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What We Did This

Semester
Keynote By: Erika Heideman
In this keynote presentation I will describe what we did
and what we learned in Mr. DeArmouns semester 2
sociology class. We covered many chapters during the
semester and I will just briefly explain the concepts to
you in a short keynote presentation.
Chapter 1
The Sociological Point of View
Sociology- the science that studies human society and
social behavior.

Social Interaction- how people relate to one another


and influence each others behavior. This is the main
thing sociologist are interested in.

Social Sciences- Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology, http://www.worcester.ac.uk/courses/sociology-ba-hons.html

Economics, Political Science, and History. All of these


study aspects of human social behavior.

Function- the positive consequence that an element of


society has for the maintenance of the social system.

Sociologist tend to focus more on groups rather than


individuals.

Influential Early Sociologist- Auguste Comte, Karl


Marx, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and Max
Weber.
Chapter 2
Cultural Diversity
Culture- all the shared products of human groups.

The products include both physical object and the beliefs, values,
and behaviors shared by a group.

Physical objects that people create form a groups material culture.


Abstract human creation form a gougers nonmaterial culture.

Society- group of mutually interdependent people who have


organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of
unity.

The Components of Culture- Symbols, Language, Values, and


Norms.

Levels of Culture can be divided into traits, complexes, and patterns.

Cultural Universals- common features that are found in all human


cultures.

Ethnocentrism- the tendency to view ones own culture and group as


superior to other groups.

https://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/ana-sofia-rodriguez/linguistic-and-cultural-diversity
Chapter 4
Social Structure
Social Structure- the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction.

Status- socially defined position in a group or in a society.

Role- the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status.

A status that is assigned according to standards that are beyond a persons control is an ascribed status. A status
that is acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability is an achieved status.

Group- a set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some
degree of common identity.

Types of Groups- Primary, Secondary, Reference, In-group, Out-group

A primary group is a small group who interact over a relatively long period of time and on a personal basis. A
secondary group is where interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.

A reference group is any group with whom individuals identity and whose attitudes and values are often adopted.

A group that a person identifies with is called an in-group. Any group that the person does not belong to or identify
with is called an out-group.

Social Network- the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a persons interactions with others.

Types of Social Interaction- Exchange, Competition, Conflict, Cooperation, and Accommodation.


Chapter 5
Socializing the Individual
Personality- the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs,
and values that are characteristic of an individual.

Socialization- interactive process through which


individuals learn basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior.

Looking Glass Self- interactive process by which we


develop an image of ourselves.

Agents of Socialization- Family, Peer Groups, Schools,


Mass Media, Religion, and other Clubs

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature- believe that much of human behavior is


instinctual in origin.

Nurture- believe human behavior and personality to


environmental factors and social learning.
http://expertbeacon.com/advice-socialization-internationally-adopted-children/#.VyoNuXgmTzI
Chapter 6
The Adolescent in Society
Adolescence- the period between the normal onset of
puberty and the beginning of adulthood.

Puberty- physical maturing that makes an individual


capable of sexual reproduction. Occurs in all human
societies.

Characteristics of Adolescence-

Biological Growth and Development, Undefined http://pathwaysreallife.com/adolescent-treatment-utah/

Status, Increased Decision Making, Increased


Pressure, and the Search for Self.

Homogamy- the tendency for individuals to marry


people who have social characteristics similar to
their own.
Chapter 9
Social Stratification
Social Stratification- the ranking of individuals or categories of people on the basis of
unequal access to scarce resources and social rewards.

Social Inequality- the unequal sharing of social rewards and resources.

Types of Stratification Systems- Caste System and Class System

Caste System- resources and rewards are distributed on the basis of ascribed statuses.

Class System- distribution of resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved
statuses.

Exogamy is marriage outside ones own social category. Endogamy is marriage within ones
own social category.

Social Class- grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.

Poverty- defined as a standard of living that is below the minimum level considered decent
and reasonable by society.
Chapter 10
Racial and Ethnic Relations
Ethnicity- the set of cultural characteristics that
distinguishes one group from another group.

Ethnic Group- individuals who share a common


cultural background and a common sense of
identity.

Minority Group- category of people who share


physical characteristics or cultural practices that
result i the group being denied equal treatment.

Discrimination- denial of equal treatment to


members of a group. Prejudice is an unsupported
https://ctlsites.uga.edu/anth1102/blog/page/3/
generalization about a category of people.

Racism- the belief that ones own race or ethnic


group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic
groups.
Chapter 12
The Family
Family- a group of people who are related by marriage,
blood, or adoption and who live together and share
economic resources.

Extended Family- consists of three or more generations


of family sharing the same residence.

The Functions of the Family- Regulation of Sexual


Activity, Reproduction, Socialization, Economic and
Emotional Security.

Marriage between individuals with similar social


https://casemed.case.edu/fammed/
characteristics is called homogamy. Heterogamy is
marriage between individuals who have different social
characteristics.

Marriage Partners-

Monogamy- the marriage of one man to one woman.

Polygamy- marriage with multiple partners


Chapter 13
The Economy and Politics
Economic Institution- system of roles and norms that every society develops so govern
production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Capitalism- factors of production are owned by the individuals rather then by the government.

Socialism- factors of production are owned by the government, which regulates all economic
activity.

Communism- political and economic system in which property is communally owned.

Monarchy- type of government in which one person rules.

Authoritarianism- power rests firmly with the state.

Dictatorship- power is in the hands of a single individual.

Totalitarianism- government leaders accept few limits on their authority. Most extreme form of
authoritarianism.
Chapter 14
Education and Religion
Education- system of roles and norms that
ensures the transmission of knowledge, values,
and patterns of behavior from one generation to
the next.

Schooling- formal education, which involves


instruction by specially trained teachers who
follow officially recognized policies.

Hidden Curriculum- transmission by schools of http://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools


cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged.

Tracking- assignment of students to different


types of educational programs.

Religion- a system of roles and norms organized


around the sacred realm that binds people
together in social groups.

Ritual- an established pattern of behavior through


which a group of believers experience the sacred.

http://library.overlake.org/bennettwestreligion
Chapter 15
Science and Sport
Science- the pursuit of knowledge through systematic
methods.

The sociological perspective that examines how


scientific knowledge develops is the sociology of
science.

Sport- competitive games that are won or lost on the


basis of physical skills and are played according to
specific rules.

Rationalization- the processes by which every feature


http://www.elginpk.com/worsley1415_2/hempston/ of human behavior becomes subject to calculation,
measurement, and control.

The Institutionalization of Sport

Secularization, Equality, Specialization,


Rationalization, Bureaucratization, Quantification
Sources
Textbook- The Study of Human Relationships (Sociology Fifth Edition)

http://www.worcester.ac.uk/courses/sociology-ba-hons.html

https://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/ana-sofia-rodriguez/linguistic-and-cultural-diversity

http://expertbeacon.com/advice-socialization-internationally-adopted-children/
#.VyoNuXgmTzI

http://pathwaysreallife.com/adolescent-treatment-utah/

https://ctlsites.uga.edu/anth1102/blog/page/3/

https://casemed.case.edu/fammed/

http://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools

http://library.overlake.org/bennettwestreligion

http://www.elginpk.com/worsley1415_2/hempston/