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: 3153008811

: 13/2/2017

: 27/2/2017

This assessment measures the student's ability for the following outcomes:

Apply the concept of hydraulics, environmental engineering and
CLO 1 civil engineering materials (C4) /21
Demonstrate the principle of hydraulics, environmental engineering
CLO 2 and civil engineering materials and to develop a proficiency in the /3
use of laboratory equipments. (C4)
Interpret results, assessment of margins of error & have confident /9
in observations and conclusions, and develop report writing skills.
CLO 3 (P2)

CLO 4 Work effectively as part of a team /3

TOTAL / 36


Aim 2
Theoretical background 3-4
Equipment Set-up and Apparatus 4-5
Procedure 6
Result and Calculation 7-9
Error Analysis 9
Discussion and Conclusions 10
References 11
Appendices 12

The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the flow rate using particular flow
measuring apparatus.


1. To demonstrate the variation of pressure along a converging-diverging pipe section.

2. To investigate the validity of Bernoullis equation when applied to the steady flow of
water in tapered duct.


Bernoullis theorem, in fluid dynamics, relation among the pressure, velocity, and
elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity (internal
friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady, or laminar along the
stream line

P1 + v12 + z1 = P2 + v22 + z2
g 2g g 2g

p= static pressure detected at a side hole
v= fluid velocity
z= vertical elevation of the fluid
z1= z2 a horizontal tube

The equation may be derived from the energy conservation principles or Euler equation
by integration. Derivation of Bernoullis equation are beyond the scope of this theory.

For the horizontal tube , we ignore the height , z1 = z2 , hence

P1 + v12 = P2 + v22
g 2g g 2g

Manometer is used to measured the static pressure head P, directly from a side hole
pressure tapping. The manometer actually measures the static pressure head ,h , in meters
which is related to P using the relationship:


Then we can write the Bernoullis equation in revised form :

h1 + v12 = h2 + v22
2g 2g
Dynamic pressure head is called when the velocity related portion of the total head

Total Pressure Head

The total pressure head , h is measured from a probe with an end hole facing into the flow
such that it brings the flows to rest locally at the probe end. Thus, h = h + v2 (m) and
from the bernoulli equation , it follows that h1 = h2 2g

Velocity Measurement

The volume of the flow , V over a time period , t , is used in measuring the velocity of the
flow. The rate of volume flow as: Qv = v/t which in turn gives the velocity of flow
through a defined area , A. i.e :
v = Qv
Continuity Equation

For an incompressible fluid, conservation of mass required the volume is also covered,

A1 V1 = A2 V2 (m3/s)


The hydraulic bench - measure flow by time volume collection

The Bernoulli Apparatus Test equipment

A stopwatch

Figure 1: Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

The test section is an accurately machined clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross
section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings which are connected
to the manometers housed on the rig. These tappings allow the measurements of static
pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. To allow the calculation of the
dimensioned of the test section, the tapping positions and the test section diameters are
shown on the following diagram:

The detail dimensions of the tube are as follows:

Tapping Position Manometer Legend Diameter (mm)

A h1 25.0
B h2 13.9
C h3 11.8
D h4 10.7
E h5 10.0
F h6 25.0

Note: The assumed datum position is at tapping A associated with h1

Figure 2: Converging-diverging pipe

1. Readings was taken at three flow rates.

2. The first set of reading at the maximum flow rate has been taken, then the volume flow
rate was reduced to give the h1 h5 head difference of about 50 mm. After that the whole
process was repeated for one further flow rate, the h1 h5 difference approximately half
way between the obtained in the above two tests.

3. The readings of the h1 h5 manometers (static heads) was taken when the levels have
steadied. Then, need to ensure that the total pressure probe is retracted from the test-

4. For time volume collection the ball valve was closed and stopwatch was used to
measuring the time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid in the tank. Then the
fluid was collected for at least one minute to minimize timing errors.

5. The total pressure head distribution was measured by traversing the total pressure
probe along the length of the test section. The datum line is the side hole pressure tapping
associated with manometer h1. A suitable starting point is 1 cm upstream of the
beginning of the 14 tapered section and measurements should be made at 1 cm intervals
along the test section length until the end of the divergent 21 section.

6. Then, need to ensure that the total pressure probe is fully withdrawn from the test
section (but not pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling). The two couplings
was unscrewed, the test-section was removed and reversed it then re-assembled by
tighten the coupling

Volume Time, t Flow Distance Area of Static Velocity, v Dynamic Total
(m ) (s) rate, Q into Duct Head, (m/s) Head Head,
(10-4 Duct, x (10-4m2) h (m) (m) h0 (m)
m3/s) (m)
0.006 53.84 1.114 h1 0.00000 4.909 0.278 0.227 0.003 0.281
0.006 53.84 1.114 h2 0.06028 1.517 0.216 0.734 0.027 0.243
0.006 53.84 1.114 h3 0.06868 1.094 0.165 1.018 0.053 0.218
0.006 53.84 1.114 h4 0.07258 0.899 0.110 1.239 0.078 0.188
0.006 53.84 1.114 h5 0.08108 0.785 0.006 1.419 0.103 0.109
0.006 53.84 1.114 h6 0.14154 4.909 0.114 0.227 0.003 0.117

0.006 75.63 0.793 h1 0.00000 4.909 0.217 0.162 0.001 0.218

0.006 75.63 0.793 h2 0.06028 1.517 0.186 0.523 0.014 0.200
0.006 75.63 0.793 h3 0.06868 1.094 0.158 0.725 0.027 0.185
0.006 75.63 0.793 h4 0.07258 0.899 0.131 0.882 0.040 0.171
0.006 75.63 0.793 h5 0.08108 0.785 0.078 1.010 0.052 0.130
0.006 75.63 0.793 h6 0.14154 4.909 0.130 0.162 0.001 0.131

0.006 134.97 0.445 h1 0.00000 4.909 0.175 0.091 0.000 0.175

0.006 134.97 0.445 h2 0.06028 1.517 0.164 0.293 0.004 0.168
0.006 134.97 0.445 h3 0.06868 1.094 0.155 0.407 0.008 0.163
0.006 134.97 0.445 h4 0.07258 0.899 0.145 0.495 0.012 0.157
0.006 134.97 0.445 h5 0.08108 0.785 0.123 0.567 0.016 0.139
0.006 134.97 0.445 h6 0.14154 4.909 0.140 0.091 0.000 0.140

Sample calculation

Distance into duct, x

=76.08mm- 15.8mm
Dynamic head
Flow rate, Q V2 / 2g g=9.81 m/s-2
= 1.114 10-4 m3/s = 0.2272 / 2(9.81)
= 0.003m
Area of duct
r2, Total head, h0
(0.025/2)2 = 4.909 m2 h0 = V2 / 2g + h
Velocity, v = 0.003m + 0.278m
=0.227 m/s = 0.281m

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

There are some errors happen during the experiment is done which affect the result. This
is because of some error when taking the measurement of each data. Parallax error
happen during taking the reading of manometer. Such as, the observer did not read the
level of manometer properly, where the eyes are not perpendicular to the water level on
the manometer. Thus, the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the scale.
Therefore, there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the errors. Besides that,
the manometer reading did not steady then it is errors. This mean that water levels inside
the manometer always keep moving in small changes and never stay still, in fact its
increase and decrease with time.The pump did not function efficiently then cause the
water flow through the pipe not properly. Thus, the air bubble always comes out during
conduct the experiment. That reasons some of data get negative result in differences of
velocity. The average value is taken to overcome the problem. In order to get the accurate
value, the water level must be really stable. Thus, we have to be patient in order to run
this experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment is conduct may
influence the result of the experiment.

To conclude the experiment, the velocity of fluid will decrease if the fluid is flowing from
a narrow to wider tube and the velocity will increase in the opposite case regardless of the
type of flow and the pressure difference. As the velocity for all cases increases the
dynamic head values are also seem to be increased. The velocity is dependent on the
diameter of the tube also the pressure depends on the velocity of the flow. The higher the
flow rate, the more the velocity at any point thus will cause the pressure drop. But there
are some errors occurred in the results. There might be due to some errors occurred
during the experiment. Still, the results can be improved if some precautions are taken
during the experiment for example the eyes level must be placed parallel to the scale
when manometer readings are taken. Besides that, the valve is needed to be controlled
slowly to stabilize the water level in the manometer. In addition, before conducting the
experiment, make sure all the bubble inside the manometer tubes is completely
removed.This is due to influence taking the reading of manometer and it also effect the
pressure inside the manometer include the velocity flow.In conclusion, through this
experiment all the objectives are successfully achieved. From all the data and results
calculated it is proved the validity of Bernoullis equation. The second objective which is
to measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and
divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates is achieved. As the
pressure difference increase, the time taken for 6L water collected increase and the flow
rates of the water also increase. Thus, as the velocity of the same channel increase, the
total head pressure also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.

1. The trap bubbles must be removed from manometer tubes to get accurate data by
press air bleed valve lightly to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out.
2. In order to maintain the constant value of the pressure difference, the valve must
be controlled as it is quite difficult to control.
3. The eye position must be parallel to water meniscus when taking the reading at
manometer to avoid parallax error.
4. During taking the reading at manometer, the time keeper must be alert with the
rising of water volume to avoid error.
5. Any leaking of water in the instrument must be avoided.
6. Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get
more accurate results.
7. The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when
taking the reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error.
8. The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and
must be only a person who taking the time.
9. The valve and bleed screw should regulate smoothly to reduce the errors.

Elementary Hydraulics (James F. Cruise, Mohsen M. Sherfi, Vijay P. Singh)