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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI

2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

MODULE: PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT

1. DEFINITIONS

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) defines Pavement
Management as the effective and efficient directing of the various activities involved in providing
and sustaining pavements in a condition acceptable to the travelling public at the least life cycle cost
(AASHTO, 1985).

World Bank defined Pavement Management System (PMS) as any system that is used to store and
process road and/or bridge inventory, condition, traffic and related data, for highway planning and
programming (Mc Pherson and Bennett 2005).

A simpler definition of pavement management system is a tool that can be used to make informed
decision about the maintenance and rehabilitation of a pavement network.

Pavement Management is defined as being a process and a pavement management system being
the application or implementation of the process in a working, operational environment such as in
a public agency.

2. INTRODUCTION

The concept of providing pavements and maintaining them in acceptable condition is as old as the
first pavement. As pavement networks grew slowly in the first half of the 20th century and then
quickly in the 1950s and 1960s, simple procedures or experience that had worked previously was no
longer able to manage these burgeoning networks. Instead a more holistic systems approach was
needed.

Pavement management systems are developed to provide the road authorities information on:

The actual pavement condition


The future pavement condition
Current maintenance needs and budget requirements
Future maintenance need and budget requirements
Consequences of postponing maintenance both in terms of maintenance needs and budget
requirements.

Through the use of pavement management systems one should arrive to an optimum use of the
available resources (money, manpower, materials) given the constraints that are set by the road
authorities (available budget, minimum audition requirements, etc.).

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

Pavement management systems are needed because public demands for high levels of pavement
quality are expected to increase in the near future, especially when the main and secondary road
systems begins to require extensive repairs. Also funding for highway maintenances operations can
be expected to become more stringently controlled in the near future. In those situations
pavements may deteriorate to such an extent that road users costs may increase rapidly (vehicular
deterioration) because of the poor pavement condition. If these situations are likely to happen, an
overall approach towards pavement management is recommended which includes the effects of
pavement condition and pavement maintenance on road user costs.

3. LEVELS OF PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT

Pavement management can occur at the network level and the project level.

Network level management involves the evaluation of all pavements under an agencys jurisdiction.
The primary objective of network level management is to develop an agency-wide prioritized
pavement repair program that will yield the least total cost or greatest benefit under overall budget
constraints. Network level management works on more approximate data than does project level
management.

Project level management focuses on a particular location and usually comes after network level
analysis in local agencies. Once a segment has been identified as a candidate for repair at the
network level, an engineering analysis is then performed at the project level. This level of analysis

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

requires a more detailed evaluation, since the information gathered at the network level does not
normally include the type of data needed to make detailed design decisions for an individual project.
Additional testing, such as coring and nondestructive testing, is often conducted during a project
level analysis to provide additional knowledge about pavement condition and cause of
deterioration.

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

Basic Blocks of Network Level (Administrative and


Project Level (Technical Decisions)
Activities Technical Decisions)

Sectioning and data acquisition (field


data on roughness, surface distress, Sub sectioning and detailed data
DATA deflection, etc., plus traffic, cost and acquisition (materials, traffic, unit
environmental data) cost)
Portrayal of present status Data processing and evaluation
Data processing and evaluation

Minimum or maximum acceptable Minimum or maximum as built


levels (serviceability, surface distress, conditions (roughness, surface
CRITERIA structural adequacy, etc.) friction, structural adequacy, etc.)
Maximum program costs Maximum project costs
Maximum levels of traffic interruption Selection basis (i.e. minimum net
Selection basis (i.e. cost-effectiveness) present worth of costs)

Present needs sections, deterioration


Within project rehabilitation or
predictions and future needs sections
maintenance alternatives, detailed
Maintenance and rehabilitation
field and laboratory tests
alternatives for needs sections
ANALYSES Deterioration predictions
deterioration predictions, life cycle
(serviceability and distress) for
costs and benefits
alternatives
Priority analysis for different budget
Economic evaluation of
levels or for specified performance
alternatives.
standard(s)

Determination of final programs of


maintenance and rehabilitation. Best within project or section
SELECTION
Program recommendations, maintenance and/or rehabilitation
administrative and elected body alternatives.
approvals.

Establishment of work schedules, Construction activities, work


sequences, contract tenders and control and quality assurance, as
IMPLEMENTATION awards. built records
Program monitoring Maintenance activities and
Budget and financial planning updates management records
Inventory and data base updates Data base updates

Table 1.1 An activity/decision based generic structure for pavement management (Haas 87)

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

Approaches to pavement management tend to attack this two-level system either from the top
down by dealing with network-level decisions first, or from the bottom up by dealing with project-
level decisions first. Either method can be quite detailed or relatively simple depending upon data
amount and quality and desired analytical capabilities.
For example, at the project level detailed considerations is given to an alternative design,
construction, maintenance and rehabilitation activities for specific projects. This might be
accomplished by comparing benefit-cost ratios of several design alternatives and picking the design
alternative that provides the desired benefits for the least total cost over the projected life of the
project.

Comparison of Approaches

Network Level Approach Advantages

The network-level approach is characterized by top-down logic system optimization, data, large data
and resource requirements, and sophisticated models. Its chief advantages are that it can:

1. Optimize solutions for the entire network.


2. Quickly and accurately produce conditional scenarios.
3. Prioritize broad areas of maintenance, reconstruction and rehabilitation.
4. Use consistent inputs in scenario comparisons
5. More easily obtain top management attention

Project Level Approach Advantages

The project-level approach is characterized by simpler models, less data aggregation, fewer data and
resource requirements, less reliance on feedback for success and better understanding. Its chief
advantages are:

1. Relies less on aggregate data


2. Able to be used with little data
3. Better link between network-level and project level management decisions
4. Less dependent upon feedback for success
5. Easier to obtain buy in from others

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

4. BASIC FRAMEWORK FOR PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT

In order for a pavement management system to function to the full extent of its definition, it
requires a coordinated set of activities. These relate to the data or information, planning or
programming, design, construction, maintenances, periodic evaluation, and research (Haas 1997).

Figure showing Framework for and major classes of activities in a pavement


management system (RTAC 77)

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

Planning
Planning involves the analysis of the road system as a whole, typically requiring the preparation of
medium to long term, or strategic, estimates of expenditure for road development and preservation
under various budget and economic scenarios. Predictions may be made of road network conditions
under a variety of funding levels in terms of key indicators together with forecasts of required
expenditure under defined budget heads. The physical highway system is usually characterized at
the planning stage by:
Characteristics of the road network:
Grouped in various categories and defined by parameters such as:
 Load class or hierarchy
 Traffic flow/loading/congestion
 Pavement types
 Pavement condition

Length of road in each category


Characteristics of the vehicle fleet which use the road network

The results of the planning exercise are of most interest to senior policy makers in the roads sector,
both political and professional. A planning unit will often undertake this work.

Programming
Programming involves the preparation, under budget constraints, of multi-year road work and
expenditure programs in which sections of the network likely to require maintenance, improvement
or new construction, are selected and analyzed. It is a tactical planning exercise. Ideally, cost-benefit
analysis should be undertaken to determine the economic feasibility of each set of works. The
physical road network is considered at the programming stage on a link-by-link basis, with each link
characterized by homogeneous pavement sections defined in terms of physical attributes. The
programming activity produces estimates of expenditure in each year, under defined budget heads,
for different types of roadwork and for each road section. Budgets are typically constrained, and a
key aspect of programming is to prioritize the road works in order to find the best use of the
constrained budget. Typical applications are the preparation of a budget for an annual or a rolling
multi-year work program for a road network, or sub-network. Managerial-level professionals within
a road organization normally undertake programming activities, perhaps within a planning or a
maintenance department.

Preparation
This is the short-term planning stage where road schemes are packaged for implementation.
At this stage, designs are refined and prepared in more detail; bills of quantities and detailed costing
are made, together with work instructions and contracts. Detailed specifications and costing are
likely to be drawn up, and detailed cost-benefit analysis may be carried out to confirm the feasibility
of the final scheme. Works on adjacent road sections may be combined into packages of a size that
is cost-effective for execution. Typical preparation activities are the detailed design of:

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

 An overlay scheme
 Road improvement works (for example, construction along a new alignment, road widening,
pavement reconstruction, etc.)

For these activities, budgets will normally already have been approved. Preparation activities are
normally undertaken by middle to junior professional staff and technicians within a design or
implementation department of a road organization, and by contracts and procurement staff.

Operations
These activities cover the on-going operation of an organization. Decisions about the management
of operations are made typically on a daily or weekly basis, including the scheduling of work to be
carried out, monitoring in terms of labor, equipment and materials, the recording of work
completed, and use of this information for monitoring and control.
Activities are normally focused on individual sections or sub-sections of a road, with measurements
often being made at a relatively detailed level. Operations are normally managed by sub-
professional staff, including works supervisors, technicians, clerks of works, and others.
This phase also includes the maintenance phase or the actual operations of applying maintenance
treatments and the acquisition and processing of the data.

Evaluation
The evaluation of pavements includes the establishment of sections and the periodic measurements
of such items as pavement deflection or structural adequacy, roughness or ride quality, surface
distress, surface friction, traffic, etc. it also usually includes the analysis of the data for use in the
other phases of the pavement management system.

Data Base and Research


The data base section is identified as an information base for all pavement management activities.
The importance of research as a major phase of the pavement management systems depends
largely upon the available resources and the particular requirements of the agency.

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

5. PAVEMENTT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

One of the products included a definition for pavement management system: "a system which
involves the identification of optimum strategies at various management levels and maintains
pavements at an adequate level of serviceability. These include, but are not limited to,
systematic procedures for scheduling maintenance and rehabilitation activities based on
optimization of benefits and minimization of costs." A 13-step plan is normally required for the
development and implementation of a pavement management system:

1. Decision to start.
2. Commitment from top management.
3. Develop preliminary work plan.
4. Establish steering committee of top management and division heads.
5. Develop detailed work plan.
6. Evaluate software and hardware requirements.
7. Develop preliminary system with procedures for data collection, processing,
analysis, and optimization.
8. Verification.
9. Demonstration to potential users and decision-makers.
10. Location of the pavement management system unit within the state highway
agency.
11. Full-scale implementation and evaluation.
12. Routine operation of the pavement management system.
13. Maintain and improve.

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

The best or optimal recommendation at the project level may not be the optimal solution for
the network. The easiest illustration of this relationship can be posed by the question:
Do I spend a major share of funds available on one or two projects to achieve acceptable
performance over an extended period of time,
or do I distribute the funds over several projects with reduced expectations of the service life
but an overall raising of the serviceability of the network?

The answer can only be addressed at the network level, and depending on a variety of factors or
considerations, such as user costs, the final decision could go either way.

The major problems that contribute to skepticism about the viability of PMS are:

Natural resistance to change in the way decisions are made.


Doubts about the reliability of prediction models.
Cost and time factors needed to develop a pavement management system.
Indications that no reduction in agency budget would occur even though a greater
percentage of needs could be accommodated through more effective use of the
funds available.
Resources needed to maintain and update.
The effect of institutional issues turf issues on traditional decision-making
prerogatives.
The need for a well-trained staff, uniquely trained for PMS.

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

6. PAVEMENTT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DATA

Data and/or information are the foundation of any management system. This is particularly true for
pavement design and management where decisions made without adequate, reliable and consistent
data can lead to costly errors.

Inventory Data
An inventory of the existing pavements in an agency network is a key component of their
pavement management system. It can range from very extensive and detailed to an inventory
which is limited to only certain essential items of geometry, location pavement type, etc.

The various types of inventory data generally fall into the following classes:
1. Section references and description
2. Geometry
3. Pavement structure
4. Traffic history
5. Cost data

Historical Data
Pavement management is not a single time or periodic time application process. It has a long
term spectrum of connection or follow-through from the initial planning and programming to
design to construction to ongoing maintenance and in-service monitoring. Thus it is important
to acquire data over time on construction, maintenance and performance in order to update
models, procedures and programs. This is only possible, however, with good historical data.

Condition Data
Pavement condition data are used as the basis for every decision made with the PMS. If the
condition data are not reliable, none of the recommendations of the system will be reliable. In
Washington State, three types of condition assessment are performed by local agencies:
 visual rating,
 nondestructive testing (NDT), and
 destructive testing.

The type of condition data needed to effectively manage a pavement network will depend upon
the agency and the level of data analysis required.

Types of Data and Typical Uses


A generic classification of the types of pavement management data has been developed and
categorized in six classes, as well as some of the typical uses at both the network and project level.
Another aspect is that the data was further identified and classified primarily relating to
rehabilitation (R), maintenance (M) or both (R+M), as indicated in brackets in the table below. For

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

most pavements 1 or 2 classes are need however for new pavements all the classes identified are
used.

Data Class and Component


Network Level Project Level
Data Items

a) Describe present status


1. PERFORMANCE RELATED a) Quality assurance (as-built
b) Predict future status (deterioration
Roughness (R) quality of new surface)
curves of roughness vs time or
b) Create deterioration curves
loads)
c) Estimate overlay quantities
c) Basis for priority analysis and
programming.

a) Describe present status


a) Selection of maintenance
b) Predict future status (deterioration
Surface Distress (R+M) treatment
curves)
b) Identify needed spot
c) Identify current and future needs
improvements
d) Maintenance priority programming
c) Develop maintenance quantity
e) Determine effectiveness of
estimates
alternative treatments
d) Determine effectiveness of
alternative treatments.

a) Describe present status


a) Identify spot or section
b) Predict future status
Surface Friction (R+M) rehabilitation requirements
c) Priority programming
b) Determine effectiveness of
d) Determine effectiveness of
alternative treatments
alternative treatment

a) Describe present status


a) Input to overlay design
b) Predict future status (deterioration
Deflection (R) b) Determine as-built structural
curves)
adequacy
c) Identify structural inadequacies
c) Estimate remaining service life
d) Priority programming of
d) Estimate remaining load
rehabilitation
restrictions
e) Determine seasonal load
restrictions

a) Estimate section to section


a) Input to overlay design
variability
Layer Material Properties (R) b) Provide as-built records
b) Develop basis for improved design
standards
2. HISTORIC RELATED a) Maintenance programming a) Identify problem sections
Maintenance History b) Evaluate maintenance effectiveness
(R+M) c) Determine cost-effectiveness of
alternative designs and treatments

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

a) Evaluate construction effectiveness a) Provide as-built records


Construction History (R+M) b) Determine cost-effectiveness of b) Provide feedback to design
alternative designs and construction
practices
c) Determine need for improved
quality assurance procedures
a) Input for pavement design
a) Priority programming b) Identify traffic handling
Traffic History (R+M) b) Input to estimate general methods
performance/distress trends c) Estimate remaining service life

a) Develop counter measures a) Identify high-risk sites


Accident History (R+M) b) Priority programming b) Develop counter measures

3. POLICY RELATED
Budget (R+M) a) Priority programming a) Determine cost limitations
b) Selection of management strategies
Available Alternatives
(R+M) a) Selection of management strategies a) Economic evaluation
b) Priority programming b) Life cycle cost comparisons

4. GEOMETRY RELATED
Section Dimensions (R) a) Develop general policy or standards a) Determine section constraints

Curvature (R) a) Develop general policy or standards a) Determine section constraints


b) Assess safety

Cross Slope (R) a) Develop general policy or standards a) Assess drainage


b) Assess safety

Grade (R) a) Develop general policy or standards a) Assess drainage


b) Assess safety

Shoulders / Curbs (R+M) a) Develop general policy or standards a) Assess safety


b) Assess drainage

5. ENVIRONMENT RELATED
Drainage (R+M)
a) Evaluate general network
a) Evaluate section performance
performance

Climate (R)
a) Evaluate general network
a) Evaluate section performance
performance

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

6. COST RELATED
a) Economic evaluation
New construction costs (R) a) Priority programming
b) Selection of strategy
b) Selection of network investment
strategies

a) Evaluation of maintenance
Maintenance Costs (R+M) a) Priority programming
effectiveness
b) Selection of network maintenance
b) Selection of maintenance
strategies
sections

Rehabilitation Costs (R) a) Priority programming


a) Economic evaluation
b) Selection of network rehabilitation
b) Selection of rehabilitation
strategies
strategies

User Costs (R) a) Priority programming


a) Economic evaluation
b) Selection of management strategies
b) Selection of mitigation
strategies

Table 2: Generic data classes and typical uses

7. DATA ANALYSIS

The database alone is of little use to pavement managers without a method to identify and prioritize
needs, predict future condition, assess costs and benefits, and select effective management
strategies based on existing data. A critical component of a PMS is the data analysis portion of the
system. It is here that potential rehabilitation needs are evaluated and prioritized for planning and
scheduling budget needs so that the agency makes the best use of the limited funds available to it
for rehabilitation work.

Most pavement management software provides the following analytical capabilities: determination
of current condition levels, prediction of future pavement condition, identification of feasible repair
alternatives, selection of the optimal repair alternative, prioritization of projects, and development
of multi-year repair programs and maintenance plans. In addition, pavement management software
may contain analytical routines to assist the user in pavement design, construction, and
maintenance. As with the data collection component, the level of sophistication required for data
analysis should be tailored to meet the needs of the agency implementing the PMS.

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

8. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR ROAD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

A recent World Bank study (McPherson and Bennett, 2005) focused on success factors for road
management systems. The study revealed that the successful implementation of a computerized
road management system relies on three fundamental components, namely processes, people and
technology. Linked to these components is sufficient funding (see the figure below).

Processes: - The road management system must have an active role in the road agency.
The pavement management system must be viewed as an integral component in the highway
agencys monitoring and planning process. The outputs from the RMS should be used to prepare
Annual Reports as this helps ensure that the data are collected regularly and the system is applied.

People: - The road management system must be fully institutionalized and supported
There must be sufficient budget allocated to operate the RMS and collect the necessary data.
There must be an organizational unit established to manage, monitor and continually improve
pavement management system implementation. This organizational unit must be appropriately
staffed, have clear job responsibilities, and must have clear reporting responsibilities to upper
management and executive level.

Information Technology: - The it components must be appropriate


Information Technology (IT) is becoming increasingly complex, as the demands for sharing
information between applications and users grows. Any medium to large organization should have a
strong IT division and an IT strategy to ensure that the benefits of IT are realized. The pavement
management system implementation should fit within the overall IT strategy of the agency, and
should be properly supported from an IT perspective.
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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UWI
2016-2017, Semester 1, CVNG 3009 Highway Engineering Lecture Notes: Pavement Management

Data Collection: - Data collection must be appropriate and sustainable


Only the key data that are required in decision-making should be collected and stored in the
pavement management system. These data should be collected at the minimum level of detail with
the most appropriate data collection technology given the constraints and capabilities of the agency.
Where possible, data collection should be outsourced.
There must be explicit data collection policies and procedures for the agency, in a manner
understood by all involved with data collection.
There must also be strict data quality assurance procedures in place so that all system users have
confidence in the data and analyses provided to them.

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