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Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support

___________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 11 : LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT Score __/__

WORKSHEET 11.1 : Locomotion And Support in Humans And Animals

A. Fill in the blanks.


1. The ability of an organism to move known as ______________________
2. A skeletal structure found inside the body of an organism called
_______________________
3. A skeletal structure found outside the body of an organism __________________
4. The locomotive structures of fish called ______________________
5. A body cavity filled with fluid that allows movement known as ____________________
6. A compound of calcium phosphate that made up the skeletal structure is ______________

[6 marks]
B. Complete the following graphic organiser

To search the food


1.

Necessity of
locomotion

2.

For muscle attachment

Function of
skeletal system

[7 marks]

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009

11.1/1
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

C. Complete in the mind map of human skeleton.

HUMAN
SKELETON

Consists of

Appendicular
P: _____________ skeleton

Pectoral Girdle Q: ____________ Pelvic Girdle R: ____________

-Skull - Scapula -Humerus - Ischium -Femur


-Vertebral -Radius -________
Columns - ________ - ________ - _________ - ________
- _______ - Carpals - Tarsal
- ________ - ________ - __________ - ________
- ________ -_________

[12 marks]

2. Diagram 1 shows the human skeleton. Label the structure in the diagram.

A: _____________

C:_____________ B: ____________.
_.
D: _____________
H: _____________
E: ____________.
F: _____________
I: _____________.
G: _____________

J: _____________

L: _____________ K: _____________

[12 marks]

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
11.1/2
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

Diagram 1
3. Diagram 2 shows a human vertebral column. Label the structures and state the number of
P, Q., R, S and T.

P:

Total number of vertebrae =

Q:

R:

S:

T:
Diagram 2 [ 5 marks]

4. Diagram 3 shows a human lumbar vertebra. Label the structures and state its function
in the boxes provided.

A: ______________________
D:_______________________ Function: _________________
Function: _________________
B: _______________________
E: ______________________ Function: _________________
Function: _________________
C:______________________
F: _______________________ Function: _________________.
Function: _________________.

Diagram 3
[ 12 marks]

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009

11.1/3
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

ANSWERS Score __/__

WORKSHEET 11.1 : Locomotion And Support in Humans And Animals


A. Fill in the blank.
1. The ability of an organism to move known as LOCOMOTION
2. A skeletal structure found inside the body of an organism called ENDOSKELETON
3. A skeletal structure found outside the body of an organism EXOSKELETON
4. The locomotive structures of fish called FINS
5. A body cavity filled with fluid that allows movement known as HYDROSTATIC SKELETON
6. A compound of calcium phosphate that made up the skeletal structure is BONE
[6 marks]
B. Complete the following graphic organiser

To search the food


1.
Run away from predators
Necessity of
ii) In search of
locomotion
Search for the mate
shelter
iii) To run away from
search for the shelter
predators
iv) Carry out daily
activities
2.
Provide shape and support
State 5 main functions of
skeleton.
i) Enable
For muscle movements
attachment
ii) Provide shape and
Function of
Protects internal organs
support
skeletal system
iii) Protects internal
Produces
organsblood cells

iv) Produces blood


Stores calcium and phosphate
cells
v) Stores calcium
and phosphate [7 marks]

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009

11.1/4
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

C. Fill in the mind map of human skeleton.

HUMAN
SKELETON
Consists of

Appendicular
P: Axial Skeleton skeleton

Pectoral Girdle Q: Forelimb Pelvic Girdle R: Hind limb

-Humerus -Femur
-Skull - Scapula -Radius - Ischium - Tibia
-Vertebral - Ulna - patella
Columns - clavicle - Carpals - Ilium - Fibula
- Metacarpals - Tarsal
- sternums - Phalanges - Pubis - Metatarsal
- ribs - Phalanges

2. Diagram 1 shows the human skeleton. Label the structures A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K.

A: Skull

C: Clavicle B: Vertebral column


D: Scapula
H: Ribs
E: Humerus

F: Radius
I: Pelvic girdle
G: Ulna

J: Femur
L: Fibula
K: Tibia.

Diagram 1

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
11.1/5
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

3. Diagram 2 shows a human vertebral column. Label the structures and state the number
of P, Q., R, S and T.

7 P: Cervical

Total number of vertebrae = 33


12
Q: Thoracic

5 R: Lumbar
5
S: Sacral

T: Coccyx 4

4. Diagram 3 shows a human lumbar vertebra. Label the structures and state its
function in the box provided.

A: Spinous process
For muscle attachment
D: Vertebral arch
Protects the spinal cord

B: Facets
To articulate or join with another
E: Transverse process vertebra
For muscle attachment

C: Neural canal
To contain spinal cord
F: Centrum
Gives support and able to
withstand compression force

Diagram 3

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
11.1/6
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________
Score __/__
WORKSHEET 11.2 : Joints
1. Label the diagram.

U: _____________

W: _______________.
V: _____________
X: ______________

Y: ______________
Z: ______________
Diagram 1
[6 marks]

2. Based on Diagram 1, complete the sentences.


i. ________________ are tissues which can contract and relax to allow
movement of the bones.
ii. Skeletal muscles are generally attached to at least two bones through ________
iii. ____________ are flexible, strong and elastic connective tissue that join bones
to other bones in the joint area.
iv. ________________ is secreted by __________________ acts as a lubricant
and reduces friction between bones during movement.
v. ______________ is a soft tissue that reduces friction and absorbs mechanical
shock during movement.
[6 marks]

3. State the 3 types of joints based on its function and give some examples.

Type of joints Function Examples


Allows the movement of bones in all directions
Allows the movement of bones in one plane only
Allows a very slightly movement of the bones

[6 marks]
ANSWERS

11.2/1
_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________
Score __/__
WORKSHEET 11.2 : Joints
1. Label the diagram.

U: Biceps Muscles

W: Ligaments
V: Tendon
X: Synovial
membrane

Y: Synovial fluid
Z: Cartilage
Diagram 1
2. Based on Diagram 1, complete the sentences.
i. Skeletal muscles are tissues which can contract and relax to allow movement
of the bones.
ii. Skeletal muscles are generally attached to at least two bones through tendons.
iii. Ligaments are flexible, strong and elastic connective tissue that joins bones to
other bones in the joint area.
iv. Synovial fluid is secreted by Synovial membrane acts as a lubricant and
reduces friction between bones during movement.
v. Cartilage is a soft tissue that reduces friction and absorbs mechanical shock
during movement.
c) State the 3 types of joints based on its function and give some examples.

Type of joints Function Examples


Ball and socket joints Allows the movement of bones in all directions Shoulder/ Hip
joints
Pelvic / pectoral
Hinge joints Allows the movement of bones in one plane only Knee / elbow

Immovable joints Not allowed a any movement of the bones Skull

Score __/__
WORKSHEET 11.3 : Locomotion In A Fish

2. Diagram 1 shows the locomotion in fish. Answer the following questions.


11.2/2
_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

Diagram 1
a) Blocks of muscle on each side of the backbone are called ____________________
b) Explain the antagonistic action of the muscles while moving forward.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[ 3 marks]
c) Match the following structure of the fins with its function.
Fins Function
Dorsal fin Steering, to change direction and as a
brake to slow down or stop the movement
Pectoral fin Balancing and to keep the fish steady by
preventing diving and rolling movement
Pelvic fin The propulsion organ/Provides trust and
controls direction
Ventral fin Balancing by preventing rocking and and
rolling movement
Caudal fin Balancing by preventing rocking and and
rolling movement
[ 5 marks]
b) State two factors which allow fish to move easily through the water.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

[ 2 marks]

Score __/__
ANSWERS
WORKSHEET 11.3 : Locomotion In A Fish
1. Diagram 1 shows the locomotion in fish. Answer the following questions.
11.3/1

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

Diagram 1
a) Blocks of muscle on each side of the backbone.are called Myotome
b) Explain the antagonistic action of the muscles while moving forward.
When the myotome on the left side contracts, the myotome on the right side
relaxes. As a result, the tail will bend to the left.
Then, the contraction and relaxation of muscles occur vice versa.
The continuous sweeping movement of the tail from side to side produces the
thrust that propels the fish forward.
c) Match the following structure of the fins with its function.
Fins Function
Dorsal fin Steering, to change direction and as a
brake to slow down or stop the movement
Pectoral fin Balancing and to keep the fish steady by
preventing diving and rolling movement
Pelvic fin The propulsion organ/Provides trust and
controls direction
Ventral fin Balancing by preventing rocking and
rolling movement
Caudal fin Balancing by preventing rocking and
rolling movement
d) State two factors which allow fish to move easily through the water.
Fish has a streamlined body shape minimize the frictional drag
Has slimy scales that overlap one another backwards

Score __/__
WORKSHEET 11.4 Impaired Musculoskeletal System

11.3/2

3. Fill in the blanks using the following terms.

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

ARTHRITIS CARTILAGE RHEUMATOID URIC GOUT


ACID

MUSCULAR SYNOVIAL
JOINTS NOURISHMENT WEAK MEMBRANE
DYSTROPHY

a) ________________ is a genetic disorder of the muscle tissues caused by the lack of


________________ and causes the muscles to become very _________________
b) _________________is the inflammation of ____________________
c) ______________ is most common in older people where the top layer of
___________________wears away.
d) _____________ arthritis causes inflammation of the ______________ of the joints.
e) ____________ is condition that results from deposition of _________in the joints.
[10 marks]

4. Underline the correct answer in the bracket.

a) This disease is related to the thinning of bones or the bone becomes porous and
brittle. (Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, Osteotitis)
b) Osteoporosis is caused by the lack of (protein, vitamin B, calcium) intake.
c) To enhanced calcium absorption, (vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E) is needed in the
body.
d) When standing, a good posture should show the head, body and limbs in a
(straight, curve, smooth) line.
e) Muscular dystrophy is a disease of the skeletal muscle in which the muscles
gradually (develop, degenerate, inflamed)

[5 marks]

Take a balanced diet consist


of calcium and phosphorus

3. Appreciate a healthy musculoskeletal system


11.4/1

Ways to maintain healthy


musculoskeletal system

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

[3 marks]

ANSWERS
Score __/__
11.4/2
WORKSHEET 11.4 Impaired Musculoskeletal System

1. Fill in the blanks using the following terms.

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

ARTHRITIS CARTILAGE RHEUMATOID URIC GOUT


ACID

MUSCULAR SYNOVIAL
JOINTS NOURISHMENT WEAK MEMBRANE
DYSTROPHY

a) Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder of the muscle tissues caused by


the lack of nourishment and causes the muscles to become
very weak.

b) Arthritis is the inflammation of joints


c) Osteoarthritis is most common in older people where the top layer
of cartilage wears away.
d) Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the synovial membrane
of the joints.
e) Gout is condition that results from deposition of uric acid
in the joints.

2. Underline the correct answer in the bracket.


a) This disease is related to the thinning of bones or the bone becomes porous
and brittle. (Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, Osteotitis)
b) Osteoporosis is caused by the lack of (protein, vitamin B, calcium) intake.
c) To enhanced calcium absorption, (vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E) is
needed in the body.
d) When standing, a good posture should show the head, body and limbs in a
(straight, curve, smooth) line.
e) Muscular dystrophy is a disease of the skeletal muscle in which the muscles
gradually (develop, degenerate, inflamed)

Take a balanced diet consist


of calcium and phosphorus
3. Suggest ways to maintain a healthy musculoskeletal system.
11.4/3
Good posture

Ways to maintain healthy


musculoskeletal system
Proper attire for daily
activities
_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009

Exercise
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

WORKSHEET 11.5 : Support System In Plants Score __/__

11.4/4
1. State the importance of the support in plants by filling in the boxes provided.
Importance of support in
plants
To ensure the fruits are in
strategic position for effective
dispersal of seeds
_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

[3 marks]

2. Match the type of plants with its type stem which can support the aquatic plants.
Type of the plants Tissue in stem Name of the structure

Submerge Aerenchyma
plants tissue that
contains air

Vascular
Floating bundle
plants

Air sacs under


Terrestrial the leaves
plants surface

[6 marks]

To allow leaves in proper


position for maximum
ANSWERS absorption of sunlight
Score __/__

WORKSHEET 11.5 : Support System In Plants To allow plant to grow11.5/1


towards sunlight in order for
Importance of support in photosynthesis
1. State the importance of support in plants by filling in the boxes provided.
plants
To ensure the fruits are in
strategic position for
effective dispersal of seeds
_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009
To allow the plants to stay
upright
Name :_____________________________ Chapter 11 Locomotion And Support
___________________________________________________________________________

2. Match the type of plants with its type stem which can support the aquatic plants.
Type of the plants Tissue in stem Name of the structure

Submerge Aerenchyma
plants tissue that
contains air

Floating Vascular
plants bundle

Air sacs under


Terrestrial the leaves
plants surface

11.5/2

_____________________________________________________________________________
WAJA BIOLOGY 2009 YLKONG@SMKSARATOK2009