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July

2015

www.chemengonline.com

Waste
Management
Explosion
Protection
Gas Turbines

Pulp-and-Paper
Industry
High-Performance
Polymers

A Hands-on Approach to
Valve Selection
page 34

Facts at Your
Fingertips:
Electrochemistry
Focus on Weighing
Circle 17 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-17
www.chemengonline.com

July 2015 Volume 122 | no. 7

Cover Story
34 Valve Selection Best Practices
The right combination of valves and other equipment lead to process
success. A biopolymer fermentation process provides an example of proper
valve selection

In the News
7 Chementator
This solvent extraction process can monetize tough refinery
sludges; Upgrading extra-heavy crude oil using supercritical water;
A system to extract energy from waste gases; Startup for a new
gasification process; Two new product families offer help for biofuel
producers; and more

14 Business News
Wacker starts up new production plant for specialty monomers
at Burghausen; AkzoNobel to build coatings-manufacturing plant
in Thailand; Messer commissions production facility for krypton
and xenon in China; KBR awarded contract for revamp of seven
ammonia plants in Russia; and more
34
16 Newsfront Renewed Optimism in the Pulp-and-
Paper Industry Innovations and the utilization of byproducts are
helping this sector to thrive in difficult times
20 Newsfront High-Performance Polymers in the
Spotlight Improvements in existing materials and the development of
new ones are helping to meet the demands of challenging applications
43
Technical and Practical
32 Facts at your Fingertips Electrochemistry
This one-page reference summarizes four key industrial processes that
depend on electrochemical technology
50
33 Technology Profile Green FDCA Production
This column describes a process for making 2,5-furandicarboxyllic acid
(FDCA), a possible bio-based alternative to purified terephthalic acid for
polyesters and other aromatic-ring-containing polymers

43 Feature Report The Integral Role of Waste


Management in Capital Projects
To avoid unnecessary efforts and mitigate risks, all phases throughout the
design and implementation of large capital projects should incorporate
comprehensive planning for waste management

50 Environmental Manager Things You Need to Know


Before Using an Explosion-Protection Technique
Understanding the different classification methods is necessary to better
select the explosion-protection techniques that will be used

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 1


55 Engineering Practice Gas Turbines: Design and
Operating Considerations
Follow these engineering recommendations to improve gas turbine operation
and performance while reducing operating costs

Equipment and Services


24 Focus on Weighing
This indicator connects with up to 14 analog weight sensors; Small-footprint
lab scales provide precision weighing; This DIN rail weight transmitter has PLC
connectivity; This scale is designed for use in hazardous environments; This
scale provides high-precision dosing of small batches; This devices status
monitoring reduces downtime; and more
55
28 New Products
New model for this series of gas-compression packages; New high-purity gas
switchover system for critical applications; High-pressure rotary gear pumps
feature no-gasket design; Four new models of containerized power generators;
New heat exchanger technology for air-cooled LNG facilities; and more

24
Departments
5 Editors Page Incorporating social media at work
Results of a survey on the use of social media shed some light on how it is used
for work-related activities by engineers in the industrial sector
64 Economic Indicators

28 Advertisers
60 Product Showcase
61 Classified
62 Reader Service
63 Ad Index

Chemical Connections
Follow @ChemEngMag on Twitter
Join the Chemical Engineering Magazine
LinkedIn Group
Visit us on www.chemengonline.com for Latest News,
Web-exclusive articles, Test your Knowledge Quizzes,
Bookshelf and more

Coming in August
Look for: Feature Reports on Extreme-Temperature Service; and
Plant and Process Safety; A Focus on Packaging; A Facts at your
Fingertips on Heat Transfer; a Solids Processing article on Powder
Processing; An Engineering Practice article on Mass-Transfer-Limited
Reactions; News Articles on Achema 2015; and Sensors; and more
Cover: Rob Hudgins

2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015


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Circle 7 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-07
Editor s Page
PUBLISHER ART & DESIGN
Incorporating social media at work
MICHAEL GROSSMAN ROB HUDGINS
Vice President and Group Publisher Graphic Designer
mgrossman@accessintel.com rhudgins@accessintel.com
The explosion of electronic devices that surround us greatly influ-
EDITORS PRODUCTION ences the way we function, particularly in the area of communication
DOROTHY LOZOWSKI JOHN BLAYLOCK-COOKE how we find entertainment, get information and make connections
Editor in Chief Ad Production Manager
dlozowski@chemengonline.com jcooke@accessintel.com with others. Video screens seem to be everywhere: at work, at home,
INFORMATION
in the gym, in our cars, at the supermarket, on-the-go with mobile
GERALD ONDREY (FRANKFURT) devices, and now even on our bodies with wearable devices. In addi-
Senior Editor SERVICES
gondrey@chemengonline.com
CHARLES SANDS tion to emails and texting, one of the most popular means of commu-
SCOTT JENKINS
Director of Digital Development
csands@accessintel.com
nication enabled by advances in electronics is via social media.
Senior Editor
sjenkins@chemengonline.com CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

MARY PAGE BAILEY SUZANNE A. SHELLEY


Are you linked in?
Assistant Editor sshelley@chemengonline.com While the use of social media for personal interactions abounds and
mbailey@chemengonline.com
CHARLES BUTCHER (U.K.) has significantly changed our lexicon (liking isnt what it used to be),
cbutcher@chemengonline.com
AUDIENCE
DEVELOPMENT
the extent of the use of social media for business-to-business pur-
PAUL S. GRAD (AUSTRALIA) poses has been somewhat less obvious. In a survey of our own read-
SARAH GARWOOD pgrad@chemengonline.com
Audience Marketing Director ers taken last year, about a third of respondents said they found social
sgarwood@accessintel.com
TETSUO SATOH (JAPAN)
tsatoh@chemengonline.com
media useful to very useful for staying informed about the chemical
JESSICA GRIER
Marketing Manager
process industries (CPI). And, the most popular network amongst the
jgrier@accessintel.com JOY LEPREE (NEW JERSEY) well-known platforms was said to be LinkedIn.
jlepree@chemengonline.com
GEORGE SEVERINE A recent survey done by IHS (www.ihs.com) titled 2015 Social
GERALD PARKINSON (CALIFORNIA)
Fulfillment Manager
gseverine@accessintel.com
gparkinson@chemengonline.com Media Use In The Industrial Sector delves into some detail on the
topic. The survey of over 1,300 engineers and technical professionals
JEN FELLING shows that when it comes to work-related use, 61% of respondents
List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700
j.felling@statlistics.com spend only one hour or less per week on social media and 24% spend
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD one to two hours per week. The most popular social media platform
JOHN CARSON HENRY KISTER was found to be LinkedIn, with 66% of respondents maintaining an
Jenike & Johanson, Inc. Fluor Corp.
account there. LinkedIn was also the most popular choice among the
DAVID DICKEY GERHARD KREYSA (RETIRED) well-known platforms for reading content or product/industry news,
MixTech, Inc. DECHEMA e.V.
following companies or groups, participating in discussions, recom-
MUKESH DOBLE
IIT Madras, India
RAM RAMACHANDRAN(Retired) mending products and searching for contacts. For posting or sharing
The Linde Group
images, videos or articles, Facebook took the edge.
HEADQUARTERS
40 Wall Street, 50th floor, New York, NY 10005, U.S.
The two most popular uses of social media were said to be find-
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ing product reviews and keeping on top of latest company news
and technologies. When asked about the challenges in using so-
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cial media, however, 67% of respondents said that methods other
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than social media were more efficient for work-related purposes
and 53% agreed that there was too much noise and not enough
CIRCULATION REQUESTS:
Tel: 847-564-9290 substance in social media.
Fax: 847-564-9453
Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, Social media has found a prominent place in the industrial sector,
Northbrook, IL 60065-3588
email: chemeng@omeda.com
as evidenced by our own LinkedIn group that is over 47,000 mem-
bers strong and our Twitter presence that counts more than 10,000
ADVERTISING REQUESTS: SEE P. 72
For reprints, licensing and permissions: Wright's Media, 1-877-652-5295, followers. And while its use is significant, as one of the conclusions
sales@wrightsmedia.com
in the IHS report states, for engineers, it is not the go-to digital
ACCESS INTELLIGENCE, LLC resource for work.
DON PAZOUR SYLVIA SIERRA
Chief Executive Officer Senior Vice President,
Customer Acquisition and Retention In this issue
HEATHER FARLEY Valve selection in our Cover Story (pp. 3442) and planning for waste
Chief Operating Officer ALISON JOHNS
Senior Vice President, Digital Development management in capital projects in our Feature Re-
ED PINEDO
Executive Vice President MICHAEL KRAUS port (pp. 4349) are just two of the many topics
& Chief Financial Officer VP, Production, Digital Media
& Design covered in this issue. You will also find news stories
MACY L. FECTO on the pulp-and-paper industry (pp. 1619) and on
Exec. Vice President, STEVE BARBER
Human Resources & Administration Vice President, high-performance polymers (pp. 2023), as well as
Financial Planning and Internal Audit
JENNIFER SCHWARTZ
technology news briefs in our Chementator section
Senior Vice President & Group Publisher
Aerospace, Energy, Healthcare
GERALD STASKO
Vice President/Corporate Controller
(pp. 713), an article on explosion-protection tech-
niques (pp. 5054) and much more. We hope you
ROB PACIOREK
Senior Vice President, enjoy reading, and find it informative.
4 Choke Cherry Road, Second Floor
Chief Information Officer Rockville, MD 20850
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Dorothy Lozowski, Editor in Chief

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Circle 6 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-06
Chementator
This solvent extraction process can monetize
tough refinery sludges Edited by:
Gerald Ondrey
Digestion vessel Filtration system Recovery vessel Solvent recovery Backflush

C
onstruction Low boiling-point solvent & storage vessel reservoir
has begun on Centrifuge (LBPS)
CONCRETE ADMIXTURE
a commer- Coolant in
Advanced concrete mixes
cial prototype Coolant out
often demonstrate a higher
of a low-boiling-point Slurry-oil
cat fine viscosity due to their low
solvent-extraction pro- bottoms water contents. Although
cess for recovering having a high level of work-
used catalyst pow- Back ability, the concrete often
der and slurry oil from flush appears harsh, sticky and
settler
a recalcitrant sludge therefore difficult to pump
produced in the fluid and process. To overcome
Recovered heavy oil
these challenges BASF SEs
catalytic cracking units Solid
product (Ludwigshafen, Germany;
(FCCUs) of petroleum www.basf.com) Construc-
Evaporation chamber
refineries. LBPS recycle
Source: Cat Fine
Management Technologies tion Chemicals div. has de-
The process allows veloped MasterEase, a new
refiners to isolate two valuable materials in the form of backwashed catalyst fines, admixture range developed
powdered catalyst material that can be used that must be disposed by costly methods, for low-viscosity concrete.
as an equilibrium catalyst in FCCUs, as well including incineration, landfilling and in ce- With the new technology,
as slurry oil that can be used as premium- ment kilns, he says. plastic viscosity can be re-
grade feedstock for the manufacture of car- CFMT has developed a processing duced by up to 30%, which
bon black and needle coke that would method, designed for integration into results in a substantial re-
duction of pumping pres-
otherwise be wasted, according to developer slurry-oil filtration systems, that processes
sure required to pump the
Cat Fine Management Technologies LLC the backwash into recyclable equilibrium concrete on the construction
(CFMT; Liberty, Tex.; www.cfmtllc.com). catalyst (in the form of a dry powder), and site. Placing and finishing of
When catalyst powder (fines) escapes recovers 100% of the slurry oil that was the concrete is much easier,
through the FCCU cyclones and accumu- tied up with the fines, Weber says. The faster and hence more eco-
lates in the slurry oil stream, a sludge forms four-part modular process begins with a di- nomical than using standard
that CFMT CEO Larry Weber likens to talcum gester tank, where a solvent blend is mixed concrete, says BASF.
powder in molasses. The sludge is classi- with the sludge material and agitated. The
fied as an Environmental Protection Agency dissolved slurry oil is then decanted and SOUND MILK SKIMMING
(EPA) Resource Recovery and Conservation the remainder filtered to separate solid Australian scientists have
Act (RCRA)-listed K-170 hazardous waste, catalyst particles. The solvent-wet catalyst produced, for the first time,
and makes for the toughest tank-cleaning is dried and the solvent is evaporated from skimmed milk at liter-scale
job in the business, he says. the oil. Both are recovered. The solvent using ultrasonic standing
The current treatment approach for this renders the material filterable without hav- waves a technique typically
used only on a small-scale.
sludge material involves diluting the slurry-oil ing to raise the temperature, says Weber,
The scientists, from Swin-
storage-tank bottom sludge with light-cycle which saves energy burne University of Technol-
oil (LCO) and then centrifuging the mixture, Construction has begun on a 5-ton/d pro- ogy (Melbourne; www.swin-
explains Weber. This approach has draw- totype demonstration unit, to be installed in burne.edu.au) and CSIROs
backs, because the recovered oil is high San Leon, Tex. at a site presently permitted Food Processing Center
in solid contaminants, and because cur- to process K-170 wastes. Startup is ex- (Melbourne; www.csiro.au),
rent methods still generate K-170 waste, pected in July 2015, Weber says. outlined their work at the
169th meeting of the Acous-
tical Society of America last
Upgrading extra-heavy crude oil using May in Pittsburgh.
supercritical water The scientists used two fully
submersible plate transduc-
ers placed on either end of

E
arlier this year, JGC Corp. (JGC; Yo- grading extra-heavy crude oil into more easily a length-tunable, rectangu-
kohama, Japan; www.jgc.com), in transported synthetic crude oil (SCO). lar reaction vessel that can
partnership with Japan Oil, Gas and At present, in order to transport the ex- hold up to 2 L of milk. Either
Minerals National Corp., commenced tra-heavy crude oil by pipeline, it must be one plate produces 1-MHz
pilot-scale testing of their Supercritical Water diluted with condensates, naphtha or other or 2-MHz waves while the
Cracking (SCWC) process. The pilot has a lighter oils (the Dilbit process), or through a other plate acts as a reflector,
capacity of 5 barrels (bbl) per day (800 L/d) hydrocracking or delayed coking process (a or both plates are switched
and is located at a government research thermal cracking of residual oil into lighter on simultaneously, providing
greater power and increas-
facility in Alberta, Canada. The pilot plant is fractions), a technology known as a Full Up-
part of a joint-research program aimed at up- grader. The Dilbit process requires diluents (Continues on p. 8)

Note: For more information, circle the 56-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 7


and a larger-capacity pipeline Source: JGC
ing the acoustic radiation
to transport the product, while High pressure
Gas
forces. The acoustic stand- separator
ing waves create forces that
the Full Upgrader method re-
quires the use of catalysts Bitumen service Electrical Knockout
act on the particles, causing heater drum
them to move toward either and hydrogen, causing pos- tank
the node or antinode of the sible environmental problems
SCO
standing waves, depending involving the disposal of low- Low-
Reactor
on their density. value solid byproducts, such pressure
The ultrasound separates as coke and sulfur, and also Water tank separator
Flash
milk into a top stream con- requires higher investment drum
taining a greater concentra- costs as well as complex
tion of larger fat globules Water
plant operations.
(cream), and a bottom stream Receiver
with smaller fat globules
On the other hand, SCWC Electrical
heater Pitch flash SCO
(skimmed milk). One of the technology (flowsheet), which drum
scientists, Thomas Leong, uses SCW as the thermal
cracking media, requires nei- Pitch
of Swinburne, says tuning
system parameters allows ther diluents nor catalysts
selecting milk fat globules and hydrogen. Highly lipophilic, SCW also term demonstration of operation is planned
of different sizes in the col- helps with the extraction and recovery of during this year, and data will be gathered to
lected fractions to produce a lighter portions of the cracked oil, says optimize operating conditions for the design
particular dairy product. He JGC. The pitch, produced as a byproduct of commercial plants. The next phase will
says cheeses made from
of SCWC, can be used as blending stock be a demonstration plant with a capacity of
milk with a higher portion
of small fat globules tend
for road asphalt. 5002,000 bbl/d, leading to commercial-
to have superior taste and The pilot plant has already achieved per- scale plants, with capacities of up to 30,000
texture, while milk or cream formance targets, in terms of desired vis- bbl/d. JGC envisions integrating SCWC with
with larger fat globules can cosity and specific gravity, says JGC. Long- steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD).
lead to tastier butter.
The ultrasonic separation
process takes only about A system to extract energy from waste gases
1020 min, much faster
than traditional methods of

M
any chemical process in-
natural fat sedimentation
dustries (CPI) operations H20 Heat energy
and buoyancy processing, is released No
used today to make Par-
generate gaseous byprod- pollutants
CO2
mesan cheeses, which can ucts that are impure and 1 second
+
take more than 6 h. The have low energy densities. Ener-Core Power
oxidizer Oxidation reaction occurs Exit conditions
scientists next step will be Power Inc. (Irvine, Calif.; www.ener- (proprietary) Vessel temperature contolled to
to work with small cheese core.com) has introduced a technol- above fuel auto-ignition match turbine
power needs
makers to demonstrate the ogy to extract valuable energy and Dillute mixture delivered
efficacy of their technique in heat from gases that would otherwise to oxidizer
cheese production. be wasted by flaring or venting. Air & fuel are mixed
Annually, there are about 65,000 1.5% fuel by volume and preheated before
Na-ION BATTERY MW of free-energy available in the
oxidizer
Compressed
The worlds first sodium- U.S. alone, in the form of low-quality Electricity Turbine system air from turbine
(third party) system
ion powered vehicle, an e- methane from landfills, oil-and-gas
bike, has been successfully operations, ethanol plants, chemical
demonstrated by Faradion
production facilities, coal mines and
Ltd. (London, U.K.; www.
faridion.co.uk), in collabora-
others, explains John Millard, Ener-
tion with Williams Advanced Cores director for Europe and the Source: Ener-Core Power

Engineering (Grove, Oxford- Middle East. Ener-Cores technology al- raw waste gas is first diluted with air and
shire, U.K.; www.williamsf1. lows companies to capture the energy and compressed to 67 bars. Then, the com-
com) and Oxford University reduce pollutants, he says. pressed gas is fed into a packed-bed re-
(www.oxford.ac.uk). The e- The technology depends on carefully con- actor at temperatures of 9001,000C. All
bike is a proof-of-concept trolling a thermal oxidation reaction such that species, including volatile organic com-
and shows the capabilities the reaction remains stable, even with di- pounds (VOCs), are oxidized in the reactor
of this new type of battery luted and impure gases. The chemical chain and the heat generated by the reaction is
technology.
reaction that is characteristic of combustion used to power a turbine that can generate
Faradions sodium-ion tech-
nology is based on cathode
cannot ordinarily be maintained with such electric power.
material manufactured by low-quality gases, Millard says. By slowing The company has set up its first 250-kW
Haldor Topse A/S (Topsoe; the reaction and lowering its temperature, power station at a landfill in the Netherlands
Lyngby, Denmark; www. the Ener-Core system can quickly oxidize and has pending agreements to install sev-
topsoe.com). Topsoe has methane without producing pollutants, such eral more systems in the near future, in-
scaled up Faradions propri- as CO, NOx and particulate matter. cluding a larger 21.75-MW system at an
(Continues on p. 10) In the Ener-Core system (diagram), the ethanol-production facility in California.
8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
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Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-11
Startup for a new gasification process
etary cathode material for-
mulation and has supported

I
the demonstration program
HI Corp. (IHI; Tokyo, www.ihi.co.jp) has Fluegas
by delivering the cathode commissioned its first prototype Twin
Fluegas Boiler, fluegas
material used in Faradions IHI Gasifier (TIGAR) plant, which IHI de- treatment
Na-ion cells. signed and built at the Kujang Factory of
Cyclone
Although lithium-ion batter- PT Pupuk Indonesia Holding Co., Indone- Circulated sand
Combustor
ies are currently the predom- sias largest state-owned fertilizer company, Syngas
inant battery technology in 75 km southeast of Jakarta. The plant pro-
electric and hybrid vehicles, cesses 50 ton/d of low-rank coal into 1,800 Secondary Syngas
Combustor gas Boiler, gas
as well as other energy stor- air
Nm3/h of synthesis gas (syngas), which can treatment
age applications, Na-ion of- Cyclone
be used for making hydrogen, ammonia
fers significant advantages:
The base materials required
and other chemicals. The prototype plant Gasifier
for Na-ion batteries are more will be operated for two years to demon- Recycled as fuel
Sand inlet
easily sourced than those strate the TIGAR process as an economical Wind box Fuel
Burner
needed for Li-ion batteries; and environmentally sound method to uti- inlet
Na-ion batteries cost around lize lignite for making syngas. Within 2015, Steam
30% less per kWh than Li-ion IHI will start marketing the technology for a
counterparts; and Na-ion commercial plant, which will be capable of Air
batteries are said to have im- processing 5001,000 ton/d of lignite. Distributer
proved thermal stability and In IHIs TIGAR process (flowsheet), lignite
transport safety. Sand, Non-combustible
(coarse and dry) is pyrolyzed and gasified in
Faradion and Topsoe are
currently developing low-
a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor using sand Combustor Gasifier
Source: IHI
cost Na-ion technology with (for heat transfer) and steam (as an oxygen
one focus area being energy source) at 800900C. Syngas emerging the syngas. The process also requires less
storage. Last year, Topsoe from the top is separated from solids by a feed preparation, using coarse coal particles
acquired 18% of the shares cyclone, and the elutriated particles are re- instead of slurries or pulverized coal that is
in Faradion. As part of the in- turned to the reactor. Tars, unreacted char needed by other gasifiers.
vestment, Topsoe will collab- and cooled sand from the top of the bed IHI says there are ample supplies of lignite
orate with Faradion to further are transported into an air-blown, pneu- at moderate price, but its high moisture con-
co-develop and scale up key matic-riser furnace, where tars and char are tent makes it difficult to process by alterna-
parts of the companys Na-
completely burned into CO2, and the sand tive gasifiers. The company is accelerating
ion technology.
is reheated by the heat of combustion. its efforts to utilize lignite efficiently with the
NEW GAS TURBINE IHIs technology has the advantage of op- development of TIGAR, along with the devel-
erating at relatively low temperatures (com- opment of a coal pre-drying system and the
In late May, GE (Fairfield,
pared to 1,4001,500C used by entrained lignite-fired boiler expertise of Steinmller En-
Conn.; www.ge.com) an-
nounced the manufacture of
gasifiers), and the use of steam instead of gineering GmbH (Gummersbach, Germany),
its first 9HA Gas Turbine at the oxygen is said to increase the H2 content of which IHI acquired from Siemens in 2014.
companys Belfort Gas Tur-
bine Center of Excellence in Two new product families offer help
France. Said to be the worlds
largest and most efficient gas-
for biofuel producers

T
turbine technology, this 9HA wo families of newly developed prod- The products allow biofuels producers to
unit will be shipped to Bou- ucts from specialty chemical maker avoid antibiotics in the control of microbes,
chain, France, where lectric- Solenis (Wilmington, Del.; www.so- which can have favorable regulatory implica-
it de France (EDF) and GE are
lenis.com) a portfolio of fermen- tions for the Food and Drug Admin. (FDA).
developing one of the worlds
most flexible and efficient gas-
tation aids and scale inhibitors have the Solenis also recently launched a portfolio
fired power plants. potential to improve the production of bio- of chemical blends for controlling the for-
The project in Bouchain will ethanol and related fermentation processes. mation of inorganic scales, such as calcium
be the first gas-fired power Solenis fermentation aids are additives carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate
generation combined-cycle designed to control undesirable microor- and others. The products, which are mar-
plant equipped with GEs ganisms in fermentation processes without keted as Polystabil scale inhibitors, consist
9HA gas turbine technol- the use of antibiotics. The fermentation aids of unique combinations of compounds that
ogy. It is scheduled to enter work by promoting yeasts metabolic path- employ different mechanisms to combat
commercial service in mid- ways, enhancing the ability of yeast to com- scale formation in the evaporators, tanks,
to late-2016 in the Nord
pete with bacteria in the propagation and heat exchangers and piping of fuel ethanol
Pas-de-Calais region. With
a capacity of 575 MW, it
fermentation phases of the process, explains plants. The advantage of the products is
will generate power that Allen Ziegler, the global biorefining marketing that they can work at lower dosages than
is equivalent to the power director at Solenis. Simultaneously, the fer- traditional polyacrylate-based treatments,
needs of 600,000 homes mentation aids proprietary combinations says Ziegler. Also, they can be applied at
and it will do so in less than of organic acids, peptides, iso-alpha acids higher doses when needed, but still main-
30 min at greater than 61% and chlorine dioxide inhibit the growth of tain the FDA GRAS (generally recognized as
(Continues on p. 13) gram-positive bacteria, Ziegler adds. safe) designation.
10 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-15
This scale inhibitor uses steric dispersion principles

W
ith the commercial re-
lease of a new scale
S M
inhibitor called Scale- M
O - M S S
Treat FeS 13805 re- O S
S
searchers at Clariant Oil Services R
-
M S MM
N +
(Houston; www.clariant.com/oilin- N R O S M S
R +
novation), in collaboration with aca- R N R
demia, have improved upon existing R
scale-treatment chemistries, adding
a newly patented copolymer to the
industry. This new chemistry, accord- Source: Clariant
ing to the company, allows Scale-
Treat FeS to specifically inhibit the crystals via electrostatic interaction, molecules that make up the metal
formation of iron sulfide (FeS) scale explains research scientist Jonathan sulfide crystal are hindered by the
at threshold (low and non-stoichio- Wylde. As the metal (M) sulfide (S) copolymers structure. This leads
metric) concentrations. Other inhibi- crystals grow within the confines to an action of dispersion and in-
tor methods (such as organic acids, of the three-dimensional polymer hibition, rather than chelation, in-
chelating agents and acrolein) must shape, they experience steric resis- creasing the overall effectiveness
be dosed at stoichiometric (molar) tance, limiting their size and chang- of the scale treatment.
concentrations and, therefore, at a ing their morphology. While primarily focused on FeS in-
much higher concentration, which The copolymers architecture hibition, ScaleTreat has been shown
is relatively inefficient and may intro- is key to this inhibition technique. to be effective in treating other types
duce health and safety risks. Unlike typical sulfide scale-con- of sulfide scales in laboratory tests.
The suggested reaction mecha- trol methods, which are based on Clariant is also continuing to develop
nism for ScaleTreat FeS (diagram) in- chelation, this mechanism is an ac- future generations of this product
volves the amide bonds in the copo- tion of steric dispersion. As seen to further enhance the effectiveness
lymer seeding into the metal sulfide in the reaction mechanism, many and extend application areas.

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12 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Nanoboxes promise to boost energy capacity efficiency. GEs technol-
of lithium-ion batteries ogy can help save 6.4 mil-
lion Nm3/yr of natural gas

R
esearchers from Singapores The researchers approach combines the compared to using F-class
Institute of Bioengineering and advantages of wet-chemistry reaction technology. Fuel costs can
Nanotechnology (IBN; www. methods and solid-state approaches, be reduced by 1.8 million/
yr, at a natural gas price of 7
ibn.a-star.edu.sg) and Hydro- while avoiding their disadvantages. Ac-
per GJ, says GE.
Quebecs Research Institute (Montreal, cording to the researchers, this has not
Canada; www.hydro.qc.ca) have syn- been reported previously. ALL-BIO PET BOTTLES
thetized silicate-based nanoboxes that Powder x-ray diffraction and transmis-
Last month, Virent (Madi-
could greatly increase the energy capac- sion electron microscopy images have
son, Wisconsin; www.virent.
ity of lithium-ion batteries as compared shown that the high phase purity and po- com) announced that its
to that of conventional phosphate-based rous nanobox architectures were achieved BioFormPX p-xylene was
cathodes. IBNs executive director, pro- via monodispersed MnCO3@SiO2 core- used in the worlds first dem-
fessor Jackie Y Ying says IBN research- shell nanocubes with controlled shell thick- onstration-scale production
ers have achieved simultaneous control ness. Combined with reduced graphene of a PET plastic bottle made
of the phase purity and nanostructure oxide nanosheets, the nanocomposite entirely from plant-based
of Li2MnSiO4 for the first time. This performed as a promising high-capacity materials. The PET bottles
will allow us to move closer to attaining cathode candidate for Li-ion batteries, say use BioFormPX produced
the high theoretical capacity of silicate- the researchers. at Virents Madison, Wisc.
based cathodes for battery applications, A high initial charging capacity of 335 demonstration plant.
Virent and The Coca-Cola
she says. mAh/g was achieved with this nanomate-
Co. have been working to-
The Li2MnSiO4@C porous nanoboxes* rial. The novel strategy developed by the re- gether since 2011. In 2014,
have been synthesized via a wet-chem- searchers could be useful for preparing other Coca-Cola made an addi-
istry associated solid-state reaction inorganic hollow nanostructured electrode tional investment to support
method. The uniqueness of this mate- materials with complex composition and en- an expansion of Virents dem-
rial is the hollow nanostructure with a hanced electrochemical properties. onstration plant (For details on
well-crystalline porous shell composed *Note: The notation A@C denotes an atom or molecule A inside Virents technology see Chem.
of phase-pure Li2MnSiO4 nanocrystals. a nanocube made of carbon, C. Eng., May 2010, p. 11).

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 13


Business News
Plant Watch AkzoNobel to build coatings-
LINEUP Sumitomo announces battery-separator manufacturing plant in Thailand
capacity expansion, new plant in Korea May 27, 2015 AkzoNobel (Amsterdam,
AKZONOBEL
June 10, 2015 Sumitomo Chemical Co. the Netherlands; www.akzonobel.com) has
ASHLAND (Tokyo; www.sumitomo-chem.co.jp) plans to announced plans to invest more than 30
AVEVA more than double its production capacity for million in a new manufacturing facility in Thailand
lithium-ion secondary battery separators at a to support its Performance Coatings business.
BASF site in Japan. In addition, a new production plant Earmarked for an initial production capacity
CHEVRON for lithium-ion secondary battery separators of 45,000 m.t./yr, production is due to start
will be built in South Korea, and is scheduled to in the third quarter of 2016.
DSM
start commercial-scale production in 2017.
EVONIK KBR awarded contract for revamp of
Wacker starts up new production plant seven ammonia plants in Russia
GRACE May 27, 2015 KBR, Inc. (Houston; www.kbr.
for specialty monomers at Burghausen
INNOSPEC June 9, 2015 Wacker Chemie AG (Munich, com) has been awarded a contract by OJSC
Germany; www.wacker.com) started up a new Togliattiazot (ToAZ) to provide licensing, basic
JOHNSON MATTHEY engineering design, front-end engineering and
plant with a capacity of 3,800 metric tons
KBR per year (m.t./yr) of the specialty monomers design services to revamp ToAZs existing
vinyl neodecanoate and vinyl laurate at its seven ammonia plants in Togliatti, Russia.
KEMIRA
Burghausen site in Germany. Wacker invested With this contract, KBR will supply ToAZ with
MESSER 8 million in the new facility. proprietary technology to significantly increase
overall ammonia production capacity.
MEXICHEM
Messer commissions production facility
NESTE for krypton and xenon in China Grace-Chevron JV to build
RAYONIER June 9, 2015 Messer Group GmbH (Bad catalyst plant in Lake Charles
Soden, Germany; www.messergroup.com) May 20, 2015 W.R. Grace & Co. (Columbia,
SASOL has commissioned a new production facility for Md.; www.grace.com) announced that
SUMITOMO the noble gases krypton and xenon, located Advanced Refining Technologies, the
in Panzhihua, Sichuan, China. The new facility companys joint venture (JV) with Chevron
TOTAL FLUIDES Products Co., will invest approximately $135
has production capabilities for 5,000 m3/yr
WACKER of krypton and 450 m3/yr of xenon. million to build a residue hydroprocessing
-catalyst plant and add additional alumina
WESTLAKE production capacity at the existing Grace
Kemira opens manufacturing plant for
water-treatment chemicals in Spain manufacturing site in Lake Charles, La.
June 3, 2015 Kemira Oyj (Helsinki; www. Construction is expected to begin in late 2015,
kemira.com) opened a new production plant for with completion anticipated in 2018.
the manufacture of water-treatment chemicals.
The plant, located in La Canonja, Spain, produces Evonik doubles methacrylic
aluminum- and iron-based coagulants, including anhydride capacity in Germany
polyaluminum chloride, aluminum sulfate May 19, 2015 Evonik Industries AG
and ferric chloride. (Essen, Germany; www.evonik.com) has
doubled production capacity for methacrylic
Sasol commissions first phase anhydride (MAAH) at its site in Worms,
of wax expansion project Germany. MAAH is an important building block
June 2, 2015 Sasol Ltd. (Johannesburg, South in the production of specialty methacrylates,
Africa; www.sasol.co.za) announced that phase which are used in concrete additives, paints,
one of its Fischer-Tropsch Wax Expansion Project electronics applications and plastics.
(FTWEP) has been successfully commissioned
at its Sasolburg site in South Africa. Major Mergers & Acquisitions
construction activity is already underway for BASF to sell its global paper hydrous
FTWEPs phase two, which is expected to be kaolin business to Imerys
commissioned in the first half of 2017. June 9, 2015 BASF SE (Ludwigshafen,
Germany; www.basf.com) has signed a contract
Mexichem subsidiary to expand to sell its global paper hydrous kaolin business
specialty PVC capacity in Germany to Imerys S.A. (Paris, France; www.imerys.
May 29, 2015 Vestolit, a subsidiary of com). Closing of the transaction is expected to
Mexichem S.A.B. de C.V. (Tlalnepantla, take place during the third quarter of 2015.
Mexico; www.mexichem.com) is expanding
its production of specialty-paste polyvinyl Total and Neste collaborate on
chloride (PVC) in Marl, Germany. Vestolit will bio-based isoalkane products
build a new production line with a capacity of Total Fluides (Paris; www.totalspecialfluids.
40,000 m.t./yr of paste PVC. com) and Neste Oil Oyj (Espoo, Finland;
14 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
www.nesteoil.com) have signed a Johnson Matthey acquires DSM forms polyphenylene
collaborative agreement for the supply packaging business StePac sulfide JV in China
of Nestes proprietary renewable May 27, 2015 Johnson Matthey May 22, 2015 Royal DSM (Heerlen,
isoalkane to be used by Total Fluides as (London; www.matthey.com) has the Netherlands; www.dsm.com)
feedstock to produce bio-based fluids, acquired the StePac Modified and Zhejiang NHU Co. formed a new
including paints, coatings, drilling fluids, Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) JV for the market development and
solvents for polymerization, printing- business from DS Smith for 18.0 manufacture of high-performance
ink fluids, emollients and more. million. With this transaction, all assets plastics compounds based on
of StePac will join Johnson Mattheys polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). DSM will
Innospec to divest its Atmosphere Control Technologies hold a 60% share in the JV, with Zhejiang
aroma chemicals business business, within the companys NHU owning a 40% stake.
June 8, 2015 Innospec Inc. (Littleton, New Businesses division. Mary Page Bailey
Colo.; www.innospecinc.com) agreed
to divest its aroma chemicals business
unit (Innospec Widnes Ltd.) to Emerald
Kalama Chemical, a business group
of Emerald Performance Materials
LLC. Terms of the transaction were
not disclosed.

Rayonier and Borregaard


form JV for lignin products
June 2, 2015 Rayonier Advanced
Materials (RYAM; Jacksonville, Fla.;
www.rayonieram.com) and Borregaard
ASA (Sarpsborg, Norway ; www. Written for engineers, by engineers
borregaard.com) intend to form a JV at
RYAMs site in Fernandina Beach, Fla.
for the manufacturing, marketing and More and more, business in the
sale of natural lignin-based products. Chemical Process Industries
Febr
ua
2015 ry

ww w.ch
He

The new company will be owned 45%


emen
Two-P at Exchange gonli
art Featu rs: ne.co

(CPI) is not local, its global.


m
re Repo
Advan rt
in 3-D ces

by RYAM and 55% by Borregaard.


Printin
Focus g
on
House Industrial
keepin
g

Facts
at
sionless
To keep up with this rapidly
Dimen Your Finge
rtip
Numb s:
ers

Aveva acquires fabrication


Valve
Extreme s for

Funda
evolving marketplace, you need
Servic
e

m e
software provider FabTrol High- n
Sheartals of
Dispe
page

a magazine that covers it all,


40

June 2, 2015 Aveva (Cambridge, rsers


U.K.; www.aveva.com) has agreed
not just one country or region,

to acquire FabTrol Systems, Inc.


(Eugene, Ore.) from the Dowco not just one vertical market, but
Group. FabTrol provides fabrication-
management software to the steel- the entire CPI. With editorial offices around the
fabrication industry. world, Chemical Engineering is well-positioned
Westlake acquires Ineos stake in to keep abreast of all the latest innovations in the
China-based PVC resin JV equipment, technology, materials, and services
June 2, 2015 Westlake Chemical
Corp. (Houston; www.westlake. used by process plants worldwide. No other
com) has acquired Ineos ChlorVinyls
Holdings B.V.s 35.7% interest in
publication even comes close.
Suzhou Huasu Plastics Co. (SHPC),
a JV company focused on PVC resin
and downstream fabrication based near To subscribe or learn more about
Shanghai. Westlake now owns a 95% membership, please visit
interest in SHPC.
www.chemengonline.com/subscribe
Ashland to divest industrial
biocides assets to Troy
May 29, 2015 Ashland Inc. (Covington,
Ky.; www.ashland.com) has signed a www.chemengonline.com
definitive agreement to sell the industrial 25430

biocides assets within Ashland Specialty


Ingredients to Troy Corp., a specialist
in microbial control products.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 15
Newsfront

Renewed Optimism in the


Pulp-and-Paper Industry
Innovations and the utilization of byproducts are helping this sector to
thrive in difficult times
AkzoNobel

believes the industry has been too conserva-


tive. He says there is a need to innovate in
order to lower costs, and to use less fiber,
less energy and less water. It is absolutely
essential for the industry to develop new,
high-value products, he says.
Much of the innovation within the indus-
try has been in biofuels and nanocellulose.
However, Garnier says, biofuels are still too
costly to make, and nanocellulose presents
two problems: there is as yet not a good
market for it, and the cost of processing it
is too high.
A principal of Pyry Management Consult-
ing Oyj (Vantaa, Finland; www.pyry.com),
Petri Vasara, agrees in part. He says that
mainly small companies and U.S. compa-

T
FIGURE 1. The Jupia paper he pulp-and-paper industry has gone nies in general have been quite conserva-
mill in southern Brazil is one
of the largest in the world
through difficult times. The rise of tive, while larger European companies and
electronic media, competition from Brazilian companies have been going ahead
substitute materials and environmen- on many fronts (Figure 1). He also says the
tal concerns have caused thousands of mill problems faced by the industry tend to be
closures and huge numbers of job losses. very dependent on the region where they
However, the industry is looking up again with operate. In Europe and the U.S., there has
renewed optimism (Table 1). The expanding been an overcapacity in certain printing
middle classes in China, India and Brazil are paper grades. In China, there has also been
creating new business opportunities, and an overcapacity in certain grades. One of
an increasing realization of the attributes of the main problems in China has been a lack
wood is persuading governments and busi- of particular raw materials. Vasara says the
nesses to invest in R&D for new materials problems of energy usage and water con-
and products derived from wood. sumption are common to many industries,
not only the pulp-and-paper industry.
The need to innovate Jessica McFaul, communications director
Innovation the development of new prod- and press secretary for the American For-
ucts and processes is crucial for the in- est & Paper Assn. (Washington, D.C.; www.
dustrys future. However, according to some afandpa.org) disagrees with the assess-
IN BRIEF people in the trade, pulp-and-paper compa- ments of Garnier and Vasara on innovation
THE NEED TO INNOVATE nies have not embraced innovation very well. in the U.S. pulp-and-paper industry. There
LIGNIN Professor Gil Garnier, of the Dept. of Chemi- are many innovations in paper, packaging
cal Engineering at Monash University (Mel- and wood products in the U.S. Paper-based
NANOCELLULOSE
bourne, Australia; www.monash.edu), and packaging companies have developed inno-
REDUCING CO2 director of the Australian Pulp and Paper vative solutions to specific customer needs,
EMISSIONS Institute, (now known as BioPRIA, www.bio- made process innovations to improve their
OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
pria.com.au), says the industry, in general, sustainability, and diversified into numer-
has failed to adapt to a changing market. He ous niche products, she says. Examples
16 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
FPInnovations
dustry believe lignin may become one Another Lignoboost plant was in-
of the most valuable renewable mate- stalled in January 2015 at the Sunila
rials. It is a biofuel with high heat value Mill, in Finland. The mill has a capacity
and it could be used as fuel in boilers of 370,000 m.t./yr of softwood pulp.
and lime kilns with huge potential sav- It is owned by Stora Enso Oyj (Hel-
ings in fuel oil. Other anticipated mar- sinki, Finland; www.storaenso.com),
kets for lignin include the construction a manufacturer of fine paper, pack-
and automotive industries, where aging board, and wood products.
lignin offers a sustainable alternative
to the phenols used in plywood and Nanocellulose
wood-paneling glues and the polyols Innventia and partners are also devel-
FIGURE 2. Cellulose filaments produced at the used in foams. Lignin could also be oping nanocellulose products. Nano-
Trois Rivires pulp-and-paper mill in Quebec, used to make carbon fibers. cellulose is produced by delaminat-
Canada A technology called Lignoboost, ing cellulosic fibers in high-pressure
include specialty printing products an add-on to the kraft pulping pro- homogenizers. Fully delaminated
and innovations such as embedded cess to extract lignin from black nanocellulose consists of microfibrils
electronic components combining liquor, has been developed in col- that are 12-m long and 520-m
print and digital for a richer customer laboration with many partners by dia. Nanocellulose has exceptional
experience, she says. Innventia AB (Stockholm, Sweden; strength, on a par with Kevlar, but
The industry also has a robust www.innventia.com) a research in contrast to Kevlar, it is completely
technology map, continues McFaul, institute that works with innovations renewable. Nanocellulose had not
and is working with universities and based on forest raw materials. Li- been commercialized earlier because
government agencies on advanced gnoboost originated from research its production process was too en-
manufacturing. The U.S. industry led by professor Hans Theliander ergy-intensive. However, Innventia
has adapted quite well to changes at Chalmers University of Technol- claims it has developed a process
in consumer demand, as evidenced ogy (Gothenburg, Sweden; www. that has achieved a 98% reduction
by packaging, tissue and pulp sector chalmers.se). It is now marketed by in energy consumption, representing
growth, says McFaul. Valmet AB (Gothenburg, Sweden; a savings of 29,000 kWh/m.t. (from a
www.valmet.com). previously required 30,000 kWh/m.t.
Lignin The technology uses a stand- to just 1,00 kWh/m.t.).
Despite the somewhat contradictory alone plant, installed in parallel to Potential applications for nanocel-
views of people in the trade, there the evaporation line. A portion of the lulose include the manufacture of
has been a large number of innova- mills black liquor is redirected to the paper and board, and surface sizing
tions and technological advances in Lignoboost process, where CO2 is and coating as a barrier against oxy-
the pulp-and-paper industry around added to precipitate the lignin. The gen, water vapor and grease in food
the world, especially during the last lignin-lean black liquor returns to the packaging. There are other poten-
two decades. mill process stream, while the lignin tial applications in nanocomposites,
A hot item now-a-days is lignin, an
organic polymer that binds the cel- It is absolutely essential for the industry to develop new,
lulose fibers and cells of wood. It is
an integral part of the cell walls of
high-value products.
plants. It is the second most abun- Professor Gil Garnier, Montash University
dant natural polymer, after cellulose.
Wood contains three main compo- is pressed and treated with sulfuric non-caloric food thickeners, emul-
nents: cellulose fibers, desired for acid. It is then washed and pressed sions and dispersions, oil recovery,
paper making; lignin; and hemicellu- again. The director of Lignoboost and cosmetics and electronics.
lose (shorter branched carbohydrate biomaterials at Valmet, Anders Lars- A type of nanocellulose material
polymers). The aim of pulping is to son, says two vertical pressure filters cellulose filaments derived from
break down the wood or other fiber are the heart of the Lignoboost plant. wood fiber (Figure 2) has been pro-
source into its constituent fibers. A typical installation would have two duced during the past few months
The lignin and hemicellulose that or three vertical-plate pressure filters, in a demonstration plant built at the
are dissolved in the pulping stage he says. pulp-and-paper mill in Trois-Rivires,
make up what is known as black The first full-scale Lignoboost Quebec, Canada (Figure 3).
liquor. This black liquor is usually plant was started up in 2013 at a mill Cellulose filaments are long, thin,
sent to a recovery system where it is owned by Domtar Corp. (Montreal, ribbon-like structures found in the
burned. The recovery stage supplies Canada; www.domtar.com) in Plym- cell walls of trees and other plants.
much of the energy required to oper- outh, North Carolina. The plant has Due to their large surface area and
ate the pulp mill and regenerates the an annual capacity of 466,000 metric high length-to-width ratio, cellulose
inorganic pulping chemicals. tons (m.t.) of pulp. It is also producing filaments can be used as a reinforc-
People in the pulp-and-paper in- lignin with the tradename BioChoice. ing agent in various pulp-and-paper

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 17


Kruger Biomaterials
products and composite products.
The Trois-Rivires plant produces
5 m.t./d of cellulose filament, enough
to permit commercialization and ap-
plication development. The plants
process isolates cellulose filaments
mechanically from pulp without the
use of chemicals or enzymes and
without producing any effluent.
The plant resulted from a strate-
gic alliance between FPInnovations
(Pointe-Claire, Quebec; www.fpin-
novations.ca), a Canadian non-profit
organization which undertakes re- FIGURE 3. Shown here is the pulp-and-paper mill in Trois Rivires, Quebec. A demonstration plant for
producing a type of nanocellulose material was recently built at the mill
search and technology transfer for
the Canadian forest industry, and steam for paper making, and the use lose. CEPI says that is what makes
Kruger Biomaterials Inc. (Montreal, of supercritical CO2 for paper drying. them predestined to replace tra-
Canada; www.kruger.com), pro- According to CEPI, deep eutectic ditional pulping techniques. DES
ducer of publication papers, tissue, solvents (DES), naturally made by pulping yields pure cellulose, lignin
lumber and other wood products. plants, allow producing pulp at low and hemicellulose at low cost, as
temperatures and at atmospheric has already been demonstrated
Reducing CO2 emissions pressure. Using DES, any type of bio- with wood and straw.
Several breakthrough technologies, mass could be dissolved into lignin, Using steam for superheated
which will enable a competitive fu- cellulose and hemicellulose with min- steam-drying would save energy as
ture in Europe, have been identified imal energy, emissions and residues. most heat could be recovered and
by the Confederation of European A eutectic system is a homogeneous recycled. Steam can then be used
Paper Industries (CEPI, Brussels, solid mix forming a super lattice with as a fiber carrier for making and
Belgium; www.cepi.org). CEPIs in- a unique atomic percentage ratio forming paper. Today, heated cylin-
novation and bioeconomy director, between the components. It is only ders deliver the energy required to
Bernard de Galembert, says those with this ratio that the system melts evaporate water from paper, and air
innovations also aim to deliver lower as a whole at a specific temperature. is used to remove the water vapor.
carbon emissions in the pulp-and- The eutectic temperature is the low- Steam would progressively replace
paper industry, according to CEPIs est possible melting temperature air and eventually also water in the
2050 roadmap to a low-carbon bio- over all of the mixing ratios for the papermaking process. Three steps
economy. The roadmap envisions an individual component. can be anticipated: superheated
industry-wide reduction of CO2 by Glucose-based natural DES can steam-drying with the total recovery
80% by 2050. dissolve wood and selectively ex- of thermal energy in an air-free drying
Those technologies include the use tract lignin and hemicellulose. It section, steam-boosted paper mak-
of deep eutectic solvent, the use of may also be able to extract cellu- ing within an air-free paper machine,
and steam-based paper making
TABLE 1. SOME OF THE LARGEST PULP-AND-PAPER COMPANIES based on completely new and more
Company Headquarters Number of employees Sales* (billion $) efficient forming technology.
International Paper Co. Memphis, Tenn. 65,000 29.080
On the other hand, supercritical
CO2 could be used to dry paper
Stora Enso Oyj Helsinki, Finland 28,000 14.000
without the need for heat and steam.
Svenska Cellulosa AB Stockholm, Sweden 44,000 13.700
CO2 in the critical state assumes
UPM-Kymmene Oyj Helsinki, Finland 21,000 13.350 many of the properties of both gas
Oji Paper Co. Tokyo, Japan 27,400 12.700 and liquid. Small changes in temper-
Smurfit Kappa Group Dublin, Ireland 41,000 10.600 ature and pressure can lead to large
Nippon Paper Industries Tokyo, Japan 13,000 10.500 variations in solvent properties.
RockTenn Norcross, Ga. 26,000 9.500
Mondi plc Johannesburg, South Africa 26,000 8.600
Other developments
CEPIs Galembert says next to the
Mets Group Helsinki, Finland 11,500 6.500
breakthrough technologies, the
Sappi Ltd. Johannesburg, South Africa 12,800 6.000
pulp-and-paper industry in Eu-
DS Smith plc London, U.K. 21,500 5.700 rope is following various innovation
Dompar Corp. Montreal, Canada 10,000 5.400 tracks, such as the functionalization
* 2013
of paper and smart packaging, and
the development of new lignocellu-
Source: Pricewaterhouse, Pulp & Paper International and other industry sources losic products including biocompos-
18 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Wacker Chemie
tradenamed PulpSill 968S, which
accelerates pulp dewatering (Fig-
ure 4). PulpSil 968S is a surfactant
fluid based on a polyether-modified
silicone. Its molecular structure has
been optimized to make it less hy-
drophilic without compromising its
hydrophobic properties. The resul-
tant gain in water repellency makes it
an efficient dewatering agent.
Despite the innovations and R&D
efforts by the pulp-and-paper indus-
try worldwide, a global paper market
study by Pyry titled World paper
markets up to 2030, forecasts a
strong need for structural changes
in the paper industry. Especially in
Western Europe we find an urgent
FIGURE 4. The rate at which pulp slurry is dewatered can be measured in drainage tests need for further capacity reductions.
After the markets in the emerging
ites and bio-based chemicals that mouldable materials. Asian regions have become more
could provide alternatives to existing Individual companies often develop mature, the industry needs to take
fossil-based products. Some of the new technologies, independently of a more disciplined approach as to
new pathways the industry is explor- organizations such as CEPI or In- capacity expansions. Industry con-
ing are: new ways to produce tex- nventia. Wacker Chemie AG (Mu- solidation, acquisitions, mergers and
tile fiber without the pulp-dissolving nich, Germany; www.wacker.com), alliances start making more sense
step; innovative lignocellulosic liquid for example, recently announced its there, too, the report says.
fuels for transport; and pulp-based development of a silicone surfactant Paul Grad

Circle 2 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-02

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 19


Newsfront
High-performance
polymers in the spotlight
Improvements in existing materials and the development of new ones are
helping to meet the demands of challenging applications
Victrex

performance when creating new materials.


We have to remember that our customers
arent willing to obtain the performance they
need at any cost, so the economics of our
solutions have to be in line with the custom-
ers application, continues Dirkx.
And finally, it is important not only that
a material provides the appropriate perfor-
mance properties, but also that it can be
processed. This means our customers have

A
FIGURE 1. Victrex PEEK 90GL- s the need for stronger, more du- to be able to take our polymer and form or
30BLK EU was introduced to rable and lighter-weight materials shape it into a component in a cost-effective
meet the current requirements
of both U.S. and European reg- increases, the demand for high- manner, Dirkx explains. This could be ex-
ulatory authorities for direct- performance plastics and polymers truding a film or multi-layer tubing, injection
food-contact applications, continues to grow. Although most of the ma- molding a taillight or 3D-printing aerospace
while providing temperature
performance and chemical
terials in this category have been in use for a ducting. In any case, the material has to be
and steam resistance, as well while, there is always room for improvement capable of being processed in some way.
as wear resistance without and new applications continually surface. For this reason, he says, producers often
lubrication For this reason, high-performance-plastics work closely with customers during develop-
producers are exploring the use of additives ment so that they understand what balance
and new processing techniques to provide of properties is needed for a specific compo-
even more advanced materials. Although the nent or application and, therefore, what com-
development process can be challenging, promises can be made while allowing the ma-
some interesting materials for existing and terial to be affordable, easily processed and
new applications are becoming available. perform properly in the application. This is
one of the reasons why having fully integrated
Development challenges R&D capabilities is important, says Dirkx.
Even though the mechanical performance We need to work with our polymers in the
of high-performance plastics and poly- same way our customers do.
mers is very good and we are finding ways Indeed, many materials producers have
to make them more appropriate for use in been working hard on their R&D to create
higher temperatures, it is often tricky to find high-performance plastics and polymers
the proper balance of properties for a given that better serve todays users. Heres a brief
application, explains Ryan Dirkx, vice presi- look at what has recently been launched.
dent of R&D for Arkema Inc. (King of Prussia,
Pa.; www.arkemainc.com). The real issue, Industrial applications
when developing a new or improved mate- In industry there is always a need for in-
IN BRIEF rial, is that when you enhance one property, creased reliability and uptime, which means
DEVELOPMENT
you may compromise another. there is a growing need for better performing
CHALLENGES
For example, he says, when you increase plastics and polymers, says Steve Dough-
the temperature resistance of a polymer, it erty, strategic marketing director with Victrex
INDUSTRIAL may affect the elastic modulus, which may (Conshohocken, Pa.; www.victrex.com).
APPLICATIONS not be acceptable in certain applications. Many industrial applications now require
PIPING APPLICATIONS In addition to finding the proper balance of equipment components that behave like
characteristics, producers of high-perfor- metal, regarding stiffness and strength, but
NEW FRONTIERS
mance plastics must also consider the cost provide resistance to aggressive chemicals,
Lehvoss
FIGURE 2: The Luvocom 8000 product line
combines thermoplastics such as PEEK, PPS or
PA with special nano-additives to produce tri-
bologically modified materials with higher wear
resistance, while maintaining a low coefficient
of friction

steam and high temperatures. Lehvoss North America, LLC (Paw-


According to Dougherty, the solu- catuck, Conn.; www.lehvossllc.com)
tion for many industrial applications recently introduced a new generation
can be found in new grades and for- of polytetrafluoroethylene- (PTFE)
mulations of polyether ether ketone modified compounds, called Luvo-
(PEEK) polymer, which was already com XTF, in an effort to provide a
well known as a high-temperature material that will reduce wear, yet still
polymer with great mechanical prop-
erties and processability.
be easy to process. Adding PTFE to
PEEK is not a new development, but GLOBAL EXPERTISE IN
New formulations of Victrexs PEEK
polymer are currently being employed
previously the problem with doing this
was that the material was not always
AUTOMATION
in the food processing industry. In easy to process because PEEK pro-
these applications, the reformulated cesses at a very high temperature, Electric actuators for
Victrex PEEK 90GL30BLK EU (Figure which in turn, causes PTFE to ag- industrial valve automation
1) was introduced to meet the cur- glomerate and disperse, eventually
rent requirements of both American leading to a certain amount of wear Reliable, powerful, e cient. AUMA
and European regulatory authorities for the finished part as the disper- offer a large portfolio of actuator
for direct-food-contact applications, sion causes the PTFE to break down and gearbox type ranges.
while providing the temperature per- over time, explains Bob Healy, sales
formance and chemical and steam and business development manager, Automating all types of industrial
resistance that PEEK is known for, as with Lehvoss. However, Lehvoss has valves in all market segments
well as wear resistance without lubrica- developed a new technology that Integration into all commonly
tion. Typical applications for the refor- has solved the dispersion and ag-
mulated food-friendly polymer include glomeration issues. By optimizing used control systems
machinery cleaning equipment, con- the processing technology and using High corrosion protection
veyor belt chains, espresso machines, innovative raw materials, it is now
Service worldwide
manufacturing equipment bushings possible to achieve a reduction in
and components for aseptic process- wear under high loads.
ing and packaging equipment. Because of the chemical resistance
And, in general industrial applica- to hydrocarbons, this new generation
tions that require even greater service of polymer is finding use in the oil-and-
life, lower component weight and gas industry where it provides better
lower costs, Dougherty says his com- mating, sealing surface and wear re-
pany now provides Victrex WG Poly- sistance than previous options.
mers. This recently developed ma- Another way Lehvoss provides
terial offers excellent wear rates, as high wear resistance and low coef-
well as reduced and very stable coef- ficient of friction is through the use
ficient of friction to meet requirements of nanoscale additives. Its Luvocom
for wear in applications with higher 8000 product line combines ther-
speeds and loads. The polymer can moplastics such as PEEK, polyphe- Learn more
about
be processed into components such nylene sulfide (PPS) or polyamide
our
as bushings, thrust washers, bearing (PA) with special nano-additives to
automation
cages, seals and gaskets, bearing re- produce tribologically modified ma- solutions
tainers, seal rings and gears. terials with higher wear resistance, www.auma.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 21


Circle 3 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-03
Dow
while maintaining a low coefficient of glass fiber at loadings from 20 to
friction (Figure 2). Traditional solid lu- 50%, allowing performance to be tai-
bricants, such as PTFE, are avoided lored to individual application require-
in this process. The advantage to ments, and making these products
using nanoscale additives is that the competitive alternatives to aluminum,
materials can be better processed zinc and magnesium metals. Across-
and the finished product exhibits en- the-board performance improve-
hanced mechanical-strength values. ments in strength and stiffness pro-
Also employing the use of addi- vide added confidence and a higher
tives, as well as processing technol- design safety factor when replacing
ogy, RTP (Winona, Minn.; rtpcom- other materials, says Maki. Addi-
pany.com) has recently taken some tionally, lower densities make them a
of the highest performing polymers, suitable choice for weight-critical ap-
such as PEEK, PPS, polyethylenimine plications. The materials also provide
(PEI) and polyphthalamide (PPA), the design freedom and production
and reinforced them with long-fiber advantages of an injection-moldable
FIGURE 3. Hypertherm 2399 resin for domestic
materials to provide added strength material, which allows design optimi- and commercial hot-and-cold water plumbing en-
so that they have load bearing capa- zation, part consolidation and one- hances the flexibility of plastic pipe so installers
bilities similar to metal. While poly- step production of net shapes. can bend water lines at turning joints, allowing for
mers are very corrosion resistant to ease of installation.
chemicals, the big challenge in many Piping applications flexibility of plastic pipe so installers can
applications is that they lack the me- In some cases, new materials are being bend water lines at turning joints, allow-
chanical performance of metal, so re- developed to improve existing applica- ing for ease of installation.
inforcements are typically required, tions. For instance, The Dow Chemical Most residential plumbing is cop-
explains Steve Maki, vice president Company (Midland, Mich.; www.dow. per or rigid plastic piping, which re-
of technology with RTP. com) recently launched Hypertherm quires the use of turning joints and
RTPs Ultra Performance Structural 2399 resin for domestic and com- elbows. These turning joints are usu-
Compounds employ short carbon mercial hot-and-cold water plumbing ally the first points of failure, explains
fiber, short glass fiber or very long (Figure 3). The new resin enhances the Dave Parrillo, R&D director of the
Packaging & Specialty Plastics divi-
sion of Dow. But, thanks to this fus-
ible high-performance material, the
need for breaks at joints has been
eliminated and the resulting leak-
ENSURE resistant product is actually stronger
at the fused section.
YOURPIPING Hypertherm 2399 resin has been
accepted by three major U.S. build-
INTEGRITY ing codes for plumbing and brings
the highest level of chlorine certifi-
cation (Level 5), while meeting the
highest hydrostatic requirements
for polyethylene pipe. This is a sig-
In todays operating environment, its more nificant advancement, as pipe prod-
100%inspectionof
important than ever that the piping within ucts manufactured with Hypertherm
internalandexternal
your Mechanical Integrity Program complies pipesurfaces 2399 will last two times longer than
with standards such as API-570 and API-574. products with Level 3 chlorine-resis-
Inspectionresults
QuestIntegrityoffersacomprehensivesolution tailoredtocomply tant certification, Parillo continues.
forpipingcircuitsusingourproprietary, withAPI-570and The material provides the flexibility to
API-574 install systems designed to optimize
ultrasonic-basedintelligentpiggingtechnology
combinedwithLifeQuestFitness-for-Service LifeQuestFitness- energy consumption for hot water
software. for-Serviceresults use, such as continuous loop, on-
tailoredtocomply demand re-circulation and traditional
Ensureyourpipingintegritybyidentifying withAPI-579 plumbing systems.
degradationbeforelossofcontainmentoccurs. The patented technology of Hyper-
therm 2399 NT resin offers the benefits
of traditional PE-RT (polyethylene of
QuestIntegrity.com raised temperature resistance) prod-
CHALLENGECONVENTION
ucts. This resin is very clean, provid-
ing pristine taste and color, is resistant
to corrosion and there is no need to
Circle 16 on p. 32 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-16
22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Win the
purge the lines upon installation of fin- of viscosities, permitting customers
ished pipe, notes Parrillo. Lightweight
and spool-able, the resin is a drop-in
to select the appropriate product for
their membrane process. Kynar MG
Space Race.
replacement for PEX B and C, enabling 15 is a new grade designed specifi- With the new LEWA triplex G3M.
pipe manufacturers to run product cally for hollow fiber spinning. Kynar
faster on extrusion lines. Additionally, HSV 900 is a very high viscosity
monolithic pipe formed with Hyper- grade, especially suitable for hol-
therm 2399 NT resin is sustainable due low fiber casting and other applica-
to its thermoplastic nature. Contrary tions requiring high gel strength. Also
to thermosets, a thermoplastic can available are Kynar Flex co-polymer
be reintroduced into the manufactur- grades with even higher pH chemi-
ing stream or recycled at the end of its cal resistance and greater flexibility.
lifetime. The finished pipe is ready for Kynar membranes are stable in ap-
packaging directly off the line, elimi- plications over a pH range from 1.0
nating time and energy used in post- to 13, and are often used in exposure
extrusion curing, lengthy quality-control to citric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrogen
measures and off-line packaging. peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, so-
dium hydroxide, ozone and high lev-
New frontiers els of free chlorine.
And then there are tweaks to existing Finally, bio-sourced high-perfor-
high-performance materials, which mance materials are becoming more
allow them to be used in entirely new attractive in a variety of industries.
applications, such as membrane tech- Arkemas Specialty Polyamides
nologies. Water filtration is a new area group has also expanded into bio-
for high-performance plastics and sourced high-performance materials
polymers, according to Dave Seiler, with the Rilsan Clear Rnew transpar-
global advisor for fluoropolymers with
Arkema Inc. The world economy
ent polyamide range, making Arkema
the only supplier of bio-sourced trans-
LEWA triplex
is giving clean water to people who
have previously not had access, he
parent polyamides, says Ryan Zak-
szeski, technical marketing specialist
G3M Maximum
explains. There are now personal
water units and technologies that
with the Specialty Polyamides division
of Arkema Inc.
efficiency in the
allow us to turn sea water or undrink-
able water into drinking water, but it
Rilsan Clear G850 Rnew and Rilsan
Clear G120 Rnew are partially bio-
smallest space.
requires the use of biocides and other based materials with excellent chemi-
chemistries. And it is the use of the cal and fatigue resistance, which will
The LEWA triplex is the first
chemicals that purify the water that is, provide advantages in the optics,
choice whenever high-efficiency
in turn, necessitating the use of high- medical and consumer electron-
performance materials in the filtration ics markets. The company has also process diaphragm pumps are
media because they are able to resist added polyamides 10.10, 10.12 and needed, but space is at a premium.
the chemistry and provide durability in 6.10 to its portfolio. These resins offer The new G3M size unifies the
these applications. optimized properties between that benefits of all previous types but
For this reason, Arkema is develop- of short- and long-chain polyamides with 30 % less weight and space
ing new products to meet the needs with the added benefit of having sig- requirement. Yet it still operates
of the filtration industry. They needed nificant bio-sourced content, provid- with greater efficiency and has
a polymer that was lightweight and ing solutions for automotive, mono- a discharge pressure of up to
could be made into a fiber without filament and industrial applications. 750 bar. All components of the
becoming brittle, says Seiler. The Pebax thermoplastic elastomers drive unit are designed for con-
same characteristics chemical re- (TPEs), which have been well known tinuous operation. LEWA triplex
sistance, mechanical toughness and in the sports and medical industries G3M The new standard in the
long-term durability that made for years, are now breaking ground in chemical, and oil and gas industries.
the companys Kynar PVDF (polyvi- breathable, monolithic applications.
nylidene fluoride) resin suitable for use New grades of Pebax TPEs show
Learn more at
in the process industries is also mak- promise in the house wrap and breath-
ing them a choice material for microfil- able textile applications by producing
www.lewa.de/triplex
tration and ultrafiltration membranes, tough and tear-resistant, waterproof
according to Seiler. barriers while remaining breathable,
A range of Kynar PVDF resins is plasticizer-free and monolithic (non-
now available for use in membranes. porous), says Zakszeski. n
Kynar 700 series is made in a range Joy LePree

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 23


Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-12
Focus

Weighing
Indicator connects with up to The 201 is capable of powering up
14 analog weight sensors to eight 350-Ohm load cells, and
The ZM305 is a multi-function weight comes with a 35-mm DIN rail-mount-
indicator that is available in two ver- ing bracket. The transmitter features
sions. The ZM305 Standard weight a 0.5-in.-high, six-digit, transreflec-
indicator is designed for floor scales, tive LCD display with up to seven
batch vessels and in-motion con- different colors and is viewable in all
veyors. The ZM305 GTN Inbound- lighting levels from direct light to total
Outbound model is designed for use darkness. The Model 201 weight in-
with truck scales and weighbridges. dicator handles up to 200 samples
It gives users the ability to store per second and standard commu-
gross, tare and net weights against nication protocols, including serial
up to 1,000 container or vehicle interface RS232/RS485, mini USB-
identifications, providing inbound B, analog (010 V, or 420 mA), Eth-
and outbound weighing, according ernet TCP/IP, EIP and Modbus TCP,
to the company. It includes a harmo- make it easier to connect to a PC,
Cardinal nizer filtering system, which corrects PLC and other smart devices.
for environmental noise and vibration Cardinal Scale Manufacturing Co.,
that commonly occur in the target Webb City, Mo.
applications. The ZM305 indicator www.cardinalscale.com
is very quick, sampling 80 times per
second, which is essential for accu- Move virtually any bulk material
racy when weighing in motion, says throughout the process plant
the company. Avery Weigh-Tronix This company offers a variety of
LLC, Fairmont, Minn. multi-component systems (photo) to
www.averyweigh-tronix.com move materials from process equip-
ment, bulk bags, silos or manual
Small-footprint lab scales dumping stations, allowing users
provide precision weighing to weigh-batch a single ingredient
This companys compact Nimbus or up to 50, while blending for a
precision and analytical balances recipe, filling containingers and de-
are designed for laboratory use. The livering materials to process vessels,
internal mechanism is fabricated packaging lines or other destinations.
using hardened materials, helping The engineered solution may involve
it to withstand rigorous laboratory individual loss-in-weight, bulk-bag
use. The aluminum base withstands weigh-batch dischargers, or au-
Flexicon exposure to potentially corrosive tomated, gain-in-weight batching
chemicals. The balances have pre- and blending systems, integrated
cision readabilities from 0.1 mg to into upstream and downstream
0.1 g, and data can be output via equipment. Flexicon Corp.,
USB or RS-232 connections. Other Bethlehem, Pa.
features include backlit LCD display, www.flexicon.com
color-coded keys, level indicator with
adjustable leveling feet, sealed key- Systems maximize packaging
pad, external calibration and a pan rates with repeatable results
lifter to easily remove samples. Many These bagging and checkweigh
sizes and capacities are available. scale conveyors are designed for
Adam Equipment, Danbury, Conn. applications that package hard-to-
www.adamequipment.com handle materials or products. The
PLC retains numerous settings to
This DIN rail weight transmitter accommodate multiple product reci-
has PLC connectivity pes. The electronic load-cell weigh-
The Model 201 weight transmitter ing system allows operators to fill
(photo) is a fast, accurate instrument bags and then verify the weight,
for process control-based static adjusting the contents as needed.
and dynamic weighing applications. The companys many system of-
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.
24 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
ferings include FIBC filling systems, weighing system is running properly.
valve bags, open-mouth bag fill- It also provides proactive alerting to
ers (for bags, boxes or drums), and help reduce downtime. Mettler
gravity, pneumatic, auger, impeller Toledo, Columbus, Ohio
and vibratory models are available www.mt.com
to meet site-specific needs and
constraints. Chantland MHS, Scale provides high-precision
Humboldt, Iowa. dosing of small batches
www.chantland.com The 100 Series Weigh Scale Blender
(photo) is designed for plastics-in- Maguire

This scale is designed for use dustry applications, such as mold-


in hazardous environments ing and extruding, that require the
The QuickSilver IS (intrinsically safe) blending of small amounts of color
is a bench scale that is designed for or other additives with extremely
general weighing, checkweighing, high precision. Said to be one of the
filling, manual batching and grad- smallest machines of its type, the
ing applications that must operate unit weighs and blends up to four
in hazardous environments, where components at rates of up to 450
low energy usage is required during lb/h This blender features a Micro-
normal operation. It is approved for Pulse metering device, which has a
all hazardous area groups, classes slide-gate apparatus attached to a
and divisions when used with its re- pneumatic cylinder with a very short
chargeable battery. The removeable, (0.125-in.) stroke. The cylinder is rap-
rechargeable battery pack provides idly and sequentially pulsed up to 20
up to 65 h of continuous operation, times per second during dispensing,
and 250 h when the sleep mode permitting very precise dose control,
function is used. When used with a says the company. The machine is Mettler Toledo
direct power supply, the QuickSil- also self-calibrating, and achieves an
ver IS is not approved for Groups overall precision of 0.1% of specified
A and B, notes the company. blend. Maguire Products, Aston,
Fairbanks Scales, Kansas City, Mo. Pa.
www.fairbanks.com www.maguire.com

This devices status monitoring This weigher is suitable for


reduces downtime potentially explosive areas
The IND570 industrial terminal The automatic checkweigher HC-Ex
(photo) is constructed and approved is suitable for use in potentially explo-
for harsh industrial environments and sive Zone 1 and Zone 2 atmospheres.
offers flexible control options for sim- The weigher combines an anti-static
ple to complex weighing applications. transport system, an intelligent elec-
In manually controlled weighing ap- trodynamic weigh cell, and a control
plications, the high-visibility graphic unit that executes in the ignition-
display shows realtime weighing protection mode of pressurized ap-
status and can be programmed with paratus. The menu-guided touch-
language routines to walk users screen simplifies operation. OCS
through the operations to improve Checkweighers GmbH,Schwbisch
efficiency and avoid errors. For au- Hall, Germany.
tomated systems, the IND570 can www.ocs-cw.com
function as a standalone process
controller. Its digital I/O options and Lever scales designed for
easily programmable software pro- tanks or hoppers
vide accurate, repeatable results, Pipe-lever scales are an economi-
says the company. It offers select- cal choice for many tank or hopper
able interfaces and programs that applications. They provide reliable
allow users to customize features electromechanical operation that
to match application requirements. has very low maintenance require-
Realtime communications are pro- ments, says the company. These
vided via serial, Ethernet and PLC scales are made from mild steel,
interfaces, which can be tailored for are available for a capacity range
the application. An added feature of of 5,000 to 50,000 lb. They can be
the IND570 is that it provides perfor- customized to meet the site-specific
mance monitoring to ensure that the weighing needs. RL20000 alloy-steel

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 25


load cells are standard, but stainless ume applications. The system has Spirofil weigh-and-fill, bulk bag-filling
steel, hermetically sealed load cells a filling nozzle, and bags are sus- equipment can handle bag capaci-
are always available. Customization pended within the frame using quick- ties up to 4,400 lb, with a range of
is available. Rice Lake Weighing releasable latchable hooks or tubular basic models and custom solutions.
Systems, Rice Lake, Wisc. bars. Optional vibration is available These machines are modular in con-
www.ricelake.com to de-aerate and stabilize the filled struction, allowing users to specify
bags. Other options include an inflat- a number of options as their needs
Modular designs supports able neck seal, a slide-gate-fill con- change. Forklift bag removal, pallet
customization for bag-filling trol valve, automatic height adjust- truck bag removal and conveyor bag
The Spirofil bulk-bag weigh fillers ment for varying bag sizes, sampling removal are available. Spiroflow
providing high-accuracy gain-in- ports, a controller to manage control Systems, Monroe, N.C.
weight filling for low- to medium-vol- and data, and more. The companys www.spiroflowsystems.com

Weight belt feeder designed


for rugged materials

ONE WORLD.
This company offers a large variety
of weigh-belt feeders for both heavy-
industry and light-industry applica-
tions. The Model MH high-capacity

ONE WATER. weigh-belt feeder, which was first


desgned for steel-mill service to feed
flux materials (such as limestone,
dolomite, iron-ore pellets, fluorospar

ONE EVENT. and coke). This heavy-duty model


can handle a feed rate of 4003,000
ton/h and particle sizes from fines to
6-in.-dia., and densities of 40200
lb/ft3. It is designed to withstand
extreme conditions, such as abra-
sive dusts, corrosive fumes, wide
temperature fluctuations and vibra-
tion, without any detrimental effects
on performance or accuracy, says

COUNTLESS the company. The MH belt is driven


from the head pulley located at the
outlet of the feeder, rather than the

OPPORTUNITIES. tail pulley at the end inlet. This is said


to allow for lower belt tension dur-
ing operation, which provides better
sensitivity and greater accuracy.
WEFTEC 2015 is the event for water professionals, industry experts, and the Thayer Scale, Pembroke, Ma.
most innovative companies from around the world to gather together for the www.thayerscale.com
advancement of water.

STAY DISCOVER ACCESS GLOBAL MAKE


Transmitter junction box allows
COMPETITIVE THE NEWEST BUSINESS VALUABLE
for remote scale monitoring
AND RELEVANT IN INNOVATION OPPORTUNITIES CONNECTIONS The Transcell LCT-2 digital weight
YOUR CAREER AND SOLUTIONS transmitter allows users to moni-
WEFTEC is the only WEFTEC hosts
tor up to four individual load cells
WEFTEC offers the WEFTEC features water show selected more than 22,000
and transmit filtered weight data to
highest-quality, most the largest water to be a part of the attendees from
a PLC or other compatible device,
comprehensive quality exhibition in U.S. Commercial around the world
via EtherNet/IP or Modbus protocol.
educational sessions the world with more Service International and all sectors of
The ability to monitor four load cells
available today. than 1,000 exhibiting Buyer Program. water quality.
using a single transmitter helps to
companies.
save money (compared to the use of
individual, dedicated transmitters).
The sampling rate is adjustable from
4.7 Hz, with a 24-bit resolution. This
88th Annual Water Environment Federation
transmitter is designed for in-plant
Technical Exhibition and Conference
September 26 30, 2015
Register Today! use, such as realtime scale-system
diagnostics. The LCT-2 can be used
McCormick Place, Chicago, Illinois USA www.WEFTEC.org in virtually any plant environment,
and is well-suited to powder and
Circle 21 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-21
26 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
bulk-solids applications. It supports Rugged belt scale instant response to product loading.
up to 20 industrial network proto- accommodates uneven loading This ensures high accuracy and re-
cols Transcell Technology, Buf- The Milltronics MSI is a heavy-duty, peatability, even with uneven loading
falo Grove, Ill. high-accuracy, full-frame belt scale and fast belt speeds, says the com-
www.transcell.com that provides continuous in-line pany. It has a maximum capacity
weighing on a variety of products and of 12,000 ton/h at maximum belt
Precision weigh cells for any industry sectors, including mining, speed, a maximum belt speed of 5
size application power generation, iron-and-steel pro- m/s (1,000 ft/min) and an accuracy
The EC-FS weigh cells provide ultra- duction, food processing and chemi- of 0.5% or better. Siemens AG,
fast, high-precision weighing. Using cals. The MSIs patened use of paral- Munich, Germany
electromagnetic force restoration lelogram-style load cells results in fast www.siemens.com
(EMFR), the weigh cells provide fast reaction to vertical forces, ensuring Suzanne Shelley
sampling (every 1 ms), covering a
weight range up to 15,000 g with a
resolution of up to 0.01g. The com-
pany offers a large family of weigh
cells to accommodate a variety of
measuring ranges. Wipotec North
America, Roswell, Ga.
www.wipotec.com

Portable bulk-bag discarge unit


discharges dust-free
Perfection is
Material Transfer
Better Dispersion and Control

The customized Flo-Master portable


bulk-bag discharge sysem (photo)
includes a loss-in-weight scale sys- Perfecting Particle Size
tem and a digital weigh indicator The Sturtevant Micronizer jet mill reduces the
with a bulk-bag conditioning system, particle size of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides,
to promote material flow. The com- insecticides and dry chemicals to narrow particle
panys Flow-Lock gate halts material size distributions of 0.25 microns or larger without
flow as needed for partial bag dis- heat buildup.
charge. The companys Seal-Master
bag spout access chamber with gull Better control properties - dispersion & reactivity
wing doors and a discharge spout- Particle-on-particle impact, no heat generation
sealing system that ensures dust- Simple design, easy to clean
tight material discharge. Discharge Abrasion resistant for long life
is managed using a vacuum takeoff
adaptor with air-actuated ball valve 348 Circuit Street Hanover, MA 02339
and inlet air filter. This design allows Phone: 800.992.0209 Fax: 781.829.6515 sales@sturtevantinc.com
for eay connection to a pneumatic
conveying system. Material Trans- www.sturtevantinc.com
fer, Allegan, Mich.
www.materialtransfer.com
Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-20
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 27
New Products
AURA Controls
New model for this series of new models: QEC 800, QEC 950,
gas compression packages QEC 1000 (photo) and QEC 1200.
This company has introduced the lat- The expanded QEC range, including
est addition to its C-Series offering two dedicated models for the U.S.
of configurable compression pack- and Canada, has been designed for
ages: the C-Series 7044 Compres- multi-drop, prime power and critical
sion Package. This model features standby applications for the rental,
GEs 1,680 h.p. Waukesha L7044GSI mining and oil-and-gas industries.
rich-burn engine, paired with an Ariel The QEC 800, QEC 1000 and QEC
JGK4 compressor. GEs Waukesha 1250 are available for the global mar-
gas engines are widely regarded for ket (50/60 Hz switchable), and the
fuel flexibility on a wide gas range up QEC 950 and QEC 1200 are dedi-
to 2,300 Btu, as well as full-power cated 60Hz, EPA Tier 2 certified for
capabilities without derate at altitudes the U.S. and Canada. Users can tai-
up to 8,000 ft. The C-Series 7044 can lor their QEC to individual key require-
be configured with more than 60 op- ments, such as power output (up to 1
tions, including advanced emissions- MW) and noise suppression. A host of
control systems to meet most gov- factory-mounted and retrofit options
ernment compliance requirements. allow this customized configuration.
Packages are built on heavy-duty, These include digital AVR, a coolant
steel skids suitable for mounting heater, an air shutdown valve and
Atlas Copco
on a compacted gravel pad, piles customized colors. Atlas Copco,
or an engineered concrete founda- Zaragoza, Spain
tion. The C-Series is available in 13 www.atlascopco.com
base models in one-, two- and three-
stage configurations. Exterran High-pressure rotary gear pumps
Holdings, Inc., Houston feature no-gasket design
www.exterran.com The 700 Series Rotary Gear Pumps
(photo) are designed to provide quiet
New high-purity gas switchover and efficient service at pressures up
system for critical applications to 2,000 psi and flowrates up to 5.0
The EXD Series automatic differential- gal/min. Featuring a gasket-free de-
pressure switchover (photo) is a highly sign, these pumps transfer media at
accurate, reliable gas-distribution temperatures up to 250F and, with
system that automatically switches optional modifications, to 500F. Avail-
between two high-pressure gas able in cast and ductile iron, all 700
sources to enable uninterrupted sup- Series models can be ordered with
Clark Solutions
ply. The EXD system is designed to foot or flange mounting. The gears,
provide a continuous supply of high- shafts, and housing faces are ma-
purity gas in critical applications and chined to extremely tight tolerances,
demanding process environments. allowing them to provide better lift,
The system is suitable for carrier- and reduced slippage and longer service
calibration-gas delivery applications life. Replaceable anti-friction needle-
used in chromatography processes, roller bearings minimize friction and
sampling systems and laboratory in- provide higher load ratings for me-
strumentation. The proven switching dium- to high-pressure service. An
technology provides failsafe opera- innovative lip seal provides an ample
tion utilizing a priority valve assembly, safeguard against liquid leakage and
allowing the user to replace depleted the entrance of air. Clark Solutions,
gas containers without system inter- Hudson, Mass.
ruption and increasing the amount of www.clarksol.com
time between change-outs. AURA
Controls, Virginia Beach, Va. A chemically inert stepper pump
www.auracontrols.com dispenses tiny volumes
Lee Products This miniature, chemically inert stepper
Four new models of dispenser pump (photo) is designed
containerized power generators to deliver variable micro-liter volumes
The QEC 1250 containerized gen- (50250 L) with a consistent perfor-
erator has now been joined by four mance. The LPD Series pump has
28 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
been developed to offer greater design cess to data, detailing how and where GEA Batignolles

flexibility and significant cost savings energy is consumed, leading to more


to the medical and scientific industries informed energy-management deci-
as a result of its maintenance-free de- sions and increased efficiency, says
sign. It can be located wherever fluidic the company. With SIMS technology,
requirements dictate, regardless of systems are compatible for connec-
maintenance accessibility. The pump tion to existing proprietary networks
is offered in both standard and high- and can interact with Ethernet and
performance models, with the latter Modbus systems, as well as Profi-
incorporating a home sensor, encoder bus, CANopen, EtherCAT, DeviceNet
and backlash compensation for more and more. Spirax Sarco, Inc.,
demanding applications, and provides Blythewood, S.C.
Parker Hannifin
a CV of 0.01% at total volume. The www.spiraxsarco.com
standard performance model is avail-
able with a home sensor for most other This tube connection speeds
applications. Maximum discharge pres- assembly of systems
sures are 60 psi. Lee Products Ltd, Designed for working pressures as high
Gerrards Cross, U.K. as 22,500 psi (1,550 bars), the new
www.leeproducts.co.uk flared-cone technology advances
the performance of compression-style
New heat exchanger technology tube connections. It provides users
for air-cooled LNG facilities with a simple and reliable means of
Together with Wieland Thermal Solu- speeding the assembly of instrument
tions and Technip, this company has tubing systems for use in higher-pres-
developed a new technology to boost sure applications in the oil-and-gas in-
efficiency for air-cooled liquefied natu- dustries. The new flared-cone connec-
ral gas (LNG) facilities, known as Diesta tion (FCC) technology (photo) is said to
(short for dual internally and externally be a significant advance on the type
structured tube for air-coolers). Diesta of cone and thread tube connections
(photo) is a combination of two estab- pioneered by the company. The new
lished technologies for the outside and FCCs are much simpler to make up.
inside of a tube, the key component of Installers can typically complete the
Scientific Systems
an air-cooler. Diesta technology typi- task in less than 4 min, after only mini-
cally allows increase in LNG production mal training. This time-saving can re-
by 2 to 3%, while taking advantage of sult in significant cost reductions on in-
compression power savings. More- stallations with a large number of tube
over, the equipment footprint can be connections. Flared-cone connections
reduced by up to 20% due to a more are also especially cost-effective in ap-
compact design. Finally, the reduc- plications where leaks caused by vi-
tion in specific fuel-gas consumption bration are an issue. Parker Hannifin
lowers CO2 emissions, says the com- Corp., Cleveland, Ohio
pany. GEA Batignolles Technologies www.parker.com
Thermiques SAS, Nantes, France
www.gea.com Low-pulsation piston
pumps for laboratory use
Continuously supply hot water, on The LS Class of single-headed, posi-
demand, with this system tive-displacement piston pumps (photo)
The EasiHeat DHW is a new heat ex- feature very low pulsation and high
changer that incorporates SIMS (Spi- accuracy, along with micro-stepping
rax Intelligent Monitoring System) to motor technology and a proven single-
deliver a constant supply of hot water piston pump mechanism. Standard
at a stable temperature on demand fluid-path materials are stainless steel
even with sudden, wide load changes. and polyethertherketone (PEEK), with
The unit can handle process hot-water optional titanium components avail-
applications of up to 4 million Btu. Eas- able. Also available are jacketed heads
iHeat DHW comes with a new control for temperature-controlled processes.
system that enables monitoring, diag- Three versions are available, capable of
nostics and status communications. A handling 5, 10 and 40 mL/min, respec-
7-in. touchscreen provides visual ac- tively. With pressure capability up to

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 29


6,000 psi, these pumps are suitable power plants and other automated
for a wide variety of uses, including production sites. The platform sim-
biocompatible separations, semi- plifies the task of identifying areas of
prep liquid chromatography, meter- cybersecurity risk and provides real-
ing, dispensing and general labora- time visibility and decision support in
tory use. Scientific Systems, Inc., multi-vendor industrial environments.
State College, Pa. Risk Manager translates complex
www.ssihplc.com cybersecurity indicators into clear
measurements and key performance
Connect valve manifolds to indicators (KPI). Users can create
ASCO Numatics panels inside cabinets customized risk-notification alerts and
The 501 Series panel-mount adapter perform detailed threat and vulner-
plate (photo) allows users to directly ability analysis. Honeywell Process
connect compatible valve manifolds to Solutions, Houston
a panel in the wall or floor of a cabinet. www.honeywellprocess.com
This eliminates the need for complex
routing of tubing and bulkhead fittings, Fast-impact fractures lead
reduces custom machining and drilling to uniform particle size
and simplifies overall panel layout. The This companys line of horizontal
panel-mount adapter plate is ideal for shaft impactor (HSI) crushers (photo)
applications in the process industries can achieve reduction ratios of up to
where directional control valves are 30 to 1 in a single stage. Product size
installed in a cabinet due to environ- is varied by changing rotor speed
ABB
mental or packaging constraints. and clearances. The size reduction
ASCO Numatics, Luc, France takes place along short fracture lines,
www.asconumatics.eu producing a more cubical product to
meet aggregate specifications. This
New swirl and vortex flowmeters fast-impact fracture is different from
with quick reaction time the slow-compression breaking in
A new range of vortex and swirl flow- cone or jaw crushers, says the com-
meters (photo) includes the Swirl- pany. Unlike hammer mills, there are
Master and VortexMaster product no screens or grates holding material
lines. The new SwirlMaster features a inside the crusher, so material is ef-
unique swirl technology that enables ficiently processed at high rates. HSI
very short upstream and downstream crushers are capable of size reduction
Honeywell Process Solutions
piping requirements, which saves in all material sizes and hardnesses
installation costs and enables high- with minimal maintenance. Sted-
accuracy flow measurement in tight man Machine Co., Aurora, Ind.
spaces. The VortexMaster follows www.stedman-machine.com
the same philosophy with a lower-
cost entry-level version (FSV430) for Couplings for extreme-
simple applications. Both versions temperature fluid transfer
are available in a remote design with The 3TL Series of all-purpose, high-
a cable length of up to 30 m. With performance quick couplings (photo)
the new devices, the reaction time is designed with metal-to-metal
for a change in flowrate is reduced wedge-seal technology provides
from about 36 s (with previous leak-free and hammer-free unions
Stedman Machine models) to only about 1 s. ABB, for transferring fluids under extreme
Zurich, Switzerland temperatures and pressures. The
www.abb.com metal-to-metal wedge functional-
ity removes the need for a hammer
A digital platform dedicated to union, which reduces operator strain.
managing cybersecurity The couplings small profile allows it to
This companys Industrial Cyber fit in areas of limited space. The 3TL
Security Risk Manager (photo) is a is suitable for the transfer of cryogen-
digital dashboard designed to pro- ics, steam, oil, acids, paints, ammo-
actively monitor, measure and man- nia and more. OPW Engineered
age cybersecurity risk for control Systems, Lebanon, Ohio
OPW Engineered Systems systems in petroleum refineries, www.opw-es.com
30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
A lightweight dust monitor with than 1 GB of data transmission. The
robust data logging system operates in the 5 GHz band,
The Kanomax dust monitor (photo) and is effective for up to 10 miles of
provides highly accurate dust mea- line-of-sight distance. The new prod-
surements via an intuitive interface. uct provides a valuable alternative for
The device can detect particle sizes backhaul or connecting buildings at
from 0.1 to 10 m, with a measur- unprecedented speeds. The product New Star Environmental
ing range of 0.001 to 10 mg/m3. The family now has twice as many chan-
unit can log up to 100,000 measure- nels, resulting in twice the amount of
ments, and features a USB interface data capacity. This is important when
for data transfer. Weighing just 2.9 lb, scaling larger deployments and allows
the Kanomax dust monitor has a run smaller sites to minimize interference
time of more than 24 h, and is capable with more channels to select be-
of analog and digital output. A tripod tween. AvaLAN Wireless Systems,
mount for stationery locations, or a Inc., Madison, Ala.
rubber protector and shoulder strap www.avalanwireless.com
for portable use, are included. New
Star Environmental, Roswell, Ga. Use this software to verify
www.newstarenvironmental.com process-logic code
PLC Checker software can be used
A new gate valve features to automate process-logic code re-
a patented perimeter seat view and demonstrate programming
The new KGC-BD Bi-Directional Re- and coding rules to third parties. By
silient Seated Knife Gate Valve (photo) ensuring that logic programs are con-
features a patented perimeter-seat de- sistent, commissioning and mainte-
sign that provides bubble-tight shutoff nance costs are reduced. Analyses
in either direction, even on dead-end are launched from developers work-
service. This gate valve combines a stations and metrics and findings are DeZurik

one-piece rubber molded seat with an shared on servers. PLC Checker also
insert, a spline and a puck that work comes with over 40 pre-defined rules
together to lock the seat securely into that can be easily customized ac-
the valve body. This unique seat de- cording to user requirements. Itris
sign prevents buckling or dislodging Automation, Grenoble, France
that can occur with other perimeter www.itris-automation.com
seat designs, says the manufacturer.
In addition, the KGC-BD features the A corrosion transmitter for widely
exclusive premium packing system separated monitoring points
that includes high-performance-pack- The Model 4020LT-A two-wire trans-
ing material options and anti-extru- mitter (photo) provides enhanced reso- AvaLAN Wireless
sion segments. Available in sizes from lution measurements of metal loss due
236 in. (50900 mm), and in a variety to corrosion inside pipelines. The new
to materials, the KGC Bi-Directional transmitter is designed for operation in
valve provides improved sealing, plant locations with widely separated
extended packing life and reduced monitoring points and a preexisting
maintenance, says the company. The distributed control system (DCS). Ac-
valve is designed for isolation and on/ cording to the company, similar prod-
off applications, and handles clean, ucts only have resolutions of 0.4%,
dirty, viscous and corrosive liquids, while the Model 4020LT-A features
sludge, fibrous slurries, clean and cor- measurement resolution of 0.1%. A
rosive gases. DeZurik, Inc., Sartell, switchable probe-type selector allows
Minn. users to easily adjust between differ-
www.dezurik.com ent electrical resistance probe types.
The unit provides isolation between
Higher data capacity with the probe and the 420-mA circuits
this wireless bridge required to power the loop, making it
This company has released a new intrinsically safe. Rohrback Cosasco
point-to-point high-speed wireless Systems, Inc., Sante Fe Springs, Calif.
bridge. The carrier-class wireless- www.cosasco.com
networking bridge provides more Gerald Ondrey and Mary Page Bailey Rohrback Cosasco Systems

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 31


Facts At Your Fingertips
Key Commercial Electrochemical Processes
Department Editor: Scott Jenkins
Power supply

I
ndustrial electrochemical process- Courtesy of Euro Chlor

es are critical to a host of chemi- Anode Cathode


cal products across many industry Chlorine gas (CI2) Hydrogen gas (H2)
sectors. Modern products of electro- Lid 2H20 + 2e > H2 +2OH
chemical processes include chlorine (This reaction happens at the cathode)
gas, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlo-
33% caustic
rate, hydrogen, oxygen, aluminum, soda
copper, magnesium, zinc, adiponitrile CI2 CI2 (NaOH/H20)

and others. This one-page reference Depleted brine



2CI > CI2 + 2e

CI OH
provides information about four key (This reaction happens
H2 33% caustic
at the anode) OH

electrochemical processes. Caustic Soda soda
Saturated brine (NaOH) (NaOH/H20)
(H20 & NaCI) CI
Na+
Chlor-alkali CI2
The chlor-alkali process involves ap- Na+
plying a direct electric current to a Pure water
Diluted brine 30% caustic soda
brine solution to produce Cl2 gas, (H20 & NaCI) (NaOH/H20) (H20)
Non-permeable
NaOH solution and hydrogen gas ion exchange Diluted caustic soda
membrane (NaOH/H20)
(see figure).
Saturated brine solution is intro- powder is electrolyzed in molten cryo- of hexamethylenediamine, which is a
duced into an electrochemical cell, lite (Na3AlF6), where the aluminum is raw material for the production of ny-
where chloride ions react at the an- reduced to produce pure Al metal. lon 6,6 fibers and resins.
ode to form Cl2. Sodium ions pass The bottom of the reduction cell usu- The process involves rapidly
through an ion-exchange membrane ally serves as the cathode, and car- pumping a finely divided, two-phase
to the other side of the cell, which bon bars serve as anodes. emulsion through a cathode-anode
contains dilute NaOH. At the cath- system. The aqueous phase con-
ode, water is electrolyzed to produce Electrowinning tains a conducting salt a tetra-
H2 and hydroxide ions. A more con- Electrowinning (EW) is the main alkylammonium salt and a small
centrated NaOH solution is removed method used in the mining indus- amount of acrylonitrile (determined
as product. The separator membrane try to recover pure metal products by its solubility), while the organic
allows for higher-purity products and (Cu, Zn and others) after the metals phase consists of acrylonitrile and
lower energy consumption than chlor- have been extracted from ores. De- adiponitrile. As acrylonitrile in the
alkali technologies, such as the dia- pending on the metal, the product is aqueous phase is consumed by the
phragm cell and mercury cell, which plated onto the cathode of an elec- reaction, acrylonitrile is transferred
is being phased out. trochemical cell, and either oxygen from the emulsified organic phase.
Chlor-alkali is among the most im- (sulfate-based Cu, EW, for example) The hydrophobic alkyl groups of the
portant chemical processes world- or chlorine (chloride-based Cu EW) is tetra-alkylammonium salt screen the
wide, because Cl2 and NaOH are in- produced at the anode. cathode so that no water electrolysis
dispensable commodities for a wide For example, copper electrorefining can occur. Thus the hydrogenation
range of applications. One of the two is carried out by placing impure cop- of acrylonitriles C=C double bond is
is used as a precursor in almost 55% per sheets in a cell, dissolving them suppressed, and only the organophilic
of all specialty chemical products [1], by electrolysis in a bath of sulfuric acrylonitrile can be dimerized at the
including: adhesives, plastics, pes- acid, and electroplating pure copper cathode. Unreacted acrylonitrile and
ticides, paints, disinfectants, water at the other electrode. By judicious adiponitrile product are separated and
additives, rubbers, cosmetics, deter- control of cell conditions, impurities distilled. The selectivity to adiponitrile
gents, lubricants, vinyl and polyvinyl are left behind, either as undissolved is about 90%, with byproducts propi-
chloride (PVC), soap, glass, cement, solids or as dissolved species that onitrile and biscyanoethyl ether. n
medical dressing, textiles, books, do not plate out.
greases and fuel additives. References
Synthesis of adiponitrile 1. Botte, G., Electrochemical Manufacturing in the Chemical
Industry, The Electrochemical Society, Interface, Fall
Aluminum An important example of a commer- 2014, pp. 4955.
Primary aluminum comes from the cial electrochemical process involving 2. Ondrey, G., Winning with Electrochemistry, Chem. Eng.,
mineral bauxite, which is mined and organic chemicals is the hydrogena- December 2014, pp. 1721.
ground to separate raw alumina tive dimerization of acrylonitrile to adi- 3. Grotheer, M., Alkire, R., and Varjian, R., Industrial Electroly-
(Al2O3). The raw alumina is refined us- ponitrile. Adiponitrile is a key interme- sis and Electrochemical Engineering, The Electrochemical
Society, Interface, Spring 2006, pp. 5254.
ing caustic soda and lime to generate diate for the production of nylon 6, 6 4. Euro Chlor, The membrane cell process, www.eurochlor.
pure alumina. A solution of alumina polymers. It is used for the synthesis org, accessed June 2015.

32 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015


Technology Profile
Green FDCA Production
By Intratec Solutions

C
oncerns over limited sup- is passed through ion-exchange resins Economic performance
plies of petroleum-based to separate unreacted glucose from An economic evaluation of an FDCA
feedstocks, coupled with the fructose. The former is recycled to plant was conducted, assuming a
the global issue of climate the isomerization reactor and the latter facility with a nominal capacity of
change, have increased demand from is sent to the furans conversion reac- 300,000 ton/yr of purified FDCA con-
consumers and companies for more tor. In the furans conversion reactor, structed on the U.S. Gulf Coast. In-
sustainable products. In this economic crystallized fructose is solubilized with cluded was a storage capacity equal
environment, chemical and polymer a 95 wt.% methanol aqueous solution to 20 days of operation for feedstocks
production from renewable resources and sulfuric acid. The reaction is con- and products.
is increasingly viewed as an attractive ducted at 50 bars and 200C. Fruc- Estimated capital expenses (total
area for investment. tose is dehydrated to hydroxyl methyl fixed investment, working capital and
Following this global trend, research furan (HMF) and, due to the excess of initial expenses) to construct the plant
on the production of 2,5-furandicar- methanol, most HMF is converted to are about $600 million, while the oper-
boxyllic acid (FDCA) has intensified MMF, which is more stable than HMF. ating expenses are estimated at about
over the last few years. FDCA has MMF purification. The reactor effluent $1,550/ton of purified FDCA.
the potential to replace fossil-based is then sent to a distillation system to
purified terephthalic acid (PTA) in the recover the solvent and separate the Global perspective
production of polyesters and other MMF from other impurities. Methanol The main production cost, as in many
polymers containing an aromatic ring. and water are recovered and returned commodities-production processes,
The most promising application seg- to the furans conversion area, while is the purchase of raw materials. Not
ment for FDCA is for the production methyl levulinate is recovered as a by- only is glucose syrup an expensive
of polyethylene furanoate (PEF). This product. Also, a heavies stream is re- source of glucose for this process,
polymer exhibits physical properties covered to be used as boiler fuel, and but also the conversion of fructose to
and applications similar to polyethylene finally, purified MMF is recovered and MMF is relatively low, increasing the
terephthalate (PET), and is produced directed to the FDCA production area. raw-material consumption. It would
by the use of FDCA, instead of PTA, in FDCA production. Purified MMF is be beneficial for the profitability of the
the PET-production process. mixed with acetic acid solvent and process to integrate it with biomass
a catalyst in the oxidation reactor to treatment, in order to obtain raw ma-
Production process be converted to FDCA. This stream is terials at lower costs. This process
Figure 1 depicts an FDCA production filtered to recover crude FDCA. The could easily integrate with a biorefin-
process from a glucose solution via the acetic-acid-rich liquid is purified us- ery, where it is possible to achieve a
furan pathway in a process similar to ing two distillation columns. Catalyst more efficient valorization of the bio-
that developed by Avantium Technolo- is also recovered, but it must be re- mass used as feedstock. n
gies B.V. (Amsterdam, the Netherlands; activated before being recycled to the Edited by Scott Jenkins
www.avantium.com). This process can process. Crude FDCA is mixed with
Editors Note: The content for this column is supplied by
be divided into three main areas: furans water and hydrogen in a hydrogena- Intratec Solutions LLC (Houston; www.intratec.us) and edited
production, methoxy methyl furan (MMF) tion reactor, where impurities are re- by Chemical Engineering. The analyses and models presented
purification, and FDCA production. moved. The effluent from the reactor are prepared on the basis of publicly available and non-
confidential information. The content represents the opinions
Furans production. The glucose con- is crystallized, and purified FDCA is re- of Intratec only. More information about the methodology for
tent of the feed is first enzymatically covered from the solid materials. The preparing analysis can be found, along with terms of use, at
www.intratec.us/che.
isomerized to fructose, and the effluent liquid effluent is a waste stream.
Waste water Catalyst Acetic acid
1 3 1) Isomerization reactor
Glucose ST 2) Evaporator
syrup Waste water
2 3) Ion exchanger
CW 4) Crystallizers
CW
7 5) Furan conversion reactor
13
4 5 Methanol 14 6) MMF recovery system
8 7) Oxidation reactor
CW Recovered 8) Rotary filter
6 catalyst 9) Hydrogenation reactor
ST ST
Methanol sol. Waste water 10) Crystallizers
Sulfuric acid Water for 10 11) Centrifuges
11
ST recycle
ML
12) Rotating dryers
13) Water removal column
CW CW CW CW 9 14) Acetic-acid-recovery column
12 15) Cooling tower
Water Purified FDCA 16) Steam boiler
Hydrogen ML Methyl levulinate byproduct
CW 15
ST ST ST ST CW Cooling water
Heavies to boiler 16
ST ST Steam
FIGURE 1. FDCA production process via furans pathway similar to Avantium YXY process

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 33


Valve-Selection Best
Practices
Precise combinations of valves and other equipment lead to process success. A
biopolymer fermentation process provides an example of proper valve selection
Ray Herrera
Valin Corp.

IN BRIEF
VALVE SELECTION
PROCESS

TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE

MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION

OPERATING MODE

VALVE ACCESSORIES

I
EXAMPLE BIOPOLYMER
n chemical processes requiring au- FIGURE 1. Properly selected valves enhance the safety, ef-
tomated control, a properly selected ficiency and reliability of a chemical processing application.
PROCESS Correctly selected valves reduce maintenance and promote
valve can make the difference between optimal system function
ADDITIONAL UTILITIES a mediocre outcome and a top-quality
product. Mistakes are often made when tion are numerous. The most obvious is the
selecting the proper equipment for each overall quality of the operation. Another im-
job function. The decision process of se- portant benefit of proper valve selection is
lecting these components requires exten- the prevention of system damage and pro-
sive knowledge and expertise. There are cess malfunctions. When a valve is required
many factors to consider when engineering to fulfill an essential process function, but
an automated chemical process, including is not properly designed to do so, the re-
motion requirements, cost effectiveness sults can be catastrophic to the individual
and chemical compatibility. In most cases, valve, as well as the overall process. Finally,
a precise combination of valves, sensors correctly selected valves will enhance the
and other equipment is required to ensure safety, efficiency and reliability of a chemical
an efficient and successful operation. processing application. Choosing the cor-
Using a biopolymer fermentation process rect valve will result in the system perform-
as an illustrative example, this article dis- ing at the peak of its ability for the longest
cusses how specific pairings between valves period of time and with the least mainte-
and surrounding equipment, such as sen- nance requirements (Figure 1). An example
sors, can increase safety and product qual- process is used to illustrate valve-selection
ity. Each individual step in the process of fer- considerations.
menting the liquid to create this biopolymer
requires a different valve/sensor pairing to VALVE-SELECTION PROCESS
ensure the success of the overall process. Before turning to the details of the fermenta-
The article analyzes the process from begin- tion process, it is useful to review the general
ning to end and explains how and why the steps to take when selecting a valve for a
decisions were made for selecting each indi- chemical processing application.
vidual valve involved. The first step in every situation is to con-
The benefits of selecting the correct com- sider the type of application for which the
ponents for a chemical processing applica- valve will be used and select the most cost-
34 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
effective option that fulfills the requirements maximum possible process conditions for
of that particular application. Common appli- temperature and pressure.
cation types for chemical-processing valves
include the following: frequent versus infre- Materials of construction
quent operation, process versus drain, fire- After evaluating the temperature and pres-
safe, normally open (N/O), normally closed sure, narrow down the valve selection based
(N/C), critical service, safety and environ- on the materials involved in the process.
ment. All other valve selection decisions will First, consider the media being processed
be based on the category and specific re- and ask the following questions:
quirements of the application. What fluid is going through the valve?
Once the application data are gathered, What is the source of the fluid?
engineers can move on to examine the de- What is the fluid temperature?
tails of the application and determine which Is the fluid clean? Is the fluid being treated
valve will work best for the particular require- before it reaches the valve?
ments at the lowest price. The answers to these questions will help
The most common types of valves used in determine the body materials required for the
chemical processing operations include the valve. Select the body and trim materials based
following: ball, butterfly, check, control, dia- on their strength (pressure/temperature rating),
phragm, float, gate, globe, needle, plug, re- the internal/external environment, chemical
lief, solenoid, segmented or V-port, Y-pattern compatibility and resistance to corrosion and
and three-way. Each of these valve types has erosion for a given process fluid. Plastic can
unique characteristics that make it more suit- be used for very low-pressure systems where
able for some applications than for others. corrosion is of primary concern. Brass and
The details of all the valves will be discussed bronze are very economical choices for valve
in further depth when we look at their involve- material and are fairly corrosion-resistant. Iron
ment in the fermentation operation. is a very cost-effective material and can be
The valve-selection process involves a se- economically coated or lined for compatibility
ries of questions designed to systematically with corrosive fluids. Select carbon steel for
narrow down the possible valve solutions until the valve material where strength is needed.
one particular valve stands out as the ideal Stainless steel has very good strength as well
choice. First, consider the size required by the as corrosion resistance.
application. Ask the following questions:
What is the pipe size at the inlet and out- Seals and ends
let of the valve? The material that the valve seals are com-
What is the flow capacity (Cv)? posed of is equally important in the deci-
The answers to these questions will imme- sion process. Select elastomeric and plastic
diately limit the options of valves depending seals, liners and diaphragms based on their
on the sizes available from the manufacturer. chemical compatibility to the process fluid.
Elastomeric elements (natural and synthetic
Temperature and pressure rubbers) have better sealing characteristics,
Moving forward with the process, critical but plastics [for example polytetrafluoroeth-
consideration are the temperates and pres- ylene (PTFE), perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) and so
sures to which the valve will be exposed. A on], are typically chosen for better resistance
few important questions to ask at this point to harsh chemicals. Chemical-resistance
include the following: guides, which are offered by most manufac-
What is the maximum pressure of the turers, can be a good resource for proper
process? selection of seal materials.
Where does the fluid go between the Additionally, take the end-connections on
source and the valve (upstream)? each side of the valve into consideration.
Where does the process media go after it The following questions are useful in making
leaves the valve (downstream)? a decision:
What is the maximum fluid temperature? What is the pressure/temperature rating?
The process fluids combined pressure What is the installation/maintenance
and temperature must be within the manu- cost?
facturers published rating for a given valve. What industry and plant standards need
The rating will be unique to a given body to be met?
shell, valve body and trim-material combina- What type of seal welding will be used?
tion, as well as seal material and end con- Valve-body end connections are typi-
nections. Select a rating that ensures these cally chosen based on initial cost, plant
combinations are sufficient to handle the standard, and maintenance preference.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 35


FIGURE 2. Selecting a valve type, overcome valve static friction and dynamic
like this diaphragm valve, requires torque. Static friction is developed in the
whether it will be automated versus
manual and other considerations metal-to-metal surfaces, seats and seals.
Dynamic torque is that unbalanced force
of the process acting on the plug, disc or
ball. Valve torque requirements are supplied
by the manufacturer and are based on the
pressure drop across the valve. A minimum
of 1020% safety factor should be added to
ensure reliable operation. An on/off actuator
positions the valve in the open or closed po-
sition. Modulating actuators use controllers
and positioners to maintain a valve position
based on an input signal.

Valve accessories
The final consideration in the valve-selec-
tion process is choosing the accessories
required to complete the process. Acces-
sories are components within a valve-auto-
mation system that are required to operate,
override and support the actuation assem-
bly. Select accessories based on the valve,
actuator and control-system requirements.
These requirements can include: solenoids;
switches; Indicators; overrides; positioners;
Maintenance consideration is the preferred and gages.
method of selection. Threaded ends (either Of these options, the most common
NPT or screwed) have a low initial cost, but considered are the solenoid valve, the limit
are subject to leak paths and stripping. Use switch for on-off valves and the positioner for
threaded ends where maintenance is not modulating valves.
a concern. Welded ends provide for rigid, Solenoid valves simple electronic de-
leak-tight connections. They have a low initial vices ideal for fluid shutoff and switching
hardware cost, but a high maintenance cost, in general-service applications are con-
should they need to be cut out of the line nected to the actuator either directly or re-
for repair or replacement. Flanged ends have motely, so compact size and reliability are of
the highest initial cost, but are preferred from concern. Solenoid valves are used on every
an installation and removal standpoint. Wafer pneumatically actuated valve and are also
bodies give the benefits of a flanged installa- used as automated valves for small lines be-
tion with very low initial cost. Use wafer bod- tween 1/4 and 2 in. The difference between
ies only where the pipe is rigid or fully sup- a solenoid valve and an automated valve is
ported. Three-piece ball valve designs give that solenoid valves do not support acces-
the benefit of threaded or welded joints with sories. Where an automated control valve
integrally flanged wafer bodies. would be used in a process-control appli-
cation due to its ability to use an accessory
Operating mode switch to confirm its operation, solenoid
After evaluating the materials and connec- valves would fail due to their lack of that ad-
tions, the operation and actuation method of ditional functionality.
the valve should be taken into account (Fig- Limit switches (valve position indicators) are
ure 2). The following are the major consider- connected directly to the actuator and must
ations that can influence the valve type: be compact, due to size constraints. The must
Does the valve need to be manual or also be highly visible and have the ability to
automated? provide reliable feedback to the control sys-
Will the valve operator be lockout type, tem. An unreliable switch will upset continuous
oval or deadman? process control and adversely affect quality
Will the actuator be pneumatic, electric or and safety.
hydraulic? Positioners are devices used to position a
For automated valves using pneumatic, modulating valve based on a control signal
electric or hydraulic actuators, the force and are also attached to the actuator. Newer
output of the actuator must be sufficient to digital (smart) positioners are advantageous
36 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
because they are more reliable and have hibit bacterial growth
more installation options than analog 7. The resulting fermented liquid is fed
positioners. They are microprocessor- into a distribution system and sent on
based and can also provide valuable to be precipitated, dried and milled
fieldbus communications and diagnos- into final powdered product
tic information. 8. The tank is drained and steam-ster-
ilized to prevent any cross-batch
BIOPOLYMER PROCESS contamination
The example process described here is Each of these steps will now be ex-
a fermentation process within a biopoly- plained in chronological order, includ-
mer-processing facility from raw-mate- ing the details of each type of valve and
rial injection to extraction of fermented sensor involved in the system. There will
product. Each fermentation tank has a also be an overview of the several aux-
capacity of 50,000 gal and converts glu- iliary systems running alongside the fer-
cose syrup into a fermented liquid broth mentation tank to provide the fluids and
that is eventually dried and milled into gases needed for the process.
a powdered biopolymer product. This 1. Filling the fermentation tank. The
biopolymer powder is used in foods, in- tank is filled with a heated glucose syrup
dustrial lubricants and pharmaceuticals, solution using a diaphragm valve, which
among other applications, for its ability opens to allow the product to enter the
to allow oil and water to mix and become tank. The valve is operated remotely
bound together. One area where this using an actuator triggered by a com-
biopolymer finds use is in the lubrication puter in the plant control room.
on the head of an oil drill, which is often Diaphragm valves are by far the sim-
washed off by water in the ground. The plest valves. A resilient diaphragm pro-
biopolymer prevents the water in the vides tight shutoff and isolates the body
ground from washing the lubricant off of from its operator. The operator consists
the drill head and results in a smoother, of a plunger and handwheel assembly.
more efficient drilling operation. Another Diaphragm valves are ideal for corro-
example is in consumer pharmaceuti- sive, slurry and sanitary services. They
cals and food products. The biopoly- are easily and inexpensively actuated
mer is used to bind the contents of pill with pneumatic and electric actuators.
capsules together or to keep the oil and A primary benefit of diaphragm valves,
other ingredients in salad dressing from especially in this application, is their in-
separating from one another. herently hygienic qualities. It is very im-
The chemical plant that produces the portant to avoid contamination during the
biopolymer product contains a total of beginning of the fermentation process so
18 fermentation tanks that feed the fer- that no complications arise later.
mented product into secondary systems To determine the amount of liquid that
once the process is complete. This ar- needs to enter the tank, the diaphragm
ticle focuses primarily on the operations valve works in conjunction with a pres-
taking place during the fermentation of sure sensor at the bottom of the tank that
the raw material. acts as a level sensor, basing its mea-
There are eight main components of surement on the weight of the liquid.
the fermentation process (Figure 3) and After the liquid is added to the tank, it
they occur in roughly the following order. is inoculated with enzymes to result in
Some processes, such as temperature the desired level of fermentation. An in-
and pH-level regulation, can occur at ternal agitator with a propeller-type de-
the same time: vice continually mixes the contents over
1. Heated product fills the fermenter the course of the entire process.
2. Oxygen is added to feed the fermen- 2. Adding oxygen to the tank. At this
tation process point in the process, oxygen must be
3. Carbon dioxide is removed to reduce added to promote growth of the bac-
tank pressure and promote growth terial fermentation agent. This is done
4. Fluid pH level is regulated by injecting using a high-performance butterfly valve
acidic or caustic solutions connected to a spray ball injector in-
5. Fluid temperature is maintained by side the tank (a ball-shaped device with
a jacket surrounding the tank that is holes for air to escape into the tank). A
filled with cold water differential-pressure flowmeter is used
6. Fermented product is treated to in- to gauge the amount of air entering or

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 37


FIGURE 3. The fermentation-based Plate culture or stock
process used to illustrate the valve
selection process is depicted here
Harvesting
Shake flask
Pre-seed fermentor
Seed fermentor Filtration
Production fermentor

Further
purification

Secondary
extractions and Solvent extraction Or
washings

Continuous centrifuges
Effluent treatment Solvent recovery Cell and debris
and disposal disposal

Drum or vacuum drying

Concentration Quality control and


Formulation packaging

Recovery of
pure material

leaving the tank. The air must also be pres- rable capacity, and are easily automated with
surized beforehand so that the difference in pneumatic and electric actuators.
pressure causes the air to flow into the tank Check valves are uni-directional flow con-
and not vice versa. trol devices used to prevent potential dam-
Outside of the tank, an air compressor age and contamination caused by backflow.
runs the oxygen through a filter using a rotary Check valves use a disc, ball or plates that
globe valve, specifically a segmented V-port open when forward-flow starts in the pipe-
design. In this example, the V-port design of- line. When pressure drops, either gravity or
fers a better, more precise flow characteristic backpressure forces the disc back against
that can be used for proportional control, as its seat to prevent reversal of flow (backflow).
opposed to on/off operation. A mechanical spring can be used to assist
Rotary globe valves are of either cammed- closure of the disc in applications with low
plug or segmented V-port ball design. They pressure and flow. However, closure of the
have similar control characteristics to recip- disc is dependent on actual backpressure.
rocating globe valves, with the benefit of low The butterfly valves used in this particu-
friction from rotary motion. Rotary valves lar application are high-performance in two
inherently have significantly more capacity unique ways. First, the valves are double-off-
and turndown (that is, rangeability) than re- set, meaning that the disc pulls out and away
ciprocating globe valves. Their low cost and from the seat to give the valve better control
comparable installed accuracy make rotary characteristics. Also, the valve has a dynamic
globes valves the preferred type in general- seat, which allows it to seal better over time
service applications. due to a lack of friction while throttling.
After the air is compressed and filtered, a A rotary actuator is used to control the
butterfly valve is used to feed the air into the butterfly valve, benefitting the process due
tank. A check valve is installed in conjunction to its smaller size, lower cost and added
with the butterfly valve to prevent backflow customization options. There is a general
of the liquid in case of a process upset with lack of space in chemical plants, so every
the air supply. step that can be taken to make the equip-
Butterfly valves are designed for general-, ment more compact can result in a more ef-
as well as severe-service, applications. Their ficient operation.
resilient liners provide tight shutoff in general The sensor used to detect the airflow, as
service applications. Triple-offset, metal- mentioned above, is a differential-pressure
seated butterfly valves are designed for flowmeter that senses the pressure of the
severe-service applications. Butterfly valves flow across the device and calculates the vol-
are the most economical valves per compa- umetric flow based on the difference of pres-
38 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
sure to known area. Working in conjunction withstand the acidity of the liquid. This mate-
with the butterfly valve and the check valve, rial is not available in a piston valve, so the
this sensor helps ensure proper airflow into next best option for the engineers was a
the tank at all times. high-cycle ball valve. These valves provide
3. Removing carbon dioxide. Removing tight shutoff and high capacity with just a
carbon dioxide is a necessary step to relieve quarter-turn to operate. Ball valves also offer
the pressure created by adding oxygen into the advantage of being easily actuated with
the tank. To accomplish this, another high- pneumatic and electric actuators.
performance butterfly valve is paired with 5. Regulating temperature. Regulating
a pressure sensor located in the air space the temperate is a critical part of the pro-
at the top of the tank to determine when cess because fermentation will only take
and how much gas needs to be removed place within a certain temperature range.
to maintain a favorable pressure. This high- To maintain the desired temperature inside
performance butterfly valve is used as a the tank, a jacket, attached to the exterior of
backpressure control valve to protect the the tank, is filled with water to cool down the
tank and piping system from overpressure contents. The jacket is not needed to heat
and allows oxygen to continuously feed the the tank because the fermentation process
fermentation process. produces heat on its own.
A safety-relief valve is also installed to pre- To monitor the temperature of the tanks
vent an overpressure condition should there contents, there are several thermowells on
be a process-equipment failure. Relief valves the exterior of the tank, each containing a re-
generally begin to open as the pressure in- sistance temperature detector (RTD) paired
creases past the set amount, but they re- with a transmitter that sends the tempera-
quire about 10% overpressure to completely ture information back to the control system.
open. As the pressure drops, the valves The sensors must be located in a thermowell
begin to close, shutting fully after dropping to avoid contamination via direct exposure to
sufficiently below the set pressure. Special the media. These RTDs are all used in com-
care was taken in selecting a relief valve that bination to determine the medias average
would pass enough flow to relieve the sys- temperature based on the input from each
tem from overpressure. individual sensor. This information is then
4. Regulating the pH level. The pH level used to make the decision on the amount of
must also be regulated to create the correct water injected into the tank jacket.
chemical reaction in the fermentation pro- The valves used to fill the jacket with water
cess. This is achieved by injecting either a are globe valves. Globe valves have a coni-
caustic or acidic solution, depending on the cal plug which reciprocates into and out of
pH level at the time. The chemical makeups the valve port, making them ideal for shutoff,
of the caustic and acidic solutions necessi- as well as throttling service in high-pressure-
tate different injection methods, due to ma- drop and high-temperature applications.
terial compatibility issues. Multi-turn electric actuators are typically re-
A pH sensor is used to determine the state quired to automate globe valves; however
of the fluid before any caustic or acidic solu- linear-stroke pneumatic and electrohydraulic
tions are injected into the tank. actuators are also available. These valves
The caustic solution, potassium hydroxide, were chosen for this application due to their
is injected into the tank through a Y-pattern inherent precision of control, which is con-
valve, specifically an angle-body piston valve siderably higher than other types of valves.
capable of rapidly injecting very small doses This precision is achieved through the design
of the chemical at a time. This is necessary of the valve, which tightly regulates the fluid
because too much of the chemical will de- traveling through the valve using the con-
nature the enzymes needed for the process. trolled movement of the conical valve plug to
The valve must also be made of stainless modulate the flowrate very precisely.
steel in order to resist the harmful corrosion A magnetic flowmeter on the pipe leading
that potassium hydroxide would cause to into the jacket is used to measure the flow-
other materials. Angle-body piston valves are rate of the water into the jacket. The primary
designed with an integral pneumatic spring- objective of this application is to control the
return actuator, making them very compact temperature of the material within the tank,
and an excellent alternative to automated ball and the flow measurement is only used to
valves, especially in high-cycle applications. monitor the usage of water. The magnetic
The acidic solution, hydrochloric acid, is flowmeter has the benefit of a plastic liner
not compatible with stainless steel and re- that resists corrosion from constant expo-
quires a special alloy (Hastelloy C) that can sure to water.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 39


6. Removing the fermented product ferential pressure flow transmitter with a self-
from the tank. When the fermentation averaging pitot tube to calculate the flowrate.
process is complete, the resulting liquid is The steam is pumped into the tank until it
removed from the tank and mixed with iso- reaches a certain temperature, as measured
propyl alcohol to precipitate the product for by the RTDs on the exterior of the tank. This
further processing. process flushes any residual fluids out and
Outside of the fermenter is an elaborate kills any remaining bacteria before the next
manifold system of valves and sensors used batch of fluid is introduced. This helps pre-
to introduce or remove various materials to vent any contamination between batches.
or from the tank. The same diaphragm valve 7. Routing the product to the distribu-
used to inject the fluid is used to remove the tion system. The fluid is then routed through
product from the tank. A Coriolis flowmeter the exterior manifold into a header distribu-
is used to measure the density and mass of tion system, which also utilizes diaphragm
the product to ensure the correct consis- valves that are either manual or automated
tency. This flowmeter works in conjunction depending on their location and accessibil-
with the pressure sensor at the bottom of the ity. The manual valves are primarily bypass
tank (which measures the level and volume valves used to drain the system in case of
of the product) to determine the actual flow an overflow or malfunction. Coriolis flowme-
and density of the final product. ters are used to measure the flowrate of the
After the product is removed, the tank is product throughout the rest of the distribu-
flushed with reverse osmosis (RO) water that tion system.
is directed through the manifold and mea- When the fermented product, which at this
sured using a magnetic flowmeter. The dif- point is referred to as a broth, arrives at its
ferential-pressure meter at the bottom of the desired location, it is converted to a solid
tank is then used to ensure that no residual substance that resembles a cake or a baked
fluids remain. The tank is then sterilized with good. It is then dried to remove moisture,
steam from the boiler that is injected through ground and then milled into a powder as the
the same manifold and measured with a dif- final product.

CHEMICAL PROCESSING SOLUTIONS


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The Model 1049 Secure-Gard is a


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low-pressure storage tanks, vapor globe style, bellows sealed,
recovery systems, and process pneumatically actuated control valve
systems. designed for maximum corrosion
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The Model 1078 Vacu-Gard is a


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Circle 4 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-04
40 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Additional utilities tem. The purpose of this valve is to shut off the
A few utilities outside of the fermenter are steam when the boiler is not in use. This does
required to complete the temperature regu- not occur on a regular basis, so a gate valve is
lation part of the process. First, natural gas used, due to its durable metal-seated design
used to generate the steam that sterilizes and full flow path, which does not reduce the
the tank is sent through small pipes oper- pressure or create differential pressure that
ated by fire-safe ball valves. These valves will affects the quality of the steam. Gate valves
close in case of a fire or gas leak. If the valve have a sliding disc (gate) that reciprocates into
material burns, there is a secondary metal and out of the valve port. This makes them
backup that will prevent gas from escaping an ideal isolation valve for high-pressure-drop
and further fueling the fire. The gas is also and high-temperature applications where op-
fed through larger pipes (more than 4-in. di- eration is infrequent. Multi-turn electric actua-
ameter) using fire-safe butterfly valves actu- tors are typically required to automate gate
ated by rotary actuators. valves; however long-stroke pneumatic and
Steam. As noted above, natural gas is used electro-hydraulic actuators are also available.
to fuel a boiler to heat the water into steam. In this case, the valve is actuated by a multi-
To feed water into the boiler, a globe-style turn actuator, which is not easy to automate
control valve is used specifically to negate or control but is still advantageous in this case
flashing or cavitation that often occurs when because of the valve properties.
dealing with heated water. Globe-style con- Downstream from the boiler, the steam
trol valves are available with an anti-cavitation branches off to different locations at junc-
trim that consists of staged holes that prevent tions, or steam headers, each of which uses
the fluid from flashing or cavitating. This trim is an isolation valve and a control valve. The
not exclusively available in globe-style valves, isolation valve is used to turn the steam on
but these valves offer the most robust design or off to a particular location, while the con-
for severe-service applications. trol valve is used to modulate the flow and
As steam comes out of the boiler, a steam- amount of steam needed for the particular
isolation valve is used to shut down the sys- location. Both the isolation and control valve

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 41


are triple-offset butterfly valves. The reason a different purpose. The city water is used to
the engineers chose the triple-offset valves fill the jacket surrounding the tank to reduce
for this application is the ease of automating the temperature of the contents. It is then
these valves, as compared to gate valves. fed through a cooling tower and back into
The triple-offset design makes this valve an a reservoir to be used again when needed.
excellent throttling valve in severe-service The DI water, being the most pure, is used
applications. Triple-offset butterfly valves are to feed the boiler and produce the steam
torque-seated, which tightens the valve seal used to sterilize the tank. A vortex flowmeter
proportionately as more pressure is put on is used to measure the flowrate of this water
the disc closing. This is a very rugged valve into the boiler. The RO water is used to flush
that can control large amounts of steam flow the tank after fermentation to wash away
and effectively prevent leakage. any impurities that remain. The flowrate of
Water. In addition to heating the steam, the the RO water is measured using a magnetic
system uses several sources for its water, flowmeter, similar to the city water used to fill
including city water, RO-filtered water and the tank jacket. A magnetic flowmeter, which
de-ionized (DI) water. The more impurities relies on an electric current to measure the
that are removed from a water source, the rate of flow, could not be used with the DI
more chemically aggressive the water will water due to its lack of conductivity.
become, so different equipment must be Edited by Scott Jenkins
used for different sources of water. Author
For DI water, which is more aggressive than Ray Herrera is vice president of business
RO water, large pipes with diaphragm valves development for the Process Control Division
at Valin Corp. (1941 Ringwood Ave., San Jose,
are used. The diaphragm valves have metal CA 95131; Phone: 408-730-9850; Email:
bodies lined with plastic, which prevents the rherrera@valin.com). Herrera has over 25
DI water from damaging the metal. For the RO years of experience sizing, selecting, selling
and servicing process control equipment spe-
water, which is considerably less aggressive, cializing in control valves and instrumentation.
small pipes with plastic ball valves are used. He holds a B.S. in industrial engineering and
A.S.T in electrical engineering technology.
Each type of water used in the process has

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42 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Feature Report

The Integral Role of Waste


Management in Capital
Projects
To avoid unnecessary efforts and mitigate risks, all phases throughout the design and
implementation of large capital projects should incorporate comprehensive planning
for waste management
Frederick V.

P
roper waste-manage-
Jones and ment planning and exe-
Susan Rankin
cution during all phases
ERM
of a large capital project
in the chemical process indus-
tries (CPI) can contribute greatly
IN BRIEF to a projects success. How well
COMPANY PHILOSOPHY waste management is integrated
CAPITAL PROJECT into a project is often an indicator
STRUCTURE of the projects overall risk man-
agement.
PROJECT
This article provides guidance
INFRASTRUCTURE
on how to integrate waste-man-
PLANNING
agement planning and execution
MANAGING PHASE into the entire lifecycle of capital
TRANSITIONS projects to reduce risk, manage
FEED-LEVEL ACTIVITIES costs and maintain schedules.
This lifecycle approach takes the
CONSTRUCTION PHASE process from project scoping and
OPERATIONS PHASE early design through startup, op-
erations and decommissioning.
DECOMMISSIONING
The article also identifies specific
CLOSING THOUGHTS approaches and mechanisms that
can be integrated into a compa-
nys existing project-development FIGURE 1. Scrap metal, along with scrap wood, spent solvents, used filters
and execution tools, and provides and used oils are among the high-volume waste streams that must be
approaches to move waste-man- handled during the construction phase of a capital project
agement programs forward within
and between all stages of a capital project. lays, higher costs and increased liability for
An area of waste-management planning the project owner. Construction wastes are
found most frequently to be challenging is usually high-volume streams, such as used
integrating and managing the ever-expand- oils, used filters, used tires, solvents, scrap
ing contractor activities into the operators metal and wood, waste cement and so on
waste-management strategy and philoso- (Figure 1). Although many of these waste
phy. Contractor-management approaches, streams are not hazardous, the high volume
such as auditing programs and third-party can be a problem for disposal, especially if
contract requirements, are often not ad- local handling capacities are exceeded. Par-
dressed until the project is well into design ticularly in greenfield areas outside the U.S.,
and construction, resulting in confusion, de- implementing proper waste-handling proce-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 43


TABLE 1. EARLY-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CAPITAL PROJECTS companys program during interna-
Waste-management objec- Determine the most important objectives and strategies for project waste tional expansion is to ensure that
tives, philosophy and strategy management, addressing priorities and considering tradeoffs. There is no its overall operational excellence/
one right way to manage wastes; a specific vision that team members can operational integrity management
plan for will ensure consistency across project phases and disciplines.
(OE/OIM) system is robust enough
Permit acquisition and The plan should include anticipated permit requirements, required data,
execution plan reports, timing, fees, reporting and training.
to handle international consider-
ations and capital projects. Waste is
Waste inventory Identify anticipated waste for all project phases (early works, construc-
tion and operation) and activities (camp, infrastructure construction and only one aspect of this overall OE/
facility construction). The inventory will be a living document and will be OIM system, but if the OE/OIM sys-
expanded in its level of detail as the project progresses. tem is not structured well, then all
Waste-management infra- Identify and evaluate local and regional waste-management facilities for of the management programs will
structure review all anticipated waste streams and management methods. Consider all be hampered, including waste man-
possibilities at a high level.
agement. Once these foundational
Transportation infrastructure Identify and evaluate local and regional transportation options for all
review anticipated waste streams and management methods. Consider all pos-
issues have been addressed, the
sibilities at a high level. focus can be shifted to the specific
Requirements inventory Develop an inventory and comparison between regulatory, company and capital project in question.
lender project requirements. Ensure all possible requirements are inven-
toried and considered with a high level of rigor. Any possibly applicable Capital project structure
requirement should be included, with the understanding that if it is later
determined to not be applicable, it can be removed. See below for
Successfully planning for and inte-
additional notes. grating waste management into a
Risk analysis Identify and determine the magnitude of waste-management risks, and capital project requires both planned
develop options for resolving major risks. How can past risk-review find- and free-flowing communication be-
ings be utilized and expanded to this phase? Are resolutions of risk tween project sub-teams that are
still applicable? simultaneously executing different
Preliminary waste-manage- Integrate all of the above information. The P-WMP provides a guiding project work scopes. As with all as-
ment plan (P-WMP) document for all subsequent project activities. More detailed activity and
phase-specific waste-management plans will be developed based on the
pects of a project, the extent to which
project P-WMP. sub-teams are siloed increases the
Bridging document Define design-basis contract requirements for early works to support the risk that waste-management plan-
front-end engineering design (FEED) contractor designs for waste facilities ning will be inadequately integrated
when appropriate. into project development. Specific
Additional notes on the requirements inventory: Any possibly applicable requirement should be included, with approaches that can encourage
the understanding that if it is later determined to not be applicable it can be removed. This is key, as it is not more disciplined integration earlier
uncommon for a regulation or lender requirement originally thought to not be applicable to later be found
to be applicable. For example, the domino effect of more stringent discharge requirements than originally in the project-development process
thought can have a tremendous impact on project design once the design has been initiated and may are detailed in the sections below.
result in project delays. The resulting facility may end up being suboptimal, as a facility design that mitigates Establish a collaborative project
late new information will often differ from a facility design whose basis originally included the applicable lim-
its. Have a third party review the inventory and confirm that all possible requirements are considered.
culture. Companies have come to
recognize the importance of fully in-
dures is critical, because low waste- the first step to a sound waste-man- tegrating personnel from all project
handling capacity, poor, potentially agement approach is often to review scopes, including facilities develop-
high-risk transportation routes and these corporate guidelines and ex- ment, design and construction, as
local regulations can often prove pand them if necessary to include well as auxiliary operations, such
to be problematic. issues that will impact a capital-proj- as housing, wastewater-treatment,
ect program. Some issues of con- solid-waste management, spill re-
Company philosophy cern may include the following: sponse, pipeline operations and
Most companies have developed a Expanded and more restrictive so on. Personnel involved with all
basic waste-management philoso- country regulations (for example, project phases (including person-
phy and strategy based on good those related to wastewater- nel from operations) should also be
practices and home-country stan- discharge standards, hazard- integrated into project development
dards and regulations, as well as ous-waste definitions and final and execution. However, environ-
internal operating and management handling, treatment and disposal mental planning functions are often
systems. References 17 give more requirements) not integrated into project planning.
details on specific waste-manage- Local-country third-party contrac- Environmental, social and health-
ment standards and regulations. tor requirements related to waste impact assessment (ESHIA) prepa-
Based on the companys inter- management ration is typically conducted by an
national presence, these internal environmental team (in many in-
Infrastructure limitations
guidelines are often the first stage stances, a third-party contractor).
Engineering, procurement and
and foundation of a capital-project At this point, the core environmen-
construction (EPC) contractor
waste-management program. For tal team is in a non-collaborative
companies that are expanding into programs role, such as gathering information
international areas for the first time, Another important aspect of a from other team members instead
44 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
of having an active role in the plan- TABLE 2. FEED-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
ning and execution of the project. If CAPITAL PROJECTS
ESHIA preparation is a companys Expand strategy and Expand the strategy to include lifecycle waste generation.
objectives
sole mechanism for waste-man-
agement planning during the early Waste inventory development Develop a more detailed waste-generation inventory and an analysis
of waste streams for all phases (early works, construction, operations
project phases, and if the person- and closure). Evaluate what risks are related to the volume and types of
nel preparing the ESHIA are not fully wastes generated.
integrated into the project, the com- Waste-management infra- Identify optimal waste-management infrastructure installation timing and
mon outcome is that waste-man- structure expansions scaling. With increased personnel comes an increased demand for camp
agement planning will be inadequate facilities, resulting in more domestic and industrial waste streams. Vol-
umes are initially low. However, if not managed correctly and accounted
and untimely. for in the initial camp construction, they can cause problems. Sewage
Include waste management in overflows and solid-waste disposal problems are typical examples.
the project development, design Risk analysis Conduct a more detailed risk analysis that covers all aspects of construc-
and execution. All project planning tion and operation. Hazard identification (HAZID) analyses are the industry
evolves from the initial projects phi- standard; however, environmental considerations are sometimes limited
in these HAZID analyses. Make sure waste-management is included. Ad-
losophy, objectives, plans and basis ditional considerations regarding risk analysis are addressed below.
of design (BOD). Ensuring waste Waste-management facility Conduct a more detailed audit of candidate waste-management facilities
management is included in the origi- and transportation audits and transportation options to determine the viability, capacity and compli-
nal project philosophy and BOD will ance status of each option. The initial baseline review and preliminary
help to ensure its timely consider- audit should be conducted during the early new-venture operations so
that operations personnel have a basis for waste disposal. The scope is
ation in the subsequent plans for expanded to include infrastructure and construction waste streams during
environmental management, con- this audit.
tractor management, construction Baseline studies Conduct detailed studies to provide data relevant to FEED design and to
management and other programs ESHIA development, including waste-management facility design.
that follow. Baseline and other site activ- The baseline studies themselves will generate wastes that must be han-
Consider waste management as ity wastes dled as part of the project. These wastes need to be planned for as part of,
necessary infrastructure. Civil en- or separate from, early works.
gineers were the original waste-man- Integrated waste-manage- Update each of the waste documents discussed above with more specific
ment plan (I-WMP) information from FEED contractors, personnel involved in government
agement engineers. Over the last 30 engagement and other sources. The resulting I-WMP will be used for the
years, waste management has shifted updated and final capital project basis of design (BOD). The I-WMP must
to being an environmental discipline, also address how to tie multiple contractor waste streams into an overall
and is no longer specifically covered project waste program. While addressed to some extent during the FEED
phase, this will become a major issue during initial construction activities
by a core engineering discipline dur- within the construction phase.
ing project development. As a result, Additional notes regarding risk analysis: The risk analysis should consider changes made to initial design,
planning for waste-management construction and execution concepts as the BOD is finalized. The expanded risk analysis should include
infrastructure is often conducted scenarios for the lifecycle of the project. Representatives from the FEED and construction contractors, as
separately from other infrastructure well as baseline and ESHIA contractors should be involved. Regulatory compliance must also be considered
as part of the risk analysis.
planning and often lags behind
other infrastructure planning. En- tion of the capital project itself can opment and execution. Instead, a
suring that the waste-management be initiated. Waste-management company may recognize that a solu-
infrastructure scope is covered by planning in such situations is quite tion or combination of solutions may
the projects overall infrastructure challenging, as the infrastructure be costly but necessary in the short
development will ensure waste- projects, in many instances, have to term. In the meantime, it can develop
management planning is in step be advanced faster than the capital more economical, localized facili-
with the overall project development. project itself. ties to support later project phases.
Waste-management planning should It must be understood that waste- Writing off a legally and logistically
take place in parallel with plans for management methods will change viable management method in the
power distribution, roads and water- as infrastructure develops. Waste- short term often results in stockpiled
supply infrastructure. management methods likely need to wastes. These stockpiled wastes will
be unique for different project phases frequently require continued invest-
Project infrastructure planning and a specific waste stream may ment to maintain stability while a
Large capital projects in remote loca- have more than one solution at differ- permanent solution is developed or
tions or countries with poor infrastruc- ent points in time. As a result, blan- awaits government approval. Often,
ture typically require an infrastructure ket management requirements (for the stabilization method increases
to be established in order to support instance, the refusal to ship waste the waste volume, and the low-cost
the project. The infrastructure is usu- out of a region because it is cost pro- solution that was originally envisioned
ally established in phases, with mul- hibitive, or that waste cannot be sent ends up not being viable.
tiple and sequential developmental to a certain facility because the facil- Also crucial to develop is a philoso-
projects required to establish basic itys throughput will not be adequate) phy that dictates waste-management
infrastructure before full construc- can be detrimental to project devel- infrastructure development be nested

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 45


TABLE 3. CONSTRUCTION-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
will be part of the permanent-camp
CAPITAL PROJECTS project and will not be used until the
Contract development Ensure early alignment among personnel who are developing contract
operations personnel arrive onsite.
packages, to ensure that the contracts clearly communicate waste-man- Depending on the size and complex-
agement roles and expectations. If one contractor is expected to manage ity of the project, multiple sites may
wastes for other contractors, this needs to be clearly communicated. be developed, each with varying lev-
Consolidated waste-manage- Develop a consolidated waste-management plan shortly after the EPC els of waste-management facilities.
ment plan contract award. All contractors and company or operator personnel
should be involved in the plans preparation. The plan must address waste
Construction may also continue well
streams that will change custody, how custody exchanges will be man- after operations startup, resulting
aged, specifications the waste streams must meet in order for another in overlapping needs and require-
contractor to take custody of the waste streams, timing and frequency ments that will need to be consid-
available for custody transfer and how the receiving party will manage the
waste thereafter. ered in the design, as well as the
management of facilities.
Waste-management market- Develop a plan to clarify how involved the EPC contractor will be in de-
development plan veloping waste-management and recycling markets. The operator will Operations camp. While a project
need to engage with the EPC contractor to ensure that the EPC contractor landfill may have been in operation
meets company expectations, and understands the operators long- and during early project construction,
short-term market-development plan.
new permanent waste-management
Contractor waste-manage- Include requirements for all contractors to prepare their own waste- facilities will often need to be brought
ment plans management program for their activities, which shall be aligned with the
operators consolidated waste-management plan (discussed above). online roughly when the capital-
Waste-management facility If the project is in a remote area with little or no waste-management
project facility starts up. Typically,
consolidation infrastructure, the EPC contractor typically constructs project waste- dedicated waste equipment, such
management facilities shortly after mobilizing. It is at this time that waste as incinerators and domestic waste-
management becomes more consolidated. Typically, incinerators used for treatment facilities, are brought on-
early works are taken out of service or combined with the EPC waste fa-
cility. Waste is often redirected to a central project facility. Sewage is also line with operational startup. How-
typically redirected from the previously established camps and is taken ever, construction facilities may be
to the construction or permanent wastewater-treatment plant. The point kept on location for future expansion
at which these waste streams are consolidated requires engineering and
logistics planning.
work, resulting in multiple waste fa-
cilities. Remote camps may also be
within and integral to the overall to mobilize and establish a construc- constructed away from the primary
capital project. The greatest chal- tion camp at the site. An early camp facility, such as those associated
lenge with waste-management in- will often be required, along with with pipeline booster stations and
frastructure planning is the chicken- associated waste and wastewater- coastal loading and offloading facili-
and-egg scenario finalizing the treatment facilities. The early-works ties. These camps may or may not
waste-management infrastructure contractor should consider building have separate waste facilities, but
BOD, when the capital project facility out from earlier camps, depend- will surely have waste generation
BOD scope and front-end engineer- ing on conditions and location. The that will have to be managed.
ing design (FEED) are not yet final- waste-management infrastructure Integrated waste-management
ized. Ensuring that the waste-man- requirements may then be a simple planning that considers each of
agement infrastructure work is fully expansion of these camp structures. the above phases as possibilities
integrated within the capital-project Alternatively, a new camp may be re- will be required, in order to ensure
design will provide the foundation for quired. From a waste-management that the waste-management in-
the waste-management infrastruc- perspective, this would typically frastructure is sized appropriately
ture and ensure that the projects ad- still include a package wastewater- and brought online at the right
vance on time and within the capital treatment plant, one or more incin- time. The following planning items
project budgets. erators and perhaps other solid- require consideration:
The company must also work waste-management facilities, such 1. It is imperative that all aspects of
with and demonstrate great com- as storage facilities, initial treatment wastes from the construction and
petence to stakeholders at plan- facilities and possibly the beginning operations phase be considered
ning and executing the early project of a limited landfill. Waste recycling when sizing waste-management
phases, in order to ensure that the opportunities should be consid- facilities. If not integrated into the
project stays on schedule, and that ered for certain waste streams, permanent camp, early-works
stakeholders continue to be aligned such as scrap wood, scrap metal camps may need to be demol-
with the project. Planning project and used oil. ished or abandoned. The con-
development phases requires proj- Full construction camp and ac- struction and demolition (C&D)
ect team integration for all functions tivities. The construction contractor waste from these camps removal
as detailed below. will construct and initiate the use of will need to be captured by the
Early works and camp. The early- some permanent waste-manage- construction or permanent-camp
works scope consists of the infra- ment facilities, such as a landfill and waste-management planning, or
structure required to enable the cap- a waste-storage and transfer station. handled by a third-party contractor
ital-project construction contractor Other waste-management facilities separately from operations. These
46 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Adroscoggin Valley Regional Refuse Disposal District
TABLE 4. OPERATIONS-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
CAPITAL PROJECTS
Contractor-demobilization Plan for a large influx of waste from the construction camps demo-
planning bilization. These wastes can overwhelm the operators facilities if this
occurrence is not planned for. For demobilization waste streams, timing,
volume, type and treatment must be considered with careful attention.
Industrial wastewater consid- Ensure measures, such as injection wells or bio-treatment, are considered
erations early on during design and risk assessment. The increased levels of low-
volume, high-toxicity industrial wastewater streams that are difficult to
handle and treat may cause regulatory problems.
Operations waste-manage- If applicable, ensure that maintenance and routine waste streams are FIGURE 2. A master-planned landfill is extremely
ment during startup managed properly at remote locations. This is particularly the case for helpful in aiding waste-management efforts, and
wastes that will be generated only during startup. Equipment often comes landfill facility design should take into account
with lubricating oil or other materials designed specifically to maintain waste streams from all project phases
equipment integrity during shipping, and these typically must be drained,
removed and replaced with a different material for operations.
must include such requirements
into the invitation to tender (ITT)
Recycling market stability Onsite and offsite recycling programs can be expanded in many cases
now that routine volumes are generated. Recyclable material can be uti- package for each contractor,
lized onsite more efficiently during future construction projects, and offsite with clear understandings of how
recyclers can count on a steady input stream. waste will be managed onsite and
by whom. Before final pricing of
added waste streams need to be take care of its own wastes based any phase, the contractors whose
incorporated into the design of the on company restrictions? Deter- onsite presence will overlap should
waste facilities (in particular the mine how this will be managed have an opportunity to develop a
landfill). Figure 2 shows an exam- 6. Domestic wastewater-treatment- coordinated transition plan that
ple of a master-planned landfill that plant discharges for the construc- will address all areas of transition
can incorporate industrial waste tion and operations camps need including waste management.
streams. Another item to consider to be modeled in conjunction with The plan development must also
is whether any of the early-works industrial discharges. In many include waste generators that
waste-management facilities will cases, the initial ESHIA covers only are not specifically involved in the
be or should be used by the con- the first few project phases. Lon- transition, so that all parties under-
struction contractor ger-term modeling and planning stand their roles, expectations and
2. All project-development camps for varying discharge scenarios impacts
(all camps except for the facility is required in order to understand 2. What are the interdependencies
operating camp) will need to be and mitigate for this scenario, even between the extent to which the
decommissioned and abandoned if the ESHIA does not yet consider onsite contractor completes its
at some point in time. A camp clo- the intermediate and final build-out scope and the ability of the next
sure plan is required for each camp plans. Careful consideration of how contractor to mobilize onsite?
to establish the expected camp discharge locations may shift as Careful consideration of the onsite
end-of-service timing and closure the project develops is required for contractors schedule will show
vision. Plans for these wastes and this modeling the point at which construction is
facilities must be accounted for sufficiently complete for the next
3. In general, the construction con- Managing phase transitions contractor to mobilize and take
tractor will be advised to arrange Transitioning between the early- over waste-management tasks.
for suppliers to remove any un- works, full-construction and op- This vision of how these will likely
used materials, shipping contain- eration phases is typically a time of look needs to be clearly outlined
ers and packaging. Deviations overlapping contracts, with many and frozen for bidding. Also im-
from this expectation need to be contractors concurrently onsite. The portant to include is a transition
understood and planned for overlap, particularly in the case of risk review of waste management
4. In some cases, unused construc- full construction and operation, may to make sure everyone is aware
tion materials, shipping contain- take place over several years. Mini- and knows what to do
ers and packaging, and other mizing project disruption and prop- Some of the activity-specific nuts
items may be used for community erly preparing contractors ultimately and bolts to consider for each phase
engagement and improvement. results in lower project costs, as of a capital project are detailed in the
Advance planning with legal, can- clear expectations reduce execution following sections.
didate contractors, and stake- risk. Some considerations to help
holder-engagement personnel is reduce cost and risk are as follows: Early phase
required in order to plan appropri- 1. Contractors coming onsite must During new venture reviews, several
ately for these wastes have reviewed and incorporated key activities, along with planning,
5. Once operations start up, will the the companys waste philosophy need to be conducted prior to be-
operator manage residual and fu- and BOD with regard to waste ginning field operations. These in-
ture construction project wastes or into their scope of work and work clude understanding both the regu-
will the contractor be required to expectations. Thus, the company latory and social conditions for the

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 47


TABLE 5. DECOMMISSIONING-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN streams are still common ones (for
CAPITAL PROJECTS instance, used oils). The principal
Facility optimization A philosophy that abandonment is part of the facility optimization and waste problem now becomes one
philosophy operation needs to be followed, and the operating organization should be of logistics, movement and handling.
framed with this in mind.
Table 3 addresses some items that
Camp decommissioning and All project-development camps (all camps except for the facility's final
abandonment operating camp) will need to be decommissioned and abandoned, as
must be accounted for during the
discussed earlier. The decommissioning costs are typically borne by the construction phase.
contractor that developed the camp if they still occupy it, or the operator, if
the operator is occupying the camp. Operations phase
Facility rationalization and A facility rationalization plan is required to provide guidance in optimizing Operation of the facility usually results
partial abandonment facilities as production starts to decline.
in demobilizing the construction facil-
Strategic abandonment Financially, asset abandonment has been found to be best done in tandem ities and consolidating residual waste
planning with operations. Production sharing contracts, partnership contracts, tax
incentives and financial reporting typically incentivize a company to aban- streams into the permanent waste fa-
don as they go, instead of abandoning at the end of an assets life. cility during closeout. Some residual
Asset-retirement waste- An asset-retirement plan that includes waste-management planning is construction may continue with a re-
management plan required, based on the facilities rationalization and optimization plan. What duced construction camp. The camp
scrap yards, and other facilities are required, where, when and with what and associated equipment may re-
throughput or capacity? How can infrastructure log jams be minimized
by optimizing the distribution of facilities to be retired, and aligning plans main onsite with the anticipation of
with other capital projects? expansion needs or may be removed
completely, depending on operator
environment and infrastructure of tractor will manage a large part of strategy. The volume of waste will
the area. How difficult will it be to the baseline work from an engineer- be reduced considerably; however,
obtain permission to operate? What ing standpoint, including evaluating with the startup of operations, other
will be the cost in time and equip- soil types, water levels, weather and waste streams will come online that
ment to support project activities? land data and so on. The company may be more hazardous (process
These are key questions that need will manage other studies, such wastewater streams, solvents, tank
to be answered in the initial evalu- as the full-project ESHIA work and bottoms and so on) that may require
ation of a new venture. Can these increased regulatory and social ef- additional third-party contractors and
risks be reduced to manageable forts, to make sure the project possibly expanded recycling and or
levels or will the costs be too high? moves forward. Table 2 provides treatment facilities. Table 4 explains
In some cases, a local office in some considerations for FEED-level of the waste-management concerns
the country will be arranged for waste management. that arise once the capital project
workers to start the process of in- The initial activity involves devel- becomes operational.
troduction of the company to the oping an ITT package for contractor
local government and get a realtime bids for pre-FEED and FEED items Decommissioning
understanding of the issues that and for the development of a BOD Planning for capital-project decom-
can arise. Although often of limited document. Environmental consid- missioning (including asset retire-
size and scope, this office complex erations, including waste manage- ment) has historically been done to
will typically be the first activity the ment, need to be included in the meet facility operating requirements,
company will have related to waste development of these bid packages often in response to a sudden need
management within the country of and BOD documents. for the facility to ratchet down its
operation, and can provide insight operating parameters to accommo-
into future problems. From a waste Construction phase date production decreases. The in-
perspective, Table 1 describes some During the construction phase, the dustry has recently begun to initiate
of the actions that should be taken. largest expansion of personnel usu- asset retirement in a more planned
ally occurs, and the volume of waste and proactive fashion. As a result,
FEED-level activities generated is often at its maximum. wastes related to decommissioning
FEED activities relate to the BOD The types of waste that must be and asset retirement require more
and the beginning engineering of handled will expand to include re- advanced planning and earlier man-
the project facilities and pipelines, as maining waste streams from the agement, while the waste-genera-
well as baseline studies as needed, completion of work on early-phase tion rate peaks at a lower rate. Table
and a full-project ESHIA program if infrastructures, and now full-blown 5 lists some considerations related
required. Accordingly, the project construction waste streams, as to decommissioning.
often has an increased demand well as domestic waste streams.
for rooms and lodging, increased Large volumes of used oils, lubri- Closing thoughts
travel in and out of the country cants, waste filters and used tires, Waste management is generally not
and various contractors arriving for as well as scrap wood, plastic and viewed as a make or break item
both short and long assignments concrete are generated. Although for capital projects. However, if not
to collect information and conduct the volume of hazardous waste in- managed correctly, it can be a major
research. Typically, the FEED con- creases, the main types of waste frustration and distraction to the
48 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
team leads, resulting in lost time and cilities once construction is finished. Authors
efforts to correct problems that arise. Making sure these waste streams Frederick V. Jones is a technical
Waste management can also create are accounted for in the design of director with Environmental Re-
sources Management (ERM; 840
a loss in value to the project, and in the waste program can reduce liabil- West Sam Houston Parkway North,
many instances can be a very costly ity and overall risk once the project Suite 600, Houston, TX, 77024;
liability, if not managed correctly. is completed. Phone: (832) 730-4381; Email:
fred.jones@erm.com). Jones
Risk assessment, and transitioning Edited by Mary Page Bailey works with companies to develop
lessons learned from one phase to HSE management systems, capital
projects, regulatory compliance,
another can reduce this liability. A References ESHIA, waste- and water-management programs, and
well-structured and communicated 1. American Petroleum Institute (API), Environmental environmental support of projects and production oper-
waste-management philosophy can Guidance Document: Waste Management in Explora- ations to achieve lower corporate exposure and liability,
tion and Production Operations, Publication No. API reduce costs and achieve regulatory compliance. Jones
go a long way toward reducing risk E5, 2nd Ed., Exploration and Production Department, has 35 years of experience in oil and gas drilling, pro-
and costs. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., duction and project development and operations.
Understanding local laws and re- Feb. 1997.
quirements, and coordinating con- 2. IPIECA, Petroleum Refining Water/Wastewater Use
Susan Rankin is a senior consul-
and Management, Operations Best Practice Series,
tractors through detailed BOD and tant with ERM (same address as
2010.
above; Phone: (832) 209-8827;
ITT packages can also be a risk re- 3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Final Stan- Email: susan.rankin@erm.com).
ducer. Understanding the local area dards Promulgated for Petroleum Refining Waste, Rankin has over 20 years of expe-
EPA 530-F-98-014, 1998. rience in the environmental indus-
infrastructure abilities and planning
4. API, Manual of Disposal of Refinery Wastes, Volume try, both as consultant and as cli-
well in advance for treatment and on Solid Waste Refinery Department, 1980. ent in industry and government.
disposal options can, in the long run, 5. API, Manual of Disposal of Refinery Waste Volumes
Rankin has extensive experience
save time and expenses when deal- with industrial and municipal
on Liquid Wastes, Publ. 931 C18, 1975. waste management, including: initial project scoping;
ing with waste generation. 6. API, The Generation and Management of Wastes waste-stream identification; characterization and inven-
Finally, demobilization is a key fac- and Secondary Materials in the Petroleum Refining tory development; facility siting and permitting; project
Industry, API Pub No. 4530, 1991. development and FEED; and as project engineer during
tor in a projects overall waste strat- construction, commissioning and operations oversight.
7. International Finance Corp. (IFC), Environmental,
egy. A large volume of waste, with Health and Safety Guidelines for Petroleum Refining,
large volumes of hazardous waste, World Bank Guidelines, 2007.
can result from demobilization of fa-

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Zone 2
Vent
Outdoors Zone 0
Gasoline
storage
10 ft (3m) tank 10 ft (3m) Gasoline
without storage
floating tank
roof without
Circular dike floating
around tank roof

Class 1, division 2

FIGURE 1. Shown here is a typical example of a Class I hazardous area uti- FIGURE 2. The example hazardous area shown in Figure 1 is here classified ac-
lizing division methods of area classification cording to the zones

Robert Schosker stances, where there exists the principles for working or gathering
Pepperl+Fuchs risk of explosion or fire that can be information out of a hazardous area
caused by an electrical spark or hot remain the same. Its just that today

E
xplosion protection is essen- surface, requires specifically defined we have multiple options. In order to
tial for many companies, and instrumentation located in a hazard- exercise those options, we must first
those companies have deci- ous location. It also requires that determine if the danger of an explo-
sion makers. But before any the interfacing signals coming from sion exists and how severe it may be.
decisions can be made, there are a hazardous location are unable to
some important factors one must create the necessary conditions to What is a hazardous area?
consider. These factors include what ignite and propagate an explosion. Hazardous areas are most frequently
is most efficient and economical, as This risk of explosion or fire has found in places where there is a pos-
well as knowing the basics of explo- been the limiting factor when using sibility of an emission of flammable
sion protection; so the decision mak- electrical instrumentation because gas or dust. A hazardous area can
ers are headed in the right direction. energy levels were such that the occur in normal operation, in the
We will highlight many of the different energy limitation to the hazardous event of a fault, or due to wear and
things to know, but first, lets step location was difficult, if not impossi- tear of seals or other components.
back in time and take a look at the ble, to obtain. For this reason, those Now the risk of an ignition of an
background of explosion protection. parts of the process that were con- air/gas mixture in this hazardous
sidered risky were controlled with area depends on the probability of
Backdrop pneumatic instrumentation. the simultaneous presence of the
After World War II, the increased following two conditions:
use of petroleum and its derivatives Moving forward Formation of flammable or explo-
brought the construction of a great Now lets move forward 70 years, sive vapors, liquids or gases, or
number of plants for extraction, refin- where almost everything you can combustible dusts or fibers with
ing and transformation of the chemi- think of can be found at the touch of a atmosphere or accumulation of
cal substances needed for techno- finger. From pneumatics to quad core explosive or flammable material
logical and industrial development. processors, information gathering Presence of an energy source (elec-
The treatment of dangerous sub- has definitely changed, but the same trical spark, arc or surface temper-
50 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
TABLE 1. DEFINING AREAS FOR DIVISIONS TABLE 2. THE BREAKDOWN OF CLASSES INTO SUBGROUPS
Class Type of Material Class Subgroup Atmospheres
Class I Locations containing flammable Class I Group A Atmospheres containing acetylene
gases, flammable liquid-produced va- Group B Atmospheres containing hydrogen and flammable process gases with
pors, or combustible liquid-produced more than 30 vol.% H2, or gases or vapors posing a similar risk level,
vapors such as butadiene and ethylene oxide
Class II Locations containing combustible Group C Atmospheres such as ether, ethylene or gases or vapors posing a similar
dusts risk
Class III Locations containing fibers and Group D Atmospheres such as acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, cyclopropane,
flyings ethanol, gasoline, hexane, methanol, methane, natural gas, naphtha, pro-
pane or gases or vapors posing a similar threat
ature) that is capable of igniting the Class II Group E Atmospheres containing combustible metal dusts, including aluminum,
explosive atmosphere present magnesium, and their commercial alloys, or other combustible dusts
Determining hazardous areas in whose particle size, abrasiveness and conductivity present similar haz-
ards in the use of electronic equipment
a plant is normally performed by
experts from various disciplines. It Group F Atmospheres containing combustible carbonaceous dusts, including
carbon black, charcoal, coal or coke dusts that have more than 8% total
may be necessary for chemists, pro- entrapped volatiles, or dusts that have been sensitized by other materials
cess technologists, and mechani- so that they present an explosion hazard
cal engineers to cooperate with an Group G Atmospheres containing combustible dusts not included in Group E or
explosion-protection expert in order Group F, including flour, grain, wood, plastic and chemicals
to evaluate all hazards. The possible
presence of a potentially explosive TABLE 3. THE DIVISION METHOD
atmosphere as well as its properties Division Class I Class II Class III
and the duration of its occurrence
(gases and vapors) (flammable dust or powder) (flammable fibers or sus-
must be established. pended particles)
Also understanding terms such as In accordance with NEC In accordance with NEC
minimum ignition energy (MIE), upper 500.5 and CEC J18-004 500.6 and CEC 18-008 In accordance with NEC
and lower explosive limit (UEL/LEL), 500.5 and CEC 18-010
flash point, and ignition temperature Division 1 Areas containing dangerous Areas containing dangerous Areas containing dangerous
in the evaluation of your hazardous concentrations of flam- concentrations of flammable concentrations of flammable
mable gases, vapors or mist dusts continuously or oc- fibers or suspended particles
area will also provide a clearer direc- continuously or occasionally casionally under normal continuously or occasion-
tion on how severe a hazardous area under normal operating operating conditions ally under normal operating
might be. conditions conditions
In any situation involving an ex- Division 2 Areas probably not contain- Areas probably not contain- Areas probably not contain-
plosive material, the risk of ignition ing dangerous concentra- ing dangerous concentra- ing dangerous concentra-
must be taken into account. In addi- tions of flammable gases, tions of flammable dusts tions of flammable fibers or
tion to the nominal rating of materi- vapors or mist under normal under normal operating suspended particles under
operating conditions conditions normal operating conditions
als under consideration, parameters
related to the process involved are and utilized worldwide. may exist due to flammable gases,
especially important in the evalua- In rather simple terms, we can dif- vapors, or liquids within a plant or
tion. For example, the risk of explo- ferentiate between the International working environment. These are ex-
sion may be caused by the evapora- Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; plained by defining the type of haz-
tion of a liquid or by the presence of Geneva, Switzerland) (zones) and ardous material present, severity of
liquid sprayed under high pressure. the North American (division) proce- the hazard, and probability of the
It is also important to know which dures. The differences lie in the cat- hazard. It may also depend on the
atmospheric conditions are present egorization of hazardous areas, the likelihood of the hazard, risk of an
normally and abnormally. The range design of apparatus, and the installa- explosion, and the boundaries of the
of concentration between the ex- tion technology of electrical systems. hazardous location.
plosion limits generally increases as The categorization of these areas is This is usually determined by a
the pressure and temperature of the carried out in North America in ac- HAZOP (hazard and operability)
mixture increases. cordance with the National Electrical study and documented on a set
Code (NEC) NFPA 70, article 500. of electrical plot plans on record in
Divisions and zones The European Zone practice is de- every plant.
Once it has been determined that a scribed in IEC/EN 60079-10. For divisions, the type of material
hazardous area exists, it now needs So how does each work? First lets is given by a class designation, as
to be classified. While the physical start at the basics, and then well shown in Table 1. These can be bro-
principles of explosion protection cover each individually. ken down further into sub-groups,
are the same worldwide and are as shown in Table 2.
not differentiated, there are two dif- Defining the area Once we have determined the haz-
ferent and distinct models to define Hazardous location or area clas- ardous material we are working with,
your hazardous area divisions and sification methods specify the dan- the probability of an explosion and
zones both of which are accepted ger of fire or explosion hazards that boundaries must also be taken in to

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 51


Hazardous atmosphere Hazardous atmosphere
Hazardous
Q atmosphere

Io L R
Interstice

U
C
Length of
S Uo
junction
P

FIGURE 3. Explosion-proof protection is based on FIGURE 4. In purging or pressurization protec- FIGURE 5. Intrinsic safety is based on the prin-
the explosion-containment concept, whereby the tion, a dangerous air/gas mixtures is not allowd ciple of preventing an effective source of ignition
enclosure is built to resist the excess pressure to penetrate the enclosure containing the electri-
created by an internal explosion cal parts that can generate sparks or dangerous
temperatures
ated, T1 to T6. The classes T2, T3
and T4 are divided into further sub-
consideration. The division method better rationalized by looking at the classes, as indicated in Table 7.
is divided into two areas: Division 1 example shown in Figure 2. In Europe, the apparatus are
and Division 2 (Table 3). These were With a slightly different approach, certified on the basis of design
created in 1947 when the NEC first IEC 600079-0 requires apparatus to and construction characteristics.
recognized that different levels of risk be subdivided into two groups, as From a practical point of view, the
exist in hazardous locations. Figure 1 shown in Table 5. two systems are equivalent, even
shows a typical example of a Class The groups indicate the types if there are minor differences, but
I hazardous area utilizing Division of danger for which the apparatus before you run out and choose the
methods of area classification. has been designed. Group I is in- most convenient method for you, it
In comparison to the division- tended for mines. Group II concerns is important that you consult your
based area classification, which is above-ground industries (electrical local authority having jurisdiction to
prevalent throughout North America, apparatus for hazardous areas with learn what method is allowed or, in
the zone-based architecture prevails potentially explosive gas (dust) at- fact, preferred.
in the rest of the world. mosphere except firedamp hazard- The initial steps to determine
Zones are similar in nature to divi- ous mining areas) and is subdivided whether a hazardous area exists and
sions where type of hazardous ma- into II G (gases) and II D (dusts). classify that area may seem rudimen-
terial present, severity of the hazard, Similar to divisions, the zones tary to some, but they are important
and probability of the hazard and offer a sub material classification as they now open up the multiple
boundaries must be determined. as well. Table 6 shows how this methods of protection, which may
Zones are in accordance with IEC/ approach compares to the North or may not be allowed, depending
EN 60079-10, which states that any American equivalent. on whether you classified your area
area in which there is a probability of Finally, when classifying your haz- by divisions or zones.
a flammable gas or dispersed dust ardous area, whether it be division
must be classified into one of the or zones, you must also classify the Protection methods
areas shown in Table 4. maximum surface temperature that There are three basic methods of
Similar to the division method of can go in to the hazardous area. The protection explosion containment,
area classification, zones can be maximum surface temperature must segregation and prevention.
be below the minimum ignition tem- Explosion containment. This is the
TABLE 4. DEFINING AREAS BY ZONES
perature of the gas/dust present. only method that allows the explosion
Zone Type of material In North America as in Europe, six to occur, but confines it to a well-de-
Zone 0 An area in which an explosive air/gas temperature classes are differenti- fined area, thus avoiding the propaga-
mixture is continuously present or tion to the surrounding atmosphere.
present for long periods of time
TABLE 5. APPARATUS GROUPS PER IEC Flameproof and explosion-proof en-
Zone 1 An area in which an explosive air/gas 600079-0 closures are based on this method.
mixture is likely to occur in normal
operation Group Apparatus Segregation. This method attempts
Group I Apparatus to be used in mines where to physically separate or isolate the
Zone 2 An area in which an explosive air/gas
mixture is unlikely to occur; but if it the danger is represented by methane electrical parts or hot surfaces from
does, only for short periods of time gas and coal dust the explosive mixture. This method
Zone 20 An area in which a combustible dust Group II Apparatus to be used in surface includes various techniques, such
cloud is part of the air permanently, industries where the danger is rep- as pressurization, encapsulation,
over long periods of time or frequently resented by gas and vapor that has and so on.
been subdivided into three groups:
Zone 21 An area in which a combustible dust A, B and C. These subdivisions are
Prevention. Prevention limits the
cloud in air is likely to occur in normal based on the maximum experimental energy, both electrical and thermal,
operation safe gap (MESG) for an explosion- to safe levels under both normal op-
Zone 22 An area in which a combustible dust proof enclosure or the minimum igni- eration and fault conditions. Intrinsic
cloud in air may occur briefly or dur- tion current (MIC) for intrinsically safe safety is the most representative
ing abnormal operation electrical apparatus
technique of this method.
52 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
TABLE 6. SUB MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION FOR ZONES TABLE 7. TEMPERATURE CLASSES
Material Apparatus clasification Apparatus classification Ignition energy Tmax, C Tmax, F T Class in N.A.*
450 842 T1
Europe (*IEC) North America
300 572 T2
Methane Group I (mining) Class I, Group D
280 536 T2A
Acetylene Group IIC Class I, Group A > 20 J
260 500 T2B
Hydrogen Group IIC Class I, Group B > 20 J
230 446 T2C
Ethylene Group IIB Class I, Group C > 60 J
215 419 T2D
Propane Group IIA Class I, Group D > 180 J
200 392 T3
Conductive dust (metal) Group IIIC* Class II, Group E
180 356 T3A
Non-conductive dust Group IIIB* Class II, Group F
(carbon) 165 329 T3B
Cereal/flour Group IIIB* Class II, Group G 160 320 T3C
Fibers/suspended Group IIIA* Class III 135 275 T4
particles 120 248 T4A
100 212 T5
My application requirements fication, application, and cost in
85 185 T6
Now the questions really start racing helping users find the ideal solution
in: Which should I use? Which one to match their needs. *N.A. = North America
offers the best protection? What if In addition to considering the nor-
all of my equipment is not low pow- mal functioning of the apparatus, area classification, there are many
ered? My plant is already using a eventual malfunctioning of the appa- other options when an area is classi-
technique; can I use another pro- ratus due to faulty components must fied using zones, but for now we will
tection method? Can they co-exist? be a consideration. And finally, all concentrate on the above as they
Who makes that decision? Why those conditions that can acciden- are most commonly used.
should I use one method over the tally occur, such as a short circuit, XP. The explosion-proof protection
other? Can I use two methods at open circuit, grounding and errone- method is the only one based on the
the same time? So many questions, ous wiring of the connecting cables, explosion-containment concept. In
all of which are very important, and must be evaluated. The choice of a this case, the energy source is permit-
with a little understanding of your specific protection method depends ted to come in contact with the dan-
process, they will guide you to best on the degree of safety needed for gerous air/gas mixture. Consequently,
method(s) to use. the type of hazardous location con- the explosion is allowed to take place,
Hazardous-area protection method sidered in such a way as to have the but it must remain confined in an en-
selection depends on three impor- lowest probable degree of an even- closure built to resist the excess pres-
tant factors: (1) area classification, (2) tual simultaneous presence of an sure created by an internal explosion,
the application and (3) the cost of the adequate energy source and a dan- thus impeding the propagation to the
protection method solution. gerous concentration level of an air/ surrounding atmosphere.
Area. Area classification depends on gas mixture. The theory supporting this method
the type of hazardous substances None of the protection methods is that the resultant gas jet coming
used, operating temperature, and can provide absolute certainty of from the enclosure is cooled rap-
explosion risk due to how often the preventing an explosion. Statistically, idly through the enclosures heat
dangerous substance is present in the probabilities are so low that not conduction and the expansion and
the atmosphere and the boundary even one incident of an explosion dilution of the hot gas in the colder
of the substance from various parts has been verified when a standard- external atmosphere. This is only
of the process. Area classification ized protection method has been possible if the enclosure openings
is determined by either the division properly installed and maintained. or interstices have sufficiently small
method or zone method. The first precaution is to avoid dimensions (Figure 3).
Application. Application character- placing electrical apparatus in haz- In North America, a flameproof en-
istics also affect which protection ardous locations. When designing closure (in accordance with IEC) is, as
method is used. For example, some a plant or factory, this factor needs a rule, equated with the "flameproof"
methods are more appropriate for to be considered. Only when there is designation. In both considerations,
large equipment protection, while no alternative should this application the housing must be designed for
others are more appropriate for high- be allowed. a x1.5 explosion overpressure. The
power applications. North American version Explosion
Cost. Cost is also an important fac- Choosing the best method proof (XP) must withstand a maxi-
tor for many engineers. For example, After carefully considering the above, mum explosion overpressure of x4.
if their application requires Division we can look at three more popular Furthermore, in North America,
2 protection, they may not want to methods of protection, XP (explo- the installation regulations (NEC 500)
purchase more expensive equipment sion proof/flameproof), purging and specify the use of metal conduit for
rated for Division 1. For that reason, pressurization, and intrinsic safety. the field wiring installation. It is also
it is important to understand the in- Although these are the most com- assumed here that the air-gas mixture
terplay of all three factors classi- monly used methods in the division can also be present within the con-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 53


duit system. Therefore, the resulting starting the electrical equipment. ergy in circuits in the form of capaci-
explosion pressures must be taken The classification of the electrical tance and inductance. These energy
into consideration. The conduit con- apparatus must be based on the storage elements must be limited
nections must be constructed ac- maximum external surface tempera- based on the voltage and current
cording to specification and sealed ture of the enclosure, or the maxi- levels present in a particular circuit
(that is, lead seals) with appropriate mum surface temperature of the in- or make-break component.
casting compound. The housing is ternal circuits that are protected with In normal operation and in the
not constructed gas-tight. Of course, another protection method and that event of a fault, no sparks or thermal
large openings are not permitted on remain powered even when the pro- effects may occur that could lead to
the enclosure, but small ones are in- tective gas supply is interrupted. the ignition of a potentially explosive
evitable at any junction point. Some The purging or pressurization atmosphere. Intrinsically safe circuits
of these gaps may serve as pressure technique is not dependent upon the may therefore be connected and
relief points. Escaping hot gases are classification of the gas. Rather, the disconnected by experts during op-
cooled to the extent that they cannot enclosure is maintained at a pressure eration (even when live), as they are
ignite the potentially explosive atmo- higher than the dangerous external guaranteed to be safe in the event of
sphere outside the housing. Ignition atmosphere, preventing the flamma- a short circuit or disconnection.
is prevented if the minimum temper- ble mixture from coming in contact Intrinsic safety is the only ignition-
ature and minimum ignition energy with the electrical components and protection class that allows connec-
of the surrounding potentially explo- hot surfaces inside. tors to be opened and intrinsically
sive atmosphere is not reached. For In the U.S., the term pressuriza- safe apparatus to be removed and
this reason, the maximum opening tion is limited to Class II applica- replaced by an equivalent device in
allowed for a particular type of joint tions. This is the technique of supply- a hazardous area. Because of the
depends on the nature of the explo- ing an enclosure with clean air or an level of freedom this brings, intrinsic
sive mixture and width of the adjoin- inert gas, with or without continuous safety has become one of the most
ing surfaces (joint length). flow, at sufficient pressure to prevent important methods of protection in
The classification of a flameproof en- the entrance of combustible dusts. the industrial automation industry.
closure is based on the gas group and Internationally, the term pressuriza-
the maximum surface temperature tion refers to a purging technique Final remarks
which must be lower than the ignition for Zones 1 and 2. Each method offers its own advan-
temperature of the gas present. The divisional model of the purging tages and disadvantages, and in most
Purging or pressurization. Purg- protection method is based on the cases no one method will be or can
ing or pressurization is a protection reduction of the classification inside be the only method used in a process
method based on the segregation the enclosure to a lower level. The plant. Generally, this mixed system
concept. This method does not allow following three types of protection (X, does not present installation difficulty
the dangerous air/gas mixture to pen- Y, and Z) are identified in relation to if each of the protection methods is
etrate the enclosure containing electri- the hazardous-location classification appropriately used and is in compli-
cal parts that can generate sparks or and the nature of the apparatus. ance with the respective standards.
dangerous temperatures. A protective Type X: reduces the inside of the No matter how you classify your
gas air or inert gas is contained enclosure from Division 1 to a non- plant or which method of protection
inside the enclosure with a pressure hazardous state that requires an you chose, it is always important
slightly greater than the one of the ex- automatic shutdown of the system to remember that the method you
ternal atmosphere (Figure 4). in case of pressure loss choose today may not necessarily
The internal overpressure remains Type Y: reduces the inside of the be the appropriate choice tomorrow.
constant with or without a continu- enclosure from Division 1 to Divi- Evaluate, choose and protect not
ous flow of the protective gas. The sion 2 only to keep your plant safe, but to
enclosure must have a certain de- Type Z: reduces the inside of the keep your personnel safer. n
gree of tightness; however, there enclosure from Division 1 to a non- Edited by Gerald Ondrey
are no particular mechanical require- hazardous state, requiring alarm
ments because the pressure sup- signals only Author
ported is not very high. Intrinsic safety. Finally, intrinsic Robert Schosker is the product
To avoid pressure loss, the pro- safety is based on the principle of manager/team lead for intrinsic
safety (IS), remote I/O, HART, sig-
tective gas supply must be able to preventing an effective source of ig- nal conditioners, power supplies
compensate during operation for nition. The electrical energy is kept and surge protection at
enclosure leakage and access by below the minimum ignition energy Pepperl+Fuchs Inc. (1600 Enter-
personnel where allowed (the use of required for each hazardous area prise Parkway, Twinsburg, OH
44087; Phone: 330-425-3555;
two interlocked doors is the classical (Figure 5). Fax: 330-425-4607; email:
solution). Because it is possible for The intrinsic safety level of an elec- rschosker@us.pepperl-fuchs.
the explosive atmosphere to remain trical circuit is achieved by limiting com). Since joining the company in 1995, Schosker has
been focused on technology and product-related sup-
inside the enclosure after the pres- current, voltage, power and tem- port, and is involved in a wide range of activities and
surization system has been turned perature; therefore, intrinsic safety is roles including certifications, sales, and marketing. He
off, it is necessary to expel the re- limited to circuits that have relatively has been the key lead in many IS and HART projects
resulting in the development of new products for intrin-
maining gas by circulating a certain low levels of power. Of critical impor- sic safety and HART infrastructure. Schosker holds a
quantity of protective gas before re- tance are the stored amounts of en- B.S.E.E. from the University of Akron.

54 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015


Engineering Practice

Gas Turbines:
Design and Operating Considerations
Follow these engineering recommendations to improve gas turbine operation and
performance while reducing operating costs

Amin Almasi
Rotating Machinery Consultant

G
as turbines are widely
used throughout the
chemical process indus-
tries (CPI) because they
allow for high power output and
high overall efficiency at relatively
reasonable costs. In recent years, a
variety of factors and ongoing tech-
nology advances have contributed
to the continuing evolution of the
gas turbine systems. These include
the following:
Overall efficiency and performance
improvements
Capacity and power density
increases
The introduction of various new
technologies FIGURE 1. Shown here is an example of a modern, aero-derivative gas turbine for a CPI facility. This
Tighter environmental, health and 35MW gas turbine is used for mechanical drive applications and power generation. The 90-kg/s hot
gas exhaust has a temperature of roughly 550C, which offers a lot of opportunity for heat recovery and
safety (EHS) standards, expecta- proper heat integration with the facility. Its modular design, coupled with its split compressor casing, in-
tions and regulations place blade and vane replacement, in-place hot-section maintenance access, and external fuel nozzles,
Higher reliability and availability allow for easy and timely repair and refurbishment
More compact package design
Greater expectation of easy ac- decisions typically revolve around started up and shut down quickly,
cess, and ease of operation and the compressor trains, large pumps, its ability to properly cope with load
maintenance special electrical power-generator changes, and its high efficiency and
The gas turbine business is a dy- and other units for CPI plants.. variable-speed capability. All of these
namic market with new designs in- Currently, the aero-derivative gas attributes make these designs supe-
troduced during each decade. As turbine is preferred for CPI applica- rior options compared to traditional
a result, over the past 40 years, the tions over other types of gas turbines industrial, heavy-frame gas turbines.
turbine temperature capability has (such as heavy-duty frame gas tur- High efficiency is one of the impor-
advanced by approximately 10C per bines), because it provides superior tant issues that encourages the use
year, corresponding to a roughly 1.5 performance in terms of operational of aero-derivative gas turbines. As a
2% increase in the power output (for flexibility, efficiency, compact sizes, very rough indication, the efficiency
the same gas turbine size), along with light weight and advanced packag- of aero-derivative gas turbines is
a roughly 0.40.6% improvement in ing concepts. An aero-derivative gas around 915% greater than the ef-
the simple-cycle efficiency every year turbine consists of two parts an ficiency of comparably sized, heavy-
(on average). aircraft-derivative gas generator sec- frame gas turbines.
The packaging of a gas turbine is tion, and a free-power turbine sec- Over the lifetime of most gas tur-
the practice of combining and inte- tion. The gas generator is derived bines, the initial cost accounts for
grating machineries and components from an aircraft engine that has been about 10% of the total lifecycle cost.
for specific application and plant set- modified to burn fuels that are typi- The operating and maintenance
tings. Packaging a gas turbine typi- cally available in CPI units (such as costs account for roughly 18% of
cally involves customization of the natural gas). the total lifecycle cost. Fuel is typi-
design to create the most appropri- Valued traits of the aero-derivative cally the biggest cost factor ac-
ate site-specific solution. Packaging gas turbine include its ability to be counting for about 72% of the total

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 55


count during the design of aging designs, and vice versa. Some
the gas turbine packaging. problems arise when there is a major
For instance, a good pack- change in the number of blades be-
aging concept can facilitate tween stages. Some specifications
maximum heat recovery allow for a slight rubbing of rotating
from the exhaust gas of blades or labyrinths in shrouded ro-
turbine section, which can tating blades. However, this is not
significantly affect the heat a popular option for CPI operators,
integration and overall effi- where excessive rubbing is always
ciency. Figures 1 and Figure considered to be unacceptable.
2 show examples of modern There is a general tendency in
turbines used in CPI plants. many gas-turbine applications for
CPI units to increase the part-load
FIGURE 2. In an example of a modern gas turbine with good Industrial turbine options operation capabilities (a wider par-
aerodynamics and advanced combustion technologies, this Industrial gas turbines range tial-load range that has performance
twin-shaft gas turbine achieves a useful power output of
around 1314 MW. Thus, this gas turbine model has been from microturbines to much and operation quality that is compa-
used for both power generation and mechanical drive. This is larger designs. Often, micro- rable to the full-load service). For a
an example of a modern twin-shaft gas turbine that combines turbines are rated below 40 gas turbine that is used in an inte-
aero-derivative and heavy-duty technologies in one advanced kW, and have an installed grated arrangement in a CPI plant
gas turbine. The turbine permits an efficiency of about 35
36% for operation in a simple cycle. Adding a heat-recovery
cost of nearly $1,000/kW and (that is, one that uses any form of the
system will the improve overall efficiency. This machine has provide an efficiency around heat recovery), there is a preference
an excellent power-to-weight ratio in its application range. 1520%. By comparison, to keep more or less the same firing
(Photo used with permission from Siemens) large gas turbines (rated temperature over the entire partial-
above 25 MW) typically cost load operating range. The airflow
around $300400/kW and and hot gas flow could be variable,
lifecycle cost and this underscores have an efficiency above 35%. but all of these parameters should
the critical role of turbine efficiency. There are different turbine designs, be carefully evaluated, and proper
While significant strides have been including single-shaft designs (air limits should be set. Modern gas tur-
made in the energy efficiency of gas compressor and power turbine on bines are very sensitive to the back-
turbines over the past 30 years, the same shaft), twin-shaft designs pressure (from the hot exhaust-gas
these improvements can mainly (for instance, air compressor and ducts, the heat-recovery unit, the
be attributed to better integration its turbine on one shaft and power stack and others).
of the gas turbine within a modern turbine on another shaft) and multi-
CPI plant (particularly the heat re- shaft designs. Theoretically, each Gas turbine packaging
covery). Integration is the key for shaft can have either two or three Very large modern CPI plants and
gas-turbine packaging. In simple bearings. Some single-shaft designs newer generations of small-scale
terms, integration refers to the engi- have long shafts, and these may be CPI units both present unique chal-
neering practices and procedures for better supported by three bearings. lenges when it comes to the gas
matching a gas turbine in the plant, In general, the two-bearing de- turbine packaging. In recent years,
particularly with surrounding and sign is preferred in single-shaft gas there has been a renewed interest
related facilities, for better overall turbines. Three-bearing solutions in small-scale CPI plants in differ-
combined operation. can cause some problems (such ent parts of the world, particularly
Thanks to todays modern designs, as alignment issues developed by in some developing countries. The
optimal power and heat integration the center bearing at the hot zone). packaging of a gas turbine for such
account for the majority (roughly They are the only available options smaller-scale CPI facilities must be
68%) of the overall efficiency im- for very large, single-shaft ma- done in such a way as to minimize
provements of the gas turbine pack- chines However, in CPI applications, the total equipment item count (and
ages that have been realized over the these designs tend to be more process steps) and optimize the
past three decades. Improvements in rarely used (reserved for very spe- capital costs and footprint, while at
the equipment (such as better lubri- cialized situations). the same time obtaining the highest
cation systems) and the machinery Generally speaking, the preferred possible efficiency and reliability.
designs (such as the use of better gas-turbine casing is a horizontally On the other hand, some new,
axial compressors or turbines), and split design that allows for easy ac- very large CPI plants offer other
improvements in related processes cess. Vertically split casings are used types of challenges. Over the past
(for instance, combustion processes) in high-pressure machinery designs; 40 years, in some CPI sectors, the
are responsible for around 18% and they usually offer some difficulties throughput per production train has
14%, respectively, of the overall ef- in access and maintenance. Figure multiplied by a factor of about 5 to
ficiency improvement. 3 shows an example of a modern, 10, while the overall efficiency of the
These aspects underscore the im- large gas turbine with a horizontally gas turbine packages (used in those
portance of proper power-and-heat split casing. production trains) has nearly dou-
integration in modern CPI plants. The internal design of each gas bled. At the same time, the duration
Integration must be taken into ac- turbine model can affect the pack- for construction and commissioning
56 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
is reduced, thanks to improvements sure capabilities.
in modular works and prefabrica- The fuel-treatment sys-
tion for very large and complex gas tem also plays a critical role
turbine packages. All these factors for many gas turbines, since
present some challenges for modern unwanted components in
gas turbines. the fuel stream can cause
Deep integration is a new term performance or reliability is-
used for modern gas turbines in ad- sues (such as the formation
vanced plants; it means integration of deposits or corrosion) or
and matching a gas turbine in the high emissions.
plant (surrounding and related facili- Modern gas turbines that
ties) in a much better way compared use low-NOx technologies
to older designs. For instance, such tend to be particularly sensi-
integration involves much better use tive to liquid or dirt carryover FIGURE 3. The modern, horizontally split gas turbine casing
of heat recovered from the gas tur- within the fuel gas. Thus, shown here is an example of a large and modern gas turbine.
Todays advanced turbines are sophisticated and complex sys-
bine exhaust. The deep integration they generally require a clean tems that allow for overall efficiencies above 50% (Photo used
of power, heat and other opera- and heated fuel gas. Super- with permission from Siemens)
tional aspects, coupled with the use heating is the only certain
of modular design concepts, have method for ensuring the elimination needs to be designed to overcome
been the keys for success in mod- of any liquid carryover in fuel gases. the torque needed to start the gas
ern gas turbine packaging. Figure Generally, a well-designed fuel sys- generator section.
4 shows an example of a very large tem one that has all of the re- In a single-shaft, gas turbine de-
gas turbine installation. The air-inlet quired separators, multiple filtration sign (including many heavy indus-
filter and the exhaust-gas stack are stages, a knockout drum, heater(s), trial machines), the total train torque
also shown. accessories, auxiliaries, instruments should be considered when sizing
and monitoring devices is a good the starting device, as the starting
Gas-turbine fuel system investment that will provide payback device should rotate the single-shaft
If it is available in a CPI plant, natural over time by helping to ensure trou- and coupled driven machines and
gas is the best fuel option for most ble-free operation of the turbine. equipment. A speed-torque curve
gas turbines. The use of natural gas of the gas turbine (and machiner-
can reduce maintenance costs, re- Filtration at the air inlet ies coupled to it during the startup)
liability issues and emissions com- A proper filtration system for the should be respected during this siz-
pared to liquid fuels. inlet air is also important; otherwise ing and proper safety margins should
However, despite the advantage unwanted particulate matter in the be considered. The starting device is
of natural gas, about 3040% of all inlet air can cause erosion and blade often to blame for reliability issues,
gas turbines operate on liquid fuels, contamination or fouling. The mini- inefficient sizing, low availability, and
which can vary from light liquid fuels mum requirement should be a high- so on, so be sure to give this criti-
(naphtha, kerosene, and others) to efficiency, multistage, air-filtration cal component the proper attention
heavy fuels. The fuel selection de- system to remove particles down to during the specification of any gas-
pends strongly on the CPI applica- 1 m (or less) from the inlet air. turbine package.
tion. Heavy fuels often bring reliabil- Old-fashioned filters only remove
ity problems, higher emissions and particles above 3 m in dia. How- Gas turbine auxiliaries
fast degradation. In some cases, a ever, in any cases, small particles Standards for gas turbines and gas
1015% reduction in the produced (below 3 m in dia., and even as turbine auxiliaries (such as API-616,
power has been reported for some small a 1 m) are to blame for gas API-614, ASME and others) have
gas turbines using heavy fuels within turbine fouling and other issues, tried to note the minimum require-
a few weeks after startup. How- and such particles are often able to ments for the specified applications
ever, users should note that aero- evade capture by old-fashioned fil- in the code. The major problem is
derivative gas turbines cannot use ters. Some advanced filters are now that some useful requirements are
heavy fuels. available to remove particles down listed as optional in the gas-turbine-
The fuel whether gas or liq- to 0.3 m from the inlet air. related codes. As a rule-of-thumb,
uid should be injected at a pres- users should follow all requirements
sure of about 35 bars above the Starting device (both mandatory and optional re-
air-compressor discharge pressure. The sizing of the starting device for quirements) for the gas turbine
The fuel compression and pumping the gas turbine is an important con- packaging. Sometimes, require-
systems particularly the fuel-gas sideration for any gas turbine. In a ments should be specified beyond
compressor systems are important free-power turbine design (includ- the codes, to achieve a high level of
and require close attention when de- ing many aero-derivatives and some performance and reliability. Consider
signing the overall gas turbine pack- heavy-industrial type machines, the following:
aging. It is important to select the such as twin-shaft and multi-shaft Codes are usually updated only
right, oil-free compressor for such designs), the starting device does every 510 years and recent tech-
applications, with correct compres- not need to rotate all turbine shafts nologies, innovative designs, lat-
sion characteristics and proper pres- and driven equipment. Rather, it only est observations or new experi-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 57


ences typically need several years eration. TEMA C shell-and-
to come to the attention of (and tube heat exchangers (with
be accepted by) code task-force removable bundles) are well-
team(s) and then be incorporated known for auxiliaries, includ-
into the codes ing lubrication oil skids. The
The teamwork that is involved oil pressure should be greater
should have representatives from than the cooling-water pres-
different groups, vendors and oth- sure, to avoid the potential
ers, with various backgrounds for water leakage into the oil
and goals, to prepare for compli- in the case of an unexpected
ance of relevant codes. Note: the problem (such as exchanger FIGURE 4. A example of a very large gas turbine installation.
main focus of the codes should tube crack or leakage). Water The air inlet filter and the exhaust gas stack are also shown.
not necessarily be the best perfor- is on the tube side and oil on
mance and reliability (for the oper- the shell side. drums, various sections and many
ators); rather, the final (or agreed- Plate-type heat exchangers are other auxiliaries (or accessories).
upon) specification should be an not popular in turbomachinery as- Typically, the hot gas exhaust
optimized set of requirements (or semblies since they might clog or from a gas turbine has ample oxy-
sometimes compromised ones). experience some other operational gen. Therefore, the gas exhaust
In other words, any user should problems. An exception is for revamp can be used in another combus-
know that some items specified in projects with limited available foot- tion process to increase its tem-
codes are not necessarily the best prints; but tubular heat exchangers perature for a better heat recovery
possible technology for operators may be used for small packages. arrangement. The supplementary
and often it is necessary to specify firing at the waste-heat recovery
some requirements in addition to- Gas turbine heat recovery unit could be a feasible option to
the codes For some gas-turbine packages, achieve the maximum possible effi-
There is always a great concern heat recovery is the source of many ciency. This design is also becom-
about the lubrication oil system (gen- problems and issues. One reason ing popular in modern CPI plants,
erally called the oil system). A design may be that in spite of the gas tur- which require a better operationall
that involves having the primary oil bine, which is offered in standard flexibility since, theoretically, sup-
pump driven by the main machinery models, the heat-recovery unit is plementary firing can offer some
shaft is usually not acceptable for any usually a custom-designed system. operational flexibility.
high-speed turbomachinery (including The performance and reliability of However, this complex design
the gas turbine). The high speed itself the gas turbine package depend (supplementary firing and HRSG)
is one reason; it is not usually matched on the heat-recovery system. The requires special care. For example,
with lower speeds of oil pumps. The design, fabrication and operation the transfer duct (between the gas
use of a gear unit to connect the oil of such a heat-recovery system turbine exhaust and the waste-heat
pump to the turbomachinery shaft is as an integrated part of the overall recovery unit) should have a suf-
often a poor solution, because an oil gas turbine package system. In the ficient length to ensure complete
pump failure can mandate shutdown most common form, the exhaust combustion and avoid direct flame
of the turbomachinery unit. gases from the gas turbine enter contact on the heat-transfer sur-
Horizontal oil pumps are always the heat recovery steam-generating faces. On the other hand, the duct
preferred. The oil pump selection (HRSG) system, where the energy system length should be optimized,
and packaging should be in a way from the hot exhaust is used to heat in order to limit the heat loss, man-
to minimize maintenance and opera- the water to produce steam. ufacturing costs and overall system
tion efforts. For instance, oil-suction Many HRSGs are designed in footprint.
pipes should be arranged to pro- different modules and sections. In
vide positive suction head on the many cases, each HRSG has a pre- Control and monitoring
oil pumps, with a slope toward the heater, an economizer and a super- The temperature of the turbine blade
pump. Cast-iron casing is usually heater. The steam for modern steam metal must be monitored to ensure
not desirable for any equipment (or turbines is usually superheated. reliability of the first row of turbine
machinery) in the machinery pack- Both vertical and horizontal HRSGs blades and other hot sections. The
age or auxiliary systems, because it are commonly employed. use of pyrometers to sense the blade
is a brittle material and can fail very By contrast, once-through steam metals temperature is offered for
quickly in emergency situations, par- generators (OTSGs) are used in some gas-turbine packages for CPI
ticularly in the event of fire. some applications because they are units. Very high pressures in air-axial
Generally, an auxiliary skid arrange- cheaper, simpler and more compact compressors of gas turbines have
ment should be optimized to balance compared to other HRSG designs. caused these compressors to have
performance objectives and reliability OTSG systems do not have defined a very narrow operating range be-
goals, while maintaining easy access economizer, evaporator or super- tween the surge and the choke. The
and maintenance requirements, and heater sections. In simple terms, axial compressors of gas turbines
compact design. Heat exchangers in an OTSG system, water enters tend to be very sensitive to dirt and
are needed to cool the lubrication at one end and steam leaves at fouling, and even slight modifications
oil, which is often heated during op- the other end. There is no need for to the blade (vane) angle.
58 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Dynamic pressure transducers that ture applications, the oxidation rate ysis using a bichromatic microscope.
detect the surge and other flow insta- is usually doubled for every 10C in- The particles are then examined and
bilities in the air axial-compressor are crease in the oil temperature. classified by size, shape, concentra-
an important element for some gas Lubrication oils can also fail be- tion and metallurgy. The information
turbine packages. The stability in the cause of contamination. A good carried by the wear particles is valu-
combustion process could also be solution is to use the correct sealing able for the identification of the wear
monitored by the same method. The system to eliminate the potential for mode and mechanism.
application of dynamic pressure trans- gas leakage to the oil. Analytical ferrography can be par-
ducers in the combustion sections, Any additives used in a gas-turbine ticularly effective in the detection of
especially in modern, low-NOx com- lubrication oil should extensively be soft contaminants and in the identi-
bustors, could ensure that each com- verified and tested. The oil and ad- fication of their nature. This can be
bustor section is burning evenly with- ditives must be carefully formulated a powerful technique to identify the
out any issue, problem or instability. in a tightly controlled process. The oil-related issues of the machinery,
key to an excellent lubrication oil is root-cause analysis, the morphology
Lubrication oil for gas turbine to retain the desired properties. Suc- and characteristics of the insoluble
The lubrication oils for gas turbine cessful (long-term satisfactory op- particles, and the progressive mech-
are subject to a wide range of harsh eration) references are important. In anism of varnish formation. While the
conditions, such as extreme heat, other words, it is important to check ferrography test procedure is lengthy
high contamination, inadvertent mix- if proposed lubrication oil were used and requires highly skilled analysts,
ing with different substances and in similar gas turbines in more or less the benefits can outweigh the costs.
more. These effects can degrade the the same conditions successfully. This is a recommended test if any
integrity of the oil base stock and de-
plete any additives, causing irrevers-
ible molecular changes and hence
Integration is the key for gas-turbine packaging.
changes in the lubrication oils.
Most gas turbine trains use a rela- The lubrication oil in most modern abnormal wear is observed.
tively low-viscosity oil (compared to aero-derivative gas turbines and ad- Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
that used by gear units and recipro- vanced high-efficiency gas turbines analysis can be useful to measure
cating machines), for example, ISO could be in contact with metal sur- organic molecular components,
viscosity grade (VG) 46. faces above 200C. These high tem- monitor additive depletion and iden-
A lubrication oil with optimum vis- peratures, and the possibility of cycli- tify organic degradation byproducts
cosity reduces the power waste for cal operation, can result in significant (oxidation). FTIR is the preferred
operation because frictional power thermal and oxidative effects on the method of IR spectroscopy. In IR
involved in bearings and other lubri- oil. For these applications, sophisti- spectroscopy, IR radiation is passed
cated parts would be reduced. The cated synthetic oils are the only avail- through a sample. Some of the IR
usual expectation by users is rela- able options. Mineral oils used in old- radiation is absorbed by the sample
tively low makeup oil for the gas tur- fashioned gas turbines are not usually and some of it is passed through
bine lubrication oil (say on average suitable for modern gas turbines. (transmitted). The resulting spectrum
below 510% oil added per year). Instead of degradation occurring in represents the molecular absorption
This low makeup requirement is a an orderly, predictable fashion, many and transmission, creating a molec-
factor that encourages high-qual- lubricants that are used in modern ular fingerprint of the sample. Like a
ity, long-life lubricant applications gas turbines fail rapidly. And some of fingerprint, no two unique molecular
for a gas turbine. Usually, the oil in the standard oil-analysis tests offer structures produce the same infra-
a gas turbine train (without a gear little indications as the gas turbine lu- red spectrum. n
unit), if selected properly and main- bricant starts to degrade. Thus, it is Edited by Suzanne Shelley
tained correctly, does not need to be critical to study previous lubrication
drained and replaced with much fre- oil behaviors in similar gas turbines Author
quency and thus could last for a rela- and operating situations. Amin Almasi is a rotating-equip-
tively long time. It is hard to note an Ferrography is a technique that ment consultant in Australia
(Email: amin.almasi@ymail.com).
expected life, but it could be a matter provides valuable information about He previously worked at Worley
of years. The gas turbine oils should wear evolution in machinery through Parsons Services Pty Ltd. (Bris-
be well-maintained (such as avoiding analysis of a representative lubrica- bane, Australia), Technicas Reuni-
possible contamination by water and tion oil sample. In an analytical fer- das (Madrid, Spain) and Fluor
Corp. (various offices). He holds a
other fluids, using good seals, and so rography study, the solid debris chartered professional engineer
on) to extend their service life and si- suspended in a lubricant sample license from Engineers Australia
multaneously provide the maximum is separated. The solids are then (MIEAust CPEng Mechanical), a chartered engineer
certificate from IMechE (CEng MIMechE), RPEQ (regis-
machinery performance. passed across a bipolar magnetic tered professional engineer in Queensland) and he also
Generally, for gas turbines operat- field. After that, a solvent wash holds M.S. and B.S. degrees in mechanical engineering.
ing at high temperatures, oxidation cycle removes any lubricant remain- He specializes in rotating machines, including centrifu-
gal, screw and reciprocating compressors, gas and
of lubrication oil could be an impor- ing on the substrate, resulting in a steam turbines, pumps, condition monitoring and reli-
tant issue. High temperature directly ferrogram where the particles are ability. Almasi is an active member of Engineers Austra-
affects the oxidation. Heat also re- all arranged by size and permanently lia, IMechE, ASME, Vibration Institute, SPE, IEEE, and
duces the oil life. For high-tempera- attached to the slide for optical anal- IDGTE. He has authored more than 60 papers and arti-
cles dealing with rotating machines.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 59


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Sales Director District Sales Manager District Sales Manager Inside Sales Manager
Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Tel: 512-918-8075 Chemical Engineering;
2276 Eastway Rd., Decatur, GA 30033 8325 Broadway, Ste. 202/PMB 261 Pearland, E-mail: 11000 Richmond Ave, Suite 690,
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International Dipali Dhar Ferruccio Silvera Rudy Teng


Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Sales Representative
Petra Trautes 40 Wall Street, 50th Floor, New York, NY 10005 Silvera Pubblicita Chemical Engineering;
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Japan
62 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
Advertisers Index
Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number
Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service #

Abbe, Paul O. .......................12D Load Controls ........................49 Roto Hammer Industries Inc. . 12
1-855-789-9827 1-888-600-3247 1-800-477-7686
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-01 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-13 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-18

Apollo Valves .......................... 19 * OHL Gutermuth .................. 12I Sandvik Materials


1-704-841-6000 49.60 47.80 06-0
Technology...... FOURTH COVER
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-02 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-14 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-19

AUMA Riester * Plast-O-Matic Valves, Inc. ... 11I Sturtevant Inc. ........................27
1-973-256-3000
GmbH & Co. KG .................... 21 1-800-992-0209
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-03 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-15 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-20

Cashco VCI ............................40 Quest Integrity........................22 WEFTEC 2015 ........................26


adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-16 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-21
1-785-472-4461
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-04
RedGuard .......SECOND COVER
1-855-REDGUARD
Check-All Valve Mfg. Co. .......42
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-17
1-515-224-2301
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-05

Chemshow 2015 ......................6


1-203-221-9232 Classiied Index July 2015
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-06
Advertiser Page number
Phone number Reader Service #
Advertiser's Product
CLSB, LLC ................................4 Showcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
1-205-752-0677 Applied e-Simulators Computer Software . . . . . . . 60
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-07 Software.................................60
Consulting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-241
Collins Instrument Co. ............ 41 Equipment, New & Used . . . 61
1-979-849-8266 CU Services LLC ....................60
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-08 1-847-439-2303
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-201
Dyna-Therm ........................... 13 Advertiser Page number
1-281-987-0726 Engineering Software .............60 Phone number Reader Service #
1-301-540-3605
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-09 Ross, Charles & Son
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-242
Company ............................... 61
Emerson Process 1-800-243-ROSS
Genck International ................60
Management ...........................3 1-708-748-7000
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-248

adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-243
Vesconite Bearings ................ 61
GEM Valves .......................15D 27 11 616 11 11
1-678-553-3400
Indeck Power Equipment Co. 61 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-249
1-800-446-3325
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-10
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-244
VisiMix ....................................60
Honeywell International ............9 972 52 383 4174
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-11 John R. Robinson, Inc. ........... 61 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-250
1-800-726-1026
Lewa GmbH ...........................23 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-245
Wabash Power
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-12
KnightHawk Engineering ........ 61 Equipment Co. ......................61
1-281-282-9200 1-800-704-2002
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-246 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-251

Micromold Products............... 61 Xchanger, Inc. ........................ 61


* International Edition 1-952-933-2559
1-914-338-8840
adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-247 adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-252
See bottom of opposite page
for advertising
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Diane Burleson
contact information Send Advertisements Chemical Engineering, 11000 Richmond Ave, Houston, TX 77042
and Box replies to: E-mail: dburleson@che.com Tel: 512-337-7890

FOR ADDITIONAL NEWS AS IT DEVELOPS, PLEASE VISIT WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM


July 2015; VOL. 122; NO. 7
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015 63


Economic Indicators
2013 2014 2015

Download the CEPCI two weeks sooner at www.chemengonline.com/pci

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI)


625

(1957-59 = 100) Apr. '15 Mar. '15 Apr. '14 Annual Index:
Prelim. Final Final
2007 = 525.4 600
CE Index ______________________________________________ 562.9 568.6 573.6
Equipment ____________________________________________ 678.9 688.1 695.9 2008 = 575.4
Heat exchangers & tanks _________________________________ 609.7 624.5 633.9
2009 = 521.9 575
Process machinery _____________________________________ 663.9 672.2 664.7
Pipe, valves & fittings ____________________________________ 845.6 858.5 874.5 2010 = 550.8
Process instruments ____________________________________ 402.1 404.0 408.8 2011 = 585.7 550
Pumps & compressors ___________________________________ 958.4 953.5 937.3
Electrical equipment ____________________________________ 511.9 513.5 514.4 2012 = 584.6
Structural supports & misc ________________________________ 741.7 745.9 767.3 2013 = 567.3 525
Construction labor _______________________________________ 323.8 321.8 320.4
Buildings _____________________________________________ 545.1 545.3 542.3 2014 = 576.1
Engineering & supervision _________________________________ 319.5 319.0 322.4 500
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been converted to
accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO


CPI output index (2000 = 100) ____________________________________________________ May '15 = 92.5 Apr.'15 = 92.8 Mar.'15 = 92.5 May '14 = 90.7
CPI value of output, $ billions _____________________________________________________ Apr. '15 = 1,909.5 Mar.'15 = 1,902.6 Feb.'15 = 1,911.4 Apr.'14 = 2,199.0
CPI operating rate, % __________________________________________________________ May '15 = 77.3 Apr.'15 = 77.5 Mar.'15 = 77.3 May '14 = 76.4
Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) ____________________________________ May '15 = 237.3 Apr.'15 = 238.5 Mar.'15 = 245.4 May '14 = 289.1
Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2002=100)* ____________________________________ May '15 = 101.3 Apr.'15 = 101.5 Mar.'15 = 101.4 May '14 = 99.5
Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) ____________________________ May '15 = 158.7 Apr.'15 = 158.2 Mar.'15 = 157.6 May '14 = 155.2
Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) ______________________________ May '15 = 107.9 Apr.'15 = 108.5 Mar.'15 = 108.4 May '14 = 106.9

CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%)
100 2300 80

95 2200 78

90 2100 76

85 2000 74

80 1900 72

75 1800 70
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
*Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.
Current business indicators provided by Global Insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass.

CURRENT TRENDS
EXCLUSIVE AD SPACE AVAILABLE!
Feature your marketing message T he preliminary value for the April 2015
CE Plant Cost Index (CEPCI; top; the
most recent available) continued the
trend of small monthly declines since the
The Economic Indicators department includes current industry beginning of the year. The April CEPCI
trends and the Plant Cost Index. As one of the most valued sections is 1.8% lower than the corresponding
in the magazine, your ad is guaranteed to reach decision makers value from a year ago at the same time.
each month. Contact your sales representative to secure this spot. For the second consecutive month, the
preliminary value for the Equipment sub-
JASON BULLOCK TERRY DAVIS
index in April decreased, while the Con-
jbullock@chemengonline.com tdavis@chemengonline.com
struction Labor subindex was higher. For
DAN GENTILE PETRA TRAUTES April, the Buildings subindex saw a very
dgentile@chemengonline.com ptrautes@accessintel.com chemengonline.com/mediakit small decline, while the Engineering &
Supervision subindex was slightly higher.
Meanwhile, the latest Current Business
Indicators (middle) numbers generally
were similar to the previous months val-
ues, but the CPI value of output index
for May 2015 remains below the corre-
sponding value from 2014.
64 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM JULY 2015
The Chemical Engineering store offers a variety of industry topics
you will come to rely on including textbooks, PDF guidebooks,
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Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 5th Edition Machinerys Handbook 29th Edition - Large Print
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Avoiding Leakage Seals and Sealing Systems for Machinery and Using Steam
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Chemical Engineering Buyers Guide Metering Pumps Handbook
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Pipefitters Handbook, Third Edition
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Heat Exchanger Fouling- Fundamental Approaches and Technical Roundup Guidebook
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Machine Shop Trade Secrets, 2nd Edition Guidebook

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25981
WHEN CONDITIONS HEAT UP
DONT LET CORROSION
SHUT YOU DOWN
Whether its higher temperatures, rising pressures or more acidic media, conditions in
oil re neries have never been more extreme. Tube and pipe corrosion are a constant
threat, causing as many as half of all major shutdowns. This is why hundreds of the
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1 over a period of four years. The result was massive savings on material replacement.
So as your tubes performance is pushed to new heights, nd out how we can help
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SMT.SANDVIK.COM
Circle 19 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/56199-19