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Table of Contents

Introduction..1

Review of Literature3

Problem Statement...6

Experimental Design....7

Data and Observations...11

Data Analysis and Interpretation...19

Conclusion.28

Acknowledgements....32

Appendix A: Trials Randomization.......33

Appendix B: Sample Calculations.34

Works Cited...38

Introduction
Goudie-McCloskey 1

Every time we use our smartphone or computer monitor, we damage our body more and

more. With technology evolving as much as it has, much of what is done everyday involves a

screen or some form of artificially produced light. Sources of blue light include the sun, digital

screens (TVs, computers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets), electronic devices, and fluorescent

and LED lighting(Blue Light Exposed). These light sources can produce ultraviolet (UV) rays.

Some of the lower visible light spectrum, the blue to violet range (350 nm to 390 nm), still emits

ultraviolet rays. This range of visible light is scientifically referred to as Blue Light or

ultraviolet A rays. When blue light travels through the atmosphere, it scatters off of air molecules,

and makes the sky look blue(Blue Light Exposed). Ultraviolet B rays (380 nm to 500 nm,

which is outside of the visible light spectrum) were also recorded.

Ultraviolet radiation can be very harmful to ones eyes and skin since it is a type of

radiation. Research shows that it may contribute to the causation of cancer, diabetes,

heart disease, and obesity(Blue light has). In the eye, it can cause increased deterioration of

the retina or even macular degeneration, which can cause blindness with age. It can also mess

with melatonin levels, causing one to have more restless sleep or even insomnia. Ultraviolet rays

can also cause problems with ones skin such as redness, irritation, or even cancer. The primary

source of UV radiation comes from the sun, but years of being exposed to UV radiation emitted

by everyday light sources can have the same negative effects.

This research had two goals. The first was to find which emitted the most ultraviolet rays

and blue light: phones, computer monitors, or LED lights. The stronger the light intensity read by

the UV sensors, the more ultraviolet radiation is given off by the device. The research was

entirely conducted within a dark room in order to prevent any light not coming from the light

sources from being recorded. A website that strobed colors for all the phones and computer

monitors was used. Every device was recorded 10 times using both sensors. Ultraviolet A and
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ultraviolet B were both measured to measure blue light emitted as well as any invisible ultraviolet

radiation given off. An ANOVA test was then used to compare each light source to one another.

The second goal was to find which prevented the most ultraviolet A, a yellow filter or a

polarizer filter. Whichever filter blocks the most light intensity is the one that better protects. The

yellow filter, when filtering blue light, produces a white light that has little to no ultraviolet

radiation. The polarizer filter allows only perpendicular light rays to pass through it, blocking any

rays that are not coming from directly above the sensor. The sun was used as a light source for the

filters because it would show a larger difference to compare between filters. The ultraviolet A and

ultraviolet B light intensity of the sun were measured ten times with no filter as a control for our

research. Then for each filter, the light intensity of the sun without the filter was first recorded,

then the light intensity with the filter was recorded. The light intensity found with the filter was

then subtracted from the light intensity when the filter was not used, giving us the difference in

light intensities. These differences were then compared using a t test. The combination of an

ANOVA test and a t test will reveal if any device is more dangerous than another and what filter

can best protect you.

This research has many real life applications and branches into other researches. From

where you should watch television or read books, to whether or not staying up late on the

computer is what's causing someone to go blind. Some forms of depression, can be helped with

a careful amount of UV light can help. Electronics can be re-engineered to be safer than ever

before. With proper protection and knowledge, the likelihood of getting cataracts and cancer

would decrease. This research can help make important technology safer and be applied to an

array of researches.

Review of Literature
Goudie-McCloskey 3

This experiment determined which common light source produces the most

ultraviolet rays (UV) and which filter greatest reduces the effects of the rays. The

common light sources that were tested were an LED, a computer monitor, and a phone

because they are common and unintentionally produce UV rays. Ultraviolet rays, over

time, have numerous negative symptoms on the human body. This experiment also

uses filters to find what blocks the UV light the most from these light sources. The filters

that were tested were a polarizing filter, a yellow filter, and no filter. Polarizing and

yellow filters are commonly found in sun glasses to reduce the UV rays, and the no filter

acts as a control.

Understanding the electromagnetic spectrum is very important for this

research. The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of light energy, from radio waves

to gamma rays. Light has a dual nature because although it is a particle, it is measured

by its wavelength, the distance between peaks. The wavelength determines what type

of light it is on the electromagnetic spectrum. The visible light of the spectrum can have

a wavelength from 350 nanometers (nm) to 750 nm as seen in figure 1, with the upper

UV portion, ultraviolet A, overlapping at 340 nm to 390 nm. This means that some

visible light can have UV radiation. The UVA sensor used measures from 320 nm to 390

nm, and the UVB sensor measures from 290 nm to 320 nm. Our atmosphere generally

protects us from UV radiation below 280 nm (Good). The range of the UVA and UVB

sensor combined ensures that any form of ultraviolet radiation given off by the light

sources are measured.


Goudie-McCloskey 4

Figure 1. Electromagnetic Spectrum (Chapter 10)

Figure 1 is the electromagnetic spectrum. It goes from the largest

wavelength with the least energy (radio waves) to the smallest wavelength with the

most energy (cosmic rays). In this experiment, the visible light portion along with the the

ultraviolet violet section were used.

Another important topic for this research is filters. A filter is a translucent

material that affects a lights color or intensity. This experiment used two filters, a yellow

one and a polarizing one. The yellow filter was used to cancel out the blue light in the

UV portion of the visible light. A yellow filter was used because blue and yellow are

complimentary colored lights (UV-visible), as lights they combine to make white light.

This is due to the properties of lights and waves; while light can be split into three

simple colors: red, green, and blue. When all three are combined, a white light is

formed, but when red and green light is combined, a yellow light is formed. This yellow

light is what is being added with the yellow filter because when the light passes through
Goudie-McCloskey 5

it, the blue lights are absorbed, and when combined with the ultraviolet blue light,

makes a non ultraviolet white light. The polarizing filter is used to simulate sunglasses

with polarizing filters in them. The polarizing filters in the sunglasses block some of the

UV rays, but more importantly they reduce glare and non direct light. All monitors and

screens have 2 polarizing strips built in, in order to prevent backlight and glare.

Therefore the polarizing filter was the same angle as the filters in the screen and

allowed a lot of light through, but increase the amount of glare and backlight blocked.

Finally, the control was no filter, which simulated looking at these common light sources

without any form of protection.

A similar study was the research on the effect of ultraviolet light on the circadian

sleep cycle done by the Sleep Laboratories of Flinders University (Re-Timer).

Ordinarily, the pineal gland...begins to release melatonin a couple of hours before your

regular bedtime [however], light - particularly of the blue variety - can keep the pineal

gland from releasing melatonin, thus warding off sleepiness(Meerl). Their research, like

this one, studied ultraviolet radiation. The research in this study sought to find which

type of device emitted the most ultraviolet radiation while the research by the Sleep

Laboratories of Flinders University focused on the effects of radiation on the sleep

patterns.

To conclude, many common sources of light produce levels of ultraviolet

radiation. The stronger the light intensity read by the sensors, the more UV rays are

being emitted. This radiation can be dampened by having the light travel through a filter.

Ultraviolet light has numerous negative side effects on the human body. This research

measures how much ultraviolet light is given off by common light sources and which

filters best dampen the amount of UV given off.


Goudie-McCloskey 6

Problem Statement

Problem:

To determine which source gives off the most amount of ultraviolet light and

which filter blocks the most amount of ultraviolet light.

Hypothesis:

The computer screen with no filter will produce the highest amount of ultraviolet

radiation, and the polarizer filter will block the most of the ultraviolet light from the sun.

Data Measured:

The independent variables for this research were the light sources (computer

monitor, phone, and LED light) and the filters (yellow and polarizer). The dependent

variable was the intensity of the ultraviolet rays being produced. An analysis of variance

(ANOVA) was used to compare each of the three light sources populations, and a t-test

was used to compare the amount of ultraviolet light blocked by the two filters

populations. Ten trial of each light source were compared and then ten trials of both

filters were compared.

Experimental Design

Materials:
Goudie-McCloskey 7

Labquest (2) Clamps


Vernier UVA Sensor Polarizing Filter
Vernier UVB Sensor Yellow filter
Meter Stick Level
Dell Laptop Hyundai computer monitor
2) White LED Lights Extension cord (optional)
Iphone 5s Light Fixture
Samsung Galaxy Note 4 Stand
TI-Nspire Calculator Dark room

Procedure:

Setup For The Light Sources

1. Randomize the trial order using the TI-Nspire, see Appendix A

2. Find a place with minimum interfering lighting to set up in, a dark room would be best.

3. Plug the Vernier UVA and UVB sensors into the labquest.

4. Put the Vernier UVA and UVB sensors in clamps on stands.

6. Level sensors with the level.

Data Collection For The Light Sources

7. Line up the middle of the light source ten centimeters away from the sensors, and
make the light source perpendicular to the table.

8. Adjust the height of the clamps so the sensors are pointed at the center of the light
source.

9. Turn on the light source.

10. For the phone and monitor, set it to strobe through a multitude of colors.
Ducksarethebest.com was used for this experiment.

11. Record the mean of the data from the labquest.

12. Turn off light source.

13. Change light source and repeat steps six through eleven.

Data Collection For The Filters

14. Place both sensors in a clamp and point them directly up at the sky.

15. Stand back and record the mean of the data from the Labquest.
Goudie-McCloskey 8

16. Promptly record the mean of the data gathered.

17. Place the filter over the sensors making sure that nothing but the filter is on the
sensor.

18. Record the mean of the data from the Labquest again.

19. Find the difference from the no filter to the filter.

20. Remove the filter and repeat steps 15 through 19 with the next filter.

Diagrams:

Figure 2. Experiment Setup

Figure 2 displays the setup of the experiment to measure the amount of milliwatts

per meter2 of the desktop computer monitor. The milliwatts per meter2 is measured by

the sensors that are set 10 cm away from the light source.
Goudie-McCloskey 9

Figure 3. Materials

Figure 3 shows the materials used in this experiment. The TI-nspire is not

pictured, along with the level, the Iphone 5s, the Samsung Galaxy Note 4, the extension

cord, and the dark room.


Goudie-McCloskey 10

Figure 4. Labquest Data Sample

Figure 4 shows the data recorded from a trial in the experiment. The mean is

acquired by going into the analysis tab and pressing Statistics. The mean for this trial is

seen to be 1.42 milliwatts per meter2, and the units can be seen in the lower left hand

corner.

Data and Observations


Data:
Goudie-McCloskey 11

Table 1
LED
Trial Number LED type Light Intensity (milliwatts per
meter2)

2 Warm light -2.134

7 Soft light -2.744

12 Warm Light -2.099

14 Warm Light -2.072

19 Warm Light -2.072

23 Warm Light -2.067

25 Soft light -2.816

27 Warm light -2.037

28 Soft light -3.002

30 Soft light -2.837

Table 1 shows the mean of the light intensity over a 20 second period from the

LED, and which light was used for each trial.

Table 2
Computer monitor
Trial Number Monitor type Light Intensity (milliwatts
per meter2)

1 Monitor -0.2800

4 Laptop 0.08640

5 Laptop -0.2490

6 Monitor -0.1089

Trial Number Monitor type Light Intensity (milliwatts


per meter2)

8 Laptop -0.2957
Goudie-McCloskey 12

13 Laptop -0.1556

15 Monitor -0.4980

16 Monitor 0.6070

17 Monitor -0.3012

20 Monitor -0.4537

Table 2 shows the mean of the light intensity over a 20 second period from the

monitor, and which monitor was used for each trial.

Table 3
Phone
Trial Number Phone type Light Intensity (milliwatts
per meter2)

3 Iphone 5s -1.987

9 Galaxy Tab 4 -1.515

10 Galaxy Tab 4 -1.437

11 Galaxy Tab 4 -1.441

18 Iphone 5s -1.990

21 Iphone 5s -1.98

22 Galaxy Tab 4 -1.420

24 Iphone 5s -1.993

26 Iphone 5s -1.961

29 Galaxy Tab 4 -1.386

Table 3 shows the mean of the light intensity over a 20 second period from the

smartphone, and which phone was used for each trial.

Table 4
No filter
Trial Light Intensity (UVA) Light Intensity (UVB)
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(milliwatts per meter2) (milliwatts per meter2)

2 3530 252.8

5 4612 346.1

6 5059 368.9

11 4976 367.9

16 4668 337.0

17 3654 274.2

20 2931 219.7

27 3355 251.8

28 3633 273.3

30 2855 214.8

Table 4 shows the mean light intensity over a 20 second period recorded from the

sun with no filter covering the sensors.

Table 5
Yellow filter
Trial Light Intensity Difference Light Intensity Difference
(UVA) (milliwatts per meter2) (UVB) (milliwatts per meter2)

1 3502 278

3 3720 290.5

8 2395 190.9

Trial Light Intensity Difference Light Intensity Difference


(UVA) (milliwatts per meter2) (UVB) (milliwatts per meter2)

10 2710 222.7

13 2950 232.1

14 2503 201.7

19 2361 192.2
Goudie-McCloskey 14

22 2482 199.7

26 2801 228.1

29 2604 215.3

Table 5 shows the difference in mean light intensities over a 20 second period

recorded from the sun when the yellow filter covered the sensors.

Table 6
Polarizer filter
Trial Light Intensity Difference Light Intensity Difference
(UVA) (milliwatts per meter2) (UVB) (milliwatts per meter2)

4 4427 344.5

7 5868 437.2

9 3943 301.0

12 3104 237.4

15 3135 242.2

18 3510 273.5

21 4258 330.4

23 4220 337.9

24 5124 402.5

25 5451 417.7

Table 6 shows the difference in mean light intensities over a 20 second period

recorded from the sun when the polarizer filter covered the sensors.

Table 7
Average Light Intensity of Light sources
Light Source Phone Monitor Led Light
Light Intensity(milliwatts per
meter2) -1.711 -0.1649 -2.388
Goudie-McCloskey 15

Table 7 shows the average light intensity, in milliwatts per meter2, for each of the

light sources. For average intensity, phones emitted -1.711 milliwatts per meter2,

computer monitors emitted -0.1649 milliwatts per meter2, and LED lights emitted -2.388

milliwatts per meter2.

Table 8
Average Difference in Light Intensity Due to Filter
Averages
(g) No filter Yellow Filter Polarizer Filter
Light Intensity UVA
(milliwatts per meter2) 3927 2803 4304
Light Intensity UVB
(milliwatts per meter2) 290.7 225.1 332.4

Table 8 shows the average light intensity, in milliWatts per meter2, for each of the

filters. For average intensity, no filter results in a difference 3927 milliwatts per meter2 of

ultraviolet A and 290.7 milliwatts per meter2 of ultraviolet B, yellow filter results in a

difference of 2803 milliwatts per meter2 ultraviolet A and 225.1 milliwatts per meter2 of

ultraviolet B, and polarizer filter results in a difference of 4304 milliwatts per meter2 of

ultraviolet A and 332.4 milliwatts per meter2 of ultraviolet B.

Observations:

Table 9
Observations
Trial Light/Filter Observations

4 Filter Stands and clamps were brought out to hold


the sensors steady

5 Filter The sun came out of from behind the clouds,


resulting in a slightly higher light intensity

6 Light It was discovered that moving outside of the


Goudie-McCloskey 16

room causes data to spike

7 Light A second noodle was used to block the gap on


the bottom of the door to prevent the data
from being skewed by any light outside of the
room.

17 Filter The sun came out of from behind the clouds,


resulting in a slightly higher light intensity

26 Filter The sun came out of from behind the clouds,


resulting in a slightly higher light intensity

27 Filter The sun came out of from behind the clouds,


resulting in a slightly higher light intensity

Table 9 shows any notable observations recorded while during our trials.

Figure 4. Light source trial

Figure 4 shows a trial in which the light intensity of a common light source, the

computer monitor, was measured. For both the monitors and the phones

http://ducksarethebest.com/ was used, which strobed through a variety of colors. The


Goudie-McCloskey 17

sensors are set ten centimeters away from the screen. When recording, the lights are

turned off and any light shining under the doors are blocked. The Labquest is also

covered so the sensors do not read any ambient light given off by it.

Figure 5. Measuring the effect of filters trails

Figure 5 shows a trial where the effect of the filter, such as the polarizer filter, is

measured. First the light intensity is measured without the filter, then with the filter held

over the sensors. The light intensity when the filter is applied is then subtracted from the

light intensity when the filter is not applied. These differences are then recorded on the

laptop.
Goudie-McCloskey 18

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Many steps were taken to ensure accurate recordings of the ultraviolet intensity

from LEDs, monitors, phones, as well as sunlight with no filter, yellow filter, or polarizer

filter in this experiment. The first step taken was repetition of trials to ensure consistency.

Sixty trials were run; thirty of the trials tested different light sources and the other thirty

trials tested different filters. Of the thirty trials dealing with light sources, ten used

cellphones, ten used computer monitors, and ten used LED lights. Of the thirty trials

dealing with filters, ten used no filter, ten used yellow filter, and ten used polarizer filter.

Repetition of trials is important because it helps to determine if there are any outliers or

significant changes in data. The next step was to randomize the trials. The order of the

trials was determined by generating random integers (see Appendix A). The order of the

trials determined which light source or which filter to use. Randomization of trials

reduces bias which lowers the chance of getting data that is skewed in one direction.

Lastly, all of the trials were performed in the same manner under the same conditions

ensuring all of the trials were exposed to the same testing environment to reduce the

effects of lurking variables.

The purpose of this experiment was to determine which commonly found light

source of cell phones, computer monitors, and LEDs produced the most UV rays, and

which filter of no filter, yellow filter, and polarizer filter blocked the most UV rays. The

statistical test used for this experiment was an ANOVA test along with multiple two-

sample t-tests. The ANOVA test was the best for this experiment because it compares
Goudie-McCloskey 19

multiple means from three different types of populations, and the two-sample t-tests were

used to compare means from the data that showed some overlap in the ANOVA test.

Figure 6. Box Plot of Light Source Intensity

Figure 6 compares the box plots of the testing of the different light sources. The

means for the phone and the LED are close, but there is no overlap and the data for the

monitor shows a much higher intensity than the others. This means that the monitor emits

a significantly higher UVB intensity. The data for the LED also is very left skewed which

means that much of the data lies to the right of the mean, but there is an equal amount of

data on each side of the median. There is also an outlier for the data from the phone that

could cause the mean to shift.


Goudie-McCloskey 20

Figure 7. Box Plot of the Difference in Ultraviolet A Intensity.

Figure 7 compares the box plots of the difference in the Ultraviolet A with the

testing of the different filters. About 25 percent of the data from the polarizer filter

overlays a little less than 25 percent of the data from the yellow filter, but the yellow

filter has an outlier which may have caused some skewing. As for the means of the filters,

they are relatively far apart. The outlier skewed the mean of the yellow filter causing it to

be closer to the mean of the polarizer filter. This implies that the polarizer filter emits a

significantly higher UVA intensity than the yellow filter. Other than that outlier, the

yellow filter looks to be very slightly right skewed, and the polarizer filter, though it has a

large range, appears normal.


Goudie-McCloskey 21

Figure 8. Box Plot of the Difference in ultraviolet B Intensity.

Figure 8 compares the box plots of the difference in the ultraviolet B with the

different filters. Much like figure 7, figure 8 shows some overlap but there is more of an

overlap of the filters with UVB than the 25 percent of UVA as seen in figure 7. As for the

means of the filters, they are relatively far apart. The outlier skewed the mean of the

yellow filter causing it to be closer to the mean of the polarizer filter. This implies that the

polarizer filter emits a significantly higher UVA intensity than the yellow filter. There is

also an an outlier which may cause the data to be more right skewed than it appears in

this figure. The data from the polarizer filter appears to be normal.
Goudie-McCloskey 22

Figure 9. ANOVA Statistical Test Results

Figure 9 shows the results for the ANOVA test (Appendix B) that was run on the

data. An ANOVA test compares the means of all populations, in this case the different

phones, monitors, and LEDs, in order to determine if they all equal each other. Having an

extremely low PVal indicates that the alternative hypothesis, listed below, is true when

compared to the alpha level of 0.0.5. The alpha level is a measure of significance that the

PVal is compared to.

Table 10
Sample Standard Deviations
Light source Phone Monitor LED
xi -1.711 -0.1821 -2.388
si 0.2877 0.3078 0.4031
n 10 10 10

Table 10 shows the sample means and standard deviations of the three different

variables. These were used in the assumptions to help determine if the ANOVA test

results are completely valid.


Goudie-McCloskey 23

Assumptions:
There are 10 simple random samples for each of the three different
populations
The data appears to come from a normal population based on the box plots
(Figure 6)
The lowest sample standard deviation (0.2877) is not less than half of the
largest sample standard deviation (0.4031), so continue with caution

Ho: 1=2=3 , Ha: Not all of 1, 2, or 3, are equal

Reject Ho, that states that each of the light sources produced the same intensity of

ultraviolet rays, because the alpha level of 0.05 is greater than the p-value of 8.14227*10-

14
. There is no evidence that the means of each of the different types of trials are all equal

to each other. There is a basically 0% chance that results as extreme as these came from

chance alone if Ho were held true.

Table 11
Two-Sample t-Test of the Ultraviolet A Intensity Difference of the Yellow Filter and the
Polarizer Filter
Goudie-McCloskey 24

Figure 10. Shaded P-Value

Table 11 shows the

results of the two-sample t-test

(Appendix B) on the ultraviolet

A intensity difference with the

yellow filter and the polarizers.

Figure 10 shows the shaded area

of the p-value, which is very

hard to see as it is 2.870 x 10-4.

Assumptions:
Two simple random samples from two different filters
Both samples are normally distributed based on the box plots (Figures 7)
Neither sample has 30 data points, but the data is normal so proceed with
caution
The population of all light intensity of ultraviolet A is greater than ten
times the sample size, of the total trials of 100.

Ho: 1=2 , Ha: 1>2

1=Mean ultraviolet A intensity blocked by the polarizer filter

2=Mean ultraviolet A intensity blocked by the yellow filter

Reject Ho with an alpha level of 0.05, which is greater than the p-value of 2.870 x

10-4. There is evidence that the polarizer filter blocks more ultraviolet A rays than the

yellow filter. If Ho were true, there would be an almost 0% chance of getting the results

that were gotten.

Table 12
Two-Sample t-Test of the Ultraviolet B Intensity Difference of the Yellow Filter and the
Polarizer Filter
Goudie-McCloskey 25

Figure 11. Shaded P-Value

Table 2 shows the results

of the two-sample t-test

(Appendix B) on the ultraviolet

B intensity difference with the

yellow filter and the polarizers.

Figure 11 shows the shaded area

of the p-value, which is very

hard to see as it is a very small value.

Assumptions:
Two simple random samples from two different filters
Both samples are normally distributed based on the box plots (Figures 8)
Neither sample has 30 data points, but the data is normal so proceed with
caution
The population of all light intensity of ultraviolet A is greater than ten
times the sample size, of the total trials of 100

Ho: 1=2 , Ha: 1>2

1=Mean ultraviolet B intensity blocked by the polarizer filter

2=Mean ultraviolet B intensity blocked by the yellow filter

Reject Ho with an alpha level of 0.05, which is greater than the p-value of 4.160 x

10-4. There is evidence that the polarizer filter blocks more ultraviolet B rays than the

yellow filter. If Ho were true, there would be an almost 0% chance of getting the results

that were gotten.


Goudie-McCloskey 26

Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to determine which light source of LEDs,

computer monitors, or phones produces the highest ultraviolet intensity and to determine

which filter of a yellow filter or a polarizer filter blocked most of this intensity. Since

there were three light sources being tested, an ANOVA statistical test was used to

compare the mean light intensity of each sample from each population. The polarizer and

yellow filters were analyzed with a two sample t-test. The hypothesis that the monitor

would produce the highest intensity of ultraviolet light was accepted with p-value of

8.140 * 10-14, as seen in figure 9 on page 23, and the polarizer filter would block the most

intensity of ultraviolet A light was accepted with a p-value of 2.870 * 10-4, as seen in

figure 10 on page 25, and also block the most ultraviolet B intensity with a p-value 4.160

* 10-4, as seen in figure 11 on page 26.


Goudie-McCloskey 27

The results from the experiment support the hypothesis. The mean of the

ultraviolet B intensity for the monitor was -0.1694 mW/m2, which was much higher than

the mean intensity of the phone, -1.711 mW/m2, and the LED, -2.388 mW/m2. The UVA

sensor did not read any intensity for the light sources, but this does not mean there are

none. There is a possibility that there was ultraviolet A radiation emitted by the light

sources, but the intensity was not strong enough to be read by the sensor. As for the

filters, the polarizer filter blocked more of the ultraviolet A and B than the yellow filter.

The mean for the difference in ultraviolet A intensity with the polarizer filter was 4304

mW/m2, which is significantly higher than the difference with the yellow filter, 2803

mW/m2. The mean for the difference in ultraviolet B intensity with the polarizer filter was

332.4 mW/m2, which is also significantly higher than the difference with the yellow filter,

225.1 mW/m2. Though the polarizer filter had a larger range for blocking both the

ultraviolet A and B intensity than the yellow filter, it does not make the data less credible.

The fact that no intensity for the ultraviolet A is a result of the small overlap of the

ultraviolet A wavelengths and the visible light spectrum.The UVA sensor would only read

waves from 315 nm to 400 nm(Light and Eye), and the visible light spectrum is from

350 nm to 750 nm, and there was only 50 nm of overlap. The polarizer filter was

determined to be the better filter based on the results of the experiment, and the science

behind the polarizer filter supports it. A polarizer filter blocks any non perpendicular

light, and much of the ultraviolet rays from the sun are scattered by the atmosphere. This

allowed most of the ultraviolet rays to be blocked by the polarizer filter. As for the yellow

filter, it was meant to block the visible light portion of the ultraviolet rays by making the

blue or violet light white. When adding light, a blue or violet light added with yellow
Goudie-McCloskey 28

light (a combination of red and green light) make a white light which does not fall under

the ultraviolet portion of the visible light spectrum. The yellow filter used for this

experiment was slightly opaque which may have increased the amount of intensity it

blocked.

The light sources were used because they are very prominent in everyday life.

More light sources could have been tested, but the data would have only applied to a

smaller audience. The website used to simulate a more realistic amount of colors that are

seen when using a computer than a still image was https://www.ducksarethebest.com .

Multiple of each light source type were used to find a mean that better represented the

population. The filters were tested using the sun since there was no evidence of

ultraviolet A being emitted from the screen to be blocked by the filter. The experimental

design constructed for this experiment allowed for the experiment to be done in a timely

manner. Although the experiment was a success, there were some possible errors that

were encountered. One possible error that was noticed was the fact that moving outside

the darkroom caused some variation with the ultraviolet B. This was concluded to be due

to some ultraviolet rays being emitted in the next room, and the researches stood

completely still during each trial to prevent variation from the movement. Another

possible error that may have affected the data was the filters not being perpendicular to

the light source, but the range for each light source was small enough to continue the

research with caution.

This research can be applied to many fields. If furthered, devices could be made

safer and lessen the chance of someone contracting cancer or macular degeneration at an

early age. When looking into what materials to build a screen out of, companies can make
Goudie-McCloskey 29

a safer decision for their customers. People will also know to reduce the amount of time

spent looking at a computer or phone a day. When it comes to sunglasses, polarized ones

are the best at protecting us from ultraviolet rays. People can also choose to wear

polarized glasses when indoors to reduce the effects from LEDs and different screens.

This research could be redone in many ways. If this research were to be

continued, one could use different light sources or filters to see if other filters or

alternative light sources are safer. Different environments could also be used to measure

the amount of ultraviolet radiation a person experiences, for example, offices or schools.

It would be advised to use an UVA sensor that is more sensitive than the one used in this

experiment to record very low amounts of radiation. Since the sun is the primary source

of ultraviolet radiation, the best method of protection from the sun's powerful rays could

be researched. The possibilities for future research are endless

To reiterate, this research was to determine which commonly found light source

produced the highest intensity of ultraviolet rays and which filter, polarizer or yellow, is

best at reducing ultraviolet intensity. This was determined through an ANOVA test and

the use of multiple t-tests. This research will help prevent possible causes of cancer from

becoming a big problem, and it will help reduce macular degeneration at an early age. It

will be used to help find new possible sources of ultraviolet rays and at the same time,

reduce their negative effects on humans. This research will help further research to

determine what light sources produce more ultraviolet rays and better ways to further

reduce the intensity of these rays.


Goudie-McCloskey 30

Acknowledgements

Mr. McMillian
Mrs. Cybulski
Mr. Supal
Our Parents
Goudie-McCloskey 31

Appendix A: Trials Randomization

Materials:

TI-Nspire Calculator

Procedure:

1. Assign each trial an integer from one to n, n being the total number of trials..

2. In the Calculate tab on your calculator, hit menu.

3. Hit menu and scroll down to 5: Probability, hit enter.

4. Scroll down to 4: Random, hit enter.

5. Scroll down to 6: Seed, hit enter.

6. Type in a seed. It can be any number you wish.

7. Repeat steps 3 and 4.

8. Scroll down to 2: Integer, hit enter.

9. Type in one comma n (n is the number you previously assigned to your highest
value) Ex.(1,5) The number that appears will be your first trial.

10. Repeat steps 7 through 9, assigning each trial to however many times you
generated a number. If a number comes up twice, ignore it and continue.

Appendix B: Sample Calculations


Goudie-McCloskey 32

ANOVA:

An ANOVA test was run on the results to decide if the means of the three samples

are equal or not. In order to do this, the sum of all of the results is divided by the sum of

the trials in order to receive the sample mean of all of the data. The mean square group of

the data, or the variation among sample means between each population, is then

calculated by dividing the sum of each product of the sample size and the square of the

difference in the sample mean and overall sample mean by the number of sample minus

one. The next step is to find the mean square error, or the variation among individuals in

all samples of each population. To do this, the sum of the products of each trials number

of observations minus one and the square of its sample standard deviation must be

divided by the difference in total number of observations and the amount samples. The

quotient of the mean square group and the mean square error gives the value for the F-

distribution, which is used with the degrees of freedom to achieve a p-value. The degrees

of freedom are found by dividing the number of samples minus one by the difference in

the total number of observations and the number of samples. For all ANOVA tests the

null hypothesis is that all of the means are equal to each other, and the alternative

hypothesis is that all the means are not equal to each other i.e. Ho: 1=2=3=4 , Ha:

1234.

x n1 x 1+n2 x2 +n3 x 3+n4 x 4



N

x 10(1.711)+10(0.18215)+10(2.388)

30

x= -1.42705

Figure 12. Calculation of x


Goudie-McCloskey 33

Figure 12 shows the calculation of the statistic x-bar for the overall data. This will

be used to solve for the rest of the variables used in the ANOVA test.

n1 (x 1x )2 +n2 (x 2x )2 +n 3( x3 x)2
MSG=
I 1
2 2 2
10(1.7111.42705) +10 (0.182151.42705) +10(2.3881.42705)
MSG=
31

MSG= 12.7691

Figure 13. Sample Mean Squared Group Calculation

Figure 13 shows the calculations for the MSG used in the ANOVA test. The MSG

is like the average of the I squared deviations of the means of the samples from x-bar, the

weighted average all.

(n11) S 12 +(n21) S 22+(n31)S 32


MSE=
N I
2 2 2
(101)0.287731 +(101) 0.307789 +(101) 0.403114
MSE=
303

MSE= 0.332878

Figure 14. Sample Mean Squared Error Calculation

Figure 14 show the sample calculation for the MSE of the ANOVA test. The MSE

represents the variation among individuals in all samples of each population.

MSG
F=
MSE

12.7691
F=
0.332878

F= 38.3597

Figure 15. F Statistic Sample Calculation


Goudie-McCloskey 34

Figure 15 shows the sample calculation for the F statistic. The F statistic is what is

used to find the P-value of the ANOVA test.

I 1
DF=
NI

31
DF=
303

DF = 0.074074

Figure 16. Degrees of Freedom Sample Calculation

Figure 16 shows the sample calculation for the degrees of freedom. The Degrees

of Freedom are used in tandem with the F statistics and the statistical Table for p values

(or similar tools) to find the P-value. In this case the P-value is equal to 8.14*10-14.

Two-Sample t-Test:

A two-sample t-test was run on the results to decide if the means of two samples

differ significantly. The mean of yellow filter (UVA), x 1 , minus the mean of polarizer

filter (UVB), x 2 , over the square root of the sample deviation of yellow filter (UVA)

and polarizer filter (UVB), s 1 , squared over the population of yellow filter (UVA) and

polarizer filter (UVB), n1 , plus the sample deviation of high wrapping and low gauge,

s 2 , squared over the population of high wrapping and low gauge, n2 , equals t .

Units differ based on the data collected depending on different experiments.

x 1x 2
t=

The variable t is the number of standard deviations away from 0 that ( x 1x 2 ) is on

a t-distribution with degrees of freedom equal to (n-1) where n is the lower of the two

sample sizes. Shown below is a sample calculation using the above formula. The data

used in the calculation is from the experiment.


Goudie-McCloskey 35

x 1x 2
t=

43042802.68
t=

t= 0.924359

Figure 17. Statistical test sample calculation

Figure 17, above, shows a sample calculation for a statistical test. To correlate a

t-value with a p-value, a t-table or a more sophisticated calculation tool must be used.

Using a table with nine degrees of freedom, a t-value of 4.78 would correspond to a p-

value less than 0.0005 . Using a more sophisticated calculation tool, a t-value of 0.9244

can be associated with a p-value of 0.3794.

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