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Muhammad Afif Rusydi bin Md Khalil, Muhammad Farhan Bin Ibrahim, Mohamad
Adlan Bin Zamri, Muhammad Efendi Bin Asmat 4, Izzati Emalia Bt Azhar5, Erin
Marissa Bt Ramlan6, Maizatul Akmar Bt Yusup7, Zaila Maizuroh Bt Abd Muin8
Civil Division Faculty of Engineering (University Selangor)

This paper reports the principle, procedure, and results acquired while
conducting the Skid Resistance test. In this test, the skid resistance of a road
pavement is measured using a Portable Skid Resistance tester. This is the most
widely used method of measuring the skid resistance of the road pavement as it
is easy to handle. The road pavement selected are tested at three locations
which is at the centre, corner, and parking space. Three readings are taken at
each location to find the average. The test is conducted on dry and wet condition
of the pavement. It is important to note that the higher skid resistance, the lower
chance of skidding. The significance of this study is that the results will be able
to determine the skid resistance on a road pavement so that safety measures
can be taken if the skid resistance is too low.
Keywords: skid resistance, road pavement, skidding

A crucial factor or requirement for highway engineer with a practical
road pavement is that is should means of obtaining reliable scientific
possess adequate skid resistance. evidence on which to take
Skid resistance is important for road appropriate measures to reduce
safety. With skid resistance it allows skidding
better grip between the tyres of a
Skid resistance is road surface
vehicle and the road surface. Most
property which characterises road
road surfaces have adequate skid
pavement roughness, impact on
resistance in dry conditions
friction forces when the pavement is
compared to wet conditions. The
exposed to the wheel load. Friction is
presence of water between tyres and
described as a movement resistance
road surface reduces the contact
of two surfaces in at their contact
area which are needed to create the
location. Friction is expressed via
grip. This method describes the
friction coefficient which is a sum
procedure for determining the
value of two acting forces, one is
frictional properties (skid resistance
parallel to contact surface between
value) of a pavement surface using a
two bodies and opposite to their
Portable Skid Resistance tester. The
movement direction (friction force),
instrument, which gives a measure of
and other acting force is
friction between a skidding tyre and
perpendicular to the contact surface
dry/wet road surface in low speed
(normal force)
situation (<50km/h). It provides the


Skid resistance value can also be 2. Water

considered as a measure of grip
between the tyres and the road
surface. The higher the skid
resistance, the more difficult it is for
the tyres of a vehicle to skid. The
significance of this test is to obtain a
value of skid resistance to further
investigate the factors affecting it,
thus taking safety measures if the
road surface tested does not possess
adequate skid resistance. This is very
important to prevent unwanted road
accidents from happening.
The aim of this paper is to carry out Figure 1: Portable
the Skid Resistance test on three Skid Resistance
different locations on a road Tester
pavement, which are the centre, PROCEDURE
corner, and parking space of a road,
for dry and wet conditions of the 1. The Portable Skid
road. The objective is to determine Resistance Tester is set up
the skid resistance value of road on the center of a road and
pavement surface on all three adjusted so that the center
locations, during dry and wet column is vertical.
conditions. The results of the test is 2. The height of the pivot is
observed and compared, further adjusted so that the arms
discussing the factors affecting the swing freely without
results. touching the road surface.
Check that is swings freely
through to the zero scale.
OBJECTIVE 3. The pivot height is lowered
so that the friction foot is in
This test method measures the skid contact with the road
resistance value by placing the surface over the precise
Portable Skid Resistance Tester on a distance (150mm) as
road surface and activating the shown by the gauge (scale
apparatus for both dry and wet rule) which is placed
conditions. alongside.
4. The pendulum arm is
raised to the starting
MATERIALS / APPARATUS position and the retaining
catch is engaged.
1. Portable Skid Resistance Tester 5. The pendulum is released
and caught to prevent back
swing which could disturb
the reading. The reading of
the pointer is taken. The
step is repeated for
another four times to get
an average reading.


6. The road surface is watered From the observation and results, it

(wet), then step 5 is is determined that the skid
repeated to get readings resistance value at the center of the
during wet conditions. road is 17.2 for dry surface and 13.3
7. Steps 1 until 6 is repeated for wet surface, at the car park is
at the corner of a road and 17.4 for dry surface and 11.0 for wet
parking space. surface, and at the edge of the road
is 19.3 for dry surface and 10.7 for
wet surface respectively
Table 1: Road Skid Resistance
Theoretically, the skid resistance
Pavement value on wet surfaces should be
Condition Dry Wetlower than on dry surfaces because
Pavement Location the presence of water reduces the
R1 12.0 12.0contact area between the tyres and
R2 19.5 11.0the road surface, thus decreasing
Center R3 17.5 12.0grip. From the results, it is observed
R4 18.0 16.0that all readings for wet conditions at
R5 19.0 15.5all three locations are lower than the
Average 17.2 13.3readings for dry conditions. Thus, it
R1 14.5 14.0can be concluded that the
R2 18.0 11.0experiment was theoretically correct.
Car Park R3 19.0 10.0
R4 16.5 10.0But, whether the values of the skid
R5 19.0 10.0resistance are accurate or not is not
Average 17.4 11.0guaranteed. This is because of the
R1 19.0 11.5possibilities of errors done during the
R2 19.5 10.0experiment. One possible error is
Edge R3 20.0 10.0that when the pendulum arm swings,
R4 16.5 10.0it is difficult to ensure that the rubber
R5 21.5 12.0slider is in contact with the road
Average 19.3 10.7surface over 150mm distance. Then,
during the experiment, the handling
of the apparatus may have moved
Example calculation the apparatus away from its original
Pavement Location Center: position or became unbalance when
trying to repeat the swings to get
Average (Dry) = several readings. This causes the
R 1+ R 2+ R 3+ R 4+ R5 rubber slider to contact with a
5 different surface which will give a
different reading. Other possible
= errors are parallax errors such as
misreading the measurement on the
12+19.5+17.5+18+ 19
The decrease of skid resistance on
= 17.2 road surfaces can be because of
several factors. Road pavements will
all decrease in skid resistance over
time of service under the effect of
repeated traffic. Repeated traffic load
DISCUSSION on the road pavement will polish the


aggregates, which is the main factor Skid resistance is one of the

affecting the grip on the road. Based substantial factors which ensure safe
on the results, the least skid travelling on vehicle roads.
resistance is at the center of the Developing road pavements with
road, which is probably the most high skid resistance is essential to
exposed part of the road towards grip the vehicles on the road thus
traffic load. Next, is the car park, prevent skidding. But, if skid
then the edge of the road which is resistance is too high it is less
probably the least exposed surface economical because it will wear the
towards traffic load, which is why it tyres of the vehicles. Therefore, a
has the highest skid resistance. high and suitable skid resistance is
best for making road pavements.

Most accurate results can only be
obtained if the procedures are Kane, M.; Scharnigg, K. 2009. Report
conducted carefully without on different parameters influencing
mistakes. In this experiment, we skid resistance, rolling resistance and
must make sure the Portable noise emissions. TYROSAFE project
Pendulum Skid Resistance tester is deliverable D10, 95 p.
balanced and stationery for as long
as taking the readings at one
location. Make sure the apparatus
does not move away from its original
position to ensure the rubber slider Skid Resistance Test & Sand Patch
contacts the same surface for all Test. URL:
readings at one location. Then, to https://prezi.com/hmtes02tee64/skid-
avoid parallax errors, be sure to read resistance-test-sand-patch-test-_-
the measurements on eye level. pavement-engineering-_-uthm-_-
Another step that could be done to sami-jamal-humaid/
minimize the error is to take more
readings, such as eight or ten
readings for each location and Evaluation of skid resistance
condition. characteristics and measurement
methods report. URL:
CONCLUSION VIRO_2014/Articles/4/141_Andriejaus
Based on the test conducted, the
skid resistance value at the center of
the road is 17.2 for dry surface and Skid Resistance, British Pendulum
13.3 for wet surface, at the car park Tester and Full Scale Tyre Friction
is 17.4 for dry surface and 11.0 for Test.
wet surface, and at the edge of the URL:
road is 19.3 for dry surface and 10.7 http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/file
for wet surface respectively. s/lab_note_8_skid_resistance_test_an