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Clutch

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For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation)
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clutch_(disambiguation)>.
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clutchdisc.jpg>
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clutchdisc.jpg>
Single, dry clutch friction disc. The splined
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spline_(mechanical)> hub is attached to
the disc with springs to damp chatter.
A *clutch* is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power
transmission especially from driving shaft
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driving_shaft> to driven shaft.
Clutches are used whenever the transmission of power or motion must be
controlled either in amount or over time (e.g., electric screwdrivers
limit how much torque is transmitted through use of a clutch; clutches
control whether automobiles transmit engine power to the wheels).
In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two
rotating shafts (drive shafts
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drive_shaft> or line shafts
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_shaft>). In these devices, one shaft
is typically attached to an engine or other power unit (the driving
member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power
for work. While typically the motions involved are rotary, linear
clutches are also possible.
In a torque-controlled drill <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drill>, for
instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill
chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so they may be locked together
and spin at the same speed (engaged), locked together but spinning at
different speeds (slipping), or unlocked and spinning at different
speeds (disengaged).

Contents
[hide]
* 1 Inter-locking Parts clutches <#Inter-locking_Parts_clutches>
* 2 Friction clutches <#Friction_clutches>
o 2.1 Materials <#Materials>
o 2.2 Push/pull <#Push.2Fpull>
o 2.3 Dampers <#Dampers>
o 2.4 Load <#Load>
o 2.5 Manufacturing <#Manufacturing>
o 2.6 Multiple plate clutch <#Multiple_plate_clutch>
o 2.7 Wet vs. dry systems <#Wet_vs._dry_systems>
o 2.8 Centrifugal clutch <#Centrifugal_clutch>
o 2.9 Cone clutch <#Cone_clutch>
o 2.10 Torque limiter <#Torque_limiter>
o 2.11 Non-slip clutches <#Non-slip_clutches>
* 3 Major types by application <#Major_types_by_application>
o 3.1 Vehicular (general) <#Vehicular_.28general.29>
+ 3.1.1 Automobile powertrain <#Automobile_powertrain>
+ 3.1.2 Motorcycles <#Motorcycles>
+ 3.1.3 Automobile non-powertrain <#Automobile_non-powertrain>
* 4 Other clutches and applications <#Other_clutches_and_applications>
o 4.1 Specialty clutches and applications
<#Specialty_clutches_and_applications>
+ 4.1.1 Single-revolution clutch <#Single-revolution_clutch>
+ 4.1.2 /Cascaded-pawl/ single-revolution clutches
<#Cascaded-pawl_single-revolution_clutches>
+ 4.1.3 /Kickback/ clutch-brakes <#Kickback_clutch-brakes>
+ 4.1.4 Lock-up clutch <#Lock-up_clutch>
* 5 See also <#See_also>
* 6 Notes <#Notes>
* 7 References <#References>
* 8 Further reading <#Further_reading>
* 9 External links <#External_links>

Inter-locking Parts clutches[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=1>]
This type of clutch has protruding circular edge and a hole for them
that engages and disengages during operation. This type is less
effective since human foot or hand power on clutching reaches about 10
KN or 1,000 kg.

Friction clutches[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=2>]
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Car_clutch.png>
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Car_clutch.png>
A friction clutch
The vast majority of clutches ultimately rely on frictional forces for
their operation. The purpose of friction clutches is to connect a moving
member to another that is moving at a different speed or stationary,
often to synchronize the speeds, and/or to transmit power. Usually, as
little slippage (difference in speeds) as possible between the two
members is desired.

Materials[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=3>]
Various materials have been used for the disc-friction facings,
including asbestos in the past. Modern clutches typically use a compound
organic <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compound> resin with
copper wire facing or a ceramic <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramic>
material. Ceramic materials are typically used in heavy applications
such as racing or heavy-duty hauling, though the harder ceramic
materials increase flywheel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel> and
pressure plate wear.
In the case of "wet" clutches, composite paper materials are very
common. Since these "wet" clutches typically use an oil bath or
flow-through cooling method for keeping the disc pack lubricated and
cooled, very little wear is seen when using composite paper materials.

Push/pull[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=4>]
Friction-disc clutches generally are classified as /push type/ or /pull
type/ depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lever> points. In a pull-type clutch, the
action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing, pulling on the
diaphragm spring and disengaging the vehicle drive. The opposite is true
with a push type, the release bearing is pushed into the clutch
disengaging the vehicle drive. In this instance, the release bearing can
be known as a thrust bearing
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrust_bearing> (as per the image above).

Dampers[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=5>]
A clutch damper is a device that softens the response of the clutch
engagement/disengagement. In automotive applications, this is often
provided by a mechanism in the clutch disc centres. In addition to the
damped disc centres, which reduce driveline vibration, pre-dampers may
be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by changing the natural frequency
of the disc. These weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial
vibrations of an idling engine. They are fully compressed and no longer
in use once the main damper springs take up drive.
Load[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=6>]
Mercedes truck examples: A clamp load of 33 kN is normal for a single
plate 430. The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23 kN.
Bursts speeds are typically around 5,000 rpm with the weakest point
being the facing rivet.

Manufacturing[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=7>]
Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of
the overall assembly and/or manufacturing method. For example, drive
straps are now commonly employed to transfer torque as well as lift the
pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive. With regard to the
manufacture of diaphragm springs, heat treatment is crucial. Laser
welding is becoming more common as a method of attaching the drive plate
to the disc ring with the laser typically being between 2-3KW and a feed
rate 1m/minute.

Multiple plate clutch[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=8>]
This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved or "stacked"
with several driven members. It is used in racing cars including Formula
1 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formula_One>, IndyCar
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IndyCar>, World Rally
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Rally_Championship> and even most
club racing. Multiplate clutches see much use in drag racing
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_racing>, which requires the best
acceleration possible, and is notorious for the abuse the clutch is
subjected to. Thus motorcycles
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle>, automatic transmissions
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_transmission> and in some
diesel locomotives <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_locomotive>
with mechanical transmissions. It is also used in some electronically
controlled all-wheel drive <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AWD_(vehicle)>
systems as well as in some transfer cases. They can also be found in
some heavy machinery <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_equipment>
such as tanks <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank> and AFV's
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armoured_fighting_vehicle> (T-54
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-54/55>) and earthmoving equipment
(front-end loaders <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loader_(equipment)>,
bulldozers <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulldozer>), as well as
components in certain types of limited slip differentials
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limited-slip_differential>. The benefit
in the case of motorsports is that you can achieve the same total
friction force with a much smaller overall diameter (or conversely, a
much greater friction force for the same diameter, important in cases
where a vehicle is modified <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_tuning>
with greater power, yet the maximum physical size of the clutch unit is
constrained by the clutch housing). In motorsports vehicles that run at
high engine/drivetrain <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drivetrain>
speeds, the smaller diameter reduces rotational inertia
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia>, making the drivetrain
components accelerate more rapidly, as well as reducing the angular
velocity <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_velocity> of the outer
areas of the clutch unit, which could become highly stressed and fail at
the extremely high drivetrain rotational rates achieved in sports such
as Formula 1 or drag racing. In the case of heavy equipment, which often
deal with very high torque <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque> forces
and drivetrain loads, a single plate clutch of the necessary strength
would be too large to easily package as a component of the driveline.
Another, different theme on the multiplate clutch is the clutches used
in the fastest classes of drag racing, highly specialized, purpose-built
cars such as Top Fuel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top_Fuel> or Funny
Car <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funny_Car>s. These cars are so
powerful that to attempt a start with a simple clutch would result in
complete loss of traction. To avoid this problem, Top Fuel cars actually
use a single, fixed gear ratio
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics)>, and a /series/
of clutches that are engaged one at a time, rather than in unison,
progressively allowing more power to the wheels. A single one of these
clutch plates (as designed) can not hold more than a fraction of the
power of the engine, so the driver starts with only the first clutch
engaged. This clutch is overwhelmed by the power of the engine, allowing
only a fraction of the power to the wheels, much like "slipping the
clutch" in a slower car, but working not requiring concentration from
the driver. As speed builds, the driver pulls a lever, which engages a
second clutch, sending a bit more of the engine power to the wheels, and
so on. This continues through several clutches until the car has reached
a speed where the last clutch can be engaged. With all clutches engaged,
the engine is now sending all of its power to the rear wheels. This is
far more predictable and repeatable than the driver manually slipping
the clutch himself and then shifting through the gears, given the
extreme violence of the run and the speed at which is all unfolds.
Another benefit is that there is no need to break the power flow in
order to swap gears (a conventional manual cannot transmit power while
between gears, which is important because 1/100ths of a second are
important in Top Fuel races). A traditional multiplate clutch would be
more prone to overheating and failure, as all the plates must be
subjected to heat and friction together until the clutch is fully
engaged, while a Top Fuel car keeps its last clutches in "reserve" until
the cars speed allows full engagement. It is relatively easy to design
the last stages to be much more powerful than the first, in order to
ensure they can absorb the power of the engine even if the first
clutches burn out or overheat from the extreme friction.

Wet vs. dry systems[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=9>]
A /wet clutch/ is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lubricating_fluid> that also keeps
surfaces clean and provides smoother performance and longer life. Wet
clutches, however, tend to lose some energy to the liquid. Since the
surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch
bathed in engine oil), stacking multiple clutch discs can compensate for
the lower coefficient of friction
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coefficient_of_friction> and so eliminate
slippage under power when fully engaged. The Hele-Shaw clutch
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hele-Shaw_clutch> was a wet clutch that
relied entirely on viscous effects, rather than on friction.^[1]
<#cite_note-1>
A /dry clutch/, as the name implies, is not bathed in liquid and uses
friction to engage.
Centrifugal clutch[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=10>
]
A centrifugal clutch <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_clutch>
is used in some vehicles (e.g., mopeds
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moped>) and also in other applications
where the speed of the engine defines the state of the clutch, for
example, in a chainsaw <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chainsaw>. This
clutch system employs centrifugal force
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_force> to automatically
engage the clutch when the engine rpm rises above a threshold and to
automatically disengage the clutch when the engine rpm falls low enough.
See Saxomat <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxomat> and Variomatic
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variomatic>.

Cone clutch[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=11>
]
As the name implies, a cone clutch
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone_clutch> has conical friction
surfaces. The cone's taper means that a given amount of movement of the
actuator makes the surfaces approach (or recede) much more slowly than
in a disc clutch. As well, a given amount of actuating force creates
more pressure on the mating surfaces. The best known example of a cone
clutch is a synchronizer ring
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchromesh> in a manual transmission.
The synchronizer ring is responsible for "synchronizing" the speeds of
the shift hub and the gear wheel to ensure a smooth gear change.

Torque limiter[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=12>
]
Also known as a slip clutch or /safety clutch/, this device allows a
rotating shaft to slip when higher than normal resistance is encountered
on a machine. An example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the
driving shaft of a large grass mower. The clutch yields if the blades
hit a rock, stump, or other immobile object, thus avoiding a potentially
damaging torque transfer to the engine, possibly twisting or fracturing
the crankshaft.
Motor-driven mechanical calculators
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_calculator> had these between
the drive motor and gear train, to limit damage when the mechanism
jammed, as motors used in such calculators had high stall torque and
were capable of causing damage to the mechanism if torque wasn't limited.
Carefully designed clutches operate, but continue to transmit maximum
permitted torque, in such tools as controlled-torque screwdrivers
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque_screwdriver>.

Non-slip clutches[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=13>
]
Some clutches are not designed to slip; torque may only be transmitted
either fully engaged or disengaged to avoid catastrophic damage. An
example of this is the dog clutch
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_clutch>, most commonly used in
non-synchromesh transmissions.

Major types by application[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=14>]

Vehicular (general)[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=15>
]
There are multiple designs of vehicle clutch, but most are based on one
or more friction <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friction> discs pressed
tightly together or against a flywheel
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel> using springs
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(device)>. The friction material
varies in composition depending on many considerations such as whether
the clutch is "dry" or "wet". Friction discs once contained asbestos
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos>, but this has been largely
discontinued. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks
and competition cars use ceramic plates that have a greatly increased
friction coefficient. However, these have a "grabby" action generally
considered unsuitable for passenger cars. The spring pressure
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure> is released when the clutch
pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the
pressure plate, depending on type. Raising the engine speed too high
while engaging the clutch causes excessive clutch plate wear. Engaging
the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a
harsh, jerky start. This kind of start is necessary and desirable in
drag racing <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_racing> and other
competitions, where speed is more important than comfort.

Automobile powertrain[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=1
6>]
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PilotShaftGuideTool.jpg>
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PilotShaftGuideTool.jpg>
This plastic pilot shaft guide tool is used to align the clutch disk as
the spring-loaded pressure plate is installed. The transmission's drive
splines and pilot shaft have a complementary shape. A number of such
devices fit various makes and models of drivetrains.
In a modern car <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile> with a manual
transmission <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission> the
clutch is operated by the left-most pedal
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile_pedal> using a hydraulic
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic> or cable
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable> connection from the pedal to the
clutch mechanism. On older cars the clutch might be operated by a
mechanical linkage. Even though the clutch may physically be located
very close to the pedal, such remote means of actuation are necessary to
eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine movement, engine
mountings being flexible by design. With a rigid mechanical linkage,
smooth engagement would be near-impossible because engine movement
inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up."
The default state of the clutch is /engaged/ - that is the connection
between engine and gearbox is always "on" unless the driver presses the
pedal and disengages it. If the engine is running with the clutch
engaged and the transmission in neutral, the engine spins the input
shaft of the transmission but power is not transmitted to the wheels.
The clutch is located between the engine and the gearbox, as disengaging
it is usually required to change gear. Although the gearbox does not
stop rotating during a gear change, there is no torque transmitted
through it, thus less friction between gears and their engagement dogs.
The output shaft of the gearbox is permanently connected to the final
drive <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Final_drive>, then the wheels, and
so both always rotate together, at a fixed speed ratio. With the clutch
disengaged, the gearbox input shaft is free to change its speed as the
internal ratio is changed. Any resulting difference in speed between the
engine and gearbox is evened out as the clutch slips slightly during
re-engagement.
Clutches in typical cars are mounted directly to the face of the
engine's flywheel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel>, as this
already provides a convenient large diameter steel disk that can act as
one driving plate of the clutch. Some racing clutches use small
multi-plate disk packs that are not part of the flywheel. Both clutch
and flywheel are enclosed in a conical bellhousing
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellhousing>, which (in a rear-wheel
drive car) usually forms the main mounting for the gearbox.
A few cars, notably the Alfa Romeo Alfetta
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfa_Romeo_Alfetta>, Porsche 924
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porsche_924>, and Chevrolet Corvette
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Corvette_(C5)> (since 1997),
sought a more even weight distribution between front and back^[note 1]
<#cite_note-2> by placing the weight of the transmission at the rear of
the car, combined with the rear axle to form a transaxle
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaxle>. The clutch was mounted with
the transaxle and so the propeller shaft rotated continuously with the
engine, even when in neutral gear or declutched.

Motorcycles[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=1
7>]
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Basket_clutch.png>
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Basket_clutch.png>
A basket clutch
Motorcycles typically employ a wet clutch with the clutch riding in the
same oil as the transmission. These clutches are usually made up of a
stack of alternating plain steel and friction plates. Some plates have
lugs on their inner diameters that lock them to the engine crankshaft.
Other plates have lugs on their outer diameters that lock them to a
basket that turns the transmission input shaft. A set of coil springs or
a diaphragm spring plate force the plates together when the clutch is
engaged.
On motorcycles <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle> the clutch is
operated by a hand lever on the left handlebar. No pressure on the lever
means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving), while pulling the
lever back towards the rider disengages the clutch plates through cable
or hydraulic actuation, allowing the rider to shift gears or coast.
Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slipper_clutch> to eliminate the effects
of engine braking <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine_braking>, which,
being applied only to the rear wheel, can cause instability.

Automobile non-powertrain[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=1
8>]
Cars use clutches in places other than the drive train. For example, a
belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a heat-activated clutch. The
driving and driven members are separated by a silicone-based fluid and a
valve controlled by a bimetallic spring
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimetallic_strip>. When the temperature
is low, the spring winds and closes the valve, which lets the fan spin
at about 20% to 30% of the shaft
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crankshaft> speed. As the temperature of
the spring rises, it unwinds and opens the valve, allowing fluid past
the valve, makes the fan spin at about 60% to 90% of shaft speed. Other
clutchessuch as for an air conditioning
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_conditioning>
compressorelectronically engage clutches using magnetic force to couple
the driving member to the driven member.

Other clutches and applications[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=19>]
* Belt clutch: Used on agricultural equipment, lawn mowers, tillers,
and snow blowers. Engine power is transmitted via a set of belts
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belt_(mechanical)> that are slack
when the engine is idling, but an idler pulley can tighten the belts
to increase friction between the belts and the pulleys.
* Dog clutch <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_clutch>: Utilized in
automobile manual transmissions mentioned above. Positive
engagement, non-slip. Typically used where slipping is not
acceptable and space is limited. Partial engagement under any
significant load can be destructive.
* Hydraulic clutch <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_coupling>: The
driving and driven members are not in physical contact; coupling is
hydrodynamic.
* Electromagnetic clutch
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_clutch> are,
typically, engaged by an electromagnet that is an integral part of
the clutch assembly. Another type, /magnetic particle clutches/,
contain magnetically influenced particles in a chamber between
driving and driven membersapplication of direct current
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_current> makes the particles
clump together and adhere to the operating surfaces. Engagement and
slippage are notably smooth.
* Overrunning clutch or freewheel
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freewheel>: If some external force
makes the driven member rotate faster than the driver, the clutch
effectively disengages. Examples include:
o Borg-Warner overdrive
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overdrive_(mechanics)>
transmissions in cars
o Ratchet: typical bicycles have these so that the rider can stop
pedaling and coast
o An oscillating member where this clutch can then convert the
oscillations into intermittent linear or rotational motion of
the complimentary member; others use ratchets with the pawl
mounted on a moving member
o The winding knob of a camera employs a (silent) wrap-spring type
as a clutch in winding and as a brake in preventing it from
being turned backwards.
o The rotor drive train in helicopters uses a freewheeling clutch
to disengage the rotors from the engine in the event of engine
failure, allowing the craft to safely descend by autorotation
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autorotation_(helicopter)>.
* Wrap-spring clutches: These have a helical spring, typically wound
with square-cross-section wire. These were developed in the late
19th and early 20th century.^[2] <#cite_note-3> ^[3] <#cite_note-4>
In simple form the spring is fastened at one end to the driven
member; its other end is unattached. The spring fits closely around
a cylindrical driving member. If the driving member rotates in the
direction that would unwind the spring the spring expands minutely
and slips although with some drag. Because of this, spring clutches
must typically be lubricated with light oil. Rotating the driving
member the other way makes the spring wrap itself tightly around the
driving surface and the clutch locks up very quickly. The torque
required to make a spring clutch slip grows exponentially
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grows_exponentially> with the number
of turns in the spring, obeying the capstan equation
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capstan_equation>.

Specialty clutches and applications[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=20>
]

Single-revolution clutch[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=2
1>]
Single-revolution clutches were developed in the 19th century to power
machinery such as shears
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shear_(sheet_metal)> or presses
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_press> where a single pull of the
operating lever or (later) press of a button would trip the mechanism,
engaging the clutch between the power source and the machine's
crankshaft <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crankshaft> for exactly one
revolution before disengaging the clutch. When the clutch is disengaged
and the driven member is stationary. Early designs were typically dog
clutches <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_clutch> with a cam
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cam> on the driven member used to
disengage the dogs at the appropriate point.^[4] <#cite_note-5> ^[5]
<#cite_note-6>
Greatly simplified single-revolution clutches were developed in the 20th
century, requiring much smaller operating forces and in some variations,
allowing for a fixed fraction of a revolution per operation.^[6]
<#cite_note-7> Fast action friction clutches replaced dog clutches in
some applications, eliminating the problem of impact loading on the dogs
every time the clutch engaged.^[7] <#cite_note-8> ^[8] <#cite_note-9>
In addition to their use in heavy manufacturing equipment,
single-revolution clutches were applied to numerous small machines. In
tabulating machines <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabulating_machine>,
for example, pressing the operate key would trip a single revolution
clutch to process the most recently entered number.^[9] <#cite_note-10>
In typesetting machines
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_metal_typesetting>, pressing any key
selected a particular character and also engaged a single rotation
clutch to cycle the mechanism to typeset that character.^[10]
<#cite_note-11> Similarly, in teleprinters
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleprinter>, the receipt of each
character tripped a single-revolution clutch to operate one cycle of the
print mechanism.^[11] <#cite_note-12>
In 1928, Frederick G. Creed
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_G._Creed> developed a
single-turn spring clutch (see above) that was particularly well suited
to the repetitive start-stop action required in teleprinters
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleprinter>.^[12] <#cite_note-13> In
1942, two employees of Pitney Bowes Postage Meter Company
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitney_Bowes> developed an improved
single turn spring clutch.^[13] <#cite_note-14> In these clutches, a
coil spring is wrapped around the driven shaft and held in an expanded
configuration by the trip lever. When tripped, the spring rapidly
contracts around the power shaft engaging the clutch. At the end of one
revolution, if the trip lever has been reset, it catches the end of the
spring (or a pawl attached to it) and the angular momentum
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_momentum> of the driven member
releases the tension on the spring. These clutches have long operating
lives, many have cycled for tens and perhaps hundreds of millions of
cycles without need of maintenance other than occasional lubrication.

/Cascaded-pawl/ single-revolution clutches[edit


<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=2
2>]
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TTY-ASR-33-Clutch.jpg>
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TTY-ASR-33-Clutch.jpg>
Cascaded-pawl single-revolution clutch driving the cam
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cam> cluster in a Teletype Model 33
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletype_Model_33> that performs fully
mechanical conversion of incoming asynchronous serial data
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_serial_communication> to
parallel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_communication> form.
The clutch drum, lower left, has been removed to expose the pawls and
trip projection.
These superseded wrap-spring single-revolution clutches in page
printers, such as teleprinters
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleprinter>, including the Teletype
Model 28 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletype_Model_28> and its
successors, using the same design principles. IBM Selectric typewriters
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Selectric_typewriter> also used them.
These are typically disc-shaped assemblies mounted on the driven shaft.
Inside the hollow disc-shaped drive drum are two or three freely
floating pawls arranged so that when the clutch is tripped, the pawls
spring outward much like the shoes in a drum brake
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake>. When engaged, the load
torque on each pawl transfers to the others to keep them engaged. These
clutches do not slip once locked up, and they engage very quickly, on
the order of milliseconds. A trip projection extends out from the
assembly. If the trip lever engaged this projection, the clutch was
disengaged. When the trip lever releases this projection, internal
springs and friction engage the clutch. The clutch then rotates one or
more turns, stopping when the trip lever again engages the trip projection.

/Kickback/ clutch-brakes[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=2
3>]
These mechanisms were found in some types of synchronous-motor-driven
electric clocks. Many different types of synchronous clock motors were
used, including the pre-World War II Hammond manual-start clocks. Some
types of self-starting synchronous motors always started when power was
applied, but in detail, their behaviour was chaotic and they were
equally likely to start rotating in the wrong direction. Coupled to the
rotor by one (or possibly two) stages of reduction gearing was a
wrap-spring clutch-brake. The spring did not rotate. One end was fixed;
the other was free. It rode freely but closely on the rotating member,
part of the clock's gear train. The clutch-brake locked up when rotated
backwards, but also had some spring action. The inertia of the rotor
going backwards engaged the clutch and wound the spring. As it unwound,
it restarted the motor in the correct direction. Some designs had no
explicit spring as suchbut were simply compliant mechanisms. The
mechanism was lubricated and wear did not present a problem.

Lock-up clutch[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=2
4>]
A Lock-up clutch is used in some automatic transmissions
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_transmission> for motor
vehicles. Above a certain speed (usually 60 km/h) it locks the torque
converter <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque_converter> to minimise
power loss and improve fuel efficiency.^[14] <#cite_note-15>

See also[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=25>]
* Clamp (disambiguation)
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clamp_(disambiguation)>
* Clutch control <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clutch_control>
* Coupling <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coupling>
* Dual-clutch transmission
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-clutch_transmission>
* Gear shift <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gear_shift>
* Hele-Shaw clutch <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hele-Shaw_clutch>
* Torque converter <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque_converter>
* Dual mass flywheel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual_mass_flywheel>
Notes[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=26>]
1. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-2>* This more even weight distribution gives
better handling, particularly for fast cornering. It offers much of
the balance advantage of a mid-engined layout, whilst still using a
front-engined rear-drive bodyshell.

References[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=27>]
1. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-1>* "From the Hele-Shaw Experiment to
IntegrableSystems: A Historical Overview"
<http://folk.uib.no/ava004/vasiliev.pdf> (PDF). University of
Bergen. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
2. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-3>* Analdo M. English, Friction-Clutch, US
255957
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US255957> ,
granted Apr. 4 1882.
3. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-4>* Charles C. Tillotson, Power-Transmission
Clutch, US 850981
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US850981> ,
granted Apr. 23, 1907.
4. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-5>* Frank Wheeler, Clutch and stop mechanism
for presses, US 470797
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US470797> ,
granted Dec. 14, 1891.
5. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-6>* Samuel Trethewey, Clutch, US 495686
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US495686> ,
granted Apr. 18, 1893.
6. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-7>* Fred. R. Allen, Clutch, US 1025043
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US1025043> ,
granted Apr. 30, 1912.
7. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-8>* John J. Zeitz, Friction-clutch, US 906181
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US906181> ,
granted Dec. 8, 1908.
8. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-9>* William Lautenschlager, Friction Clutch,
US 1439314
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US1439314> ,
granted Dec. 19, 1922.
9. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-10>* Fred. M. Carroll, Key adding device for
tabulating machines, US 1848106
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US1848106> ,
granted Mar. 8, 1932.
10. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-11>* Clifton Chisholm, Typesetting machine, US
1889914
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US1889914> ,
granted Dec. 6, 1932.
11. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-12>* Arthur H, Adams, Selecting and typing
means for printing telegraphs, US 2161840
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US2161840> ,
issued Jun. 13, 1928.
12. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-13>* Frederick G. Creed
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_G._Creed>, Clutch
Mechanism, US 1659724
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US1659724> ,
granted Feb. 21, 1928
13. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-14>* Alva G. Russell, Alfred Burkhardt, and
Samuel E. Calhoun, Spring Clutch, US 2298970
<https://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US2298970> ,
granted Oct. 13, 1942.
14. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-15>* "What is Lock-up Clutch Mechanism?"
<http://youronlinemechanic.com/what-is-lock-up-clutch-mechanism/>.
Your Online Mechanic. Retrieved 2014-07-17.

Further reading[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=28>]
* Sclater, Neil. (2011). "Clutches and brakes." /Mechanisms and
Mechanical Devices Sourcebook./ 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
pp. 211234. ISBN 9780071704427
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780071704427>.
Drawings and designs of various clutches.

External links[edit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clutch&action=edit&section=29>]
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Commons-logo.svg> Wikimedia Commons
has media related to /*Clutch (coupling)
<https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Clutches>*/.
* HowStuffWorks has a detailed explanation
<http://auto.howstuffworks.com/clutch.htm> of the working of an
automobile clutch.
[hide <#>]
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/Part of the Automobile <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile> series/
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuously_variable_transmission>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_(mechanical_device)>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct-shift_gearbox>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-clutch_transmission>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrohydraulic_manual_transmission>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrorheological_clutch>
* Epicyclic gearing <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicyclic_gearing>
* Fluid coupling <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_coupling>
* Friction drive <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friction_drive>
* Gear stick <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gear_stick>
* Giubo <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giubo>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limited-slip_differential>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locking_differential>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-automatic_transmission>
* Shift by wire <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shift_by_wire>
* Torque converter <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque_converter>
* Transaxle <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaxle>
* Transmission control unit
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_control_unit>
* Universal joint <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_joint>
Wheels and Tires
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o Rim <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rim_(wheel)>
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<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle_drivetrain>
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