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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Oxford Handbooks Online


Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Steven D. Zohn
Subject: Music, Musicology and Music History Online Publication Date: Apr 2016
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935321.013.120

Abstract and Keywords

Georg Philipp Telemanns Musique de table (1733) has become emblematic of a long and
rich Tafelmusik tradition in which music accompanied meals of all types. Yet the
collections relationship to this tradition has never been adequately explained, nor has
the tradition itself attracted much scholarly attention. Drawing on a variety of sources,
including published music, visual artworks, treatises on courtly etiquette, festival books,
travel diaries, and menus, this article relates the Musique de table to Tafelmusik
composed and performed across Europe from the late medieval period through the
Enlightenment. Such rich contextualization suggests how Telemanns music might have
functioned in a banquet setting (placement of musicians, intermittent versus continuous
performance) and interacted with the highly ritualized aspects of celebratory meals. It
also clarifies the musics status vis--vis other published examples of Tafelmusik from the
late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Keywords: Georg Philipp Telemann, Musique de table, Tafelmusik, banquet music, courtly etiquette, rituals,
tradition, seventeenth century, eighteenth century

Georg Philipp Telemanns Musique de table of 1733 is not only the composers best
known collection of music, but also has become emblematic of a long and rich Tafelmusik
tradition in which music accompanied meals of all types, from devotional hymns sung
during lunches and dinners in private homes to orchestrally scored suites and serenatas
entertaining distinguished guests at lavish banquets held by courts or municipalities.
Consisting of over four hours of instrumental ensemble music, the collections cornucopia
of styles and scorings is easilyeven irresistiblylikened to a table bursting with all
manner of culinary delights. And yet the relationship of this vivid music to the Tafelmusik
tradition has never been adequately explained. Nor has the tradition itself attracted much
scholarly attention beyond a historical investigation of the term Tafelmusik, a few
iconographical studies, and the occasional article focused on a particular repertory.1 This
essay attempts to answer several questions posed by Telemanns Musique de table,

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

questions that also bear, more broadly, on the status of Tafelmusik from the late medieval
period through the Enlightenment: Could the music really have functioned in a banquet
setting, and if so, how might it have interacted with the highly ritualized aspects of
celebratory meals? To what extent is the collection representative of works performed
and published as Tafelmusik during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries?
More practically speaking, where would the musicians have been placed in banquet
spaces, and would they have performed intermittently or continuously during the meal?

Telemann was certainly no stranger to the Tafelmusik tradition when he embarked on the
Musique de table project. Many of the cantatas and serenatas he wrote for weddings,
birthdays, and political events throughout his long career are likely to have been heard at
banquets, though at present only a handful of these, in addition to a single instrumental
work, can be confirmed as Tafelmusiken. One of Telemanns duties as Concertmeister at
the Sorau court in 1705 was to play violin bey der Tafel. And upon being named
secretary of the Sachsen-Eisenach court in 1709 (after assuming the position of
Kapellmeister the year before), he earned a place at the Marschallstafel, an honor he
had also enjoyed at Sorau.2 Thus, early in his career Telemann led performances of
Tafelmusik, dined to the accompaniment of it (insofar as he himself did not participate in
all performances), and presumably composed it. As Eisenach Kapellmeister in absentia
from 1717, he was responsible for providing works for ordinary Tafel-Music, which
consisted of instrumental pieces in various scorings.3 In addition, three of his vocal works
composed for the court are identified as Taffel-Music in their printed librettos.4 The
text of the opening aria to the wedding cantata Lustig bei dem Hochzeits-Schmause,
TVWV 11:28, possibly composed during the composers Frankfurt period (17121720),
suggests the works function as Tafelmusik for a less illustrious audience: Lustig bey
dem Hochzeitsschmause, / schwenkt die Glser, schenket ein / von dem allerbesten
Wein, / den ihr habt in ganzen Hause (Merry at the wedding feast, swing the glasses,
pour out the very best wine you have in the whole house).5

At Hamburg (17211767), Telemann had further opportunities to compose Tafelmusik.


Starting in 1719, the annual banquet for the captains of the civil guard (Brgerkapitne)
called for an oratorio before the meal and a serenata as Tafelmusik during the meal.6
Telemann produced thirty-six oratorio-serenata pairs between 1723 and 1766 (the
banquet was not held in some years). In 1723 he also provided music for the centennial
celebration of the Hamburg Admiralty, an organization that oversaw all naval concerns of
the city state, including the protection of its merchant vessels from pirates. On this
occasion his characteristic overture-suite TWV 55:C3, known as the Wasser-Ouverture,
introduced the serenata Unschtzbarer Vorwurf erkenntlicher Sinnen, TVWV 24:1. An
eyewitness to the festivities reported that during the dinner Herr Telemann performed a

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

very pleasant piece of music and, separately, an excellent serenata.7 Two years later,
during a visit to Hamburg by Duke August Wilhelm of Brandenburg-Wolfenbttel, a
dinner was held at which Herr Telemann performed a beautiful serenata [the lost Auf
zur Freude, zum Scherzen, zum Klingen, TVWV 13:6] with forty musicians, and at the
toast the cannons, drums, and trumpets boldly let themselves be heard.8 In 1732
Telemann provided another serenata, O erhabnes Glck der Ehe, TVWV 11:15c, as
Tafelmusik for the golden wedding anniversary of the Hamburg senator Matthias
Mutzenbecher and his wife, Maria Catharina. The vocal parts were performed by singers
from the Hamburg Opera, the director of which agreed to close the theater on that day.9

Telemann began advertising the Musique de table in 1732, soliciting advance


subscriptions for the three installments that would appear during the following year at
Ascension, Michaelmas, and Christmas.10 Immense in scope, innovative in organization,
and encyclopedic in surveying all the principal instrumental styles and genres of the time,
the collection was issued under the following title in 1733:

MUSIQUE de TABLE, / partage en Trois Productions, / dont chacune contient / 1


Ouverture avec la suite, 7 instrumens, / 1 Quatuor, / 1 Concert, 7, / 1 Trio, / 1
Solo, / 1 Conclusion, 7, / et dont les instrumens se diversifient par tout.

MUSIQUE de TABLE, divided into Three Productions, each of which contains 1


Ouverture with its suite for seven instruments, 1 Quartet, 1 Concerto for seven
[instruments], 1 Trio, 1 Solo, 1 Conclusion for seven [instruments], and in which
the instruments are everywhere varied.11

Each production is unified by the shared scoring and tonality of its opening overture-suite
and conclusion, as well as by a close tonal relationship between the conclusion and
preceding solo for melody instrument and continuo. Otherwise, variety of scoring,
tonality, and style ensure that any sense of coherence among the six works is relatively
weak.12

The response to Telemanns subscription offer was strong. He had calculated correctly
that the Musique de table, as a prestige publication by virtue of its size and association
with princely banqueting, would be met with enthusiasm by noble and royal patrons,
professional musicians, and those interested in the music for recreational purposes. The
printed partbooks include a beautifully engraved list of the advance subscribers
(Prnumeranten), something practically unheard of outside the London publishing
scene.13 In fact, only one other Telemann publication, the Nouveaux quatuors (Paris,
1738), included such a list.14 The 185 subscribers to the Musique de tablea healthy
total for the timeordered 206 copies and came from Denmark, England, France,
Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. Thirty-eight of them were

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

members of the nobility or royalty, and twenty-four more held prestigious posts; they
were court and government officials, ambassadors, military officers, and members of the
clergy. Those occupying lower positions in the social hierarchy, including musicians, are
not identified by their professions. But among the musicians included in the list are many
notable composers and performers, such as Johann Friedrich Fasch, Christoph Frster,
George Frideric Handel, Pantaleon Hebenstreit, Johann Georg Pisendel, and Johann
Joachim Quantz.

Over the past century, commentators have sought to understand the Musique de table as
Tafelmusik of one kind or another. Max Seiffert, who was responsible for the first modern
edition of the collection in 1927, suggested that the music had originated as
entertainment for a Hamburg banquet, during which the individual pieces would have
been offered as miniconcerts during lulls in the festivities:

If Telemann nevertheless conceived the [productions] to be performed in a single


breath, as the return of the conclusions to the opening tonality makes evident,
then the justification lies not in the manner of their construction, but in the
extramusical nature of their purpose, which is clearly expressed through the
designation Tafelmusik. If we imagine the culinary delights of Hamburg as a
social background, then we can grasp the thread of these strung-together musical
pieces. It was not Telemanns mission to create a concert piece of the greatest
magnitude to be heard in one stretch, but on the contrary, to embellish pauses in
the meal and conversation with appropriate music.15

Erich Reimer argued similarly that the three productions of the Musique de table are not
conceived as musical cycles, but functionally as additive, richly varied programs for
banquets.16 More recently, Karl Kaiser has taken the culinary connection a step further
by suggesting that each production deliberately evokes a menu comprising aperitif,
starter, entre, main course, dessert, and cheese, along with wine and coffee: a Baroque
banquet in sound.17 On the other hand, Eckart Klessmann considers Telemanns title
nothing more than a marketing tool: In reality Telemanns Musique de table was not
intended to be background music to a formal meal . Quite simply, a heterogeneously
scored collection of pieces titled Musique de table was easier to sell than if the same
pieces had gone under the plain descriptions of sonatas, suites and concertos.18

Whatever Telemanns intentions, we shall see that the three productionsindividually or


collectivelycould indeed have accompanied meals, though not of the type described by
Kaiser, and probably not during the pauses imagined by Seiffert. For all its extraordinary
qualities, the Musique de table does converse with the rituals and practices of Tafelmusik
as developed over the preceding several centuries. Situating the collection within this

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

tradition requires us to survey written, musical, and iconographical sources from across
Europe, a rich trove of materials that has yet to be fully explored.

Images of Tafelmusik I: To 1650


Much of our knowledge of Tafelmusik derives from gala events such as birthday, name-
day, wedding, holiday, and coronation banquets held by courts or municipalities; rather
less is known about daily Tafelmusik at courts and in private homes. Images in the form
of paintings, engravings, etchings, woodcuts, and other media are a particularly valuable
source of information about musical entertainments at open or public banquets (Die
ffentliche Tafel or table publique: meals including guests and/or onlookers), for we can
learn from them how many musicians performed, which instruments they played, where
they were placed, and even when they were heard during the festivities. Yet such
representations must be treated with caution, for an accurate depiction of Tafelmusik was
not always among the highest priorities of artists, who may in fact have provided
idealized or synoptic renderings of musical entertainments. Even when we have a visual
record of a specific historical event, it may be at odds with corresponding verbal
descriptions.

The beginnings of the Tafelmusik tradition to which the Musique de table belongs can be
traced at least as far back as the fourteenth century. From 1300 Florences Signoria
(executive branch of the city government) held its noon and evening communal meals or
mensa in the Palazzo Vecchio.19 During these meals musical entertainment was provided
by the herald, a poet who sang his moral songs while playing an instrument. Such verses
and music, no doubt mainly improvised, were akin to the singing of songs and other
spiritual texts in monastic oratories during meals. By the end of the century Tafelmusik at
the mensa was also provided by two instrumental ensembles: the pifferi (players of reed
instruments, including bagpipe [cornamusa], tenor shawm [bombard], and soprano
shawm [cornete]; later slide trumpet as well), who alternated with the herald in providing
music during the meals; and the trombetti (players of five small silver trumpets), who
called the signori and their guests to table, heralded their entrance into the room, and
announced the arrival of each culinary course. The impetus for this change came from
practices north of the Alps, specifically at the court of Duke Philip the Bold of Burgundy
(r. 13641404), and such differentiation in musical functionvocal and instrumental
music entertaining diners, and trumpeters announcing the start and courses of the meal,
a practice later called Tafelblasen in Germanywas to remain a feature of ceremonial
Tafelmusik across Europe for the next four centuries.20

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Early images of Tafelmusik, dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, typically
show loud ensembles of shawms, trumpets with or without drums, or a combination
thereof; and soft music provided by harp, lute, or transverse flute with drum,
sometimes joined by other instruments and voices. Musicians stand beside or are seated
at the banquet table, though trumpets and other loud instruments are often placed on
one or more balconies above the festivities. Two trumpeters entertaining diners are
painted on a gilded wine canister from 1320/1330, and pairs of trumpeters and bagpipers
accompany a meal in a miniature painting from Guillaume de Machauts Remde de la
Fortune (ca. 1350).21 Similar loud ensembles are depicted in two mid-fifteenth-century
manuscript illuminations by Loyet Lidet (ca. 14201479): Banquet de noces, in which
three trumpeters play from a balcony above the banquet tables, and Marriage of Renaud
of Montauban and Clarisse, in which shawms replace trumpets.22 Three shawms and two
trumpets provide Tafelmusik in a 1487 painting by Bartolomeo di Giovanni (d. 1501)
entitled Banquet of the Argonauts in Colchis.23 We encounter the soft ensemble of lute
and harp in a Franco-Flemish tapestry of 14601470 showing a banquet with Ahasuerus
and Esther, while a 1496 woodcut shows two lutenists and a singer entertaining Grand
Master and Cardinal Pierre DAubusson with Prince Zizim (Djem) at dinner in Rhodes.24
Although some images show mixtures of loud and soft instruments (e.g., shawms,
trumpets, and lute), it is unlikely that all these instruments were heard at the same time.
Rather, the artist has attempted to give an impression of all the music heard during the
event, just as many medieval images show successive events as if they occurred
simultaneously.

More common in images from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are combinations
of bowed and plucked string instruments, paralleling the development and growing
popularity of the da braccio and da gamba instrumental families during this period.25
Typical is a banquet scene in a palace interior by Louis de Caullery (ca. 15801621), in
which Tafelmusik is provided by an ensemble of violin, viola da gamba, two lutes, and a
cornetto.26 In an anonymous German engraving from the first half of the seventeenth
century, six well-to-do diners are attended to by four servants and entertained by three
musicians playing viola da braccio, viola da gamba, and lute. The German couplet below
the image reads: Wir sindt besammen dieser Zeit / In freund, Wollust und
frlichkeit (We are together at this time, in friendship, delight, and merriment).27
Similarly, the concerts de Musique in the etching Le Festin du retour (ca. 1636) by
Abraham Bosse (1602/16041676) are provided by three violins/violas and, curiously, an
upturned viola da gamba.28 An anonymous Flemish painting from the seventeenth
century depicts a more intimate, domestic scene, with several diners and a dancing
couple enjoying Tafelmusik provided by a violinist and cellist.29 And an anonymous Dutch

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

painting from earlier in the century shows a garden banquet accompanied by two
violinists and two lutenists.30

The shift to string-based ensembles in images of Tafelmusik may be traced in a


chronological cross-section of paintings depicting the biblical wedding feast at Cana,
where Christ performed his first miracle by turning water into wine (John 2:111).
Although the Gospels do not mention music being present at this event, artists of the
fifteenth through eighteenth centuries often included the types of musical ensemble that
commonly performed Tafelmusik in their day. The Marriage at Cana, painted around
1495/1497 by an unidentified Spanish artist known as Master of the Catholic Kings,
shows three trumpeters on a balcony well behind the banquet table.31 An early sixteenth-
century painting by Jan Swart van Gronigen (ca. 1490/1500after 1553) similarly shows
players of shawms and trumpets on a balcony directly behind the table,32 while a 1566
depiction by Giorgio Vasari (15111574) shows shawm or trumpet players on stairs above
the diners.33 By contrast, canvases by Veronese (Paolo Caliari; 15281588, painted 1562
1563), Leandro dal Ponte (Bassano del Grappa; 15571622, painted 15791582), Marten
de Vos (15321603, painted 15961597), Ippolito Scarsella (Scarsellino; ca. 15601620;
two versions, painted 1611 and ca. 1615), Carlo Bononi (ca. 15751632; two versions,
painted 1622 and ca. 1622), Johann Heinrich Schnfeld (16091684), Jan Steen (1626
1679, painted 16651670), Giuseppe Maria Crespi (16651747, painted ca. 1686),
Sebastiano Ricci (16591734, painted 17121715), and Nicolaus Vleughels (16681737,
painted 1728) all show music provided by plucked and bowed string instruments,
sometimes in combination with winds and voices.34 The long-standing tradition of placing
musicians on balconies or raised platforms is reflected in the paintings by de Vos,
Scarsella, Bononi, Steen, Ricci, and Vleughels. As Gnter Metken has noted with
reference to Veroneses paintingin which six musicians playing strings and winds are
placed in the central foreground, directly in front of Christthe presence of music in
such a setting can be understood to represent the triumph and sublimation of earthly
pleasures at once fleeting, sensual, and spiritual, an impression reinforced by the
presence of an hourglass at the very center of the musical ensemble.35

Several descriptions and illustrations of banquets from the sixteenth and early
seventeenth centuries are noteworthy for their alternation of varied instrumental
consorts with voices, both a display of princely power and a reflection of the culinary
riches on offer at these occasions. During a 1546 banquet celebrating the wedding in
Dsseldorf of Duke Wilhelm III and Maria von Hapsburg, there were twenty-five singers,
organists, a clavicymbalist, horn players, trumpeters, string players (playing bowed and
plucked instruments), and flutists. The first course of a 1575 Stuttgart banquet
celebrating the marriage of Duke Ludwig von Wrttemberg and Dorothea Ursula of
Baden was followed by about fifty people singing. Then various instruments were heard,

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

including strings, lutes, harps, virginals, positive organ, regal, fiddles, small pipes, flutes,
bass shawms, cornetts, rackets, trombones, and large viols.36

Special prominence is accorded to the musicians in an engraving commemorating the


Dsseldorf wedding banquet for Crown Prince Johann Wilhelm and Jakoba von Baden in
1585. In the right foreground is a Tafelblasen ensemble of six trumpeters and two
percussionists playing two pairs of kettledrums. Just left of center is a larger ensemble of
six singers (including two boys), a harpsichordist, two lutenists, three violinists, and
string bass at eight-foot pitch.37 These two ensembles are unlikely to have played
simultaneously, of course, but together represent the music that was heard during the
course of the banquet. Similarly, an engraving of a 1560 banquet at the Viennese court of
Emperor Ferdinand I shows two string basses, three shawms, two trombones, a
transverse flute, and singers; a later woodcut of the same occasion shows two shawms,
two trombones, and one string bass.38 Variety of instrumentation might also be mirrored
by variety of musical style. During a 1616 banquet in Stuttgart celebrating the baptism of
Prince Friedrich von Wrttemberg, the music was in the Italian, English and French
manner, with instruments [such as] portative organ, cornetts, trombones, bassoons, lutes,
fiddles, viole bastarde, small pipes and live voices, the best soloists, [all] in various
combinations.39

Accounts of two other sixteenth-century banquets describe the ensembles that provided
musical accompaniment for each course. A state banquet of seventeen courses given in
May 1529 by Ippolio II dEste, archbishop of Milan, in honor of his brother Ercole II
featured sixteen instrumentalists performing in various configurations from course to
course: three trombones and three cornetts, three flutes with three bagpipes (cornamuse)
and a violone, and for the final course of sweets, six singers accompanied by all the
instrumentalists playing six viols, lira, three flutes, kit fiddle (sordina), trombone, lute,
cittern, and two keyboard instruments. A similar banquet, this time with eight courses of
twenty or more dishes, followed the Munich marriage ceremony for Duke Wilhelm V of
Bavaria and Princess Rene of Lorraine in 1568. The guests entered the hall to the
accompaniment of trumpets and timpani, then heard an hour-long concert with wind
instruments, including an eight-part piece by the organist Annibale Padovano and a six-
part motet by Orlando di Lasso played by cornetts and sackbuts. Additional performances
were interspersed during the courses, including a six-part madrigal by Alessandro
Striggio with choir accompanied by six trombones and a six-part motet by Cipriano da
Rore with six viole da braccio. (As we shall see, such mixtures of sacred and secular
works remained characteristic of Tafelmusiken well into the seventeenth century.) An
engraving accompanying one of two published descriptions shows the musicians
assembled in the foreground. Visible are five string players (three violinists and two bass

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players), a lutenist, and an organist along with nine or ten singers. On a chest in front of
the organ are three dulcians, two trombones, and three transverse flutes.40

Various dramatic types of Tafelmusikenmasques, ballets, and serenatasfirst appear at


the turn of the seventeenth century. In an anonymous painting entitled Sir Henry Unton
(1596), the soldier and diplomat (ca. 15581596) is seen presiding over a banquet while a
masque of Mercury and Diana is performed to the accompaniment of various wind and
string instruments.41 At a 1608 banquet following the marriage ceremony in Florence for
Cosimo de Medici and Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria, the music included a
madrigal sung by the figure of Gentle Breeze, the messenger of Venus, who was brought
into the hall on a seashell chariot. This was followed by Cupid singing while riding in on a
flying machine. Then a curtain was drawn aside, revealing a chorus with instrumentalists
grouped behind them in tiers.42 An annotated engraving of the event shows a tiered
balcony accommodating about 200 musicians (though none are depicted) and
musicians in a cloud suspended from the halls ceiling. Flanking the head table are
Apollo in a chariot above a singing cloud and two instrumentalists at his feet and a
singing nymph in a seashell and two instrumentalists at her feet.43 Ballets were
performed at the marriage banquet for the Infanta Doa Maria of Savoy in 1618 and at a
1658 banquet celebrating the state visit of Emperor Leopold I to the electoral court in
Munich.44 For Tafelmusik at the Rastatt court in 1717, Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer
composed a Sing-klingendes Schnee-Opffer in the form of a scenic dialogue.45 The
majority of eighteenth-century Tafelmusiken at the court of Saxe-Gotha were dramatic,
presented with costumes but probably not on a stage with theatrical scenery.46 We have
already seen that one of Telemanns annual duties at Hamburg was to write a Tafelmusik
serenata for the Brgerkapitne.

A Seventeenth-Century Case Study


Perhaps the most celebrated banquet of the seventeenth centuryone bringing together
many of the types of musical entertainment we have so far encounteredtook place in
the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia, a series of three peace treaties that ended the
Thirty Years War in 1648. The following year, an assembly of secular and religious
leaders who had previously been at war with each other met in Nuremberg during a
Friedensexecutionskongress, a diplomatic conference tasked with working out the terms
of the peace regarding territorial distribution, reparations, and confessional boundaries.
On September 25, 1649, a banquet celebrating a preliminary agreement was held at city
hall by the Swedish field marshal Carl Gustav, later king of Sweden. The event was

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

memorialized in Das Friedensmahl (1650), a large oil painting by the Nuremberg artist
and art historian Joachim von Sandrart (16061688).47

Sandrarts painting, which


carefully depicts musicians
performing Tafelmusik,
became the basis for at
least six different
engravings, making the
Nuremberg peace banquet
perhaps the best visually
documented example of
Tafelmusik in history. The
Click to view larger earliest engraving is by the
Figure 1. Peace banquet in Nurembergs city hall on
Augsburg artist Wolfgang
September 25, 1649, engraved by Georg Daniel Kilian (15811663) and
Heumann. In Johann Gottfried von Meiern, Acta Pacis was published in
Executionis Publica: Oder Nrnbergisches Friedens-
Executions-Handlungen und Geschichte, 2 vols. Nuremberg in 1649.48 A
(Hannover, 1736; Gttingen, 1738), 1:365. second engraving
Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbttel: Graph. A2: appeared anonymously in
64.
a 1650 poetic account of

the Nuremberg Friedensexecutionskongress by Johann Klaj (16161656).49 This was the


model for another anonymous engraving, included in a 1652 commemorative volume of
poetry and prose by Sigmund von Birken (16261681).50 A fourth engraving, based more
loosely on Sandrarts painting than those of Kilian and Klaj, and possibly executed in
Frankfurt am Main by Caspar Merian (16271686), appeared in Johann Georg Schleders
1652 volume in the Theatrum Europm series of historical studies.51 A fifth engraving,
closely based on Kilians and reproduced here as Figure 1, was the work of the
Nuremberg engraver Georg Daniel Heumann (16911759) and accompanied a 1736
historical account of the Friedensexecutionskongress by Johann Gottfried von Meiern.52
More than a century later the Nuremberg artist Friedrich Wagner (18031876) used
Sandrarts painting as the basis for an engraving published in 1848, the two-hundredth
anniversary of the Peace of Westphalia.53

Each of the images shows banquet guests seated at two long tables, surrounded by
specially constructed raised platforms for musicians in the four corners of the hall. In the
Kilian and Heumann engravings, the platform at front right includes the director
Sigmund Theophil Staden (16071655), Nuremberg city instrumentalist and organist at
the church of St. Lorenz, reading music and waving a scroll of paper; another singer

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reading from music; and two other musicians, along with an organ. Five musicians are
visible on the front left platform, including two lutenists, a viola da gamba player, and the
neck of what appears to be a double bass (Heumann substitutes a cello for Kilians viola
da gamba and renders the double bass neck with greater clarity). On the rear left
platform are three trombonists and two cornettists (Heumann subsitutes the more
modern oboes for Kilians cornettos). Finally, the rear right platform includes four
musicians, three of whom play two dulcians and trombone (Kilian) or transverse flute,
bassoon, and trombone (Heumann).54

Although the musicians are drawn with less detail in the Schleder engraving, there are
some noteworthy departures from the Kilian-Heumann version. On the front right
platform we see only a singer and a baton-wielding director. Of the three musicians on
the front left platform, two play wind instruments (one is a cornetto) and the other a viola
da gamba or lute. Seven musicians are on the rear left platform, four of them appearing
to hold trumpets. And the rear right platform now includes a director with a baton in
addition to five musicians appearing to play a string bass, shawm or trumpet, and
keyboard instrument. The Klaj engraving also shows directors with batons (on the front
right and left platforms and the rear right platform).

The presence of multiple directors comports with a handwritten description of the


Tafelmusik, from which it also becomes clear that Sandrarts painting and the engravings
provide only a rough impression of the musicians who actually performed during the
banquet. This description, recorded by an anonymous eyewitness, includes all the
musicians names and their vocal types or instruments.55 We learn that besides Staden
and four subdirectors, there were forty-five musicians distributed among the four choirs
and divided almost evenly between vocalists and instrumentalists. The first choir, on the
front right side of the hall, included nine singers (SSSAATTBB) plus a tenor and an
eleventh singer in Ripieno; two instrumentalists doubling on cornettos, violins, and
Flten; a Contra Bass Geiger; and an organ. The second choir (Viole Chor), on the
halls front left side, contained four singers (SSAT/B), eight violas da gamba, one
Geigenwerck (a bowed keyboard instrument), and a lute or theorbo. A third choir or
Possaunen Chor, on the rear right, included four voices (AATB), three trombones, two
harps, and a loud regal. Finally, a Fagot od[er] Dulcin-Chor, on the rear left, had two
voices (AB), three dulcians, and another loud regal.

A contemporary handwritten sketch of the halls layout for the banquet confirms the
arrangement of musicians described by the anonymous eyewitness and depicted in the
images.56 Here the front right platform is labeled Musicanten orgel, while that on the
left is Musicanten Geigenwerck. On the rear left platform are Musicanten Regal
posaun, and on the rear right platform are Musicant Regal fagot. New here is a fifth
platform in the rear center, directly in front of the wine-spouting wooden lion that is

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visible in the painting and engravings. This platform is labeled Music lauten und
Discant (Music lutes and soprano[s]), and to its left and right are Trompeter and
Herrpaucker (kettledrums). It is possible that these musicians were omitted in images
of the banquet because they would have obscured the lion, an important national symbol
of the events host, the Swedish field marshal Carl Gustav.57

The anonymous eyewitness further notes that the music was arranged so that it was
heard continuously up to the toast, and among [the performances] was a main piece
[Haubtstuck] played by the string choir [Geigen Chor], with viols playing a sonata, ballet,
or pavana, thereafter an organ prelude, and again a performance with the four combined
choirs. Meiern observes that as soon as the toasts to health circulated, the trumpeters
hurried into the hall to take up their trumpets, the kettledrums were struck, and cannons
were fired from the castle.58 According to Schleder, as the guests washed their hands
with water poured from five silver tankards and bowls, the musicians sang the Te Deum
[no. 1 below] . Following this, other psalms and celebratory songs were artfully and
sweetly sounded, especially the holy angels song at the birth of the Prince of Peace: Ehre
sey Gott in der Hhe, Fried auff Erden, und den Menschen ein Wolgefallen . The
trumpeters and kettledrummers alternated with the other music for the entire time.59
We also learn from Schleder that the meal consisted of six courses, the first four of which
included 150 dishes apiece. His engraving shows musicians performing while waiters
serve the second course, consisting of roasted birds.60

As recorded by the anonymous eyewitness, the psalms and celebratory songs heard
between Tafelblasen by trumpets and kettledrums included the following:

1. Herr Gott dich loben wir in twenty-three parts. Author: David Schedlich [1607
1687], organist at the Hospice of the Holy Spirit.
Following the prayer:
2. Laudate Dominum et Organa Halleluia Sonent. in twenty-two parts. [Author:] M.
A.
3. Geigenwerk with viols alone.
4. Ihr Himmel lobet den Herrn, along with two sopranos and theorbo up high singing
Ehre sey Gott in der Hhe, Fried auff Erden, und den Menschen ein wolgefallen by
Staden. Author: Sigmund Theophil Staden, organist at St. Lorenz.
5. A sonata played by the string choir.
6. Te Deum Laudamus with the third choir, including a ripieno. Author: Georg Walg
[Walch, 1608/16121656].
7. The string choir alone again.
8. Gloria in Excelsis Deo for chorus. Author: Giovanni Rovetta [1595/15971668].
9. The string choir, alone.

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[10.] Psalm 150: Lobet den Herrn inn seinem Heyligthumb, with the included and
named instruments. Author: Sigmund Theophil Staden, organist at St. Lorenz.

A further manuscript description of the banquet notes that it ended with another
Tafelblasen from trumpets and kettledrums.61 That Stadens Ehre sey Gott in der Hhe,
Fried auff Erden, und den Menschen ein wolgefallen (no. 4 above) was heard from up
high, performed by musicians on the rear center platform (holding lutes and sopranos
and flanked by trumpets and kettledrums), is confirmed by Klajs description: Although
the music was otherwise divided among four choirs, and was heard with pleasure for the
entire time, in alternation with trumpets and kettledrums, the song sung by the angels at
the prince of peaces birth was artfully and sweetly performed by a choir of sopranos and
lutes.62 This work, and one additional vocal composition performed during the banquet
but not described above (a Friedens Auffzug with the allegorical characters Fama,
Victoria, and Concordia), was published by Staden in a 1651 collection of twelve sacred
and secular Musicalischer Friedens-Gesnger welche denen Hchst: und
Hochanseh[n]lichen / bey denen Friedens-Executions-Tractaten / zu Nrnberg angewesen
Bey denen angestelten Friedens-Panqueten und Freuden-Mahlzeiten musicirt
worden (Musical songs of peace, which were heard before the most eminent people at the
execution of the peace treaties at Nuremberg performed at the peace banquet and
celebratory meals).63 The other ten works in the collection were likely composed for the
celebratory meals following the banquet.64

Published Tafelmusiken
Stadens Musicalischer Friedens-Gesnger was part of a trend in seventeenth-century
Germany of publishing vocal Tafelmusiken, as may be seen from the list of printed works
in Table 1.65 Before 1650, these collections consisted for the most part of intimate vocal
works with sacred texts, such as Bartolomus Gesiuss Christliche Haus und Tisch Musica
and Johann Kheuns three collections of Epithalamium Marianum oder Tafel Music, or of
dances and suites for instrumental ensemble. Although Johann Thesseliuss Neue
liebliche Paduanen, Intraden und Galliarden do not reference their function as Tafelmusik
on the title page, the composers preface indicates that his suites were originally heard as
such at Schloss Aschach near Linz.66 Clearer in this respect are the title pages of Michael
Praetoriuss Terpsichore (for princely meals and also for banquets) and Isaac Poschs
Musicalische Tafelfreudt (which may be played for the meals of noble lords and
potentates, and at aristocratic banquets and weddings). Poschs preface further notes
that his music is for playing daily at meals.67

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Table 1. Publications of Tafelmusik, ca. 16001750

Composer Title Contents

Bartolomus Christliche Haus und Tisch Musica auff Chorale settings


Gesius alle Tag, Morgens, und Abends: Auch vor for 4 voices
und nach dem Essen, zum Benedicte und
Gratias durch die gantze Woche zu singen
(Wittenberg, 1605)

Johann Newe Liebliche Paduanen, Intraden und Suites in 5 parts


Thesselius Galliarden (Nuremberg, 1609)

Michael Terpsichore Darinnen Allerley Dances in 46


Praetorius Frantzsische Dntze und Lieder Wie parts
dieselbige von den Frantzsischen Dantz-
meistern in Franckreich gespielet / etc.
unnd [sic] vor Frstlichen Taffeln / auch
sonsten in Convivijs zur recreation und
ergtzung ganz wol gebraucht werden
knnen (Hamburg, 1612)

Isaac Posch Musicalische Tafelfreudt an frnemer Dances and


Herren unnd [sic] Potentaten Tafeln / auch intradas in 45
auff Adelichen Panqueten und Hochzeiten parts
gemusiciert und zur frligkeit
gebraucht werden mgen (Nuremberg,
1621)

Thomas Simpson Tafel Consort Von allerhand Newen Dances in 4 parts


Lustigen Musicalischen Sachen (Hamburg, with continuo,
1621) most by other
English and
German
composers

Thomas Convivium musicale (Hildesheim, 1630) Dances in 45


Avenarius parts

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Johannes Khuen Epithalamium Marianum oder Tafel Music Sacred songs


(Munich, 1636, lost; 2/1638, enlarged
4/1644); and Epithalamium Marianum
Tafel Music, Freudenfest, und Lustgarten
Mariae (Munich, 1644)

Sigmund Musicalischer Friedens-Gesnger welche Sacred and


Theophil Staden denen Hchst: und Hochanseh[n]lichen / secular vocal
bey denen Friedens-Executions-Tractaten / music for 13
zu Nrnberg angewesen (Nuremberg, voices, 3
1651) instruments, and
continuo

Jakob Banwart Teutsche mit new componirten Stucken Secular vocal


und Couranten gemehrte kurtzweilige music and dances
Tafel Music von Gesprchen, Dialogen, for 24 voices and
Quodlibeten (Konstanz, 2/1652) 24 instruments

Johannes Khuen Marianum Epithalamium. Tafel Music, Sacred songs


Ehren-Mahlzeit, Lust-Garten, und
Bluemen-Feld (Munich, 1659)

Andreas Kirchen und Tafel Music (Zittau, 1662) Sacred concertos


Hammerschmidt

Georg Wolfgang Musicalisches Tafel-Confect; Bestehend in Suites for 35


Druckenmller VII. Partheyen Denen Liebhabern zur string instruments
Belustigung aufgesetzt (Schwbisch Hall, and continuo
1668)

Matthias Kelz Dialogi suevici arguti et faceti, das ist Secular vocal
Oberlndisch schwbische Tafel-Musik music for 2 voices
(Augsburg, 1668; lost) and 2 violins

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Esaias Reusner Musicalische Taffel-Erlustigung (Brieg, Dances for violin,


1668) 2 viols, and
continuo
(arranged from
lute suites by
Johann Georg
Stanley)

Samuel Friedrich Neu-angestimmte und Erfreuliche Tafel- German and Latin


Capricornus Music / bestehend in allerhand Lustigen / songs for 25
oder Ergtzlichen Ehren- Tugend- Lust- voices and
Schertz- Liebes- Schfer- Schmau- continuo; sonatas
Grassaten- auch sonst/kurtzweiligen for 34
Liedern (Frankfurt, 1670); and instruments and
Continuation der neuen wohl continuo
angestimmten Taffel-Lustmusic (Frankfurt,
1671)

Wolfgang Carl Musikalisches Tafel-Confect / Bestehend in Secular vocal


Briegel Lustigen Gesprchen und Concerten music for 14
(Frankfurt, 1672) voices, 2 violins,
and continuo

Johann Wilhelm Musicalische Taffel-Bedienung (Dresden, Sonatas for 5-part


Furchheim 1674) strings and
continuo

Johann Melchior Musica genialis latino-germanica: Oder Secular vocal


Gletle Newe Lateinisch- und Teutsche Weltliche music for 15
musicalische Concert Bey vornemmen voices (some with
Mahlzeiten zur Tafel-Music und andern 2 violins ad
frlichen Zusammenkunfften libitum), sonatas,
zugebrauchen (Augsburg, 1675) and pieces for 2
trumpets marine

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Carlo Grossi LAnfione: Musiche da camera per tavola Secular vocal


alluso delle regie corti, op. 7 (Venice, music for 23
1675) voices and
continuo, with 3
instruments ad
libitum

Heinrich Groh Tafel-Ergtzung (Nuremberg, 1676; lost) Suites

Heinrich Ignaz Mensa sonora, seu Musica instrumentalis: Suites for 4-part
Franz von Biber Die Klingende Taffel / Oder / strings and
Instrumentalische Taffel-Music (Salzburg, harpsichord
1680)

Carlo Grossi Il divertimento de Grandi: Musiche da Secular vocal


camera, o per servizio di tavola, alluso music for 24
delle reggie corti, op. 9 (Venice, 1681) voices and
continuo

Andreas Mensa harmonica (Salzburg, 1682) Suites for 4-part


Christoph strings
Clamer

Johann Lhner Auserlesene Kirch- und Tafel-Music Sacred vocal


(Nuremberg, 1682) music for voice, 2
violins, and
continuo

Johann Melchior Lustige Tafel-Musik, in 6 Stcken mit Works for 16


Caesar beygefgten 60 Balletten (Wrzburg, voices and
1684; lost) instruments

Johann Melchior Musica genialis latino-germanica II Secular vocal


Gletle (Augsburg, 1684) music for 23
voices and
continuo

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Daniel Speer Recens Fabricatus Labor, oder Neu- Quodlibets,


gebachene Taffel-Schnitz (n.p., 1685) sonatas, fanfares,
[published under the anagram Asne de and dances for 13
Rilpe] voices and 36
instruments

Johann Melchior Musicalischer Wendunmuth, bestehend in Quodlibets and


Caesar unterschidlichen Lustigen Quodlibeten suites for 15
und kurtzweiligen Teutschen Concerten; voices and
bey Taffel-Musiken und andern instruments
Musicalischen Zusammenknfften
ergtzlich zugebrauchen (Augsburg, 1688)

Christian Unterthnigster Glckwunsch in einer Secular vocal


Friedrich Witt Tafel-Music (Gotha, 1692) music

Christian Gott-geheiligte Tafel-Music (Meiningen, Included sacred


Thomae before 1715; lost) arias and chorales
by Johann Philipp
Kfer

Johann Fischer Tafel-Musik bestehend in verschiedenen Overture suites


Ouverturen, Chaconnen, lustigen Suiten, and Polish dances
auch einem Anhang von Pollnischen in 34 parts
Dntzen (Hamburg, 1702)

Johann Valentin Ohren-vergngendes und Gemth- Secular vocal


Rathgeber ergtzendes Tafel-Confect; Bestehend in works for 13
12. Kurtzweiligen Sing- oder Tafel-Stucken voices and
(Augsburg, 1733) keyboard or cello

Georg Philipp Musique de Table, partage en Trois Suites, sonatas,


Telemann Productions, dont chacune contient I and concertos
Ouverture avec la suite, 7 instrumens, I
Quatuor, I Concert, 7, I Trio, I Solo, I
Conclusion, 7, et dont les instrumens se
diversisient part tout (Hamburg, 1733)

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Johann Jakob Kleine angenehme Tafel-Music bestehend Suites for flute,


Schnell in VI Parthien (Bamberg, ca. 173136) violin, and
continuo, and for
flute, violin, horn
(or viola da
gamba), and
continuo

Johann Valentin Andere Tracht Des Ohren-vergngenden / Secular vocal


Rathgeber und Gemth-ergtzenden Tafel-Confects; works for 1, 2, or
Bestehend in 15. Quodlibeticis, oder Tafel- 4 voices; 2 violins
Stucken (Augsburg, 1737); and Dritte ad libitum; and
Tracht Des Ohren-vergngenden / und keyboard or cello
Gemth-ergtzenden Tafel-Confects;
Bestehend in 15. Quodlibeticis, oder Tafel-
Stucken (Augsburg, 1739)

Johann Caspar Vierte Tracht Des Ohren-vergngenden / Secular vocal


Seyfert und Gemth-ergtzenden Tafel-Confects; works for 1, 2, or
Bestehend in 12. Quodlibeticis, oder Tafel- 4 voices; 2 violins
Stucken (Augsburg, 1746) ad libitum; and
keyboard or cello

Gregor Joseph Zwey neue und extra lustige musicalische Secular cantatas
Werner Tafel-Stcke: Der Wiennerische for 45 voices, 2
Tndlermarckt, Die Bauren-Richters-Wahl violins, and
(Augsburg, ca. 1750) continuo

Tafelmusik collections of dances, suites, and sonatas continued to be published through


the early 1680s by Andreas Christoph Clamer, Johann Wolfgang Druckenmller, Esaias
Reusner, Samuel Friedrich Capricornus (as a sequel to a collection of vocal Tafelmusik),
Johann Wilhelm Furchheim, Heinrich Groh, and Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber.68 But
most published Tafelmusiken following Stadens include secular or sacred vocal music,
the former sometimes mixed with instrumental pieces (as in the collections of Jakob
Banwart, Johann Melchior Gletle, Daniel Speer, and Johann Melchior Caesar).69 The
tradition of published sacred vocal music to accompany meals continued with Andreas
Hammerschmidts Kirchen und Tafel Music, Johann Lhners Auserlesene Kirch- und
Tafel-Music, and Christian Thomaes Gott-geheiligte Tafel-Music, but during the second
half of the seventeenth century, printed Tafelmusik was increasingly focused on secular

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vocal works. Carlo Grossis two collections of secular vocal works for use at royal
courts (alluso delle reggie corti) are some of the few non-German publications from the
period.70

Four collections of Ohren-vergngendes und Gemth-ergtzendes Tafel-Confect by


Johann Valentin Rathgeber and Johann Caspar Seyfert, together with Gregor Joseph
Werners Zwey neue und extra lustige musicalische Tafel-Stcke, reveal that secular
vocal works in modest scoringsespecially quodlibets, songs, and cantataswere still
considered appropriate for Tafelmusik well into the eighteenth century, at least for the
mostly amateur audience that evidently consumed such collections.71 This is confirmed by
the popularity of secular cantata performances at banquets, especially those connected
with birthdays and weddings. We have already seen that Telemann wrote such works for
the Eisenach court. In 1700 a wedding banquet in Berlin for King Friedrich Is daughter
Luise Dorothea Sophie and Crown Prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse-Kassel included a
performance of a cantata entitled Triumph der Liebe.72 The printed librettos to Johann
Sebastian Bachs two birthday cantatas for Duke Christian of Saxe-Weienfels, Was mir
behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd, BWV 208 (the Hunt cantata of 1713), and Entfliehet,
verschwindet, entweichet, ihr Sorgen, BWV 249a (the lost Pastoral cantata of 1725),
identify the works as Tafel-Musik.73 A cantata was also performed during a Darmstadt
banquet celebrating the 1717 wedding of Hereditary Prince Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt
and Charlotte Christine of Hanau-Lichtenberg.74 And the Tafelmusik repertory at the
imperial court at Vienna between 1716 and 1719 consisted largely of Italian cantatas and
arias, less often of sacred vocal music.75

Yet publications by Johann Fischer, Telemann, and Johann Jakob Schnell suggest a
growing trend toward instrumental Tafelmusik during the early eighteenth century, an
impression reinforced by the repertories of several courts and monasteries. Recall that
Tafelmusik at the Eisenach court during this period consisted of instrumental works, and
the same appears to have been true of the Darmstadt and Wrttemberg-Stuttgart courts,
as discussed below. At the small courts of Saxe-Weienfels, Saxe-Merseburg, and Saxe-
Zeitz, Tafelmusik in the first half of the eighteenth century was provided by the Bande
der Violons und Hautbois, musicians who played oboe, bassoon, recorder, or violin and
provided entertainment in the form of suites, single dances, or marches.76 At the French
court, collections of ballet music by Michel-Richard de Lalande were organized into suites
starting in 1703. These were usually played at the kings supper by the troupe des
petits violons.77 And in England, an ensemble suite by John Eccles made for the
Queens coronation and published in 1702 may have been heard at the coronation
banquet for Queen Anne earlier that year.78

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Two inventories of Tafelmusik from the Cistercian monastery at Osek in northwest


Bohemia, an institution that enjoyed a rich musical life during the eighteenth century,
indicate a move from secular vocal works and suites around 1700 toward instrumental
works of all types during the 1720s and 1730s.79 The 1706 inventory includes mostly
secular German, Latin, and Italian songs, quodlibets, and musical dialogues or short
dramatic works for one to four voices (described in the inventory as songs that will
produce a delightful time at table and for recreation). Most of the music is anonymous,
but among the few identifiable works is a printed copy of Gletles 1684 Musica genialis
latino-germanica II (see Table 1). Apart from a few sonatas, the instrumental repertory
consists of suites in two to nine parts. The monasterys 17201722 inventory adds many
more ensemble sonatas and suites to the earlier repertory. Later supplements to this
second inventory, made through 17331734, are almost exclusively instrumental and
include, in addition to further sonatas and suites, a number of concertos and several
sinfonias.

How Tafelmusik was used during meals is a subject not generally addressed by published
collections. Yet in the preface to his Musikalisches Tafel-Confect (Musical table sweets),
Wolfgang Carl Briegel notes that these humorous conversations and concertos should
be heard during dessert:

It appears customary and usual in all places to begin table services with sacred or
other musical works (until the ravenous stomachs are filled). Afterwards, during
the serving of sweets, when the spirits have been throroughly animated by the
noble juice of the vines, [the meal] concludes with humorous and diverting things.
I have previously followed this order in my printed musical songs, which elevate
music to particular deliciousness and delight while mostly accommodating the
above manner. Thus if there is still room during the serving of sweets, my
Musikalisches Confect may finally be served as well.80

According to Briegel, then, it was still common in 1672 to begin meals with sacred music,
as had been the case at the 1649 Nuremberg peace banquet. That music is heard until
the ravenous stomachs are filled implies that Tafelmusik was meant to be a continuous
accompaniment to meals, a point to which we shall return below. Briegels direction that
his works be heard at a particular moment during the meal (dessert) appears to be
without parallel among published Tafelmusiken. But Tafel-Confect collections by Georg
Wolfgang Druckenmller, Rathgeber, and Seyfert might also have been associated with
the serving of sweets, just as Briegels observation that a meal concludes with humorous
and diverting things (lustige und kurtzweilige Sachen) is echoed by the use of lustig
and kurtzweilig (or the equivalent divertimento) in publications by Thomas Simpson,
Jakob Banwart, Capricornus, Grossi, Caesar, Speer, Rathgeber, Seyfert, and Werner.81

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If all-instrumental publications of Tafelmusik were hardly unprecedented in 1733,


Telemanns Musique de table was unique in serving up colorfully scored ensemble works
belonging to multiple genres. Moreover, it was unprecedented in its considerable
technical demands and sheer scopedwarfing every other publication of Tafelmusik
that preceded and followed. But the collection also reflects a growing preference for
instrumental Tafelmusik during the early eighteenth century, as witnessed in both printed
and manuscript sources. We shall see that Tafelmusik in orchestral scorings, with
multiple players on string parts, was increasingly the norm at banquets after 1700.

Images of Tafelmusik II: 1650 to 1760


The visual record of Tafelmusik from the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries
reveals both continuity with earlier practices and innovations, as reflected in the Musique
de table. Placing small groups of musicians on multiple balconies or raised platforms, as
at the 1649 Nuremberg peace banquet, remained a widespread practice throughout the
late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. An engraving of the 1651 coronation banquet
for Ferdinand IV in Vienna shows two musical ensembles on raised platforms: one with
two trumpeters, a kettledrummer, three violinists, a lutenist, and a wind player (holding a
cornetto or shawm); the other with eight more musicians playing virginals, violins, cello,
trumpet, and perhaps trombone. Another engraving from the same event, of a smaller-
scale banquet in the Ritterstube of Viennas Hofburg, shows musicians positioned at floor
level near the table. A director leads one or two singers accompanied by two violins,
string bass, lute, and virginal.82 At a Stockholm banquet celebrating the accession in
1672 of King Karl XI to the Swedish throne, musicians were placed on three balconies. In
an engraving of the event, nine musicians on the left balcony include a singer and players
of the lute, violin, cornetto, and hautboy. Nine more musicians are on the right balcony,
with a singer, lutenist, and cellist or viola da gambist visible. The large balcony in the
rear of the hall holds many people, including at least seven trumpeters. An account of the
music published some years later in a lavish festival book commemorating the three-day
celebration notes that all around the hall were balconies [Chre] and loges from which
one heard kettledrums, trumpets, and other beautiful music.83

A late and highly stylized instance of this kind of surround-sound effect may be seen in
The Heavenly Feast of the Righteous (Das himmlisches Festmahl der Gerechten), a fresco
painted in 17281731 by Franz Siard Noseck on the vaulted ceiling of the summer
refectory in Pragues Strahov Monastery.84 On one side of the room, straddling Christ as
Lord, are two musical ensembles on faux architectural balconies: a director with two

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violinists, a harpist, and three singing boys; and a flutist, oboist, bassoonist, and cellist.
On the other side of the room, straddling the steward and his servants, are brass choirs
on two more faux balconies: two hornists, two trombonists, and a player of the tromba
marina; and four trumpeters with a kettledrummer. High above Christ and the righteous
diners, but below the geniuses and putti in the ceilings center, is a larger faux balcony
holding three more trumpeters and a kettledrummer. The wide range of instruments on
display here recalls the solo instruments in Telemanns Musique de table: flute, recorder,
oboe, bassoon, violin, trumpet, and horn.

Similar instrumental ensembles appear in other eighteenth-century images. An Austrian


or German folding fan from the 1760s includes a painted banquet scene in which
Tafelmusik is supplied by a violinist, oboist, and cellist.85 The celebrated etching by
Alexsei Zubov (1682ca. 1750) of the 1712 wedding banquet of Peter I (Peter the Great)
and Catherine I at St. Petersburgs Winter Palace captures well the opulence of a large
room in which male and female guests are accommodated on opposite halves of a large
circular table. One of the meals courses is being served to the guests as a small group of
musicians in the extreme bottom left of the image, directly behind the seated ladies, play
two violins (or oboe and violin), viola da gamba, lute, and harpsichord. Many more
musicians than these would not appear to have fit in the room, or at least could not be
fitted into the image.86 This raises the possibility that the musicians visible here are
intended to stand for a larger group that actually performed, as in representations of the
1649 Nuremberg peace banquet. Another small instrumental group, most likely a partial
glimpse of a larger one, may be seen in a 1736 engraving showing Archduchess Maria
Elisabeth dining in her Brussels palace, in which musicians play two violins, trumpet, and
double bass.87

The most striking innovation in images of Tafelmusik from the late seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries is the frequent presence of a new type of musical ensemble: the
orchestra. Among the earliest references to an orchestra playing during a meal is a
description of the wedding banquet for Princess Adelaide of Savoy and Prince Ferdinand
Maria of Bavaria at Turin in December 1650: There is no need to relate to you the
magnificence or excellence of the harmony of the twenty-four violins that were played
throughout the banquet.88 Starting in 1661, King Charles II dined to the accompaniment
of his own band of twenty-four violins (at the kings coronation banquet, Samuel Pepys
took a great deal of pleasure to hear the Musique of all sorts; but above all, the 24
viollins), and a similar ensemble was heard at a 1672 banquet given by Count Zinsendorf
in Vienna for the emperor and empress.89 An engraving depicting the April 1685
coronation banquet for James II in Westminster Hall shows the kings twenty-four violins
in a gallery looking down on the dining tables as the First Course of Hot Meat was
served to their Majesties Table. An accompanying engraving showing the Ground

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Plott of the hall notes that in the gallery on ye Queens side sat ye Musick and that
another gallery (not shown in the first engraving) held the Trumpetts and Kettle
Drums.90

A majority of images show


orchestras placed on one
or more balconies, both to
keep the large number of
musicians away from the
serving traffic and to
maintain the appropriate
social distance between
servant-musicians and
noble guests.91
Extraordinary in this
respect is an engraving
capturing a 1685
performance of Francesco
Click to view larger
Maria Picciolis serenata

Figure 2. Performance of Francesco Maria Picciolis


(or Applausi musicali) Il
serenata Il ritratto della gloria donato alleternit on ritratto della gloria donato
August 8, 1685 at the Villa Contarini, Piazzola. In alleternit for five voices
Piccioli, Lorologio del piacere (Piazzola: Loco delle
Vergine, 1686). and Coro dInstromenti
at the Villa Contarini in
Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbttel: Graph. C:
329a. Piazzola on the River
Brenta (Figure 2).92 The
villas location in the Veneto is signaled by a large lion of Venice hovering above the
proceedings, a banquet honoring the visiting Ernst August, duke of Brunswick. Notable
are the all-female vocalists and instrumentalists (figlie del luoco) recruited by Marco
Contarini (16311689), a procurator of San Marco. A description accompanying the
engraving notes that at the far end, and spread out above in several balustrades near
the ceiling, a three-part choir formed in which girls were equipped with all types of
musical instruments.

The engraving itself appears to be a composite image of two rooms in the villa: the
musicians perform from balconies in the music room on the top floor, where the wooden
ceiling reflects sound down through an octagonal opening in the floor (not shown), while
banqueters in the auditorium, two floors below, hear but do not see the musicians
through the octagonal opening in the ceiling.93 Thus the banqueters would have dined to
a serenata performed by invisible musicians, an arrangement that prevented the double

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embarrassment of male guests gazing at female performers and the performers seeing
too much of the banqueters. The concealment of the figlie del luoco from public view
parallels the practice at the Venetian ospedali, especially the Ospedale della Piet, where
the female musicians performed from behind metal grating.94 Although the performers
are rendered carefully by the anonymous engraver, they do not quite correspond to the
scoring of the lost serenata: eight singers are shown (five on the center balcony, two on
the left, and one on the right) instead of the five called for in the libretto. The thirteen
instrumentalists play five violins/violas, two cellos/violoni, one viola da spalla (on the
right), three trumpets (one evidently doubling on horn), and two keyboards (perhaps
organs, with two indistinct figures in the central background operating the bellows).

A similar disposition of musicians is seen in a drawing of a Dresden banquet held for the
1718 birthday of Elector Friedrich August I. Placed on a balcony directly above the king
is an ensemble of a dozen or more singers and instrumentalists; trumpet and drum
ensembles occupy two side balconies.95 As at the Villa Contarini, the sound would have
reflected off the ceiling (in this case of plaster) and carried down to the banqueters.

Several eighteenth-century images show the Hapsburg court orchestra performing on


balconies during banquets in Vienna. An engraving commemorating a 1705 banquet in
the Ritterstube of the Hofburg, at which oaths of allegiance were sworn to Charles I as
archduke of Austria, shows a balcony holding a director, three singers, four or five
violinists, a cellist, two lute players, and two trumpet players.96 A dozen or more
musicians, including three trumpeters and a kettledrummer, occupy a balcony in an
engraving of the 1736 wedding banquet for Maria Theresia and Franz Stephan von
Lothringen in Vienna.97 And a painting by Martin van Meytens depicting the 1760
wedding banquet for Crown Prince Joseph and Isabella of Bourbon-Parma in Schnbrunn
palaces ceremonial hall shows at least twenty-five Hapsburg court musicians performing
beautiful instrumental and vocal music throughout the entire meal from two balconies,
with singers standing in front of the instrumentalists.98 A similar double-balcony
arrangement was employed for balls and meals honoring the Amsterdam marriage of
Prince William of Orange and Princess Sophia Wilhelmina of Prussia in 1768: There
were six first violins six second violins, three violas, two cellos, two bassoons, two
contra-bassoons, two oboes or flutes, one harpsichord and two hunting-hornsaltogether
twenty-six musicians [the accompanying illustration shows thirty-eight]. And similar
music was heard during the succeeding meals.99

Both iconographical and documentary evidence suggests that orchestral Tafelmusik was
increasingly preferred, and in some places expected, by the second quarter of the
eighteenth century. Johann Adolph Scheibe noted in 1739 that with a well-stocked
banquet table surrounded by a large number of people, a symphony will never have much

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of an effect unless it is amplified by a full and loud harmony as well as lively, forceful
activity in the middle voices.100 At a banquet given for King Louis XV at the Paris town
hall in 1744, an orchestra of sixty musicians performed an ode and other musical
pieces; a similar banquet in 1745 featured an orchestra of fifty.101 In 1755 the Darmstadt
court violinist Ernst Gottlieb Schetky was taken to task for performing Tafelmusik in
small scorings that were thought inappropriate for guests from outside the court.102
Also at Darmstadt, during the period 17291734, Kapellmeister Christoph Graupner
composed five overture-suites that he identified as Tafelmusik on his title pages (Entrata
per la Musica. di Tavola.). Unlike Graupners other overture-suites, these five survive in
manuscripts with multiple parts for the violins, indicating they were performed
orchestrally.103 That Telemann wanted at least some of the string parts in the Musique de
table to be doubled as well is clear from his solo and tutti indications.104 His annual
Brgerkapitnsmusiken at Hamburg would also have involved orchestras. Although there
are no visual records of these performances, an engraving of the 1719 banquet shows an
Orchestre with 40 musicians (visible are four singers, a director, and about twenty-five
instrumentalists) performing a serenata from a specially constructed balcony in
Hamburgs Drillhaus (armory) as dinner is served to the officers below.105

Invisible Musicians
One of iconographys limitations in tracing the history of Tafelmusik is that many images
one might expect to include musical entertainments in fact show none. Perhaps the
musicians were not considered important enough to depict or were simply positioned
outside the artists field of vision, which might easily happen in the large spaces where
important celebrations were often held. The latter explanation may apply to banquets
held at the Rmer (city hall) in Frankfurt am Main, most images of which lack musicians.
For example, a painting depicting the coronation banquet of Joseph II in 1764 shows no
music, yet an architectural diagram of how the hall was laid out for the banquet includes
two platforms for musicians near the halls entrance, that is, behind where the viewer
appears to be standing in the painting.106

Musicians were also purposely concealed from the guests view on some occasions, as
was the case during the Villa Contarini banquet for Duke Ernst August in 1685. The
practice can be traced at least as far back as the famous Feast of the Pheasant, given in
Lille on 17 February 1474 by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, who swore his Knights
of the Order of the Golden Fleece to the defense of Constantinople, recently conquered
by the Ottoman Sultan Mohammad II (The Conqueror). According to court chroniclers,
many of the musical entertainments heard between courses were supplied from one table

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on which a church with a cross was erected, where there was a bell ringing and four
singers, who sang and played the organ when their turn came, and from another table
holding a large pastry, in which were twenty-eight persons playing different
instruments, each when their turn came. Musicians in the pastry performed on bagpipe,
German cornett, douaine, four trumpets (clairons), lute, and four flutes, and sang the
three-voice chanson Sauvegarde de ma vie in addition to a chasse, such that one seemed
to hear little dogs yelping and hunting dogs baying, and sounds of horns, as if they were
in a forest.107

But more common was invisible music heard from a distance, with the musicians being
physically placed outside the banqueting space. In his 1716 dictionary entry for Tafel-
Music, Paul Jacob Marperger notes that it

is heard daily at princely courts (as long as no great mourning is occurring), when
at noon and evening the court and chamber musicians set up in a room adjoining
the banquet hall and must play pleasant symphonies and concertos on all sorts of
instruments for the amusement of persons of high standing. Such Tafel-Musiquen
are also heard at public weddings, christenings, and other festivities held by
people of the middle class.108

The placement of musicians in an adjoining room is illustrated by an engraving


commemorating a Turkish feast at the Dresden courts Turkish palace (now the
Taschenberg Palais) in 1719, part of the festivities surrounding the marriage of Crown
Prince Friedrich August II to Maria Josepha, archduchess of Austriaan event attended
by both Telemann and his friend George Frideric Handel. During the feast the courts
Polnische Kapelle provided the music while dressed in Turkish costumes, like all the
servants. Visible in the engraving are an oboist, three violinists/violists, two bassoonists,
and two cellists (or a cellist and a gambist).109 An engraving of another meal during the
same festivities, this time for four dining members of the royal family observed by dozens
of onlookers, shows eight musicians playing violins, oboe, and bassoon in two raised
galleries behind the table and standing observers. It is unclear whether the musicians are
inside or outside the hall, but they are in any case practically out of sight.110 Musicians
placed in a similar manner to those at the Turkish feast are seen in an engraving
depicting a 1728 banquet in Graz associated with Holy Roman Emperor Charles VIs
installation as duke of Steyer. An open doorway reveals an oboist, violinist, and two horn
players performing in an antechamber.111 As at the Villa Contarini banquet, the removal
of these players from the banqueting space created a physical distance between
musician-servants and people of quality (diners and well-heeled onlookers) that
mirrored the social gulf between these groups. But the musicians concealment may also
have been intended to create a wondrous, even celestial, acoustic effect such as that

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created by the duke of Burgundys pastry musicians or by theatrical music performed


backstage or hidden in machinery.112

At some courts, pleasure houses (Lusthuser) were specially constructed so that music
could be piped into ceremonial and banquet halls from unseen musicians. The Augsburg
patrician Philipp Hainhofer, who visited the Dresden electoral court for the second time
in 1629, described the placement of musicians during a meal held in the upper hall of the
Lusthaus:

The space behind every picture is hollow and set up in such a way that one can
perform a certain kind of music. When one dines in the upper hall, the musicians
are also positioned in the lower hall with the doors closed so that the resonance
ascends delightfully through the ventilators. Above, under the ceiling, there is also
an arrangement for hidden music, so that one can hear such music from thirty-two
different locations, each separated.113

A similar arrangement is described by the Swedish diplomat Count Ulrich zu Lynar, who
visited the court of Hesse-Darmstadt in the spring of 1760:

Next [to the palace] is a small garden and in it a Lusthaus where the landgravial
family dines during the summer, and in the middle of which, where the table is set
up, there is a small round hole that leads to a basement, out of which music is
meant to sound very beautifully. To that end, in each of the four corners there is
also an opening from which the sound can come.114

Invisible musicians also provided ethereal-sounding entertainments via sound conduits at


several other residential buildings dating from the late sixteenth and early seventeenth
centuries: the Neues Lusthaus in Stuttgart, where two concealed rooms were located
above the main doors of the festival hall; the Rondell in Jindichv Hradec (Neuhaus),
Bohemia; and three structures erected by King Christian IV of Denmark, including
Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. To the extent that such piped-in music inspired feelings
of awe in visitors, it functioned as an instrument of the hosts political power.115

The desirability of listening to music produced in another room is discussed at length by


Thomas Mace, who in his Musicks Monument (1676) went so far as to provide a diagram
of an imagined Musick-Roome With Conveniency for Severall Sorts of Auditors,
severally placd in 12 Distinct Roomes besides the Musick-Roome, w[hi]ch would have
none in It besides the Performers.116 In explaining the advantages of such an
arrangement, Mace gave four reasons to separate musicians from listeners:

1st. The Instruments; be they never so Good, will not show half so good in an
Improper, Stuffed, or Cloggd-up Room, either with Household-stuff or Company.

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2d. The Musick very oftentimes is much hindered, by Crowding, and Noise.

3dly. The Performers as often, are so interrupted and hindred, that they cannot
Act as They might.

4thly. The Auditors cannot receive such Ample Satisfaction, as otherwise they
might do; besides their uneasie, and unhandsom Accomodation, which too often
happens to Persons of Quality, being sometimes Crowded up, Squeezd, and
Sweated among people of an Inferiour Rank, &c. and cannot be avoided. These
Things, I say, should be considerd[.]117

Maces solution for carrying sound to distant auditors closely resembles the designs of
the near-contemporaneous Lusthuser mentioned above, as well as the music room-
auditorium arrangement at the Villa Contarini:

Let there be several Conveyances out of the Room, through that Wainscot, by
Groves, or Pipes, to certain Auditors Seats, where (as they sit) they may, at a
Small Passage, or little Hole, receive that Pent-up-Sound, which (let it be never so
weak in the Musick Room) he shall (though at the furthest end of the Gallery) Hear
so Distinctly, as any who are close by It. It cannot be easily Imagind, what a
Wonderful Advantage such a Contrivance must needs be, for the Exact, and
Distinct Hearing of Musick; without doubt far beyond all that ever has yet been
used.118

Meals, Manners, and Music


A sense of the complex etiquette and rituals associated with courtly meals may be gained
from the relevant chapters in books such as the bilingual Abreg du Trait de la civilit
moderne/Kurtzer Begriff der ietzo blichen Hfflichkeit (Brief treatise on modern civility,
1712), Julius Bernhard von Rohrs Einleitung zur Ceremoniel-Wissenschafft der grossen
Herren (Introduction to the ceremonial science of great lords, 1728), and Friedrich Carl
von Mosers two-volume Teutsches Hof-Recht (German courtly etiquette) of 1754
1755.119 Also informative are documents such as seating charts for banquet guests,
diagrams of how dishes were placed on the table, menus, and cookbooks.120 Yet most of
these sources have relatively little to say about Tafelmusik, which tends to be treated (if
at all) as one ceremonial aspect among many.

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The ritual of Tafelblasen, as noted above, often marked the start and progress of a
banquet. Rohr observes that prior to serving [a meal] at the princely table, trumpets and
kettledrums commonly herald that those who are to set out the dishes are to assemble
before the kitchen . On occasion, trumpeters and kettledrums can be heard performing
during every single course that is being served.121 Marperger adds that the trumpets
and kettledrums are arranged in one or two choirs (Chren), and that they are heard only
during lunch at some courts. But at dinner, especially when his lordship dines in the
chamber, he continues, a single trumpet may perform. To be sure, the entire Concert of
trumpets and drums continues for several hours during a public meal, and always at the
toast to health.122 According to Moser, drums were not always present: the beating of
the kettledrums [when the courses are served] does not happen everywhere daily, but on
Sundays, feast and especially gala days, in the presence of important guests, [and] at
public and ceremonial meals, when the trumpets and drums are multiplied.123 Nor was
Tafelblasen always heard throughout the meal, for a detailed account of a 1747 wedding
banquet in Munich records that trumpets announced the first two courses of the meal but
fell silent at dessert.124

Marpergers observation concerning one trumpeter at dinner is echoed some eighty years
later by Johann Ernst Altenburg, who reports that a single court trumpeter provides
Tafelblasen at banquets with sharp tonguing in the manner of a field piece. The
announcement call itself is known as Ban, and the flourish (Tusch or Touche) performed
when noblemen drink toasts is really a short and free fantasy consisting of nothing but
intermingled arpeggios and runs. It certainly makes enough of a racket, though there is
neither art nor order in it.125 Some idea of what such a Ban sounded like is provided by
Bibers Trombet- und musikalischer Taffeldienst (Trumpet and musical table-service), a
four-part suite preceded by an intrada played by Tromba. It is possible that Biber
intended the intrada to be used as Tafelblasen and the suite to provide Tafelmusik.126

In light of Marpergers and Altenburgs statements, the presence in Telemanns Musique


de table of a solo trumpet (instead of the more usual pair of trumpets with drums) might
be viewed as a stylized representation of Tafelblasen. That the instrument is heard only in
the first and last pieces of the second production takes on added significance if one
considers the group of six works as analogous to a multicourse meal or to a single course
with multiple dishes, possibilities to which we shall return.

The descriptions of Tafelblasen by Marperger, Moser, and Rohr are confirmed by


numerous reports and images, a few of which may be cited here. During the festivities in
Stuttgart for the baptism of Prince Friedrich von Wrttemberg in 1616, the timpanist
and 16 field trumpeters played a signal as a reminder of the banquet which was laid.127
At Dresden in 1678, all the trumpeters and timpanists signaled [everyone] to proceed to

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the banquet tables.128 Two paintings of the wedding banquet for Alessandro Farnese and
Maria von Portugal at Brussels in 1565 show the second course, consisting of various
roasted meats, being announced by three trumpets or, alternatively, five trumpets and
timpani.129 Writing of gala banquets at the Spanish royal court, Johann Christian Lnig
reported in 1719 that the trumpets and drummers are placed in the gallery on the great
staircase, so that they may be heard when the courses are served and for as long as the
king dines.130 And each time that the food was brought in and placed on the table
during the coronation banquet for Louis XVI at Reims in 1775, the musicians [oboes,
trumpets, and timpani] played again.131 The importance attached to trumpeters
participation during meals was noted by the court trumpeters of Saxe-Gotha in their 1732
petition for a raise, since as everyone knows, [we] have to serve together with the
Kapelle for each Tafelmusik and are considered an integral part of the Kapelle.132

Tafelblasen and Tafelmusik alternated on many occasions, as at the 1649 Nuremberg


peace banquet. During a meal following the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Charles
VI at Frankfurts Cathedral of St. Bartholomew in December 1711 (just a few months
before Telemann arrived in the city as new music director), an admirable performance of
banquet music took place by the imperial court [musical] ensemble, and in between [their
numbers] trumpets and kettledrums were heard.133 At a 1712 Vienna banquet in honor
of Charles VI as archduke of Austria, the music included an overture of trumpets and
timpani alternating with solo and multi-voiced concertos at the performers discretion,
until enough [music had been played]. The ensemble [was] on its accustomed
balcony.134 The line between the two types of music appears to have blurred on
occasion. Altenburg describes what he calls a Tafel-Sonate, a piece resembling a three-
movement concerto for eight or nine trumpets divided into two choruses, and which may
feature one or two trumpeters playing in the clarino register. Such pieces, he adds, are
seldom heard.135

On the subject of Tafelmusik, Marperger follows up his description of invisible


musicians, quoted above, by offering that

[t]he very best music one can have during a meal is a conversation between wise
and virtuous people, a moderated concert of sweet musical instruments, a
beautiful song, and above all an expression of thanks before God, the giver of all
goods served daily to us poor people, of which a superb model is presented to us
in Sirach, chapter 50 with the words: Nun dancket alle Gott etc., and in so many
sacred table songs [Tisch-Liedern].136

Noteworthy here is the combination of instrumental and vocal music, as well as a


reference to sacred songs that brings to mind seventeenth-century performances and

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publications of Tafelmusik. Marperger also observes that musical entertainments may be


heard during the celebratory meals of commoners:

Such Tafel-Musiquen are also heard at public weddings, christenings and other
festivities held by middle-class [brgerliche] persons, which is completely
permissible (providing that they occur without sinful, shameful, [and] annoying
dirty jokes and pranks, which these days the rabble take nearly the greatest
pleasure in), as it sometimes is for the peasant, with all the trouble and work he
has in the world, in order to indulge his passions. But they are forbidden, with
harsh punishment, on Sundays and feast days, along with inappropriate dances
and gatherings.137

He then prudishly rails against drunken singing, yelling, foot-stomping, and handclapping
that can drown out the musicians (Spielleute) at meals of the middle class before relating
the curious story of how a foreign musician entertained King Eric of Denmark and his
dining companions by playing melodies that were alternately sweet, humorous, and sad,
finishing with a tune that threw everyone present into a rage until the musicians
instrument was torn from his hands and smashed.

Brief but significant comments regarding courtly Tafelmusik are also offered by Rohr and
Moser:

Beautiful music is heard at meals during formal occasions, occasionally consisting


only of trumpets and drums but sometimes also of the loveliest vocal and
instrumental music, which includes castrati and female singers who mostly sing
Italian pieces. If the princely lordships favor dining in the midst of army camps, in
hunting or forest houses, in the manner of a peasant wedding, or in other
costumes, then the music must adapt accordingly, so that everything harmonizes
together.138

At large courts, continuous [whrender] Tafelmusik is performed, if not daily, then


on Sundays and feast days, at public meals, and in the presence of outside guests.
At the imperial court on three high feasts, a German chorale is intoned as soon as
the emperor sits at the table. For example, at Christmas: Der Tag ist so
freudenreich; at Easter: Erstanden ist der Heilig Christ, etc.

There are also courts known to me where instead of music, a newspaper, political
or moral weekly, etc. is read aloud to prevent all sorts of useless babble during
the meal.139

Rohr may be describing Tafelmusik at the Dresden court, where the resident Italian
singers included castrati. We have already encountered Dresden court musicians dressed

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as Turks in 1719, and other court banquets featured Janissary musicians. Johann Beer
recalled that during a visit to Leipzig by Elector Friedrich August I (also King August II of
Poland) in 1699, a meal was accompanied by 150 janissaries who made a positively
barbaric music on the small shawms, copper plates, small kettle drums, and large bass
drums they wielded.140 The courts Jagdpfeiffer (wind players of the hunt) and
Janitscharen-Musikanten (Jannisary musicians) provided Tafelmusik at the Pilnitz castle
when court members went on a sleigh ride there in January 1731.141 Mosers description
of chorales at Christmas and Easter again recalls the seventeenth-century practice of
performing sacred vocal works as Tafelmusik, and his humorous report of readings taking
the place of music not only is characteristic of its early-Enlightenment time, but hearkens
back to the moral songs performed by heralds during the mensa in fourteenth-century
Florence.

In courtly settings, social rank determined the tables at which guests sat and where they
were placed in relation to their dining partners. Thus there were separate tables for the
lordships, their children, ministers, marshalls, cavaliers, officers, and all manner of
servants.142 Both the social rank of wedding guests and their relationship to the bride and
groom might determine where they banqueted and whether or not they heard music. At
the 1585 Stuttgart wedding of Duke Ludwig of Wrttemberg and Ursula, daughter of
Pfalzgrave Georg Johann of Veldenz, the lesser nobility, knights, gentlemen, city
representatives, and other learned men dined in a large room on the ground floor of the
dukes residence. A smaller number of more noble guests appears to have dined in the
dancing hall (Tanzsaal) or tower rooms, whereas the wedding couple and about forty of
the most important guests (margraves, dukes, and their wives, archbishops, and royal
and noble ambassadors) ate in the elegant Ritterstube overlooking the city. Only those in
the Ritterstube enjoyed performances of vocal and instrumental music by the Hofkapelle;
other guests appear not to have heard music at all.143 We have seen a similar
differentiation between large-scale and small-scale banquets in the case of engravings
commemorating the 1651 coronation of Ferdinand IV in Vienna, though both pictured
banquets featured Tafelmusik.

Music at eighteenth-century banquets was not confined to live performances. An


elaborately set table might contain porcelain or silver centerpieces and figures depicting
musicians of various kinds. For example, a mid-eighteenth-century sketch for a
centerpiece in the fashionable Chinese style shows a gazebo with musicians. On two
balconies are a pair of putti playing trumpets and another one playing a pair of
kettledrums. Below, surrounding a table, are a woman singing and six men playing two
violins, two horns, cello, and lute.144 In 1734 the Dresden court took delivery of a set of
Meissen porcelain figures in the form of 8 mine musicians that could have been used as
table decorations during a mining-themed banquet.145 The Meissen factory produced

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numerous other figures with musical themes, including twenty-one monkeys singing and
playing orchestral and folk instruments (the Affenkapelle).146 Starting around 1760,
German courts began decorating banquet tables with such figures for the dessert course,
and the practice quickly spread to the more modest tables of the middle class, who could
borrow the expensive figures from patissiers.147 It was in 1760 that King Frederick the
Great of Prussia ordered a Meissen dinner service with a musical motif (a music
manuscript lying over a crossed violin and flute) for Jean Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis
dArgens.148

As for the meal itself, the French-style presentation (service la franaise) that was
adopted throughout much of Europe for princely banquets usually consisted of three or
four courses, each including numerous dishes. The first course typically began with a
soup replaced by a relev and a mixture of dishes that had differing functions but were
nevertheless served together, including hors doeuvres, entres, and entremets. (In
seventeenth-century meals, courses were more likely to include only dishes with the same
function; hence the number of courses was greater.) Dishes were not served to each
guest, but placed on the table in a manner similar to todays buffets. Etiquette allowed
guests to pass dishes to one another, but it was often footmen who served a selection of
dishes to their masters and fetched them drinks from the sideboard or pantry.149 The
widely read and reprinted La Cuisinire bourgeoise, first published in Paris in 1746 by an
anonymous writer under the pseudonym Menon, provides a number of representative
menus. The following one is a supper setting for ten people:

First Course

1 Soup at the center, if desired

1 Spit-roasted butchers meat as relev for the soup

2 entres, 2 hors doeuvres

1 Entre of vol-au-vent

1 Hen prepared two ways

1 Hors doeuvre of rabbit and pured lentils

1 Hors doeuvre of three parchment-wrapped lamb tongues

Second Course

2 dishes of roast, 2 entremets

1 Pair of small hares

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1 Pair of chickens la reine

1 Entremets of small pastries

1 Small peas

1 Crme brle

Third Course

7 fruit plates

1 Bowl of waffles for the center

1 Plate of strawberries

1 Stewed cherries

1 Whipped cream

3 Plates of assorted preserves150

Not all menus of the time exhibited such a symmetrical arrangement as this one, with
each of three courses presenting five or six contrasting but complementary dishes. And
as we have seen, more festive meals often featured a considerably larger number of
dishes. But as the type of menu that was probably more common on a daily basis at
courts or in wealthy homes, it provides a good reference point for ordinary Tafelmusik
provided by a chamber ensemble or small orchestra. In fact, the sequence of courses and
dishes closely parallels the large-scale structure of Telemanns Musique de table, in
which each of the three productions contains six compositions in varied scorings and
styles. This suggests that Telemann organized his collection in such a way that
purchasers would easily recognize the connection with French table service. A similar
conceit was employed by Rathgeber and Seyfert for the second, third, and fourth volumes
of their Ohren-vergngenden und Gemth-ergtzenden Tafel-Confects (17371746), each
of which is identified as a course (Tracht) on the title page (see Table 1). As one writer
put it with regard to a 1717 banquet at Ghents City Hall for Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI, the harmony of all sorts of instruments reflected the magnificence of the
feast, which was served with every imaginable course and with the ultimate [in]
delicacies.151 But could the entire Musique de table, four hours in length, have been
heard during a meal such as Menons? To answer this question, we must consider the
length of courtly and other festive meals and whether they were accompanied by
intermittent or continuous music.

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Meals with French table service appear to have been highly variable in length, lasting
anywhere between an hour and a half and six hours. Georg Philipp Harsdrffer claimed in
the 1650s that the 1581 wedding banquet for the duke of Mantua lasted three hours, and
that a Florence wedding banquet of the same period lasted six hours.152 A respectable
performance of vocal and instrumental music lasted two hours at a Munich banquet
following the 1611 marriage ceremony for Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm of Bavaria and
Countess Magdalena of the Pfalz.153 Musicians at a 1628 wedding banquet in Parma for
Prince Odoardo Farnese and Princess Margherita deMedici served up canzonettas for
an hour and a half before dessert.154 Marperger, as noted above, claimed in 1716 that
the entire Concert of trumpets and drums continues for several hours during a public
meal. And a 1745 banquet given for King Louis XV at the Paris town hall, during which
an orchestra of fifty performed, lasted two hours.155

At the Wrttemberg-Stuttgart court, a rigorous schedule of twice-daily Tafelmusik


prompted Oberkapellmeister Johann Christoph Pez (16641716) to caution his employers
against further reducing the number of musicians during a period of retrenchment in
1714: Four hours of Tafelmusik, two to three and a half hours of chamber music,
Tafelmusik once again, and from time to time a ball as well, that [is a workload] eight
musicians could not manage without alternation, which is what our musicians do with the
utmost diligence and punctuality.156 Thus it would have been possible for Pez and his
colleagues to perform the complete Musique de table, or nearly so, during a typical lunch
or dinner. And in fact court documents show that Tafelmusik at the court during this
period consisted exclusively of instrumental music in six to nine parts played by about
twenty musicians on oboes or recorders, horns, bassoon, strings, and continuo, with
trumpets and drums as needed.157 With the addition of flutes, this is the instrumentation
called for in the Musique de table.

There is some evidence that Russian table service (service la russe), in which dishes are
presented one at a time to each of the guests (as in the modern manner of serving), made
for longer meals than did the more usual French service. Russian service appears to have
been common at Swiss and German inns, the result being, according to one French
observer in 1581, that the least little meal lasts three or four hours. A German visitor to
Poland during the 1670s noted that the Poles bring dishes to the table one at a time
rather than all at once, and since there are 10, 15, or 20 dishes and they help themselves
to each, meals last for long hours.158 Although Telemann is unlikely to have had Russian
table service in mind when composing the Musique de table, it would have been prudent
for him to provide enough music to accommodate almost any type of meal.

Regardless of how long a meal was, the expectation was usually for continuous music. We
have already seen that the 1649 Nuremberg peace banquet was accompanied by

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continuous Tafelmusik, and Briegels assertion in the preface to his Musikalisches Tafel-
Confect that music is heard until the ravenous stomachs are filled likewise suggests a
series of uninterrupted performances. Recall as well that the 1760 wedding banquet at
Vienna for Crown Prince Joseph and Isabella of Bourbon-Parma featured music
throughout the entire meal. And Rohr states that continuous Tafelmusik was heard at
large courts.

Numerous other reports indicate that continuous music was the norm. In July 1607
Londons Merchant Taylors Company honored King James I and Prince Henry with a
banquet during which John Bull played the organ throughout dinner.159 A 1624 banquet
in Metz for the duchesse de la Valette featured a concert by various instruments [such
as] harps, violins, oboes, espinettes, trumpets and clarions, which didnt stop giving
pleasure to the ears until the very end of the meal.160 At a 1728 banquet in Graz for Holy
Roman Emperor Charles VI, imperial court musicians were heard [playing] banquet
music continuously.161 Tafelmusik at the Wrzburg court in 1748 appears to have been
both continuous and lengthy: At the Tafel there was music [performed] by the virtuosos
from Wrzburg . The music continued until His Grace, the prince-bishop, retired, after
which they began anew, until 7 oclock.162 And Tafelmusik at the Darmstadt court was
heard continuously during a meal in 1760.163

A 1747 ordinance at the Ratstatt court is especially clear on the subject of Tafelmusik,
specifying that it is the responsibility of the Kapellmeister on gala days and of the concert
master on ordinary days. Concerning performances, the ordinance scolds that

already on several occasions it has happened that in the presence of outside


guests or during our own enjoyment at meals a lengthy pause has silenced all
music. The Concertmeister is hereby graciously ordered to provide adequate
music each and every time, and to fashion his Taffel Music in such a way that a
concerto or suite [Parthie] is produced [produciret] not just every half hour, but
one after the other without long interruption, as is customary at all princely
courts.164

Again, it is taken for granted that Tafelmusik should be continuous, and the repertory,
like that at several other German courts of the time, consists of instrumental works. The
use here of the French-German hybrid verb produciren recalls Rathgebers and Seyferts
prefatory notice, in the second, third, and fourth volumes of the Ohren-vergngenden und
Gemth-ergtzenden Tafel-Confects, that indexes would reveal how to
produce (produciren) their pieces. It also echoes Gregor Joseph Werners promise that
his Zwey neue und extra lustige musicalische Tafel-Stcke would be produced
[producieren] at stately banquets and other merry gatherings with great applause.165

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Both producieren and Telemanns noun form of production in the Musique de table
indicate something being put out or presented, as with a theatrical production.

Tafelmusik as Satire
One measure of how established the Tafelmusik tradition became is the presence of
musicians in satirical images of banquets, suggesting that for the artists in question,
musical entertainment was an essential component of festive meals. The earliest such
image known to me is Jan Mandijns painting (ca. 1550) of a grotesque, lower-class
wedding banquet. Here the music is provided by a ragged bagpiper and shawm player
sitting on a large wooden shelf above a discontented bride and her guests, who have little
food in front of them and are surrounded by drunkenness and general mayhem. Dancing
to the music are two figures in the left foreground: a musician with gourds strapped to
his back and a fiddle partially concealed under his cloak, and a deformed, Bosch-like
character who has two left feet for hands.166 The scene not only contrasts sharply with
depictions of wedding banquets held by the urban or courtly elite, but also provides a foil
to one of the most famous images of Tafelmusik from this time, Pieter Brueghel the
Elders Peasant Wedding (ca. 1567), in which two bagpipers serenade a serene bride and
her contented guests at a rustic yet bountiful meal.167

Not so different in conception is William Hogarths An Election Entertainment (1754


1755), the first in a series of four paintings depicting the stages of an election marked by
corruption and bribery. Hogarth was inspired by the General Election of 1754, in which
the Whigs attempted to win back the Oxfordshire seats in Parliament from the Tories,
who had long occupied them. The scene illustrates an Oxfordshire tavern entertainment
organized by the Whig candidates while a Tory mob protests outside. One of the
candidates is suffering the company of drunks while the other is being pushed against a
toothless old woman and having his wig burned by a pipe. At the opposite end of the
table, the towns mayor is being bled after consuming too many oysters as an election
official is hit with a brick thrown by the mob outside. In the foreground, a boy pours more
wine into the punch, while a Quaker examines a bribe in the form of an IOU. Almost lost
in the shuffle, despite its prominent position in the central background, is a motley
musical ensemble, including a female violinist (who is of the wrong sex), a bagpiper,
and a double bassist, all of whom seem completely unfazed by the chaotic happenings.168

Our latest image, an engraving attributed to Johann Benedikt Wunder (17861858) and
published in Nuremberg by Friedrich Campe (ca. 1820), depicts a municipal banquet,
probably in city hall, with Tafelmusik provided by a small orchestra placed on a balcony

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(visible are six musicians playing two violins, a cello, two oboes or clarinets, and a third
wind instrument that may be a trumpet).169 The caption to the engraving reads: The big
feast in Krhwinkel following the happily concluded mayoral election (Der grosse
Schmauss in Krhwinkel nach glcklich vollbrachter Brgermeisterwahl). Krhwinkel,
a fictional place name coined in the early years of the nineteenth century, quickly came to
stand for any small town marked by parochialism and philistinism.170 Thus the presence
of Tafelmusik, or of musicians on a balcony, may be meant to reinforce the small-town
backwardness of this particular Krhwinkel at a time when such musical entertainments
were looked down upon as old fashioned.171 The satirical nature of the image is also
apparent from the table in the foreground, where several guests are eating and drinking
with their mouths fullsomething generally avoided in images of meals, let alone formal
banquets. Serving these gluttonous guests a drink is an elegantly dressed black African
man, a seemingly out-of-place figure who is no doubt meant to heighten the contrast
between refined banquets at private courts, where black slaves were often elegantly
outfitted as a display of their masters status, and uncouth public meals in a provincial
town.

Conclusions
To return, finally, to Telemanns Musique de table, we have seen that the collection is
closely tied to the centuries-long Tafelmusik tradition, even while standing apart from it
in terms of length, generic diversity, and technical demands. The publication of an all-
instrumental collection of Tafelmusik, while unusual, was in keeping with a trend seen in
writings and musical repertories of the early eighteenth century. Marperger in 1716 and
Scheibe in 1739 associated symphonies and concertos with music to accompany meals,
and ensemble suites continued to be heard as Tafelmusik at least through the 1730s (as
witnessed by the printed and manuscript works of composers such as Johann Fischer,
Michel-Richard de Lalande, Johann Jakob Schnell, and Georg Caspar Schrmann). Some
German courts, such as those at Eisenach and Wrttemberg-Stuttgart, performed
exclusively instrumental Tafelmusik (at least on ordinary days) and would surely have
found the Musique de table a most welcome addition to their repertories. At these and
other courts, Telemanns overture-suites, concertos, and conclusions are likely to have
been performed orchestrally whenever feasible, with the musicians placed on one or
more balconies or set up in an adjoining room.

There can be little doubt that Telemann designed his collection to mirror a three-course
meal with French table service, the productions being analogous to courses and the
individual pieces to dishes. Performing the entire Musique de table during a banquet (as

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might have happened at the Wrttemberg-Stuttgart court) would of course mean that the
musical dishes could not be heard synchronously with each of the culinary dishes, since
the latter were always presented simultaneously. Alternatively, a single production, in
combination with Tafelblasen supplied by trumpets and drums in between pieces, would
have provided enough continuous music for a meal lasting one and a half to two hours. In
this case, the pieces would become analogous to courses rather than to dishes. One could
also pick and choose music from across the collection, since little binds the pieces of an
individual production together, and those unable to muster the musical forces required
by the overture-suites, concertos, and conclusions might perform just the sonatas. Even
the use of the noun production appears to have been carefully considered, as suggested
by the currency of the verb producieren in connection with performances and
publications of Tafelmusiken during the 1730s and 1740s. At the same time, Telemann
surely envisioned many users of the collection ignoring its nominal function as
accompaniment for meals and instead performing the pieces as abstract music for
recreational purposes. This would account for subscribers who are unlikely to have
needed Tafelmusik for multicourse banquets (such as the Directeurs of the Concert
des Lutheriens in Augsburg).

As with Johann Sebastian Bach and his Clavier-bung series of publications, with which
the Musique de table overlapped chronologically, one has the sense that Telemann was
honoring convention while seeking to surpass all that had come before. Certainly he knew
that he had created something extraordinary when, prior to the collections publication,
he wrote to his friend Johann Reinhard Hollander in Riga, I hope that this work will one
day bring me fame. At no time will you regret its cost.172 But he could not have known
that the Musique de table, now his most famous work, would mark the apotheosis of a
venerable Tafelmusik tradition that was to continue flowering for many years.

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Metken, Gnter. Laut-Malereien: Grenzgnge zwischen Kunst und Musik, 1622.


Frankfurt, Germany: Campus, 1995.

Norlind, Tobias. Ein Musikfest zu Nrnberg im Jahre 1649. Sammelbnde der


Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 7, no. 1 (1905): 11113.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Ottomeyer, Hans, and Michaela Vlkel, eds. Die ffentliche Tafel: Tafelzeremoniell in
Europa 13001900. Wolfratshausen, Germany: Minerva, 2002.

Owens, Samantha, Barbara M. Reul, and Janice B. Stockigt, eds. Music at German Courts,
17151760: Changing Artistic Priorities. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2011.

Spohr, Arne. Concealed Music in Early Modern Diplomatic Ceremonial. In Music and
Diplomacy from the Early Modern Era to the Present, edited by Rebekah Ahrendt, Mark
Ferraguto, and Damien Mahiet, 1943. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Reimer, Erich. Tafelmusik. In Handwrterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie, edited


by Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht. Stuttgart, Germany: Steiner, 1971.

Schwab, Heinrich W. Konzert: ffentliche Musikdarbietung vom 17. bis. 19. Jahrhundert.
Musikgeschichte in Bildern, vol. 4. Leipzig, Germany: VEB Verlag fr Musik, 1971.

Spitzer, John, and Neal Zaslaw. The Birth of the Orchestra: History of an Institution,
16501815. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ulsamer, Josef, and Klaus Stahmer. Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt. Wrzburg: Strtz, 1973.

Valentini, Anna. Musicians in Early Seventeenth-Century Banqueting Scenes in Ferrara.


Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography 38, nos. 12 (2013): 3748.

Wiebe, Paul. To Adorn the Groom with Chaste Delights: Tafelmusik at the Weddings of
Duke Ludwig of Wrttemberg (1585) and Melchior Jger (1586). In Musik in Baden-
Wrttemberg, edited by Georg Gnther and Reiner Ngele, 6:6399. Stuttgart, Germany:
Metzler, 1999.

Zohn, Steven. Music for a Mixed Taste: Style, Genre, and Meaning in Telemanns
Instrumental Works. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Notes:

(1) On the use of Tafelmusik between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, see Erich
Reimer, Tafelmusik, in Handwrterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie, ed. Hans
Heinrich Eggebrecht (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1971). The only iconographical study devoted to
Tafelmusik is Josef Ulsamer and Klaus Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt (Wrzburg:
Strtz, 1973), but other especially valuable sources of images include Edmund A. Bowles,
Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 15001800: An Iconographical & Documentary
Survey (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989); and Hans Ottomeyer and Michaela

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Vlkel, eds., Die ffentliche Tafel: Tafelzeremoniell in Europa 13001900


(Wolfratshausen: Minerva, 2002). Several case studies of images or musical repertories
are cited below.

(2) Johann Mattheson, Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte (Hamburg, Germany: Mattheson,


1740), 361 and 363.

(3) Claus Oefner, Telemann in Eisenach: Die Eisenacher Musikpflege im frhen 18.
Jahrhundert (Eisenach, Germany: Kreiskommission zur Erforschung der Geschichte,
1980), 15 and 20; and Hans Rudolf Jung, Georg Philipp Telemanns Eisenacher weltliche
Festmusiken, in Telemanns Auftrags- und Gelegenheitswerke: Funktion, Wert und
Bedeutung, ed. Wolf Hobohm, Carsten Lange, Brit Reipsch, and Bernd Baselt
(Oschersleben, Germany: Ziethen, 1997), 40.

(4) These are Willkommen, schner Freuden-Tag!, TVWV 12:3 (1718), a birthday serenata
for Duke Johann Wilhelm, and the cantatas Stimmet die fast verstimmten Saiten and
Zeuch, theures Haupt, zeuch mit den Deinen, TVWV 13:5 (1722), for the return of the
duke from a trip to the town of Altenkirchen. Two further Eisenach birthday cantatas
heard as Tafelmusik, but for which no music survives, may have been composed by
Telemann as well: Gottlob, es strahlt heut abermal (1717) and Ihr angenehmen
Harmonien, verehret dieses Tages (1719), both TVWV 12:0. For facsimiles of the libretto
to TVWV 12:3, see Oefner, Telemann in Eisenach, 2223.

(5) The works only source is a manuscript copy dated 1720. The opening aria and a
recitative appear in Hugo Leichtentritt, ed., Deutsche Hausmusik aus vier Jahrhunderten
(Berlin, Germany: Bard, Marquardt & Co., 1907), 9798.

(6) Willi Maertens, Georg Philipp Telemanns sogenannte Hamburgische Kapitainsmusiken


(17231765) (Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Noetzel, 1988), 42.

(7) Michael Gottlieb Steltzner, Beschlu des Versuchs einer zuverlssigen Nachricht von
dem kirchlichen und politischen Zustande der Stadt Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany,
1739), 631. Quoted and translated in Steven Zohn, Music for a Mixed Taste: Style, Genre,
and Meaning in Telemanns Instrumental Works (New York: Oxford University Press,
2008), 86.

(8) Steltzner, Beschlu des Versuchs einer zuverlssigen Nachricht, 662. Quoted and
translated in Zohn, Music for a Mixed Taste, 89.

(9) See Gnter Fleischhauer, Georg Philipp Telemanns Tafelmusik zur Goldenen
Hochzeit des Ehepaares Mutzenbacher (Hamburg 1732), in Telemanns Auftrags- und

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Gelegenheitswerke, 12641. Reprinted in Fleischhauer, Annotationen zu Georg Philipp


Telemann: Ausgewhlte Schriften, ed. Carsten Lange (Hildesheim, Germany: Olms,
2007), 33348.

(10) On the publication history and music of the collection, see Zohn, Music for a Mixed
Taste, 35564, 37172, and 43138.

(11) In a prepublication handbill advertising the collection, Telemann had referred to the
conclusions as concluding symphonies (Beschlu-Symphonien) and the productions as
performances (Auffhrungen).

(12) Eike Rathgeber suggests that Telemann aligned the scoring and musical style of the
second two productions with their publication dates: solo trumpet in Production 2
(Michaelmas), bringing to mind St. Michael as angelic warrior, and a pastoral tone in
Production 3 (Christmas). One might argue, however, that the trumpet instead relates to
the Tafelblasen ritual (see below), and that Productions 1 and 2 contain as much pastoral
music as Production 3. Eike Rathgeber, Georg Philipp Telemanns Musique de table aus
dem Jahr 1733: In drei Gngen zu je neun starken und leichten Stcken in 300 Platten
auf franzsische Art serviert, in Feste: Theophil Antonicek zum 70. Geburtstag, ed.
Martin Eybl, Stefan Jena, and Andreas Vejvar (Tutzing, Germany: Schneider, 2010), 117,
For Karl Kaider, the first production is French in character, the second is Italianate, and
the third embodies the mixed style promoted at the Dresden court. Karl Kaiser, booklet
notes to Georg Philipp Telemann: Musique de table (Freiburger Barockorchester/Petra
Mllejans/Gottfried von der Goltz, Harmonia Mundi HMC 902042.45, 2010).

(13) A facsimile of the list is included in the first modern edition of the Musique de table:
Georg Philipp Telemann, Tafelmusik (Hamburg, 1733), ed. Max Seiffert, Denkmler
deutscher Tonkunst, vols. 6162 (Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf & Hrtel, 1927). Revised
edition by Hans Joachim Moser (Wiesbaden, Germany: Breitkopf & Hrtel; Graz, Austria:
Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1959).

(14) On the Nouveaux quatuors list, see Zohn, Music for a Mixed Taste, 36063.

(15) Max Seiffert, G. Ph. Telemanns Musique de table als Quelle fr Hndel, Bulletin
de la socit Union Musicologique 4 (1924): 128. Revised in Georg Philipp Telemann
(16811767): Musique de table, Ausfhrungen zu Band LXI und LXII der Denkmler
deutscher Tonkunst, Erste Folge. Beihefte zu den Denkmlern deutscher Tonkunst II
(Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf & Hrtel, 1927; repr. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-
und Verlagsanstalt, 1960), 327, here 9.

(16) Reimer, Tafelmusik, 6.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(17) Kaiser, booklet notes to Georg Philipp Telemann.

(18) Eckart Klessmann, booklet notes to Telemann: Tafelmusik (Musica Antiqua Kln/
Reinhard Goebel, Deutsche Grammophon, Archiv Produktion 427619-2, 1989).

(19) Much of the information in this paragraph derives from Timothy J. McGee, Dinner
Music for the Florentine Signoria, 13501450, Speculum 74, no. 1 (1999): 95114.

(20) In 1409 a dinner held by Philip the Bolds successor, John the Fearless, for Charles VI
in Paris included Tafelmusik with an even richer instrumentation: flutes, tambourines,
shawms, harps, vielles, and drums. See Craig Wright, Music at the Court of Burgundy: A
Documentary History (Henryville, PA: Institute of Medieval Music, 1979), 49.

(21) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 125 and 189.

(22) The former illumination belongs to a manuscript at the Bibliothque Nationale in


Paris entitled Histoire dOlivier de Castille e dArtus dAlgarbe ([http://expositions.bnf.fr/
gastro/gros_plan/#]), while the latter (also in the Bibliothque Nationale) is reproduced
in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 22. See also the loud ensembles
shown in late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century tapestries, woodcuts, and paintings
reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 41, 86, 12728, 130, and 210;
and in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 9, 13, 1516, and 38.

(23) Available at [http://library.nga.gov:7308/vwebv/holdingsInfo?


searchId=18&recCount=20&recPointer=17&bibId=47626].

(24) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 45, 85, and 126. See also
the images of soft ensembles reproduced in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches
Tafelkonfekt, 8, 14, 17, 2021, and 4849.

(25) See the illustrations in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 24, 26, 30
31, 33, 3841, 51, and 56.

(26) Available at [http://aaaaccademiaaffamatiaffannati.blogspot.com/2009/03/louis-de-


cuallery-banchetto-palazzo.html].

(27) Available at [http://www.virtuelles-kupferstichkabinett.de/?


subPage=search&selTab=3&currentWerk=21887].

(28) Available at [http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/


386091].

(29) Available at [http://library.nga.gov:7308/vwebv/holdingsInfo?


searchId=18&recCount=20&recPointer=6&bibId=49518].
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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(30) Available at [http://library.nga.gov:7308/vwebv/holdingsInfo?


searchId=18&recCount=20&recPointer=12&bibId=46893].

(31) Available at [http://library.nga.gov:7308/vwebv/holdingsInfo?


searchId=20&recCount=20&recPointer=53&bibId=34315&viewer=true].

(32) Available at [https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:


1550_van_Groningen_Die_Hochzeit_zu_Kana_anagoria.JPG].

(33) Available at [http://www.wikiart.org/en/giorgio-vasari/marriage-at-cana-1566].

(34) See the following images by Veronese ([http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/


wedding-feast-cana]), dal Ponte ([http://www.museicivicivicenza.it/it/mcp/opera.php/
9994]), de Vos ([http://onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/]), Bononi ([https://
www.yooniqimages.com/images/detail/100703180/Creative/the-marriage-at-cana-by-
bononi-carlo-17th-century-oil-on-canvas-italy-emilia-romagna-ferrara-national-gallery-of-
art-palazzo-dei-diamanti-detail-of-the-central-scene-cana-wedding-marriage-food-dog-
servant-table-cloth-courses-dishes-balcony]), Schnfeld ([http://www.wikiart.org/en/
heinrich-schonfeld#supersized-featured-344992]), Steen ([http://
onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/]), Crespi ([http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/
artwork/2166]), Ricci ([http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=168096]), and
Vleughels ([http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/marriage-at-cana-painting-by-
nicolas-vleughels-france-18th-news-photo/527772027]). On the paintings by Scarsella and
Bononi, see Anna Valentini, Musicians in Early Seventeenth-Century Banqueting Scenes
in Ferrara, Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography 38, nos. 12
(2013): 3748. Steens idiosyncratic musical accompaniment (strings, trumpet, drums,
and bagpipes) may be a conflation of all the types of instruments heard during the meal.

(35) Gnter Metken, Laut-Malereien: Grenzgnge zwischen Kunst und Musik (Frankfurt:
Campus, 1995), 19 and 21.

(36) Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 103n2 and 11112n1.

(37) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, flyleaves, 136, and 255.

(38) The two images are reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 131
32, and the woodcut is also available at [http://www.virtuelles-kupferstichkabinett.de/
zoomed.php?signatur=21295]. Compare two other sixteenth-century images: a painting
by Hans Mielich from about 1549 depicting a garden banquet, in which a dozen
musicians in the foreground play transverse flutes, shawm, violin, lutes, trombones, and
harpsichord; and a pen drawing by Christoph Freidel, showing a palace banquet in
Stuttgart in 1579 with a foreground ensemble of transverse flute, two violins, cittern, and

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

harp, along with a background ensemble including up to a dozen (loud) winds. Both are
reproduced in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 50 and 55.

(39) Johann Augustin Assum, Warhaffte Relation (Stuttgart, Germany, 1616), 2226.
Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 199200.

(40) See the descriptions of the 1529 and 1568 banquets in John Spitzer and Neal Zaslaw,
The Birth of the Orchestra: History of an Institution, 16501815 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2004), 4143, including a reproduction of the 1568 engraving. On the
Munich celebration in particular, see also Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books,
5960; and James Haar, Munich at the Time of Orlande de Lassus, in The Renaissance:
From the 1470s to the End of the 16th Century, ed. Iain Fenlon (London, UK: Macmillan,
1989), 25155. Additional reproductions of the engraving are found in Ulsamer and
Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 53; Hans-Joachim Nsselt, Ein ltest Orchester,
15301980: 450 Jahre Bayerisches Hof- und Staatsorchester (Munich, Germany:
Bruckmann, 1980), 32; Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 6263; and [http://
www.ubs.sbg.ac.at/sosa/bdm/11240III04.jpg].

(41) Reproduced in Roy Strong, Feast: A History of Grand Eating (Orlando, FL: Harcourt,
2002), 191, and available at [http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/
mw06456/Sir-Henry-Unton].

(42) Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 161.

(43) The engraving is reproduced in Robert Haas, Die Musik des Barocks (Potsdam:
Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1929), 18; and in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die
ffentliche Tafel, 137.

(44) Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 278n4 and 286.

(45) Klaus Hfner, Johann Casper Ferdinand Fischer und die Rastatter Hofkapelle, in
Barock in Baden-Wrttemberg: Vom Ende des Dreiigjhrigen Krieges bis zur
Franzsischen Revolution (Karlsruhe: Badisches Landesmuseum, 1981), 2:217.

(46) Bert Siegmund, The Court of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg, in Music at German Courts,


17151760: Changing Artistic Priorities, ed. Samantha Owens, Barbara M. Reul, and
Janice B. Stockigt (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011), 205. For a list of dramatic Tafelmusiken
composed for Gotha by Gottfried Heinrich Stlzel during the 1730s and 1740s, see
Gottfried Christian Freiesleben, Kleine Nachlese, zu des berhmten Herrn Professor
Gottscheds nthigem Vorrathe zur Geschichte der deutschen dramatischen Dichtkunst
(Leipzig, Germany: Teubner, 1760), 7378.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(47) See the reproduction and accompanying essay in Christian Klemm, Joachim von
Sandrart: Kunst Werke u. Lebens Lauf (Berlin, Germany: Deutscher Verlag fr
Kunstwissenschaft, 1986), 18492.

(48) Reproduced in Haas, Die Musik des Barocks, 16, and in Ulsamer and Stahmer,
Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 45. The two copies belonging to the Herzog Anton Ulrich-
Museum in Braunschweig may be consulted at [http://www.virtuelles-
kupferstichkabinett.de/index.php?selTab=3&currentWerk=32215&] and, in two halves,
at [http://kk.haum-bs.de/?
selTab=3&currentWerk=12072&PHPSESSID=afe7affd87c55dc40907ed9ed30f4b25&PHPSESSID=a
and [http://kk.haum-bs.de/?selTab=3&currentWerk=12070&]. See also copies at the
Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin: [http://www.dhm.de/datenbank/img.php?
img=gr102952&format=1] and (colored) [http://www.dhm.de/datenbank/dhm.php?
seite=5&fld_0=GR102103].

(49) Johann Klaj, Irene/das ist/Vollstndige Aubildung des zu Nrnberggeschlossenen


Friedens 1650 (Nuremberg, Germany: Endter, 1650), following page 44. The book is
available at [http://diglib.hab.de/drucke/65-15-poet-1/start.htm]. See also the copy of the
engraving at the Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin: [http://www.dhm.de/
datenbank/dhm.php?seite=5&fld_0=GR105824].

(50) Sigmund von Birken, Die Fried-erfreuete Teutonie: Eine Geschichtschrifft von dem
Teutschen Friedensvergleich (Nuremberg, Germany: Dmler, 1652), following page 56. A
copy of the book is available at [http://www.deutschestextarchiv.de/book/view/
birken_friedensvergleich_1652?p=1].

(51) Johann Georg Schleder, Theatri Europi oder Historischer Beschreibung der
denckwrdigsten Geschichten vom Jahr 1647 bis 1651. exclusiv, vol. 6 (Frankfurt am
Main, Germany: Merian, 1652, 2/1663), plate 88 (following page 938). The second edition
of the book is available at [http://www.bibliothek.uni-augsburg.de/dda/urn/
urn_uba000200-uba000399/uba000241/].

(52) Johann Gottfried von Meiern, Acta Pacis Executionis Publica: Oder Nrnbergisches
Friedens-Executions-Handlungen und Geschichte, 2 vols. (Hannover and Tbingen,
Germany: Cotta, 1736; Gttingen, Germany: Turpe, 1738), 1:365. Unfortunately, the copy
of the book at [https://play.google.com/books/reader?
id=UmZZAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en] does not include a full
scan of the engraving. But see reproductions of the engraving in Heinrich W. Schwab,
Konzert: ffentliche Musikdarbietung vom 17. bis. 19. Jahrhundert, Musikgeschichte in
Bildern, vol. 4 (Leipzig: VEB Verlag fr Musik, 1971), 41; and Christian Klemm and
Hermann Harrassowitz, Das Nrnberger Friedensmahl am 25. September 1649,

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Mitteilungen des Vereins fr die Geschichte der Stadt Nrnberg 75 (1988), following
page 80. Digital copies include those at the Bibliothque nationale in Paris ([http://
gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84041813]), the Herzog-August Bibliothek in Wolfenbttel
([http://www.virtuelles-kupferstichkabinett.de/?currentWerk=22707&]), and the
Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg ([http://www.bildindex.de/
obj00054074.html#|home]). All of these images lack the marginal text identifying those
attending the banquet.

(53) Available at [http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Pages/ImageDetail.aspx?


p_iBildID=14574030].

(54) The dulcian player on the far left in Kilians version originally held a transverse flute,
the outlines of which are still visible in the copies of the engraving cited above.

(55) The account is transcribed without commentary in Tobias Norlind, Ein Musikfest zu
Nrnberg im Jahre 1649, Sammelbnde der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 7, no. 1
(1905): 11113; and with commentary in Klemm and Harrassowitz, Das Nrnberger
Friedensmahl am 25. September 1649, 8490. The instrumentation of each choir is
described twice, with some discrepancies between the two accounts.

(56) Facsimile in Klemm and Harrassowitz, Das Nrnberger Friedensmahl, following


page 90.

(57) As suggested by Stefan Hanheide, ed., Friedensgesnge 16281651: Musik zum


Dreissigjhrigen Krieg, Denkmler der Tonkunst in Bayern, Neue Folge, vol. 22
(Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hrtel, 2012), xxix.

(58) Meiern, Acta Pacis, 1:367.

(59) Schleder, Theatri Europi, 93839. The same passage appears in Georg Philipp
Harsdrffer, Vollstndig und von neuem vermehrtes Trincir-Buch (Nuremberg, Germany:
Paulus Frsten, 1657), 24243.

(60) Schleder, Theatri Europi, 938.

(61) Costbahres Friedensmahl, quoted in Klemm and Harrassowitz, Das Nrnberger


Friedensmahl, 90.

(62) Klaj, Irene, 5152 and 69n47. In a marginal note accompanying the works text, Klaj
identifies it as Music in der Hhe des Saales.

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(63) See the facsimiles of the title page in Hanheide, Friedensgesnge, cxxvii, and
Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 47. On the connection of the two
published works with the banquet, see Klemm and Harrassowitz, Das Nrnberger
Friedensmahl, 89; and Hanheide, Friedensgesnge, xxxixxxii.

(64) For example, Meiern describes a meal at which trumpets and kettledrums called the
guests into the hall: At the entrance into the hall, the choirs performed the Gloria and
during the meal performed beautiful sacred songs, alternating vocal and instrumental
forces. Meiern, Acta Pacis, 1:369.

(65) Although many more published collections than these were no doubt intended to
furnish Tafelmusik, the table focuses on publications making explicit mention of this
purpose in their titles, or which are otherwise closely connected with the Tafelmusik
tradition. Excluded, therefore, are publications such as Georg Muffats Suavioris
Harmoni Instrumentalis Hyporchematic Instrumentalis Hyporchematic Florilegium
Secundum (Passau, Germany, 1698) and Exquisitioris Harmoni Instrumentalis Gravi-
Jucund Selectus Primus Auserlesene mit ernst und lust gemengte Instrumentalmusik
(Passau, Germany, 1701), which the composer claimed were or could be used as
Tafelmusik, among other purposes. Likewise, some collections of sonatas and suites were
advertised as being suitable for Tafelmusik and other occasions, for example, Dieterich
Buxtehudes Sonaten 2. & 3. (Lbeck, Germany, 1684; lost), BuxWV 274; Rupert Ignaz
Mayers Pythagorischen Schmids-Fncklein (Augsburg, Germany, 1692); and Johann
Abraham Schmierers Zodiaci Musici (Augsburg, Germany, 1698). See Reimer,
Tafelmusik, 3. Also excluded from the table are publications that appear to reference
banquets merely in the sense of a cornucopia of music, such as Johann Hermann Scheins
Banchetto musicale (Leipzig, Germany, 1617) and the anthologies of John Playford and
Henry Playford: A Musicall Banquet (London, UK, 1651), Apollos Banquet for the
Treble-Violin (London, 1669), and The Banquet of Musick (London, UK, 1692).

(66) Friedrich Baser and Dorothea Schrder, Thesselius, Johann, Grove Music Online.

(67) See the facsimiles in Isaac Posch, Musicalische Tafelfreudt, ed. Metoda Kokole,
Monumenta artis musicae Sloveniae, vol. 31 (Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovenska akademija
znanosti in umetnosti, 1997), xxixxxx; and the transcription in Annemarie Clostermann,
Zur Frligkeit gebrauchet : Materialen zu Erscheinungsbildern der Tafelmusik in
Deutschland im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, in Barockes Musiktheater im mitteldeutschen
Raum im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, ed. Friedhelm Brusniak, 8. Arolser Barock-Festspiele
1993, Tagungsbericht (Cologne: Studio, 1994), 151.

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(68) Noteworthy is the engraved frontispiece to Capricornuss Neu-angestimmte und


erfreuliche Tafelmusic, which shows a singer and five instrumentalists (visible are a
violin, cornetto, lute, and string bass) around a table placed in a garden. In the
background, representing the otherwise absent meal, are a turkey and peacock.
Reproduced in Haas, Die Musik des Barocks, 171. In a letter to Johann Theile written
between 1673 and 1679, Johann Heinrich Schmeltzer noted that Theiles sonatas in four
and five parts had been heard with pleasure in Vienna by Emperor Leopold I during
meals (unter der Tafel produciret worden). Around 1670, Schmeltzer, Biber, and
Giovanni Valentini all wrote sonatas designated as being for the table (pro tabula or ad
tablum). The popularity of sonatas as Tafelmusik in this period is also attested to by a
fragmentary inventory prepared for the Weimar court in 1662. See Charles E. Brewer,
The Instrumental Music of Schmeltzer, Biber, Muffat, and Their Contemporaries
(Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011), 5455, 15253, 23941, and 34344.

(69) This trend may explain why Biber so pointedly notes that his sounding meal is
instrumental: Die Klingende Taffel/Oder Instrumentalische Taffel-Music. On the
association of Tafelmusik with secular and sacred vocal music during the period, see the
sources quoted in Reimer, Tafelmusik, 45.

(70) That Grossis publications might have found an audience in German-speaking lands is
suggested by the performance of Italian vocal music at a Viennese banquet of Emperor
Leopold I in April 1660: The musicians first performed with 2 violins, 2 violas da
gamba, 1 theorbo, and harpsichord, then performed a vocal piece in Italian with an alto
and two castrati, along with theorbo and a viola da gamba. Johann Joachim Mller,
Entdecktes Staats-Cabinet (Jena, Germany: Pohl, 1714), 2:176.

(71) Both Rathgeber and Seyfert directly address the Liebhaber (amateurs, music-lovers)
on their title pages and in their prefaces. See the facsimiles in Valentin Rathgeber,
Ohrenvergngendes und gemthergtzendes Tafelconfect (Augsburg 1733/37/46), ed.
Hans Joachim Moser, Das Erbe deutscher Musik, vol. 19 (Mainz, Germany: B. Schotts
Shne, 1942). Georg Wolfgang Druckenmllers Tafel-Confect is also for the amusement
of Liebhaber (denen Liebhabern zur Belustigung).

(72) Curt Sachs, Musik und Oper am kurbrandenburgischen Hof (Berlin, Germany: Julius
Bard, 1910; repr. Hildesheim: Olms, 1977), 1012.

(73) Johann Sebastian Bach, Neue Ausgabe Smtliche Werke, series 1, vol. 35:
Festmusiken fur die Frstenhuser von Weimar, Weissenfels und Kthen, Kritischer
Bericht, ed. Alfred Drr (Kassel, Germany: Brenreiter, 1964), 158 and 160.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(74) Ursula Kramer, The Court of Hesse-Darmstadt, in Music at German Courts, ed.
Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 342.

(75) Friedrich Wilhelm Riedel, Musikpflege am kaiserlichen Hof in Wien, in Zelenka-


Studien II: Referate und Materialen der 2. Internationalen Fachkonferenz Jan Dismas
Zelenka (Dresden und Prag 1995), ed. Gnter Gattermann (St. Augustin bei Bonn,
Germany: Academia, 1997), 458.

(76) Wolfgang Ruf, The Courts of Saxony-Weienfels, Saxony-Merseburg, and Saxony-


Zeitz, in Music at German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 226.

(77) James R. Anthony and Lionel Sawkins, Lalande, Michel-Richard de, Grove Music
Online. Among lost or unidentified instrumental Tafelmusiken are Instrumental-Suiten zu
Tafel-Musicken by Georg Caspar Schrmann (1672/1673-1751) and a dozen concerti zu
Kleinen Tafel Musiquen by Johann Philipp Kfer (1672-1728). See Johann Gottfried
Walther, Musicalisches Lexicon (Leipzig, Germany: Deer, 1732), 558, and Klaus Hfner,
Kfer, Johann Philipp, in Grove Music Online.

(78) Matthias Range, Music and Ceremonial at British Coronations: From James I to
Elizabeth II (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 120.

(79) For a discussion and listing of the contents of these inventories, see Barbara Ann
Renton, The Musical Culture of Eighteenth-Century Bohemia, with Special Emphasis on
the Music Inventories of Osek and the Knights of the Cross (PhD diss., City University of
New York, 1990), 20912, 25964, 28386, 300303, and 51927 (appendices F and G).

(80) Quoted in Christoph Gropietsch, Graupners Ouverturen und Tafelmusiken: Studien


zur Darmstdter Hofmusik und thematischer Katalog (Mainz: Schott, 1994), 72.

(81) See the facsimile of Speers preface in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches
Tafelkonfekt, 89. In his preface to the Musicalisches Tafel-Confect, Druckenmller
expressed the hope of someday publishing an entire Tafel-Music with humorous [lustige]
texts, along with little sonatas for wind instruments. Quoted in Andreas Traub and Hans
Bergmann, eds., Musik der Organistenfamilie Druckenmller, Denkmler der Musik in
Baden-Wrttemberg, vol. 4 (Munich, Germany: Strube, 1996), xiii.

(82) Both engravings are reproduced in Haas, Die Musik des Barocks, 5 and 8.

(83) Das groe Carrosel und Prchtige Ring-Rnnen nebst dem/Was sonsten Frtrefliches
zu sehen war/al Der Durchleuchtigste Grossmchtigste Knig und Herr Carl der Elffte/
Die Regierung seines Vterliches Erb-Knigreichs In seiner Kniglichen Residentz zu

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Stockholm antratt (Stockholm, Sweden: Eberdt, 1685), 12. The engraving, by Georg
Christoph Eimmart (16381705) after a drawing by David Klcker Ehrenstrahl (1628
1698), is the last of sixty-two in the book, which is available at [http://diglib.hab.de/
drucke/gs-2f-14/start.htm]. For a reproduction of the engraving alone, see Ottomeyer and
Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 143. The books text, along with an English translation, is
given in Lena Rangstrm, Certamen Equestre: The Carousel for the Accession of Karl XI
in 1672, in Europa Triumphans: Court and Civic Festivals in Early Modern Europe, ed. J.
R. Mulryne, Helen Watanabe-OKelly, Margaret Shewring, Elizabeth Goldring, and Sarah
Knight (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004), 2:292323.

(84) For a collection of detailed color photographs of the fresco taken in 1944, see [http://
www.zi.fotothek.org/objekte/19003114].

(85) Available at [http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/


461196?rpp=30&pg=1&ft=banquet&pos=2].

(86) Two copies of the etching, at The State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, may be
consulted at [http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/
04.+Engraving/1204502/?lng=en] and [http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/
hermitage/digital-collection/04.+Engraving/1629135/?lng=en]. The placement of
musicians so near to guests is unusual in images from this period, but is relatively
common in seventeenth-century images. Compare an engraving commemorating the
celebratory banquet for the founding of the University of Kiel in 1665, in which a
director, two singers, and instrumentalists playing two violins, two trumpets, lute, and
viola da gamba are positioned around a table in close proximity to diners. Reproduced in
Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 32728.

(87) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 153.

(88) Tomasso Borgonio, Gli Hercoli domatori (Turin, Italy, 1650), 25. Translated in Bowles,
Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 275.

(89) Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys: A New and Complete Transcription, ed.
Roberth Latham and William Matthews (Berkeley, CA: HarperCollins, 1995), 2:86, quoted
in Range, Music and Ceremonial at British Coronations, 59; Spitzer and Zaslaw, The Birth
of the Orchestra, 231 and 268; and Brewer, Instrumental Music, 52.

(90) The two engravings are in Francis Sandford, A History of the Coronation of the Most
High, Most Mighty, and Most Excellent Monarch, James II (London, UK: Newcomb,
1687), following pages 108 and 116. See [https://play.google.com/store/books/details?

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

id=R75UAAAAcAAJ&rdid=book-R75UAAAAcAAJ&rdot=1]. They are also reproduced in


Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 144.

(91) Spitzer and Zaslaw, The Birth of the Orchestra, 348.

(92) Francesco Maria Piccioli, Lorologio del piacere (Piazzola, Italy: Loco delle Vergine,
1686), unpaginated. The book may be consulted at [https://archive.org/details/
lorologiodelpiac00picc], and the serenata is listed in Michael Talbot, The Serenata in
Eighteenth-Century Venice, Royal Musical Association Research Chronicle 18 (1982): 36.

(93) Compare photographs of the two rooms as they now appear, at [http://
www.villacontarini.eu/en/villa-contarini/music-villa.html]. This arrangement is
architecturally similar to the Weimar palace church (Himmelsburg), where music was
heard in the sanctuary through a hole in the ceiling.

(94) See Ellen Rosand, Vivaldis Stage, Journal of Musicology 18, no. 1 (2001): 2224.

(95) Reproduced in Spitzer and Zaslaw, The Birth of the Orchestra, 349.

(96) A modified version of this engraving, leaving the musicians unaltered, was later used
to depict a 1712 banquet in honor of Charles VI as archduke of Austria. The engravings
two versions are reproduced in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 54
(1705); Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 41415 (1705); and Ottomeyer and
Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 50. The 1705 version is also available at [http://
www.bildarchivaustria.at/Pages/ImageDetail.aspx?p_iBildID=9996059]. A similar
ensemble is shown in a painting commemorating the coronation banquet of King
Friedrich I at Knigsberg in January 1701. The serving of a course is announced by
twelve trumpets and a pair of kettledrums. On the left balcony are at least sixteen
musicians, with a director, five violinists, and several singers visible. The painting is
reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 146.

(97) Reproduced in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 65. Compare a


similar engraving of the same event reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche
Tafel, 44.

(98) Beschreibung, Des den 6. Octobris in hiesige K. K. Residenz-stadt Wien beschehenen


prchtigen Einzugs Ihrer Knigl. Hoheit der Durchl. Braut, und deren darauf gefolgten
Solennitten, Wienerisches Diarium 82 (1760), Anhang, [13]. Quoted in Martin Eybl,
Zwei Hochzeiten am Wiener Hof 1744 und 1760: Hfisches Selbstverstndnis,
Reprsentation und Publikum im Prozess der Aufklrung, in Feste: Theophil Antonicek
zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Martin Eybl, Stefan Jena, and Andreas Vejvar (Tutzing:

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

Schneider, 2010), 161. The painting is available at [https://www.google.com/


culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/wedding-supper/8wGaVfLW0exl6A?hl=en]. A published
diagram of a 1744 wedding banquet in Vienna (reproduced by Eybl, 164) shows that on
this occasion the court musicians also performed from a balcony. Another painting by
Meytens, depicting a banquet similar to that of 1760, but held at the Hofburg in Vienna,
is unusual for showing the court musicians placed on the halls floor. It is reproduced in
Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 51, and available at [http://
www.habsburger.net/de/medien/werkstatt-des-hofmalers-martin-van-meytens-hoftafel-zu-
ehren-des-brautpaares-kaiser-joseph-ii?language=de].

(99) Jan Wagenaar, t Verheugd Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1772), 106. Translated in


Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 529.

(100) Johann Adolph Scheibe, Der critische Musikus, vol. 2 (Hamburg, Germany: Beneke,
1740), no. 68 (15 December 1739), 329. Second revised ed., Critischer Musikus (Leipzig,
Germany: Breitkopf, 1745; repr. Hildesheim, Germany: Olms, 1970), 62021. Translated
in Spitzer and Zaslaw, The Birth of the Orchestra, 23031.

(101) Louis de Cahusac, Festins Royaux, in Encyclopdie ou Dictionnaire raisonn des


sciences, des arts et des mtiers, ed. Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert (Paris,
France: Briasson, David, Le Breton, and Durand, 1756), 6:56163.

(102) Gropietsch, Graupners Ouverturen und Tafelmusiken, 75.

(103) See the thematic catalog entries in Gropietsch, Graupners Ouverturen und
Tafelmusiken, 319, 344, 357, 369, and 375.

(104) See Richard Maunder, The Scoring of Baroque Concertos (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell,
2004), 17577; and Dieter Gutknecht, Auffhrungspraktische Probleme in Telemanns
Musique de table, in Georg Philipp Telemann: Werkberlieferung, Editions- und
Interpretationsfragen, ed. Wolf Hobohm and Carsten Lange, 3 vols. in 1 (Cologne,
Germany: Studio, 1991), 3:4748.

(105) The work is apparently the serenata Mars und Irene in vergnglichster Verbindung
by Matthias Christoph Wideburg to a text by Michael Richey. Christian Fritzschs
engraving has been reproduced many times. See in particular Schwab, Konzert, 55;
Maertens, Georg Philipp Telemanns sogenannte Hamburgische Kapitainsmusiken, 396
398; and Spitzer and Zaslaw, The Birth of the Orchestra, 24041.

(106) Both the painting and diagram are reproducted in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die
ffentliche Tafel, 6869. Exceptional are engravings showing musicians on a single

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

balcony in the Rmer during the coronation banquets for Matthias I (1612; trumpets,
cornetti, and singers) and Charles VI (1711; trumpets, two sets of kettledrums, and string
bass). These are reproduced in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 18283 and
428; and in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, 6061 and 63. The 1612 image is also available at
[http://www.virtuelles-kupferstichkabinett.de/?
subPage=search&selTab=3&currentWerk=1368], and the 1711 image at [http://
www.virtuelles-kupferstichkabinett.de/zoomed.php?signatur=12314].

(107) Olivier de la Marche, Mmoires, ed. Henri Beaune and J. DArbaumont (Paris,
France: Renouard, 1884), 2:34861, and Mathiew dEscouchy, Chronique, in Choix de
chroniques et mmoires relatifs a lhistoire de France, ed. J.-A.-C. Buchon (Orlans,
France: Herluison, 1875), 14853. Translated in Carol MaClintock, Readings in the
History of Music in Performance (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979), 1718.

(108) Paul Jacob Marperger, Vollstndiges Kch- und Keller-Dictionarium (Hamburg,


Germany: Schiller, 1716), 114445. Marpergers entry is reprinted verbatim by Johann
Heinrich Zedler, ed., Taffel-Music, in Groes vollstndiges Universal-Lexicon (Leipzig
and Halle, Germany, 1744), vol. 41, cols. 143637.

(109) See Alina Zrawska-Witkowska, The Saxon Court of the Kingdom of Poland, in
Music at German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 58. The engraving, by Matthus
Daniel Pppelmann, is reproduced in Edmund A. Bowles, The Impact of Turkish Military
Bands on European Court Festivals in the 17th and 18th Centuries, Early Music 34, no. 4
(2006): 551; and in Ulsamer and Stahmer, Musikalisches Tafelkonfekt, 68.

(110) Available at [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/


File:Antoine_Aveline_nach_Raymond_Leplat_-
_Showpiece_banquet_in_the_Corner_Parade_Hall_in_Dresden_Palace_on_3_September_1719_-
_Google_Art_Project.jpg]. Placing musicians outside the banqueting space may have been
a long-standing tradition at Dresden, for at a 1629 meal at the home of Georg Reichbrodt,
lord chamberlain of the exchequer, a pretty feast was set up, with vocal music outside
before the room, [and] a room with instrumental music (being an instrumentalist and a
lutenist who waited especially on the electress and alternated with one another). Quoted
and translated in Spagnoli, Letters and Documents of Heinrich Schtz, 67.

(111) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 23 and 157.

(112) On such theatrical music, see Arne Spohr, Concealed Music in Early Modern
Diplomatic Ceremonial, in Music and Diplomacy from the Early Modern Era to the
Present, ed. Rebekah Ahrendt, Mark Ferraguto, and Damien Mahiet (New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2014), 1943, especially 25 and 32.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(113) Oscar Doering, Des Augsburger Patriciers Philipp Hainhofer Reisen nach Innsbruck
und Dresden (Vienna, Austria: Graeser, 1901), 217. Translated in Gina Spagnoli,
Dresden at the Time of Heinrich Schtz, in The Early Baroque Era: From the Late 16th
Century to the 1660s, ed. Curtis Price (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994), 178.

(114) Translated in Ursula Kramer, The Court of Hesse-Darmstadt, in Music at German


Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 354.

(115) See Spohr, Concealed Music, passim.

(116) Thomas Mace, Musicks Monument; or, a Remembrancer of the Best Practical Music
(London, UK: Ratcliffe and Thompson, 1676), 239. Available at [https://archive.org/
details/musicksmonumento00mace]. The diagram is reproduced in Schwab, Konzert, 47.

(117) Mace, Musicks Monument, 238.

(118) Mace, Musicks Monument, 24041.

(119) Abreg du Trait de la civilit moderne. Kurtzer Begriff der ietzo blichen
Hfflichkeit (Frankfurt and Leipzig, Germany: Hagen, 1712); Julius Bernhard von Rohr,
Einleitung zur Ceremoniel-Wissenschafft der grossen Herren, 2nd ed. (Berlin, Germany:
Rdiger, 1733); and Friedrich Carl von Moser, Teutsches Hof-Recht, 2 vols. (Frankfurt
and Leipzig, Germany: Andre, 17541755). Among reprints of the first book, see La
Civilit moderne: Oder die Hflichkeit der heutigen Welt, ed. Carl Mouton (Hamburg,
Germany: Herold, 1761). The entry Taffel Ceremoniell in Zedler, Groes vollstndiges
Universal-Lexicon, vol. 41, cols. 141535 is taken directly from the chapters of La Civilit
moderne and Rohrs Einleitung.

(120) On the ceremonial aspect of banquets, see the essays in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die
ffentliche Tafel; and Claudia Curtius Seutter von Ltzen, Das Tafelzeremoniell an
deutschen Hfen im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert: Quellen und Rechtsgrundlagen (JD diss.,
Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, 2008), 10950.

(121) Rohr, Einleitung zur Ceremoniel-Wissenschafft, 93, 9. Translated in Samantha


Owens and Barbara M. Reul, Das gantze Corpus derer musicirenden Personen: An
Introduction to German Hofkapellen, in Music at German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and
Stockigt, 8.

(122) Marperger, Vollstndiges Kch- und Keller-Dictionarium, 1142. Reprinted in Zedler,


Groes vollstndiges Universal-Lexicon, vol. 41, cols. 139596.

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(123) Moser, Teutsches Hof-Recht, 2:521, 20. Gala days, at least at the Dresden court,
included holidays such as Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, Christmas, and the New
Year, as well as birthdays and name days in the ruling family. See the 1735 list of Gala
Days Celebrated in Dresden, reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel,
152.

(124) The document is transcribed in Ltzen, Das Tafelzeremoniell an deutschen Hfen,


13941.

(125) Johann Ernst Altenburg, Versuch einer Anleitung zur heroisch-musikalischen


Trompeter- und Pauker-Kunst (Halle, Germany: Hendel, 1795), 91.

(126) As Brewer notes (Instrumental Music, 26365), a performance direction on the


trumpet part suggests that Biber later allowed the intrada to be played by a violin.

(127) Johann Augustin Assum, Warhaffte Relation (Stuttgart, Germany, 1616), 2226.
Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 199200. A similarly large
ensemble was heard at the wedding banquet for King Charles I of England and Princess
Henrietta Maria of France in 1625: eight drums, foure fifes and sixteene trumpets,
besides a world of clarions, hoboyes, cornets and other loud instruments. A True
Discourse of all the Royal Passages (London, UK, 1625), 17ff, quoted in Bowles, 304n1.

(128) Georg Tzschimmer, Die Durchluchigste Zusammenkunfft (Nuremberg, Germany,


1680), 7071. Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 357.

(129) Both paintings are reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 135.
The second is also reproduced in Strong, Feast, 175.

(130) Johann Christian Lnig, Theatrum ceremoniale historico-politicum (Leipzig,


Germany: Weidmann, 1719), 342.

(131) The engraving accompanying this description is based on the one for the 1722
coronation at Reims of Louis XV. The two images are reproduced in Bowles, Musical
Ensembles in Festival Books, 454 and 537.

(132) Quoted and translated in Bert Siegmund, The Court of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg, in


Music at German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 206.

(133) Continuatio Diarii, und ausfhrliche Erzehlung (Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1712),
51. Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 424.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(134) Kilian Reinhardt, Rubriche generali per le funzioni ecclesiastici musicali di tutto
lanno (Vienna, Austria, 1727), 99. Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival
Books, 412n4.

(135) Altenburg, Versuch einer Anleitung, 111.

(136) Marperger, Vollstndiges Kch- und Keller-Dictionarium, 1146. Reprinted in Zedler,


Groes vollstndiges Universal-Lexicon, vol. 41, col. 1396.

(137) Marperger, Vollstndiges Kch- und Keller-Dictionarium, 1144. Reprinted in Zedler,


Groes vollstndiges Universal-Lexicon, vol. 41, col. 1395.

(138) Rohr, Einleitung zur Ceremoniel-Wissenschafft, 120, 66.

(139) Moser, Teutsches Hof-Recht, 538539, 35. The passage concerning the imperial
court appears to derive from Johann Basileus Kchelbecker, Allerneueste Nachricht von
Rmisch-Kyerl. Hofe (Hanover, Germany: Frster, 1730), 361.

(140) Johann Beer, Sein Leben, von Ihm Selbst Erzhlt, ed. Adolf Schmiedecke (Gttingen,
Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1965), 83 (entry of October 7, 1699).

(141) Janice B. Stockigt, The Court of Saxony-Dresden, in Music at German Courts, ed.
Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 21.

(142) See the discussion of seating in Moser, Teutsches Hof-Recht, 2:50912, 1011, and
52832, 28.

(143) Paul Wiebe, To Adorn the Groom with Chaste Delights: Tafelmusik at the Weddings
of Duke Ludwig of Wrttemberg (1585) and Melchior Jger (1586), in Musik in Baden-
Wrttemberg, ed. Georg Gnther and Reiner Ngele (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1999), 6: 6769.

(144) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 59.

(145) Melitta Kunze-Kllensperger, Meissen, Dresden, Augsburg: Meissen Porcelain


Sculpture before Kirchner and Kaendler, in Triumph of the Blue Swords: Meissen
Porcelain for Aristocracy and Bourgeoisie, 17101815, ed. Ulrich Pietsch and Claudia
Banz (Dresden, Germany: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden; Leipzig, Germany:
Seemann, 2010), 57. See also a related discussion of the figures in the catalog portion of
the book (22931, nos. 14041).

(146) For a selection of Meissen musical figures, see Triumph of the Blue Swords, catalog
nos. 34344, 352, 355, 380, 41617, 43436, and 44345.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(147) Martin Eberle, Cris de Paris: Street Vendors and Nobility at one Table, in Triumph
of the Blue Swords, 7475.

(148) Samuel Wittwer, the King of Prussia has requested the rapid completion:
Friedrich the Great and Meissen Porcelain, in Triumph of the Blue Swords, 14445.

(149) Jean-Louis Flandrin, Arranging the Meal: A History of Table Service in France, trans.
Julie E. Johnson with Sylvie and Antonio Roder (Berkeley: University of California Press,
2007), 35 and 12224. The four French culinary terms used here should be understood
in their historical senses, as defined by Flandrin (159n2): Hors doeuvre: Additional
tidbits elaborating on the important offerings after the soup. Relev: An intermediate
course of dishes to replace (relieve) the soup or fish being removed. Entre: The third
course, after the hors doeuvre and relev but before the roast. Entremets: A
spectacular offering of sweet and savory dishes after the roast, accompanied by
entertainment.

(150) Menon, La Cuisinire bourgeoise, suivie de lOffice, lusage de tous ceux qui se
mlent de dpenses de Maisons, Contenant la manire de dissquer, connotre & servir
toutes sortes de Viandes (Paris, France, 1746), 1415. Translated in Flandrin, Arranging
the Meal, 7.

(151) Relation de linauguration solemnelle (Ghent, Belgium, 1719), 16. Translated in


Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 434.

(152) Harsdrffer, Vollstndig und von neuem vermehrtes Trincir-Buch, 224 and 239.

(153) Wilhelm Peter Zimmermann, Beschreibung und kurtze radierte Entwerffung


(Augsburg, Germany, 1614), 4. Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival
Books, 192. One of Zimmermanns engravings not reproduced by Bowles (see Nsselt, Ein
ltest Orchester, 56) shows a violinist playing beside an elaborately set banquet table.

(154) Letter by Luigi Inghirami, quoted in Paolo Minucci del Rosso, Le Nozze di
Margherita deMedici con Odoardo Farnese, Duca di Parma e Piacenza, La Rassegna
Nazionale 21 (1885): 56061. Translated in Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books,
251. Ltzen estimates that a three-course meal including well over one hundred dishes
would have lasted about an hour and a half. Ltzen, Das Tafelzeremoniell an deutschen
Hfen, 142.

(155) Cahusac, Festins Royaux, 563.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(156) Quoted and translated in Samantha Owens, The Court of Wrttemberg-Stuttgart,


in Music at German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 168. Pez complained in 1715
that he had to eat lunch with the choirboys, since Tafelmusik lasting until 3:00 or 3:30
p.m. would otherwise leave him no time to eat. See Reimer, Tafelmusik, 2. Twice daily
Tafelmusik was also expected at the Brandenburg-Prussia Hofkapelle at Berlin, as noted
by Mary Oleskiewicz, The Court of Brandenburg-Prussia, in Music at German Courts,
80.

(157) Samantha Owens, The Wrttemberg Hofkapelle, c. 16801721 (PhD diss., Victoria
University of Wellington, 1995), 29497.

(158) Michel de Montaigne, Journal de voyage en Italie (Paris, France: Le Livre de poche,
1974), 65; and Ulrich von Werdum, Das Reisejournal des Ulrich von Werdum, 16701677
(Frankfurt, Germany: Lang, 1990), 298, both translated in Flandrin, Arranging the Meal,
124.

(159) Susi Jeans, Bull, John, Grove Music Online.

(160) Jean Motet, Combat dhonneur (Pont--Mousson, France, 1627), 122. Translated in
Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 239.

(161) Georg von Deyerlsperg, Erb-Huldigung (Graz, Austria, 1740), 87. Translated in
Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 463.

(162) Quoted and translated in Dieter Kirsch, The Court of Wrzburg, in Music at
German Courts, ed. Owens, Reul, and Stockigt, 323.

(163) Gropietsch, Graupners Ouverturen und Tafelmusiken, 74.

(164) Quoted in Hfner, Johann Casper Ferdinand Fischer und die Rastatter Hofkapelle,
22728. The division of Tafelmusik duties between a Kapellmeister and concert master
may have been a common arrangement. See Reimer, Tafelmusik, 2, for a similar court
ordinance from Moritzburg in 1664.

(165) Johann Heinrich Schmeltzer, in a letter written during the 1670s and quoted by
Johann Mattheson in 1740, reported that sonatas by Johann Theile have been produced
during meals (unter der Tafel produciret worden) at the Viennese imperial court.
Mattheson, Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte, 370. Whether the verb produciren is
Schmeltzers or Matthesons cannot be determined.

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Telemanns Musique de table and the Tafelmusik Tradition

(166) Reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 140, and available at
[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Jan_Mandijn_%28or_Mandyn%29_-
_Burlesque_Feast_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg].

(167) Available at [https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/peasant-


wedding/hgGvote2WI8P3w?hl=en].

(168) See the image and commentary at [http://www.soane.org/collections_legacy/


the_soane_hogarths/an_election.]

(169) A copy of the engraving belonging to the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in


Nuremberg may be accessed via the Bildindex database at [http://www.bildindex.de/#|
home].

(170) Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, Krhwinkel, in Deutsches Wrterbuch, vol. 11 (Leipzig,
Germany, 1873), cols. 197576, available online at [http://woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB/?
bookref=11,1975,65].

(171) During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Tafelmusik was characterized
by many writers as distracting and inconsequential, even though it continued to be
popular in and outside homes. On the widespread use and mixed reception of Tafelmusik
during this period, see Werner Friedrich Kmmel, Tafelmusik aus medizin- und
musikhistorischer Sicht, in Ernhrung und Ernhrungslehre im 19. Jahrhundert:
Vortrge eines Symposiums am 5. und 6. Januar 1973 in Frankfurt am Main, ed. Edith
Heischkel-Artelt (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976), 386407; and Reimer,
Tafelmusik, 67. Additional late examples of an orchestra playing Tafelmusik on a
balcony (but not in a satirical context) are furnished by engravings of Her Majesty
Queen Victoria at the Banquet [at the London Guildhall] given by the Corporation of
London, the 9th [of] November 1837 ([http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O726963/her-
majesty-queen-victoria-at-print-unknown/]) and of the 1838 coronation banquet for
Ferdinand I in Milan, reproduced in Ottomeyer and Vlkel, Die ffentliche Tafel, 56.

(172) Georg Philipp Telemann, Briefwechsel, ed. Hans Grosse and Hans Rudolf Jung
(Leipzig, Germany: VEB Verlag fr Musik, 1972), 180.

Steven D. Zohn
Temple University

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