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Critical Analysis


Mid-Day Meal Scheme

Date: 28 February 2017

Public Finance Project

For the Degree of Bachelor of Management Studies

University of Delhi


Roopika Patwa - 15131

Sachin Karhana - 15133

Sachin Kumar - 15134

Under the Guidance of

Prof. (Dr.) Kumar Bijoy

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S.No. Topics Page
2. Background 4
3. Objectives 7
4. Implementation process of MDM programme 8
1. Implementation structure of MDM in country
2. Norms for allocation of funds and food grans (guidelines)
3. Mid- Day Meal Norms
5. Look on various perspective of MDM scheme 15
1. Academic achievements of students
2. MDM effect on different economic status students.
3. Mid-day meal programme on students residing in Urban &

rural Areas.
4. MDM vs outcome factors
6. Best Practice and Case Studies 16
1. case study -1
2. Case study-2
3. case study-3
7. Recommendation and suggestion
1. Mutual cooperation of Mdm through PPP
(public private partnership)
2. Build teacher and student relationship
3. MDM and education
8. conclusion 27
9. References 29


Education plays a vital and important role in fulfilling the basic need of a common
man. Education is a process through which a child is made capable to attend
necessary competencies and skills to face the challenges in life to survive and to
make a struggle for existence. Four important factors are identified for achieving the
goal of education for all. These are access to education, Enrolment of children,
Retention of the enrolled children and Achievement.

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Government of India keeps on launching various schemes that were implemented in
the primary education sector to reach the portion of population that is most
disadvantaged and needed to be strengthen. For Education for all, Government
introduced flagship programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. However, despite that, a
few children are still deprived of Primary Education due to inability of their parents to
send their kids to school, as if they send their children to school, they incur extra
financial burden, which their children would have cure by doing labour. So, make
forceful appeal to their parents to let their children in schools, government introduce
the pittance for students who has more than 85% of attendance. This scheme fulfils
Enrolment of children objective. Now as a sign of incentive for students to come
school regularly, Government Launched a scheme of National Programme of
nutritional support to primary education also known as Mid-Day-Meal Programme.
Under this scheme, students of primary classes were to be provided Nutritious Meal
for one time.

In MDM programme, a total of 11crore students are benefited. This scheme is grand
success. There are two sides of every coin. There are lot of improvement to be done
in this scheme.

The present paper deals with critical analysis of MDM and attempts to analyze the
before and after situation of governments effort in the form of this scheme. For this
purpose, time series data on enrollment, gross enrollment ratio (GER), dropout rates
etc. has been taken from government websites, reports. The study is based on
secondary data collected for the years 1951-2014.


The future of any nation depends upon the present of its children. Educated and
healthy children can build a strong and powerful nation. To achieve this twin
objective of educated and healthy children the government of India initiated a
national program of nutritional support to primary education known as mid-day meal
scheme. This scheme was launched by the Indian Government in August of 1995 to
boost enrollment, retention, and attendance rate of children, while also improving

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nutrition and health outcomes. The first programme was established in 2408
particular blocks of the country, but the government eventually extended its reach
nationwide in 1997, to cover all primary school aged children in government and
local body public schools. The original program provided 100 grams of food grains
per child per day, with the objectives of improving the nutritional status of public
school children, encouraging poor children from disadvantaged areas to attend
school more regularly, helping children concentrate on classroom activities, and
providing nutritional support to children. In September of 2004, the program
transformed from raw grains to cooked meals, consisting of a minimum of 300
calories and 8-12 grams of protein per child. Finally, in July of 2006, the Program
standards were increased, requiring 450 calories and 12 grams of protein per child
per day, with special stipulations to provide iron, folic acid, and other essential
stipends. The 2006 revision also provided subsidies to schools to cover cooking and
preparation costs. Logistically, the central government provided free food grains,
while state governments were responsible for converting these food grains into
cooked meals. States that were unable to convert grain into meals due to resource
shortages were initially allowed to distribute the raw free grain to children, conditional
on attendance. However, in 2001, the Supreme Court mandated that all public
schools provide cooked meals. To promote compliance, schools are required to
publicly display information on the meals and to expect periodic visits by State
Government officials, and it is estimated that approximately 25 per cent of schools
have been inspected (Government of India). However, analysis suggests a high
degree of non-compliance, as a large number of children in public schools did not
receive the meal. Nutrition and Health are pre-requisites for human resource
development. Our planners have been aware of these vital inputs it in article of the
constitution. The State shall regard raising the level of nutrition and standard of
living of its people and improvement in public health among its primary duties.
Nutrition is directly linked to human resource development, productivity and
ultimately to the nations growth. Malnutrition on the other hand is a complex
phenomenon. It is both the cause and effect of poverty and ill health: and follows a
cyclical, inter-generational pattern. It is inextricably linked with illiteracy, especially
female illiteracy, lack of safe drinking water, sanitation, ignorance, lack of awareness
and ill health. It creates its own cycle within the large cycle of poverty. Malnutrition
adversely affects Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE). Even if a

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malnourished child does attend school, he/she finds it difficult to concentrate on and
participate in the learning activities in school. Unable to cope, the child would very
often drop out of school. The MDMS was started with two major objectives firstly to
enhance the childs nutrition level secondly to provide the basic education. Thus, the
MDMS was introduced basically to improve the overall development of the primary
school childrens education. Therefore, it has varied objectives like. To increase the
nutritional level of the school Government of Indian children, to enhanced the
educational attainment of the children, to retain the children in the school for a long
period of time. To develop the process of socialization, etc. Apart from the education,
the nutritional aspects of MDMS have several dimensions including elimination of
classroom hunger, the growth of school childrens health. It is argued that if the
children come every-day to school they can eat nutritious meal regularly and
therefore child starvation could be checked. This makes it possible not only to realize
their intake of calories and proteins but also to provide nutritional supplements such
as Iron and Iodine, which are required in many hilly regions. In this context, higher
attendance in school provides opportunity to implement MDMS which enable
children to have meals and to be physically and mentally fit. Thus, larger attendance
in school is required to implement MDMS successfully because, if the children come
to school, only then they are entitled for the meal. Thats how higher percentage of
attendance is vital for the successful implementation of MDMS. Further, the
respective governments at center and state level tried to improve the condition of
children as a part of their developmental goals, through targeted policies with better
institutional interventions. Under MDMS, it was decided to provide cooked meal
within two years of judicial intervention and during intervening period, state
governments could distribute dry rations to school children, instead of cooked meals.
The Supreme Court not only intervened but involved itself in monitoring the transition
of these programmes that existed on paper merely as orders, into programmes that
exist in schools. Thus, the apex courts intervention was instrumental in
implementing the MDMS and protecting the child rights from hunger. The Supreme
Court directed all the state governments to implement MDMS and to provide every
child a cooked meal with a minimum content of 300 calories and 8-12 grams protein
every day of school for a minimum of 200 days in every government and government
aided primary schools. The respective states which were providing dry rations were

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directed to start providing cooked meals within three months to extend the provision
of cooked meals to the remaining parts of the state.

To achieve the objectives of the Scheme, the guidelines prescribe the following
nutritional content in the mid-day meal:

Components Primary Upper Primary

Calories 450 Cal 700 Cal

Protein 12 gms. 20 gms.

Adequate quantities of micro-nutrients

like Iron, Folic Acid, Vitamin-A etc.

The component-wise break up of above nutrition value of food items constituting

Mid-Day Meal (MDM), both for primary and upper primary, are as under: -

Primary Upper Primary

Energy Energy
S. Requiremen Protein Requiremen Protein
Items content content
No. t under Conten t under Conten
(in (in
MDM (in t (in MDM (in t (in
calories calories
gms) gms) gms) gms)
) )
1 100 340 8 150 510 14
2 Pulses 20 70 5 30 105 6.6
3 Vegetable 50 25 -- 75 37 --
4 s Fat
Oil & 5 45 -- 7.5 68 --
Salt &
5 Condimen per need -- -- per need -- --
ts 480 13 720 20.6
Source:- mdm.nic.in/Files/School%20Health

%20Programme/Nutrition_Support/Nutrition_support_Introduction.pdf Even after all these actions by

Supreme court, Central Government, and State Government how much the scheme
become successful. The research paper is revolved around this question only.


The key objectives of the study are as follows: -

1. To know the Implementation process of MDM programme

2. To judge the role of mid-day meal in academic achievements of students.

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3. To survey the effect of mid- day meal among the students belongs to
different economic status.
4. To compare the Mid-day meal programme on students residing in Urban
and rural Areas.
5. To assess the relationship between mid-day meal programme and positive
expectations of the programme i.e. enrolment, attendance, retention and
minimizing dropout rate of students.
6. The find out the academic achievement of students before and after
application of MDM scheme
7. To come out with the drawbacks of existing MDM programmes. And to give
recommendations and suggestions to overcome the same.


4.1 Implementation Institutional structure of MDM in country

School Education Department is the Nodal agency at the state level for effective
implementation of MDM programme, followed by district office headed by District
Education Officer and block level office looked after by Block Education Officer.

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These staff are supported by additional regular staff having additional charge of

State Government / Minister (Education)

Commissioner (Education)

Director of Elementary Education (state Nodal Agency)

DC/ DDSE ( District Nodal Agency)

Block Education Officer

Head Teacher/ Headmaster/ VEC/ SMC

Roles and Responsibility 1:

I) State Government / Minister (Education): - State Government Looks the

successful implementation of MDM scheme in entire state. Timely release of
fund in the form of Central Assistance and matching State Share is ensured
by the State Government. Time to time review meeting is held to monitor the
programme implementation in state.

II) Commissioner / Secretary (Education): - The Commissioner/Secretary is

the administrative Head of the Nodal Department of State. All the policy
matters & guidelines on implementation of MDM scheme are the
responsibility of Commissioner/Secretary.

III) Director of Elementary Education: - The Director of Elementary

Education is the State Nodal officer of MDM scheme. He ensures timely
release of funds to the districts, submission of reports and returns to Gol and
monitoring and supervision of scheme in the entire state.

IV) DC/DDSE (District Nodal Agency): The Deputy Commissioner and Dy.
Director of School Education of the District are District Nodal Agency of MDM

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Programme scheme. The implementation of the scheme in the entire district
is monitored by District Nodal Agency.

V) Block Education Officer: Under each block, there is one Block Education
officer who looks after the implementation of the MDM Programme scheme in
the Block under the supervision of Sub-Division officer/Extra Assistant
Commissioner/Circle Officer. The BEO is a field level officer who ensures that
MDM scheme is implemented in the schools.

VI) Head Teacher/Headmaster/SMC: The actual implementation of the

National Programme of Mid-Day Meal Scheme is done in the school. The
Head Teacher/Headmaster of the school along with School Management
Committee is responsible for implementation of MDM programme in the

Whether exclusive structure: No

yea Primary Students in Upper Primary Students in Upper

r Schools Primary School School Primary School
6,64,041.00 113883060 2,19,626.00 44828237
6,51,382.00 122397715 2,45,274.00 46845207
7,12,239.00 128266291 2,62,286.00 48746998
7,67,520.00 130763067 2,74,731.00 51245426
7,71,082.00 130822117 2,88,199.00 51161047
7,84,852.00 133719922 3,05,584.00 54476096
7,87,827.00 135470561 3,25,174.00 57204704
7,78,825.00 135323683 3,65,643.00 58379723
8,19,945.00 133694932 3,94,126.00 59581905
7,48,547.00 135316946 4,47,600.00 62056450

Source : http://planningcommission.nic.in


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4.2.1 Fund Flow Arrangement

Planning and budgeting systems for the MDM are based on school level
consumption needs. Schools prepare estimations of the total annual
requirement based on the number of students consuming MDM throughout
the year and the number of working days on which MDM is expected to be
served. This data is aggregated at the block, district and state levels.
Based on this information, State Governments prepare an Annual Work
Plan and Budget (AWP&B). This AWP&B is submitted to the Project
Approval Board (PAB) of the Ministry of Human Resource Development
(M/o HRD) for review and approval.

1. Central to State Level

The Government of India provides 75 percent of the total approved
allocations for both recurring grants cooking costs and CCH and
Non-Recurring grants when needed. The financial rules require that
Government of India release its annual financial share to the state
government treasury in three to four instalments. The first instalment is
split into two releases; a) an ad-hoc grant released in April. This grant
cannot exceed more than 20 percent of the previous years release.
State governments are expected to provide Government of India with
information on unspent balances from previous years by June. Upon
receipt of this information, the balance of the first instalment is released
to states by July adjusted based on the unspent balances remaining
with the state; b) the second instalment is released by
September/October. This instalment is based on the progress of
expenditure incurred out of the first instalment and release by the state
of its own share of resources; and c) the third and final instalment is
released after receipt of utilization patterns up to the third quarter of the
financial year. This instalment is usually released by January.

Central assistance as sanctioned during the last three years is as follows:

year Release of Central Assistance for MDM

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Recurring (in Lakh) Recurring
Balance of
Adhoc Droug 2nd Kitchen
Release ht Instalment Devices
2016-17 225268.5 48092 1 5384.5
2015-16 245999.8 2 379852 4820.9

2014-15 293649.2 318172.4 422588.3 12110.8

2. State Government to District Level

Once funds reach the state treasury, the state government is expected
to add their share to the pool of funds and release the fund onwards to
districts. These funds are released as per the different heads of
expenditure i.e. cooking cost and cook-cum-helper. These funds are
released in quarterly instalments via electronic transfers to district bank
accounts. MDM guidelines clearly specify that states are responsible
for sending funds onwards to districts in a timely manner irrespective of
receipt of funds from GoI. Once funds reach district bank accounts, the
district administration is tasked with transferring funds onward to
schools. The arrangements of the Departments involved in Mid-Day
Meal programme in India.

Central Fund Central Government

State Fund State Government

Number of Students Nodal Department (School Education Department)

Department of Tribal
School Education
District Education
Block Education Zila Panchayat
(BEO) Block Education
Women Self Help (BEO)
Group Women Self Help

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During visit to the different levels of stakeholders, it was reported that
in MDM programme the fund flow mechanism follows the same as
mentioned in the guidelines of the Central and the State Governments.
In rural areas, the fund is directly transferred to the bank account of
Women Self Help Group (WSHG) from District Education Officer
(DEO), while in urban areas the fund is transferred through Municipal
Commissioner to the concerned WSHG.

4.2.2. Food Grain Flow Mechanism

Per MDM Guidelines, food grains are allocated bi-annually to state by the
Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD. These allocations
are based on the number of students enrolled in schools and working
days approved by PAB for the previous year.
Allocations are made separately for primary schools (class 1-5) and
upper primary schools ( 6-8). The first six monthly allocations are in an ad-
hoc transfer made in the first week of February of the previous financial
The second and final allocation is made in the first week of august and
is based on the Utilization Certificates (UCs) sent by the State
Government detailing the quantity of food grains revived and consumed at
the school/cooling agency- level in the previous financial year. These UCs
are to be submitted by the stated latest by 30 June each year. The second
instalment of allocation is made after considering the unspent balance
available with the states.
On receiving the food grain instalment from GOI, the States MDM
Directorate prepares an allocation letter detailing the district-wise
allocations of food grains, based on the number of students enrolled and
the number of working days approved for that district. This allocation letter
is sent quarterly to the Basic Shiksha Adhikari (BSA) the district official
in-charge of implementing MDM. A copy of the allocation letter is also sent
by the MDM Directorate to the Food Corporation of India (FCI) regional

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office. On receipt of this letter, the FCI regional office issues a Release
Order to the FCI district office to release grains.
A Mid-Day Meal Cell has been established in the state since July 2007.
This cell looks after State's Mid-Day Meal Programme headed by an
Additional Director of Public Instructions. This cell coordinates with other
related departments. The flow of food grains mechanism is depicted in
figure below:

Food corporaton of India (FCI)

Nagrik Apurti NIgam (NAN) Purchase cooking

item other than
Fair Price Shops food grains such
as vegetable oil,

Gram Panchayat

Schools ( Primary & Upper Primary)

Source: AWP&B 2013-14

4.3 Mid- Day Meal Norms

As per the data available from Directorate of Public Instructions, the
food grains are as follows:
Quantity per day / child
S.No. Items
Primary Upper Primary
1 Food Grains 100 gms 150 gms
Pulses 20gm 30gm
3 Vegetables (leafy also) 50gms 75gm
Oil & fat 5gm 7.5 gms
5 Salt & condiments As per need As per need
Source: Directorate of Public Instructions

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2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Centr Stat Tota Centr Stat Tota Stat
Central Total
al e l al e l e
1 2.17 1.23 3.4 2.33 1.32 3.65 2.51 1.41 3.92
2 3.25 1.15 4.4 3.49 1.21 4.7 3.75 1.3 5.05
Cooking cost per child per school day based on Central- State sharing
for last three years is as follows:
Source: Directorate of Public Instructions

During Interaction with DEO (District Education Officer) and BEO (Block
Education Officer), it was reported that under MDM programme, the
Government is providing Rs.392/student/meal to Primary School students
while for Middle school students Rs. 5.05/student/meal is provided. Apart from
the money, rice is provided through PDS and honorarium to cook-cum-helper
@1000/- per month is also paid. The per student allocation and honorarium
was confirmed by the school level authority as well as by the Women SHG
(self-help group) who are engaged in cooking and serving the food. The
Women Self Help Groups also confirmed that they are responsible for
procuring of food items and provide cooked food to school students on regular
basis as per the decided menu. The menu of MDM is decided in consultation
with Government authorities and members of School Management
Committee. However, Women Self Help Group did complain about delay in
release of funds and about inadequate release of fund. Due to fund issues,
WSHGs are unable to earn profit, but they are continuing because the
program is benefiting their own children.

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The mid-day meal tragedy in Bihar, which killed 23 children who ate contaminated
cooked food, has turned the national spotlight on problems affecting the flagship
government scheme which provides lunch to nearly 120 million children in India
every day - with lack of monitoring and hygiene, as also huge corruption, discrediting
what is called the world's largest school feeding programme.

While reports of insects or lizards being found in the meal keep cropping up,
unhygienically cooked and under-nutritious food are the other issues dogging the
scheme. The mid-day meal scheme provides children in over 1.2 million
government-run schools a hot and nutritious meal every day, which besides
encouraging attendance and improving nutritional levels, also helps to arrest dropout

Experts say the scheme suffers from structural problems, the biggest being the lack
of a proper monitoring mechanism.

"The mid-day meal scheme was adopted on the pattern of the Madras Municipal
Corporation school lunch scheme. The problem is there is no clear structure defined,
and every state functions according to its wish," said Ambrish Rai, convenor of the
Right to Education Forum, an umbrella body of NGOs working in the field of

"In most places, it is a matter for the teachers to manage. In some places, NGOs or
private contractors do the job. The scheme is better managed in south Indian states,
but in the northern part of the country the situation is pathetic .

"Children are getting low quality and insufficient food; hence there is lack of nutrition.
Corruption is involved in the delivery system. Fake enrolments are being done to
embezzle money. These rackets are killing this very important scheme, and the main
reason is lack of guidelines and institutionalisation," he said.

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Mohammed Irfail, who is attached to the Right to Food campaign and is working in
the field of mid-day meals in West Bengal, said lack of monitoring is the biggest

"Government agencies are not doing the monitoring. Even if there are committees at
some places, they are not functional. They submit reports sitting at their tables
without having visited schools. How would the government ever know what is
happening in the name of mid-day meal scheme?" Irfail said.

"The government says it is taking all the steps, but it is an eyewash. There is no
infrastructure in schools; many of them have no running water; hygiene is not
maintained; and in addition, the money provided fills the pockets of those who
arrange for supplies," Irfail told IANS.

Irfail went on to allege that he smelled a rat in the government's treatment of the

"Perhaps the government does not want the scheme to function properly. They want
problems to be created so that people ask them to stop the scheme altogether.
Maybe they want to hand over the scheme to some corporate organisation," he said.

Irfail added that in places where self-help groups or NGOs have been roped in for
the scheme, delay in payment is a big problem.

"Even where NGOs are providing the meal, the payment is low, and delayed. When
they do not get payment for 5-6 months, they lose their morale," he said.

Ashok Agarwal, a Delhi-based advocate who has been fighting for issues concerning
the right to education, said the attitude of school authorities towards the children is
also a major issue.

"In most of the schools I have seen in Delhi, especially in the outer areas of Delhi,
the school authorities treat children like a burden. The manner of distributing the
meal is not dignified," Agarwal told IANS.

"The principal of one aided school told me that children get food from home, because
the mid-day meal portions are not sufficient. No one is there to see if the lunch boxes
of the children (in which they are doled the food) are clean; sometimes left-over food
is given; the utensils used for cooking and serving are also not clean," he said.

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Agarwal added that the process of distributing the mid-day meal is also taking a toll
on teaching.

"A lot of children are from very poor families. They come without having breakfast,
and so they cannot study in the first half as they are hungry. In some schools, the
process of distributing lunch takes two hours or more; by that time school time is
over. When will the child study?" he questioned.

Asked what can be a possible solution for streamlining the scheme, the experts
suggest involving the parents and local community as a good option.

"If the local community is involved, if parents are involved in the process of serving
mid-day meals, the situation will improve. School management committees defined
under the Right to Education act can be a good way," said Agarwal.


Dead rats found in Mid-day Meal , 9 kids hospitalised , FIR Will be logged against
supplier : Sisodia


Nine students of a government school in Deoli were hospitalized on Thursday after

consuming mid day meal in which dead rats were alleged found. Education
Minister Manish Sisodia said an FIR Would be logged against the mid-day meal
supplier and they would be blacklisted.

Sisodia , along with Directorate of Education (DoE) Director Saumya Gupta , visited
the Madan Mohan Malviya Hosptial in Malviya Nagar on Thursday night to check on
the students, and said they were doing alright . The agency Jan Chetna Jagriti &
Shaikshanik Vikas - Supplies food to the school.

The incident took place around 4 PM on Thursday at the Government Boys Senior
Secondary School in Deoli .

There was aloo puri on the menu today. While the food was being served, two rats
found their way into the sabzi given to some children from classes VI VIII. Teachers

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found the rats and raised an alarm. Some of these students began to feel sick and
were eventually taken to the hospital. We then informed police, a teacher said.

A school management committee member said one rat was thrown away while the
other was retained for inspection.

However, a senior DoE official said, It is suspected that only one rat was found in
the mid day meal and we have sent it for testing. Four children have complained of
vomiting, hile others have stomach ache.

Sources said the students would be kept overnight for supervision, and a showcase
notice would be sent to the supplier.

Once its confirmed that it was a rat, strict action will be taken. said a DoE official.

Reacting to the incident, Sisodia , in series of tweets, said, Such great negligence
in matter relating to children will not be tolerated . From tomorrow, mid-day meals will
be prepared in the presence of our officers.

However, arguing that tweets were not enough, the All India Guest Teachers
Association president, Praveen Tobaria , demanded Sisodias resignation .

The minister did not even visit the school and he thinks tweets are enough.

We will be protesting outside the school at 2 pm tomorrow, he said.


National Programme of Mid Day Meal in Schools in Andhra Pradesh.


Improving the Nutritional status of children.

Encouraging poor children on classroom activities.
Providing Nutritional support for children.

Every Child studying in the above stated schools from class I VIII for 220
working days the Mid Day Meal shall be provided on each school day. The
menu is as below.

In Grms

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S.No Item Quantity per day per child Calories

Primary Upper Primary Upper Primary


1 Foodgrains (Rice) 100 grm 150 grm 330 510

2 Pulses 20 30 60 100

3 Vegetables (leafy 50 75 25 30

4 Oil & Fat 5 7.5 35 60

5 Salt & condiments As per need As per need - -

6 O then Item -Eggs/ Twice a week Twice a week 200 200


Per child per day 650 calories energy & 12 grms protein and 900 calories of
energy & 20 gms of proteins are providing for Primary & Upper Primary stages

1) COOKING COST:- :( I to X Classes)

The revised food norms and enhancement of cooking cost to Primary & Upper
Primary stage in the state with effect from 01.04.2011 are given below.

Stage Enhanced Rate by GOI

Rs. Per student @

Primary 3.84
( I to V)

Upper Prmary 4.40

( VI to VII )

High School 4.40

(VI to X)

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The Cooking Cost will be further revised by 7.5% on 1 st April of every year.

A separate provision for payment of Honorarium to CookCum-helpers

@ 1000.00 (Rs.750/- Central share and Rs.250/- State share) per month has State
Govt. shall also release Rs.250/- per cook cum helper as State share without any
delay so that Rs.1000 per month to Cook-Cum-Helpers on consolidation basis.

The cook cum helpers should be engaged on purely temporary basis. GOI
and State Government will not bear past services liability in respect of cook-
cum- helpers.
One cook cum helper shall be engaged to a School having up to 25 students.
Two Cook-cum-Helpers for schools having 26 to 100 students. And one
additional Cook-cum-helpers for every addition of 100 students.
Engagement of Cook-Cum-helpers shall be considered basing on number of
the average children opted Mid Day Meals.

Day Average
Children MDM Opted
No. of CCH needed

0-25 1

26-100 2

101-200 3

201-300 4



Mandal Educational officer & Tasildar of that Mandal allocate the food grains
to the each school / implementing agencies as per indent.

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The Headmasters/implementing agencies receive the stocks as per their

Rice supplied to the implementing agencies as and when required on the
basis of enrollment should be stored at school level and they are to be taken
care of by Head Master and implementing agencies also.
There is a need to take care for storage place in a school/Kitchen shed where
dry & clean surroundings exist (Foodgrains and ingredients to be used for
Cooking, food grains, pluses, vegetables, edible oil & condiments).
Rice bags should not be dumped to the corners / walls to pass freely by



MANDAL LEVEL: There is Mandal Level implementation Committee headed by

Mandal Educational Officer; they meet fortnightly and review the
implementation of the Programme in the Mandal. The Mandal
Educational Officer is responsible for payment of Conversion
charges and honorarium to cook cum helpers to
implementing agencies.

SCHOOL LEVEL: The Executive Committee of the School level is to supervise

implementation of MDM at School level. The Committee ensures
that good quality food is provided to all children of the school.



The amount available under MME is allocated as follows.

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School level expenses 50% funds earmarked for school level expenses can
be spent on forms, stationary, shops, plates, glasses, mats, training of cook
cum helper and replacement/repair, maintenance of Cooking devices,
utensils, and storage bean etc

Remaining 50% funds earmarked for expenditure at other then school level
i.e, District and State Head-quarter shall be spent on the following items.

Hearing charges of man power at various levels

Transport and contingencies.

Office expenses.
Furniture, Computer hardware and consumables.
Capacity building of officers.
External monitoring and evaluation.
Preparation of relevant manuals.
Publicity etc,.



Mandal Educational Officer is a principle monitoring officers at Mandal level.

Every visit to a school must be included the Mid Day Meal aspects as follows:

Preparation of bills and they should be kept ready by 5 th of every month as

per provision shown by the District authorities i.e, allocation of Rice, Cooking
cost as per MDM opted, honorarium to cook cum helpers as per PAB figures.
Timely submission of bills at STO (Treasury) and get passed the bills prompt
payment of cooking cost, honorarium to cook cum helpers to implementing
agencies by way of cheque.
Receipt of foodgrains and their storage, maintenance of records.
Attendance of children issue of RiceNo of children opted MDM at
the time of serving.
Cooking at hygienic, atmosphere, clean and kept the surroundings &

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Serving of vegetables, eggs / fruits twice in a week.
Whether agencies had been paid as per release by Dist / state.
Supervision of HMs / Teacher are taking place at the time of children
having meal.
Prompt service of implementation agencies.

Head Master &Teacher of Mid Day Meal opted school is to monitor the Mid
Day Meal programme in their school for effective implementation. The
following impact parameters to be followed and ensure to achieve the
objectives of NP-NSPE.
Regular and wholesomeness of Mid Day Meal served to children,
Promoting Social and gender equality.
Cleanliness in cooking, serving and consumption of Mid Day Meal.
Storage of rice and ingredients.
Maintenance of Attendance of children issue of Rice No of children
opted MDM at the time of serving.
Cooking at hygienic, atmosphere and keep the surroundings & utensils
Serving of vegetables, eggs / fruits twice in a week. .. etc,.

Procedure for selection of Implementing Agency :

The MRO( Mandal Revenue Officer ) of the mandal shall issue advance
programme for the village level meeting to be conducted for the selection of
Implementing Agency. Wide publicity should be given to the schedule.

The Panchayat Secretary shall organize the meeting. The meeting would be
attended by the sarpanch, all the ward members , the SEC ( School Education
Committee ) parents, all the self help Groups of the village and select the best
among them as the I.A.

The Mandal Educational Officer and Mandal Resource person shall attend the
meeting . The Headmaster of the school of the village shall also attend the meeting .

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The MEO would record the minutes of the meeting and communicate to all the
schools , Gram panchayat and the RDO through the MRO.


7.1 Mutual Cooperation of MID DAY MEAL SCHEME Through PPP

The MDM Scheme was initially confined to primary and elementary schools in the
slum areas or what we call jhuggi-jhopri-hutment colonies but with the arrival of
supreme courts order on 28 November 2001 on the universal supply of cooked food
in primary schools and hence the local municipal departments of various states and
the state government took charge and amended the policy guidelines of National
Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education(NP-NPSE).

This order of supreme court led to the mutual cooperation of mid day meal scheme
through public-private partnership by entering into contract with various NGOs
operating in the state. In the mutal consent it was decided that MDMS will be
extended to all the students enrolled in primary and aided primary schools through
the centralised kitchens operated by NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations).

For example, in the Delhi NCR, the NDMC has allocated 20,000 students to the
ISKON Food Relief Foundation and 10,000 students to Manjeet caterers. The
Department of Education has agreement with 17 NGOs to supply cooked food under
the MDMS to around 1,49,000 students in its primary and upper primary schools

NGOs have to abide to the nutrition and quantity parameters of the MDMS, a primary
school student must get a minimum of 12 grams of protein and 450 calories per
meal, while an upper primary student must get 20 grams of protein and 700 calories
per meal. A meal should have 100 gm of grains (rice/wheat).

NGOs claim that they abide all the rules and regulations set by the DOE for the
MDMS, but in contrast to their claims, NGOs harvest huge amount of monetary
benefits by compromising on the quantity(weight) and quality of food served to
children in various parts of India under MDMS. Also the grains allotted to them from

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FCI godowns which are supposed to go directly to the kitchen on these NGOs rather
is directed towards the factories of some rice and flour mills which are supposed to
provide the NGOs with flour and rice and NGOs reimburse them by the amount they
get from government for MDMS but instead mill owners process the high quality
grains provided for MDMS in manufacturing their own products and selling them in
market and whereas providing the NGOs with low quality products. On the other
hand, any other additional expense incurred by the NGOs for MDMS is reimbursed
by the government.

There is no proper safe drinking water available in the school so children drink
directly from the hand pump or tap water. The ground water is hard or may be
infected, water purifiers must be provided in the schools. The meals given are just
rice and dal, there should be chapattis (from Jowar/Bajra/millet) in addition some
sweets, milk products can be added, some schools also suggested eggs and fruits to
be given on alternate days or weekly, as we know eggs are whole food & good in

The food served is not enough more grains and oil to be given; children must be fed

Some schools also provide vitamin powder which is unknown to health, any type of
unknown things must not be provided, if to be given must be certified by health

Though there are school committees but they have found to be ineffective and just
on paper. Some proper and easy monitoring system must be evolved so that children
and MDM schemes carries its weight according to guidelines and its vision.

Most schools have very shabby infrastructure with no proper ventilation, toilet and
more over all school has cut-off to electricity, and many schools lacks play ground.

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The overall good infrastructure of schools needs to build at urgency& providing with
basic amenities.

7.2 MID DAY MEAL SCHEME and Education

Education plays a vital and important role in fulfilling the basic need of a common
man. Education is a process through which a child is made capable to acquire skills
to face the challenges in life to survive and to make a struggle for existence. Four
important factors are identified for achieving the goal of education for all. These are
access to education, Enrolment of children, Retention of the enrolled children and

Government of India keeps on launching various schemes that were implemented in

the primary education sector to reach the portion of population that is most
disadvantaged and needed to be strengthen. For Education for all, Government
introduced flagship programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. However despite that, a
few children are still deprived of Primary Education due to inability of their parents to
send their kids to school, as if they send their children to school , they incur extra
financial burden, which their children would have cure by doing labour. So make
forceful appeal to their parents to let their children in schools, government introduce
the pittance for students who has more than 85% of attendance. This scheme fulfill
Enrolment of children objective. Now as a sign of incentive for students to come
school regularly, Government Launched a scheme of National Programme of
nutritional support to primary education also known as Mid-Day-Meal Programme.
Under this scheme, students of primary classes were to be provided Nutritious Meal
for one time.

In MDM programme, a total of 11crore students are benefited. This scheme is grand
success. There are two sides of every coin. There are lot of improvement to be done
in this scheme.

The present paper deals with critical analysis of MDM and attempts to analyse the
before and after situation of governments effort in the form of this scheme.

Many researchers though out a long period of time have come to the conclusion
"heathy mind lives in a healthy body". To support this proven fact government of
India initiated many schemes in order to enrich stud

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The future of any nation depends upon the present of its children. Educated and
healthy children can build a strong and powerful nation. To achieve this twin
objective of educated and healthy children the government of India initiated a
national program of nutritional support to primary education known as mid-day meal

7.3 Build Teacher-Student Relationship

The teachers of the schools interviewed claimed that the school meals had an effect
on the school attendance. Some younger siblings of the children were being sent to
the school for having meals. The teacher in three schools said that the mid-day
meals scheme not only boosted daily attendance among his students, but also
helped to keep them in class for the duration of the school day. The teachers said
that student attendance had increased noticeably following the introduction of the
mid-day meals because "the meals we provided here were so much better than what
the children were getting at home." One teacher told us that some of the students
were also attending the school just for having mid-day meals and returned home
after having them. Teachers in five out of eleven schools also reported a surge in
daily attendance, which all of them attributed mainly to the school meal program.

Teachers in all schools said that the childrens academic performance had improved
because they no longer got hungry during the school day. This time there was delay
in delivery of new supplies even then the schools had enough food grains in storage
to provide meals for three-four days. The students were never asked to help the
cook with food preparation, and the meal programme was not burdensome for the
instructors or disruptive to teaching and learning activities. The firewood was
sometimes taken from the adjoining areas and community members also contributed
it sometimes.


Thus we can conclude that mid-day meal programme (MDM) has had a positive
impact in some selective cases (e.g., enhancing enrolment, attendance and lowering
retention and drop out of students) which are essential for achieving the higher level

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of academic performance of students particularly belongs to BPL level students
residing in the rural areas of upper primary schools. Furthermore, mid-day meal
program has some other benefits like removal of classroom hunger, social and
gender equality and formation of good habits of students (like washing their own
hands and utensils before meal ) other than academic achievement in school. But in
order to get satisfactory outcomes, mid-day meal program should be incorporated
with the on going health awareness programs of Government.


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