of tangentspaces is one-onle,r is

a local homeomorphism into the boundaryof the convexset. It follows

of 1M1

that X(Mn) is both open and closed on the boundary;thus x maps Mn onto

the boundary. But the boundaryof the convex set is homeomorphic to a

sphereSn and by the above Mn is a coveringspace of Sn under the map x.

Hence, if n> 2, x is a homeomorphism.The same is true for n 1, on

accountof the fact that the total curvatureis 2c1.

Conversely,let x (Mn) be a convex hypersurface. It is then locally

convex. By reversingthe orientationof Mn if necessary,we can suppose

that G(p) 0O. Then K*(p) = 2G(p), because there are two unit normal

vectorsat everypoint. The degreeof v is

1/c," G(p) dv =

G

Mn

6. A furthertheorem.

THEOREM 4. Let x:Mn -> En+' be an immersion of a closed orientable

manifoldand v: M, -* Son the normal map. Then the followingare equi-

valent:

1. degv= 1 and the Gaussian curvatureis of constantsign;

2. The total curvatureis 2cn;

3. Mn is imbeddedas a convexhypersurface.

318 SHIING-SHEN CHERN AND RIC-IARD K. LASHOF.

z> 1) are containedin Theorem3, we onlyhave to provethat 1) implies2).

For this purposeit is sufficient

to showthatno set V of positivemeasure

on S0nis coveredmorethan once by Mlnunderv. Suppose the contrary. By

reversingthe orientationof Mlln if necessary,we can supposethat degv + 1

and that the Gaussian curvatureis non-negative. By Sard's theorem,there

exists a point y E V such that for any point in v- (y) the curvatureis

strictlypositive. There can only be a finitenumberof points in v-,(y).

For otherwisev- (y) will have a limit pointp at whichv is not locally one-

one, while,on the otherhand, the Jacobianof v at p C v- (y), being a non-

zero multipleof the Gaussian curvatureat p, is different fromzero. By our

assumptionon V the numberof pointsin v-' (y) is ?2. At each point of

v1 (y) the Jacobianof v is strictlypositive. It followsthat degv ? 2, which

contradictsour assumption. Hence the theoremis proved.

Remark. We would like to conjecturethat for n_? 2 the condition

degv == 1 in 1) can be omitted. In otherwords,it seemslikelythat a closed

orientablehypersurface (of dimension? 2) of non-negativeGauss-Kronecker

curvatureis convex. If the curvatureis strictlypositive,this followsfrom

Hadamard's principle. On the otherhatd, -it is well-knownthat this con-

dition is essentialfor n =1; there are non-conveximmersedcurvesin the

plane with non-negative curvature.

UNIVLRSITY OF CHICAGO.

REFERENCES.

[1] S. Chern, "La geometrie des sous-varietes d'un espace euclidien a plusieurs dimen-

sions," L'Enseigement Math6matique, vol. 40 (1955), pp. 26-46.

[21 I. Fary, " Sur la courbure totale d'une courbe gauche faisant un noeud," Bull. $oc.

Math. de France, vol. 77 (1949), pp. 128-138.

[3] J. W. Milnor, "On the total curvature of knots," Annals of Mathematics, vol. 52

(1950), pp. 248-257.

[4] "On manifolds homeomorphicto the seven-sphere," ibid., vol. 64 (1956),

,

pp. 399-405.

[5] G. Reeb, " Sur certaines proprietes topologiques des varietes feuillet4es, Actual.

Sci. et Indus., vol. 1183 (1952), pp. 91-154, Paris.

[6] G. deRham, Vari6t6s diff6rentiables(1955), Paris.

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