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# Lecture Notes M.

## Arbitrary Reference Frame Theory

Synchronous and induction machine inductances are functions of the rotor speed,
therefore the coefficients of the differential equations (voltage equations) which describe
the behavior of these machines are time-varying. A change of variables can be used to
reduce the complexity of machine differential equations, and represent these equations in
another reference frame with constant coefficients. A change of variables which
formulates a transformation of the 3-phase variables of stationary circuit elements to the
arbitrary reference frame may be expressed as

f qd 0 s = K s f abcs

[
where, (f qd 0 s )T = f qs f ds ]
f0s ,

(f abcs )T = [ f as f bs f cs ],

2 2
cos cos(
3
) cos( + )
3
2 2 2
K s = sin sin( ) sin( + ),
3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2

t
= (t )dt + (0).
0

cos sin 1

(K s )1 = cos( 2 ) sin( 2 ) 1 .
3 3
cos( + 2 ) sin( + 2 ) 1
3 3
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

f can represent either voltage, current, or flux linkage.s indicates the variables,
parameters and transformation associated with stationary circuits. represent the
speed of reference frame.=0: Stationary reference frame.=e: synchronously
rotating reference frame.=r: rotor reference frame (i.e., the reference frame is fixed
on the rotor).fas, fbs and fcs may be thought of as the direction of the magnetic axes of
the stator windings.fqs and fds can be considered as the direction of the magnetic axes
of the new fictious windings located on qs and ds axis which are created by the
change of variables. Power Equations corresponding to the transformations is given
by

## Pabcs = Vas ias + Vbs ibs + Vcs ics

Pqd 0 s = Pabcs =
3
(Vqsiqs + Vdsids + 2V0 si0 s )
2

## Stationary circuit variables transformed to the arbitrary reference frame

Resistive elements: For a 3-phase resistive circuit

## Vabcs = (K s ) Vqd 0 s , (K s )rs (K s ) = rs

1 1

iabcs = (K s ) iqd 0 s
1
rs 0 0
rs = 0 rs 0
(K s )1Vqd 0 s = rs (K s )1 iqd 0 s 0 0 rs
Vqd 0 s = (K s )rs (K s ) iqd 0 s
1

## Inductive elements: For a 3-phase inductive circuit

Vabcs = pabcs ,
d
where, p = ,
dt
Ls 0 0 ias
abcs = L s iabcs = 0 Ls 0 ibs
0 0 Ls ics
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

## In terms of the substitute variables, we have

[ 1
] [ ] 1
Vqd 0 s = K s p K s qd 0 s = K s p K s qd 0 s + K s K s [ ]p
1
qd 0 s

sin cos 0

where, p K s[ ] 1 2 2
= sin( ) cos( ) 0
3 3

sin( + 2 ) cos( + 2 ) 0
3 3

0 1 0
Ks p Ks[ ] 1
= 1 0 0
0 0 0

## Vqd 0 s = qds + pqd 0 s

where, (qds )T = ds [ qs 0 ]
Vector equation Vqd0s can be expressed as
Vqs = ds + pqs
Vds = qs + pds
V0 s = p0 s
Where ds term and qs term are referred to as a speed voltage with the
speed being the angular velocity of the arbitrary reference frame. When the reference
frame is fixed in the stator, that is, the stationary reference frame (=0), the voltage
equations for the three-phase circuit become the familiar time rate of change of flux
linkage in abcs reference frame. For the three-phase circuit shown, Ls is a diagonal
matrix, and
abcs = L s iabcs

qd 0 s = K s L s K s 1iqd 0 s = L s iqd 0 s
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

## For the three-phase induction or synchronous machine, Ls matrix is expressed as

1 1
Lls + Lms Lms
2
Lms
2
1 1
L s = Lms Lls + Lms Lms
2 2
1L 1
Lms Lls + Lms
2 ms 2

## Where, Lls: leakage inductance, Lms: magnetizing inductance

3
L ls + 2 L ms 0 0
3
K s L s (K s ) 1 = 0 L ls + L ms 0
2
0 0 L ls + L ms
3
2

## Inductive elements: For a 3-phase inductive circuit with mutual inductance

Consider the stator windings of a symmetrical induction or round rotor synchronous
machine shown below

rs = diag [rs rs rs ]

Ls M M
L s = M Ls M
M M Ls

Ls = Lls + Lms

1
M = Lms
2

## Vas = rs ias + pas Vqd 0 s = K sVabcs

Vbs = rs ibs + pbs , iqd 0 s = K s iabcs
Vcs = rs ics + pcs qd 0 s = K s abcs
abcs = L s iabcs
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

In vector form,
Vabcs = rs iabcs + pabcs ,
Multiplying by Ks
K sVabcs = K s rs iabcs + K s pabcs
Replace iabcs and abcs using the transformation equations
1 1
K sVabcs = K s rs (K s iqd 0 s ) + K s p (K s qd 0 s )

Vqd 0 s = rs iqd 0 s + qd 0 s

Or

## Vqs = rs iqs + ds + pqs 0 1 0 qs = ( Ls M )iqs

Vds = rs ids qs + pds where, = 1 0 0
ds = ( Ls M )ids
V0 s = rs i0 s + p0 s 0 0 0
0 s = ( Ls + 2 M )i0 s

## =unspecified: stationary circuit variables referred to the arbitrary reference frame.

The variables are referred to as fqd0s or fqs, fds and f0s and transformation matrix is
designated as Ks. =0: stationary circuit variables referred to the stationary reference
frame. The variables are referred to as fsqd0s or fsqs, fsds and fs0s and transformation
matrix is designated as Kss. = r: stationary circuit variables referred to the
reference frame fixed in the rotor. The variables are referred to as frqd0s or frqs, frds and
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

## fr0s and transformation matrix is designated as Krs. = e: stationary circuit variables

referred to the synchronously rotating reference frame. The variables are referred to
as feqd0s or feqs, feds and fe0s and transformation matrix is designated as Kes.
Representation
Stationary reference frame
s
f qd 0 s q-d axes of stator variables

## Reference frame fixed on the rotor with speed of r

r
f qd0s t
q-d axes of stator variables r = r (t )dt
0

t
(t )dt
e

## Transformation of a Balanced Set

Consider a 3-phase circuit which is excited by a balanced 3-phase voltage set.
Assume the balanced set is a set of equal amplitude sinusoidal quantities which are
displaced by 120.
f as = 2 f s cos ef f as + f bs + f cs = 0 (balanced set)
2
f bs = 2 f s cos( ef
t
) ef = e (t )dt + ef (0)
3 0

2
f cs = 2 f s cos( ef + )
3
ef Angular position of each electrical variable (voltage, current, and flux linkage) is
ef with the f subscript used to denote the specific electrical variable.
e: Angular position of the synchronously rotating reference frame is e. e and e
differ only in the zero position e(0) and ef(0), since each has the same angular
velocity of e.fas, fbs and fcs can be transformed to the arbitrary reference frame,

f qd 0 s = K s f abcs

## After transformation, we will have,

f qs = 2 f s cos( ef )
f ds = 2 f s sin( ef )
f0s = 0
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

qs and ds variables form a balanced 2-phase set in all reference frames except when
=e,
[
f e qs = 2 f s cos ef (0) e (0) ]
[
f e ds = 2 f s sin ef (0) e (0) ]
In qse and dse reference frame, sinusoidal quantities appear as constant dc quantities.
For balanced steady-state conditions e is constant and sinusoidal quantities can be
represented as phasor variables.

[
Fas = 2 Fs cos et + ef (0) = Re 2 Fs e ] [ jef (0 )
e jet ]
2
j ef ( 0 )
2

3 j e t

Fbs = 2 Fs cos et + ef (0) = Re 2 F e
e
3
s

2
j ef ( 0 ) +
2

3 j et

Fbs = 2 Fs cos et + ef (0) + = Re 2 F e
e
3
s

[
Fqs = 2 Fs cos (e )t + ef (0) (0) ]
[
= Re 2 Fs e
(
j ef ( 0 ) ( 0 ) ) j (e )t
e ]
[
Fds = 2 Fs sin (e )t + ef (0) (0) ]
[
= Re j 2 Fs e ef
(
j ( 0 ) ( 0 ) ) j (e )t
e ]
fas phasor can be expressed as
~ j ( 0 )
Fas = Fs e ef
For arbitrary reference frame (e),
~ j ( ( 0 ) ( 0 ) ) ~ ~
Fqs = Fs e ef , Fds = jFqs
Selecting (0)=0,
~ ~
Fas = Fqs
Thus, in all asynchronously rotating reference frame (e) with (0) =0, the phasor
representing the as variables is equal to the phasor representing the qs variables. In
the synchronously rotating reference frame =e, Feqs and Feds can be expressed as

[
F e qs = Re 2 Fs e
(
j ef ( 0 ) ( 0 ) )
]
[
F e ds = Re j 2 Fs e
(
j ef ( 0 ) ( 0 ) )
]
Lecture Notes M.Kaliamoorthy AP/EEE, PSNACET

## F e qs = 2 Fs cos(ef (0)), F e ds = 2 Fs sin(ef (0))

~
2 Fas = F e qs jF e ds
~ j ( ( 0 ))
since, Fas = Fs e ef = Fs cos( ef (0)) + jFs sin( ef (0))